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EconomicGeology

Vol. 79, 1984, pp. 1286-1298

VolcanicLandformsand Ore Deposits


RICHARD H. SILLITOE

8 WestHill Park,HighgateVillage,LondonN6 6ND, England

AND HAROLD F. BONHAM,JR.


NevadaBureauof Minesand Geolog•t,Universitel
of Nevada,Reno,Nevada89557-0088

Abstract

A spectrumof preciousandbasemetal,and lithophileelementdepositsis genetically,


spatially,and temporallyrelated to four types of high-levelmagmaticsystems,each char-
acterizedat the surfaceby a distinctvolcaniclandform:stratovolcano,
flowdomecomplex,
caldera,andmaar.Porphyrycopper-bearing stocksandbasemetal-rich,preciousmetalveins
areknownfromthe deepercentralzonesof andesitic stratovolcanoes,
andmodernexamples
of suchsystems maybe represented by rootsof high-temperature
geothermalfieldsin stra-
tovolcano
settings.
Precious
andbasemetalveinsandbreccias
aswell asCu-Pb-Zn-Ag
re-
placementorebodiesand lithophileelementmineralizationwere emplacedin the shallow
partsofflow-dome
complexes
and,in common
withanalogous
geothermal
systems,
arelocally
overlainby metalliferous
hotspringsinters.Tin, beryllium,uranium,andfluorinemineralization
in andcloseto highsilicarhyoliteflowdomesmaybe a manifestation of subjacent
Climax-
typeporplayry molybdenum systems. Precious metalveindeposits are associated
with ring
fracturedomesaroundresurgentcalderas, or with ringfracturesthemselves,andmoatsed-
imentsare knownto carrydispersed silveror mercury-uranium mineralization.
Manylarge
calderasappear,however,toberelatively deficient
in temporallyrelatedoredeposits,
possibly
asa resultof volatiledissipation
duringpyroclasticeruption.Preciousmetalstockworks
and
veinsare recordedfromthe sedimentary fill of maarsandfromtheir encirclingtuff rings.
Underlyingdiatremes,especially
theircontactzones,havelocalizedpreciousmetalveinsand
brecciapipes,andCu-Pb-Zn-Ag replacement deposits.In contrast,
diatremegeneration in
porphyrycoppersystems is instigated
by late- to postmineral
intrusionandcauses partial
destructionof preexistingmineralization.
Our understanding of the variedinterrelationships
betweennear-surfaceandsubvolcanic
ore deposition,activegeothermalsystems,and volcaniclandformsand processes and, as a
corollary,the effectivenessof mineralexplorationprograms,wouldbe increasedif diamond
drilling were made availableasa researchtool.

Introduction specificvolcaniclandforms,which althoughpartly


IT haslongbeenappreciated thatshallow oredeposits erodedarestillrecognizable.Similarassociations have
of the epithermaltypearecommonly relatedto vol- alsobeen recognized by Soviet workers (e.g., Ya-
canism(e.g., Lindgren,1933). More recentlyit has kovlev,1980). The volcanic landform-ore deposit as-
beenrecognized thatsomeintrusion-related deposits, sociationis a direct result of the geneticconnection
suchasporphyrycoppers,alsopossess a connection betweenshallowore-formingprocesses andvolcanic
withvolcanic activity(Sillitoe,1973),althoughmany and subvolcanic activity. In view of the increased
volcanicproductshavebeenerodedoncesubvolcanic interest in ways of predicting the whereaboutsof
stocksandrelatedoredeposits areexposed. The close concealed oredeposits, it istimelyto reviewtheprin-
temporalconnection betweencertainore deposits cipal types of volcaniclandformsnow known to be
andvolcanic rockshasbeenfurtheremphasized by spatiallyandtemporallylinkedto oredeposits(Tables
resultsof radiometricdating(e.g., Silbermanet al., 1-4; Figs. 1-5) and to considerthe possiblesignifi-
1976),whereastheirclosespatialandperhapsgenetic cance of some of the observed associations.
tieshavereceivedsupportfromstudies
of metal-pre- Stratovolcanoes
cipitatinggeothermalsystemsin volcanicsettings
(e.g., White, 1981). Stratovolcanoes or compositeconesare constructed
Recentwork in activevolcano-plutonic
arcsof the during central vent eruptionsof tephra and subor-
western Americas,Australasia,and the western Pacific dinatelava (Fig. 1), with compositions
dominatedby
hasresultedin recognitionof an intimateassociation andesitebut rangingfrom basaltto dacite. Strato-
of severalbaseandpreciousmetalandlithophileele- volcanoesare up to 1,000 km2 in basaldimensions
ment depositsnot only with volcanicrocksbut with and attainheightsabovebasementof 2 to 3 km. Ed-

