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National University of Singapore

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering


Semester 1 2018/19

Part 1
Fundamentals and Basic Design & Analysis

GOH Siang Huat

Preamble - 1

This set of slides contain

key information related to
the course structure,
assessment method and
useful book references.

Preamble - 2
My Office and Contact Information
Two Locations
1. 12 Kent Ridge Road, S119221 (Centre for Protective Technology)
2. Room E2-04-10 (Engineering Block E2, Level 4, Room 10)
Telephone : 6516 8663
Email :
Please email / call to make appointment before coming!

Map showing location of

the Centre for Protective

Preamble - 3
Module Overview
 Part 1 (S.H. Goh)
 Fundamentals, Earth Pressure Theories,
Design Philosophies (including EC7),
Gravity (Rigid) Retaining Structures,
Flexible Walls (Cantilever + Single-Prop)

 Part 2 (Prof Harry Tan)

 Deep Excavations, Multi-propped
Walls, Finite Element Modeling and
Preamble - 4
Course Outline (Part 1 by GSH)
Fundamentals and Basic Design
 Introduction
Brief historical review, broad overview of different types of retaining

 Earth pressure theories

Different earth pressure theories and their mathematical derivations,
relationship between soil movement and earth pressure, selection and
acquisition of soil parameters, influence of groundwater seepage

 Gravity (rigid) retaining structures

Limit equilibrium analysis of gravity retaining walls, limit state design
approach, design to EC7 requirements for different limit states

 Flexible retaining structures

Limit equilibrium analysis of cantilever and single-propped sheet pile
walls, design to EC7 requirements, influence of soil arching effects

Preamble - 5
Broad Learning Outcomes
 Appreciate and understand the key features and limitations
of the different theories of lateral earth pressures and their
application in the analysis of retaining walls.

 Able to apply mathematical and soil mechanics concepts to

derive basic earth pressure equations.
 Able to analyze simple retaining structures, such as rigid
gravity structures, cantilever walls and singly-propped wall
using common earth pressure theories with limit
equilibrium approach.
 Understand and appreciate the key features of basic design
philosophies for earth retaining structures.
 Able to analyse and check for key stability considerations of
gravity (rigid) structures, flexible cantilever walls and
singly-propped walls based on EC7 code requirements.

Preamble - 6
Continual Assessment (CA) and Exam Components

 Continuous assessment (CA) for Part 1 (GSH)

1 quiz (10%) + homework assignments (10%)
18 Sept 2018

 Continuous assessment (CA) for Part 2 (Prof Harry Tan)

1 mini project (20%)

 Final Exam (60%) (open book)

Preamble - 7
Reading Materials
Beyond the Lecture Notes/Slides
 Published Books
• Craig’s Soil Mechanics 8th Edition
(Knappett and Craig)
• Earth Pressure and Earth-
Retaining Structures 3rd Edition
(Clayton, Woods, Bond and Milititsky)
• or other soil mechanics textbooks
from the library
 Notes and related materials from the
internet (but beware of fake news, or in this
case, knowledge!)
Preamble - 7

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