0361-0128/84/329/1286-1352.50 1286
VOLCANIC LANDFORMS AND ORE DEPOSITS 1287

0I 1• 2
i km

FIG. 1. Idealized model of possibleore deposittypes related to a stratovolcano.Modified after


Sillitoe (1973).

ificesmaybe isolatedfromothervolcanicstructures wouldhaveundergonerapid degradation.In regions


or, lesscommonly,undergoconstructionaboveparts subjectedto a pluvial climate, erosionprior to or
of ring fracturezonesfollowingcalderacollapse. duringporphyrycopperemplacement islikely.Else-
Porphyry copper depositsand base and precious where,asat FriedaRiver,PapuaNew Guinea(Whalen
metal vein depositsare recognizablein the deeper et al., 1982), andRecsk,Hungary(Baksaet al., 1980),
centralpartsof stratovolcanoes (Table1; Fig. 1). The porphyrycopperstocksare recognizedto havebeen
late Cenozoicporphyrycopperdepositsat Faral16n emplacedinto or beneathandesiticstratovolcanoes,
Negro, Argentina (Sillitoe, 1973), Namosi, Fiji althoughvolcaniclandforms arenolongerpreserved.
(Rodda,1976), andDizon,Philippines,areall related Where a porphyrycopperdepositwasemplacedin
to dioriteor quartzdioriteporphyrystocksemplaced rocksbeneath a volcaniccone, as is commonlythe
late in the constructionalhistoriesof complexan- case(Sillitoe,1973), it is usuallyexposedonly after
desiticstratovolcanoes at a depth of perhaps2 to 3 mostcogeneticvolcanicrockshavebeen removed.
km beneaththeir summitregions(Fig. 1). Gold-bear- Geothermalsystems centeredonpartly erodedan-
ing enargite mineralizationis characteristicallyas- desitic stratovolcanoes are believed to be the active
sociatedwith zonesof advancedargillicalterationat analogof porphyrycoppersystems(cf. Henley and
higherlevelsof an edifice(Sillitoe,1983; Fig. 1) and Ellis, 1983). The geothermalsystems
may underlie
may be observedin that position at Dizon (R. H. the flanksof simple or multiple andesiticconesin
SillitoeandI. M. Gappe,Jr., unpub.rept., 1983). In variousstatesof preservation.
Locallythe mainedifice
contrast,the basemetal-richvein-typedepositsat isdiversified
by subsidiary volcaniclandforms, which
Tui andWaiorongomai,New Zealand,are not hosted at Matsukawa,Japan, comprisea summit caldera
by coevalstocksbut transectthe volcanicpile, prob- about3 km in diameterand a relatedpyroxenean-
ably at substantiallyshallowerlevels (Cartwright, desite dome (Nakamuraet al., 1970). These geo-
1982; Fig. 1), althoughthe Faral16nNegroAu-Ag- thermalsystems generallypossess hightemperatures
Mn vein was apparentlyemplacedat a similarlevel (andgreaterpowerproductioncapacity)andhigher
to the porphyrycopperdepositsin that district.The chlorideandSO2contentsthanmanygeothermalsys-
small silver-leaddepositat El Queva, Argentina, temsrelatedto rhyoliticmagmatism(seebelow),pos-
gradesupward into a surficialnative sulfur deposit siblyasa resultof a greaterdirectinput of magmatic
in the vicinityof the dissectedcrater(Sillitoe,1975; fluid. Geothermal drilling of several stratovolcano
Fig. 1). systemshasshownthat their uppermost600 to 1,200
These mineralizedstratovolcanoes may be rec- m are characterizedby pyrite-rict•advancedargillic
ognizedby their distalapronsof quaquaversally dip- alterationassemblages,as at Tongonan,Philippines
ping volcanicand volcaniclasticrocks,includingim- (Ward, 1979), Matsao, Taiwan (Chen, 1970), and
portant laharic deposits.The high, central parts of Matsukawa,Japan(Nakamuraet al., 1970), in com-
theedifices,
whichoriginallyoverlaytheoredeposits, monwith the upperpartsof porphyrycoppersystems
1288 R. H. SILLITOEAND H. F. BONHAM,JR

(Sillitoe, 1973). Drilling of geothermalsystemshas


not yet intersected porphyry copper deposits to
depthsof up to 2.5 km, probably becauseproximal
outflow areas have been the focus of attention.

Flow-Dome Complexes
Endogenousdomes and associatedlava and py-
roclasticflowsandtalus(crumble)brecciasare com-
monly of dacitic to rhyolitic compositionand are
found in severaldistinctvolcanicsituations.During
stratovolcanoconstruction,especially during ad-
vancedstages,domesmay developat either summit
or adventivesites(Fig. 1). During resurgenceof cal-
deras, domesare generatedeither within the up-
domed core or along ring fracture zones (Fig. 4,
below). Domes may also mark eruptive sites of ig-
nimbrite shieldswhich underwent no appreciable
calderacollapse.A final categorycomprisesclusters
of domes(cumulodomes) and associated flowsand
brecciasindependentof preexistingvolcanicedifices
(Figs. 2 and 3).
Dome-forming magmas representthe devolatilized,
viscousresiduumof volcaniceruptionsand mustbe
depletedin volatilesto attainthe surface(Burnham,
1967). It would appear,however,that somedomes
approachsaturationwith volatiles at near-surface
levels,asat Santiaguito,Guatemala(Rose,1973). The
importanceof mineralization(Table2) in flow dome
complexes isolatedfrom (or at leastgeneticallyun-
relatedto) other major volcaniclandformssuggests
that volatile saturationof magmasmight be more
widespreadin suchsettings,perhapsbecauseof the
absenceof a precedingvolcanicevent of major pro-
portions.Dome emplacementwas, however, pre-
cededby pyroclastic eruptionfromdiatremesat some
X X X X X
localities,asat Cerro de Pasco(SilbermanandNoble,
1977), andWau, PapuaNew Guinea(Sillitoeet al.,
A A 1984; seebelow), and possiblyalsoat Julcani(Pe-
tersen et al., 1977) and San Crist6balde Lipez
(R. H. Sillitoe,unpub.data).Pyroelastic
flowsorig-
inatingfromdomeeruptionor collapseare normally
of onlysmallvolume(<10 kma).
Ore depositsknown from flow dome complexes
(Table2; Fig. 2) are mainlypreciousandbasemetal
veins,stockworks,and breeeiafillings,but they also
includethe majorreplacementbodiesat Cerro de
Pascoandthe tin-silverdepositsat Oruroandperhaps
elsewherein Bolivia, includingPotosl,althoughat
the lastlocalityonly the rootsof a possibledomeare
preserved(Franciset al., 1981). With referenceto
Figure2, mostof the examples citedin Table2 are
dominatedby preciousmetalsandsituatedat shallow
levelswithin and (or) immediatelyadjoiningdomes.
Juleani(Petersenet al., 1977), LomasBayas(R. H.
SillRoe,unpub.data),Pande Azfiear(Coira,1979),
andBodie(Kleinhamplet al., 1975) are simpleveins
or vein systems,whereasveinsare accompanied by
VOLCANIC LANDFORMSAND ORE DEPOSITS 1289

VEIN, BRECCIA ANO


STOCKWORK-DISSEMINATED DOME PYROCLASTIC
FLOWAND

DEPOSITS
(Au,
Ag) - II . [-_•

FIO. 2. Idealizedmodelof possibleore deposittypesrelatedto a flow domecomplex.

mineralizedbreccias,stockworks,and (or) dissemi- Mineralizationis late in the historyof domeem-


nationsat San Cristbbalde Lipez (Jacobson et al., placement,althoughlocally,asat Julcani(Petersen
1969), Delamar (Pansze,1975), Buckskin(P. G. et al., 1977), Divide (Bonhamand Garside,1979),
Vikre,in prep.),Dividedistrict(BonhamandGarside, and Comstocklode (Bonham,1969), mineralization
1979), and BrokenHills (Moore, 1979). The Com- wasalsopostdated by a few late barrendomes.Ore
stocklodeisinterpretedasanexampleof a somewhat deposition
withinor marginalto domestookplace
deeperbasemetal-bearingpreciousmetal lode de- from a few hundred meters beneath the surface
posit(Fig.2), whereashydrothermalbreccias
carrying throughto the surface,whereit maybe represented
copper(asenargite)andgold(Fig. 2) are character- by hot springsinters(Fig.2), asat Delamar(Pansze,
istic of Summitville (Perkins and Nieman, 1982), 1975), Hasbrouck, the Divide district(Bonham and
Goldfield(Ashley,1974), andChinkuashih (Huang, Garside,1979), andBuckskin(P. G. Vikre, in prep.).
1955). Althoughthe replacementdepositat Cerro Porphyrycopperdeposits havenotbeenrecognized
de Pascois listed in Table 2 becauseof the nearby in association with flow-domecomplexes,although,
occurrenceof flow domes,it is depictedin Figure 5 in contrastto stratovolcanosettings,it isunlikelythat
(below)ratherthanFigure 2 becauseof its intimate the smaller volume of volcanicproductsassociated
with a maar-diatremesystem(seebelow). with domescouldstillbe preservedonceunroofing
association

•'VEIN$ IN DOME(Sn.F) .PYROCLAS'IC DEPOSll•

BPECCl ,•qAND vEI NS • D!SSEMINA I ED MINERALIZATION

VEIN
DEPOSITS
•'
tag,
Pb.
Zr-,
Mn,
F) • BRECClA
PIPE

$KARN DEPOSI • (So W

CLIMAX-TYPE
PORPHYRY DEPOSIT

(Mo-W-Sq)

+ + + + + ,

0I 11 2I km

FIG.3. Idealizedmodelof possible


oredeposittypesrelatedto a highsilicarhyoliteflowdome
complex.Modifiedafter Burt and Sheridan(1981).
1290 R. H. SILLITOE
ANDH. F. BONHAM,
JR

X X X X X X X X X X X X
VOLCANIC LANDFORMS AND ORE DEPOSITS 1291

hadprogressed
toth•stage
where copperrhyolite
aporphyry flowdome
complexes
(Fig.3;e.g.,Burtand
is exposed.However,the presenceof advancedar- Sheridan,1981). Althoughthe flow domesat Spor
gillicalteration,brecciafragments containinghyper- Mountain occur on a caldera margin, they are sig-
saline fluid inclusions,and other features at Julcani nificantlyyoungerandgeneticallyunrelatedto the
hasbeentakento suggestthat porphyrycopper-type calderacycle.We concurwith Burt and Sheridan's
mineralizationmayexistat unexploreddepths(D.C. (1981) suggestion that topaz rhyolite flow domes
Noble and M. L. Silberman,in prep.), althoughat mightbe underlainby lithophileelementdeposits of
Chinkuashih, Taiwan, Goldfield, Nevada, and Sum- disseminated (porphyry),vein (greisen),and (or) re-
mitville, Colorado,copper-gold-bearing veins and placement(skarn)typesassociated with plutonscom-
brecciapipes associated with advancedargillic al- agmaticwith the flow domecomplexes(Fig. 3).
terationareunderlainby little evidenceof porphyry Lava domes are one of the surface manifestations
copperdevelopments, at leastto drilleddepthsof 1 of severalexploredgeothermal systems. Althoughthe
km (R. H. Sillitoe, unpub. observations), 0.7 km volumeof the rhyolitedomesassociated with Steam-
(R. P. Ashley,written commun.,1983), and 1.5 km boatSprings,Nevada,is small,mercuryandprecious
(D. M. Smith,Jr., unpub. commun.,1981). metal mineralization, some of it in surface sinters, is
Hildreth (1979) suggested, however,that where genetically relatedto the geothermalsystem(White,
highly differentiated,high silicaalkali rhyolitemag- 1981).
masdo not vent to producemajorpyroclasticflows Oyunumais a smallexplosioncraterof Holocene
and concomitantcalderacollapse(see below), por- agein Hokkaido,Japan,whichis geneticallyrelated
phyrymolybdenum depositscanbe generated in sub- to the emplacementof a daciticplug dome on the
jacent blind cupolas.Documentationof a genetic flanks of the Kuttara stratovolcano.The explosion
connectionbetweenporphyrymolybdenum-bearing crater is filled with hot water which reaches a tem-
rhyoliteporphyrystocksandcompositionally similar, peratureof 132øC at a depth of 20 m. The lowest
but onlysmall-volume flowsat PineGrove, portionof the lake is a high-salinitybrine containing
pyroclastic
Utah (Keith, 1979), andMountHope, Nevada(Wes- moltensulfur.Althoughpyrite andmarcasite arethe
tra, 1982), supportssucha conceptandsuggests that principalsulfidesin the bottomdeposits,minorchal-
flow domecomplexesmay originallyhaveoverlainat copyrite,galena,andsphaleritearealsopresent(Kat-
leastsomeClimax-typeporphyrymolybdenumcen- sui et al., 1981).
ters (Fig. 3; cf., Burt and Sheridan,1981).
Smallveins(Fig. 3) anddisseminations of cassiterite Calderas
are present in rhyolitic flow dome complexesin a
belt over 1,000 km longin Mexico (Pan, 1974) and Calderasmaybe subdivided into small(<10-km-
haveproducedboth lode and placertin. Similartin- wide),roughlycircularcollapse structurescommonly
bearing flow dome complexesoccur in the Black centeredon the summitregionsof individualvol-
Range,New Mexico(Lufkin, 1972), and Izenhood canicedifices,
andlarge(10-30-km-wide)
Vailes-type
Ranch,Nevada(Fries, 1942). Beryllium (asbertran- calderas (Fig.4), whichmayencompass portionsof
ditc), fluorite,anduraniumdepositsat SporMountain, one or more constructionaledifices. The former result
Utah, andelsewhereare associatedwith topaz-bearing fromeruptionof relativelysmallvolumes of magma
STOCKWORK-DISSEMINATED.
DEPOSIT
IN INTRACALDERA'•
TUFFS
{Au,Ag) •. VEIN DISSEMINATED
DEPOSIT
,DEPOSIT INTRACALDERA INMOATFILL
OUTFLOW
TUFFS ,Ag)•
,• '•u, DOME TUFF
PRISM
• MOAT
FILL ! (Au,
Ag,Hg,
U,L,,Be)
ß

BRECCIAS •
RING FRACTURE : i ^

ZONE

+ + + + + + + + + +

o 5 km
i I

FIG.4. Idealizedmodelof possible


oredeposittypesrelatedto a Vailes-type
caldera.
12 9 2 R. H. SILLITOE AND H. F. BONHAM,JR

or ejecta,commonlyaspyroclastic fallsandflows,or Porphyrycopperdeposits havenotyet beenshown


from magmadrainage,whereasthe latter are pro- conclusivelyto occurin Vailes-typecalderasettings,
ducedby the evacuationof the upperpartsof major perhapsbecausemajorpyroclasticeruptionis an ef-
magmachambers thatgeneratedlarge-volume (upto fectivemeansof depletingmagmain the volatilesso
severalthousandkm3) rhyoliticto daciticpyroclastic essentialfor porphyry copper generation(Sillitoe,
•IOWS. 1980). Furthermore,volatile depletionmay alsoex-
A classicexampleof an ore depositrelatedto a plainthe apparentpaucityof all typesof major ore
smallsummitcalderais providedby the Vatukoula depositsas parts of the calderacycle. The Climax-
epithermal
golddistrictonViti Levu,Fiji, wherecol- type porphyrymolybdenumdepositat Questa,New
lapsewascenteredon the shoshonitic basaltTavua Mexico, is locatedon the ring fracture zone of the
shield volcano,some 45 X 30 km in size (Ibbotson, Questacaldera,but as usualin Vailes-typecaldera
1967;Table3). At NevadoPortugueza,Peru,precious settings,
it wasemplacedsome3 m.y.afterignimbrite
metal vein formationaccompanieddome emplace- eruptionand calderacollapse(Lipman, 1982). It is
ment,andweakresurgence of a calderacenteredon stressed,however, that some porphyry copper de-
an andesitic-daciticcentral vent volcano(Noble and positsare likely to have underlainsummitcalderas
McKee, 1982; Table 3). associatedwith andesitic stratovolcanoes, a relation-
Althoughmanycalderas arebarren(McKee,1979), shipsupportedby the occurrenceof a summitcaldera
especiallythosewhich did not undergoresurgence abovethe Matsukawageothermalsystem(seeabove).
(Elston,1978), someore depositspossess a spatial The geothermal systems
in theTaupovolcaniczone
relationshipto Valles-typecalderas,particularlyto of North Island, New Zealand, are within and around
their ring fracturezones(Fig. 4). However,as de- four activelyresurgingcalderasand, in a general
terminedusingradiometricdatingby Lipmanet al. sense,arerelatedto rhyoliticendogenous
domefields
(1976) in the SanJuanMountainsof Colorado,and (Cole, 1979). The preeminentBroadlands andWair-
reviewedby Rytuba(1981) for the westernUnited akei geothermalfieldsare locatedon the marginof
Statesin general,manyof thesepreciousand base the Maroa multiple collapsecaldera (Cole, 1979).
metalore deposits(includingthe mineralizeddomes Epithermalpreciousmetal mineralizationis present
at Summitville and Goldfield, mentioned above) are in the upper part of severalsystems,especiallyin
onlystructurallycontrolledby calderaringfractures surfacesinters(Weissberg,1969) but nowhereap-
and possessno geneticconnectionwith either the proacheseconomicproportions.
processes of collapseor resurgence. The Yellowstonegeothermalsystems,Wyoming,
Nevertheless,a few ore depositshave been dem- alsooccurwithin an activelyresurgingcomplexcal-
onstratedto be integralproductsof calderaresurg- dera. Two hot springsin the Yellowstonecaldera,
ence,especiallyof highsilicaalkalirhyolitemagmas, SylvanSpringand Barrel Spring,are currentlyde-
and to be related to ring fracture domes,as at Lake positinggold in sinter (R. Fournier, pers. commun.,
City, Colorado (Slack and Lipman, 1979), and 1982). SylvanSpringsinter containsup to 0.8 ppm
McDermitt, Oregon-Nevada(McKee, 1976; Rytuba Au, and sinter at Barrel Spring contains up to
andGlanzman,1979). At McDermitt,sinterformation 5 ppm Au.
and mercurymineralizationaccompanied lacustrine Maars
sedimentation in the moat of a nested series of re-
surgentcalderas(Fig.4). At Creede,reactivatedfaults Maarsare craterlikedepressions up to severalki-
extendingnorthwardfrom the topographicwall of lometersacrosssurrounded by tuff rings and are the
the Creede caldera, and moat sediments within it, surfaceexpressions of diatremesproducedby re-
were mineralizedasa possiblelate stageof resurgence peatedphreatomagmatic explosions and consequent
(Steven and Eaton, 1975). Both McDermitt and subsidence (Fig. 5). Basesurgedeposits(e.g.,Fisher
Creedeemphasizethe favorabilityof moatsediments andWaters,1970) aretypicalcomponents of the sur-
as hostsfor dispersedmineralization(Fig. 4). Else- facepyroclastic accumulations. Diatremescommonly
where, as at Tonopah(Bonhamand Garside, 1979) containanappreciable amountof essential (juvenile)
and RoundMountain(Berger and Eimon, 1982), a tuffaceousmaterial but locally may be filled almost
relationshipto ring fracture zones can be demon- exclusively by comminutedcountryrocks,at leastat
strated(Table3), althoughoriginalvolcaniclandforms observedlevels(e.g.,BalatocandSantoNifio, Philip-
arenotpreserved.At RoundMountain,the stockwork pines;E1Teniente,Chile).Maarsare commonly oc-
golddepositoccursin a thick intracalderaignimbrite cupiedby ephemerallakes.
closeto a ringfracturezone(BergerandEimon,1982; Diatremescommonlypossess appreciablevertical
Fig. 4). Deeper baseand preciousmetal vein (Fig. extents which are known to exceed 1 km at both
4) and skarndepositshave alsobeen interpreted to Balatoc(Worley,1967)andCrippleCreek(Loughlin
occur within or around calderas(e.g., Elston et al., and Koschmann,1935), and 1.6 km at E1 Teniente
1976; Cepedaand Henry, 1983), but their temporal (HowellandMolloy,1960).In contrast, theirsurface
connectionwith the calderacycleremainsunproven. manifestationsare restricted in volume and easily
VOLCANIC LANDFORMS AND ORE DEPOSITS 1293

o o

o
1294 R. H. SILLITOE
ANDH. F. BONHAM,
JR

MAAR. LAKEBEDS
(Ao) .TUFF-RING DOMES

V]"'•'-
D'-.•t
:')"'•.,,•.-.•--
•F•"• •
MINE_RALI_ZED
•'J; •_/r HYDROTHERMAL
•"•/..,] ,,]• •---• BREECIABODv

+ + + + +
+ + + +

(Cu,
Pb,Zn,g,Au)
•,•"•+
++ + + + + + + + + •.
11 •2km

FIG. 5. Idealized model of possibleore deposittypes related to a maar-diatremesystem.

eroded. In the case of examplescited in Table 4, depositswere structurallylocalizedat a higherlevel


widespreadpreservationof plant-bearinglake beds withinthe tuff ring (Fig. 5), althoughan appreciable
withinthe maars(Fig. 5) at Wau (Sillitoeet al., 1984) part of the goldmineralizationsubsequently slidinto
and PuebloViejo (Kesleret al., 1981) confirmsthat the maar aspart of allochthonous blocks(Sillitoeet
surficialpartsof maarsare stillpreserved,andat both al., 1984). At PuebloViejo, a gold-bearingstockwork
localitiesonlylimitedinformationis availablefor the occursclose to the original surface,partly in lake
underlyingdiatremes.The presenceof dunebedding sediments(Kesler et al., 1981) accumulatedwithin
of base surgeorigin at Cerro de Pasco(Silberman the maar (Fig. 5). Partial destructionof porphyry
and Noble, 1977), the upwardtransitionfrom rhyo- copperdeposits at E1Teniente,RioBlanco-Disputada,
litic to rhyodaciticdiatreme fill to a small-volume SantoNifio, Guinaoang,and Dizon was a product of
ignimbriteat Rio Blanco-Disputada, and the pres- phreatomagmatic explosioninducedby late- to post-
ervationof tuffsbeyondthe diatremeat CrippleCreek mineral intrusion (Fig. 1), which, at least at Rio
(Lindgrenand Ransome,1906) all demonstratethat Blanco-Disputada andGuinaoang, followedsignificant
erosionof maarsand tuff ringssurmountingthe dia- unroofingof theporphyrysystem.Late-minerallatite
tremes is barely complete.The other examplesof porphyryat E1Tenienteis presentassmall,partially
diatremeslisted in Table 4 have undergone more dismembered bodieswithinthe Bradendiatremepipe
advancederosionbut possess evidencefor a direct (Howell and Molloy, 1960), and pumiceouspyro-
connectionwith contemporaryland surfaces.Bedded clasticsconstitutepart of the diatreme fill at Gui-
breccia (of possiblebase surgeorigin) in the upper naoang(SillitoeandAngeles,in press)andRio Blanco-
partsof the Bradenpipe at E1Teniente (Howell and Disputada.Dome emplacementduringthe late stages
Molloy, 1960), basesurge depositscarrying accre- or followingmaar-diatremeformation(Fig. 5) is re-
tionarylapilli at Guinaoang(Sillitoeand Angeles,in corded at Cerro de Pasco (Silberman and Noble,
press), and carbonizedwood at Balatoc (Worley, 1977), Wau (Sillitoeet al., 1984), Guinaoang(Sillitoe
1967), Dizon (Malihan, 1982), and Santo Nifio andAngeles,in press),and Dizon (R. H. Sillitoeand
(R. H. Sillitoe and I. M. Gappe, Jr., unpub. rept., I. M. Gappe,Jr., unpub.rept., 1983). An activegeo-
1983) (aswell asat Cripple Creek) are all considered thermal systemis still associatedwith the Balatoc
to have subsided into those diatremes from the sur- diatreme in the Philippines.
face.Logsat Balatocare foundseveralhundredmeters Althoughall evidenceof its surfacemanifestations
below the presentsurface. has been lost to erosion, a 1.5- X 0.8-km diatreme
Maar-diatremesystemsmayeither pre- or postdate filled largelyby rhyoliticpyroclastics and cut by Cu-
major ore formation (Table 4) and therefore help Pb-Zn-Ag-Auveinsat Capillitas,Argentina(Gonzalez
either to localize or partially destroythe deposits. Bonorino, 1950), transectsbasementrocks only a
Evenwhere they actedaslocalizersof ore, however, shortdistancefrom the coevalFarallOnNegro stra-
the laststagesof diatremeformationtend to be post- tovolcano(Table 1).
mineral, as at Balatoc (Damascoand de Guzman,
1977). Localizationof replacementdeposits(Fig. 5) Summary and Conclusions
at Cerro de Pascoand hydrothermalbreccia-hosted
deposits(Fig. 5) at Ortiz and Balatocwasaroundthe In this .review we have isolated four distinctive
diatremerims.At Wau, vein andbreccia-hosted gold typesof volcanicmorphology--two positiveand two
VOLCANIC LANDFORMS AND ORE DEPOSITS 1295

o o

X X X X X
1296 R.H. SILLITOE
ANDH. F.BONHAM,
JR

negativestructures,usingSoviet parlance (e.g., Ya- ore-formingfluidswere dominantlydilute and me-


kovlev, 1980)--widely observablein ore-bearing teoricin origin,asthey are in the geothermalsystem
districts.In volcanicterranes,however,combinations still activeat Baguio(Sawkinset al., 1979) and in
of two or morevolcaniclandformsare not uncommon, volcanic dome-associated
geothermal systemsin gen-
and someof these polygeneticvolcanicstructures eral (e.g.,White, 1981). It isnot surprisingtherefore
havebeencommented on above.For example,stra- that at leastsomeof thesedeposits,asdemonstrated
tovolcanoes maypossess centralor adventivedomes at Delamar, Hasbrouck, and Buckskin,were mani-
or maars(Fig. 1), or mayundergolate-stagecollapse festedat thesurface by metal-bearing hotspringsin-
to formsmallsummitcalderas; flowdomecomplexes ters (Fig. 2) comparable to thosecurrentlyforming
are commonlyconstructedin the vicinitiesof pre- abovegeothermal systems oftheTaupovolcanic zone,
viouslyformedmaars(Fig. 5); and Vailes-typecal- SteamboatSprings,and Yellowstone.Suchmeteoric
derasmaypartlydestroypreexistingstratovolcanoesfluidswerepresumably alsoresponsible for forming
and during resurgenceundergo addition of flow diatremes,in both high-level(epithermal)settings
domes,eithercentrallylocatedor localizedalongring (e.g., Wau, Cerro de Pasco,PuebloViejo) and the
fracturezones(Fig. 4). Ringfracturezonesof Vailes- late stagesof porphyrydepositdevelopment,as a
type calderasalsotend to localizelater, postresur- resultof theirexplosiveinteractionwith hotmagmas.
gencevolcanicactivity, which may constructstra- However, we believe that most well-studied ore de-
tovolcanoes or domes. positsappearto be dominatedby meteoric-hydro-
The summarypresentedin Tables i to 4 empha- thermalfluidsasa consequence of thehigh-levelsites
sizesan associationof several specificore-deposit of mineralization, with ore metals introduced from
typeswith a limitednumberof volcanicmorphologies, depth ascomponentsof magmaticfluids.In the case
althoughwe cannotbe surethat the associations pre- of flow domecomplexes,the magmaticfluid input is
servedin the mid- to late Cenozoicgeologicalrecord, not from the domesthemselvesbut from parent
and recognizedby the workers cited and (or) our- magmachambers at depth,asemphasized by the dis-
selves, are necessarilycompletely representative. trict-wide metal zonation unrelated to dome distri-
Notwithstandingthis caveat,it is apparentthat por- butionat Julcani(Petersenet al., 1977). The absence
phyry copper depositsmay underlie andesiticstra- of alteration and mineralization from late domes in
tovolcanoes, andClimax-typeporphyrymolybdenum somecomplexes (seeabove)couldalsobe interpreted
depositsmayunderlierhyoliticflow domecomplexes. asevidenceagainstmeteoricwaterleachingof metals
Depositscarryinga combination of baseandprecious from flow domes and their wall rocks.
metals may be recognized from stratovolcanoes Severalclearcutvolcaniclandform-oredepositas-
(Tui-Waiorongomai),flow domecomplexes(Julcani, sociationsare now well established,and modern vol-
Comstock Lode, Summitville, Goldfield, Chinku- canologypromisesto be of great value in both the
ashih), and maar volcanoes(Cerro de Pasco).The studyof andexploration for ore depositsin high-level
basemetal-poorepithermalpreciousmetal deposits settings.Understandingof the connectionsbetween
describedappearto be mainly in flow dome com- volcaniclandforms,and,by inference,volcanicpro-
plexesbut alsoare related to maarsand calderas. cesses,andore depositionwouldbe greatlyenhanced,
It iswidelyacceptedthatmetal-bearingmagmatic- however,if diamonddrilling were madeavailableas
hydrothermalfluidsare essentialfor the generation a researchtool.Drill holesonlya few hundredmeters
of porphyry copper and Climax-typemolybdenum in depth could be usedto investigatethe locations
deposits,asthey probablyalsoare for enargite-bear- of epithermalmineralizationwithin or aroundlittle-
ing massivepyrite depositspresent as replacements eroded stratovolcanoes,domes, calderas, and maars.
in andesiticvolcanicsequencesaboveseveralcoge- Deeper holes, from 2 to 3 km, would permit the
neticporphyrycopperdeposits(Sillitoe,1983). Gen- searchfor porphyrycoppersystemsbeneathstrato-
eration of several of the base metal-rich deposits volcanoes, andcouldtestwhetheror nottheyunderlie
mentionedabove,includingJulcani(D. C. Noble and zonesof ore-bearingadvancedargillic alterationas-
M. L. Silberman,in prep.),the Comstocklode (O'Neil sociatedwith flow domecomplexesor ring fracture
andSilberman,1974), andTui (Robinson,1974), has domes.Lithophileelement-enrichedflow domecom-
alsobeen shownto have involveda magmaticfluid plexescouldbe testedin depth for porphyrymolyb-
component.Magmaticfluidsalsoseemlikely to have denummineralization.Furthermore,the ore potential
beenpresentat timesduringformationof the Creede of geothermalsystemsassociatedwith stratovolca-
silver deposit(Bethke and Rye, 1979). In contrast, noes,flowdomes,calderas,andmaarscouldbe prop-
stableisotopestudiesof manyof the above-mentioned erly investigated.At present,drilling of geothermal
preciousmetal deposits,includingTonopah(Taylor, areastendsto concentrateon their outflowregions,
1973), Round Mountain (O'Neil and Silberman, only occasionally providesfor recoveryof core, and
1974), Bodie (O'Neil et al., 1973), and Balatoc(Ba- rarely involvesanalysisof cuttingsfor metalsof pos-
guio district)(Sawkinset al., 1979) have shownthat sibleeconomicsignificance.
VOLCANIC LANDFORMS AND ORE DEPOSITS 1297

Highly speculativedrilling of this type is beyond Coira, B. L., 1979, Descripci6ngeo16gicade la Hoja 3c, Abra
Pampa,Provinciade Jujuy: Argentina, ServicioGeol. Nac. Bol.
the budgetsof many explorationcompaniesand, in 170, 90 p.
manycases,wouldnotbe economically viablebecause Cole, J. W., 1979, Structure,petrology,andgenesisof Cenozoic
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wouldbe located,but it couldbe madea reality as ZealandJour. GeologyGeophysics,v. 22, p. 631-657.
part of the continentaldrillingprogramcontemplated Damasco,F. V., and de Guzman, M. T., 1977, The G.W. gold
orebodiesin the Acupanmine of BenguetCorporation:Sym-
under the aegisof the recently inauguratedInter- posiumon Mineral ResourcesDevelopment, 6th, and National
nationalLithosphereProgram. Mine SafetyConvention,27th, BaguioCity, Philippines1977,
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New Mexico Geol. Soc. Spec. Pub. 7., p. 107-113.
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and prospectsreferred to in this review. Useful com- mineralizationby mid-Tertiary volcaniccenters,southwestern
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151.
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