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Nebosh International General Certificate Short notes

Unit IGC1: Management of international health and safety


Element 1: Foundations in health & safety
Key Learning Points:
The learning outcomes of this Element are that candidates should be able to:
1. Outline the scope and nature of occupational health & safety
2. Explain the moral, social & economic reasons for maintaining & promoting good standards of
health & safety in the workplace
3. Explain the role of national governments & international bodies in formulating a framework for
the regulation of health & safety

1.1 The scope and nature of occupational health and safety


The multi-disciplinary nature of health and safety
Occupational health and safety is a broad subject that brings together knowledge from many disciplines
of learning e.g.:
• Natural sciences e.g. Life sciences, Chemistry, Physics
• Social sciences e.g. Culture and ethics studies, Economics, Psychology, Sociology
• Formal sciences e.g. Computer sciences, Mathematics and statistics
• Applied sciences e.g. Architecture and design, Business, Education, Engineering, Health care,
Communication and Law
Barriers to Good Standards of health and safety
Health and safety is a fundamental part of managing an organisation. But there are barriers to achieving
good standards of health and safety in the workplace. These are:
1. Complexity
2. Competing and conflicting demands
3. Behavioural issues
Complexity of the organization.
• Leads to risks not being identified
• The Organisation may not provide good solutions to risks
• Good solutions may not be effectively implemented
• Cooperation is needed across all organisational levels
Competing and conflicting demands
• Competing demands for finite resources e.g. time, expertise, money.
• Focus may be placed on immediate costs rather than longer term health and safety programmes
• Conflicting demands placed on managers, supervisors and workers
• Potential conflict on resources between productivity and health and safety to detriment of
health and safety
Organizational Culture & behavioral issues
Even when an organisation has identified solutions, the behaviour of managers, supervisors and workers
can prevent good health and safety standards by:
• Managers, supervisors and workers not being motivated
• Managers not encouraging good practice
• Workers not following procedures
Basic definitions
Health: A state of both physiological and psychological well-being. In occupational terms, it would
include not suffering (e.g.) from fatigue, stress or noise induced deafness
Safety: The absence of danger or physical harm to persons, extending in the workplace to things such
as equipment, materials and structures
Welfare: Relates to the provision of workplace facilities that maintain the basic wellbeing and comfort
of the worker such as eating, washing and toilet facilities which enable them to fulfill their bodily
functions.
Hazard: Anything with a potential to cause harm
Risk: The chance that a hazard will cause harm and its possible consequence in terms of injury, damage.
Accident: An unplanned, unwanted event which leads to injury, damage or loss. There are two types
a) Injury accident – where the unplanned, unwanted event leads to some sort of personal injury,
e.g. a cut hand.
b) Damage only accident – where the unplanned, unwanted event leads to equipment or
property damage but not personal injury, e.g. a wall is demolished.
Near Miss: An unplanned, unwanted event that had the potential to lead to injury, damage or loss but
did not.
Ill health: A disease or medical condition that is directly attributable to work, e.g. dermatitis because of
exposure to skin irritants.
Dangerous occurrence:
A specified event that must be reported to the relevant authority by statute law OR a readily
identifiable event, as defined under national laws and regulations, with potential to cause injury or
disease to people at work or the public. E.g. a major gas leak.

1.2 The moral, social and economic reasons for maintaining and promoting good
standards of health and safety in the workplace
Three main reasons for maintaining good standards of health and safety
1. MORAL (protect people from injury & ill health)
2. ECONOMIC (cost effective objectives' achievement)
3. SOCIAL (societal expectations of good HS standards)
1. Moral:
The moral arguments are best reflected by the occupational disease and accident rate.
Healthy organizations hold their employees to be the most valued asset and take every precaution
known on how, to protect employees' health and safety. Occupational accidents and diseases have a big
negative feedback on reputation, productivity and morale.
2. Economic / Financial:
Any accident or ill-health will cost both direct and indirect or insured/uninsured costs.
It is crucial that all costs (direct / indirect) are considered when the full cost of an accident is calculated.
Note: Employer’s Liability Insurance:
• Is a legal requirement in many countries?
• Covers the employer’s liability in case of accidents and occupational diseases to employees or
others who may be affected by their activities.
• Covers compensations in case an employee sues his/her employer following an accident
regardless the financial status of the company.
Costs of accidents to an organisation
Direct costs include: Indirect costs include:
• First-aid treatment, • Lost time for investigation.
• sick pay, • Lost morale and damaged worker
• lost production time. relationships.
• Fines and compensation. • Cost of recruitment of replacement staff.
• Lost reputation.

Insured costs Uninsured costs


• Fire. • Production delays
• Worker injury/death. • Loss of Raw Materials
• Medical costs. • Investigation Time
• Damage to Plant, Buildings and • Criminal fines and Legal costs
Equipment • Sick Pay
• Civil claims in form of compensations. • Overtime Pay
• Hiring and Training New Employee
• Loss of Business Reputation
3. Legal:
What employers must provide (employer’s duty of care ILO C155 Article 16)?
• Safe place of work – and safe access and egress.
• Safe plant and equipment – the need to inspect, service and replace machinery will depend on
the level of risk.
• Safe system of work – should be safe in all circumstances – appropriate review, planning and
control ensure continued safety of methods.
• Information, Instructions, Training and Supervision (IITS)
• Competent staff

Discuss the societal expectations of good standards of Health & safety.


Note:
Worldwide, there are variations in the level of implementation and enforcement of legislation depending
on:
• Different standards & regulations in different countries
• Different penalties in different regions
• Cultural differences and the degree of reporting
• Economic and Political status
• Different laws and legislations

1.3 The role of national governments and international bodies in formulating a


framework for the regulation of health and safety
Employers’ responsibilities
Article 16 of C155 identifies obligations placed on employers to:
• Ensure that workplaces, machinery, equipment and work processes are safe and without risks to
health.
• Ensure that chemical, physical and biological substances and agents are without risk to health
when protective measures have been taken.
• Provide adequate protective clothing and equipment to prevent risks of accidents or adverse
health effects.
Article 10 of R164:
• Provide and maintain workplaces, machinery and equipment and use working methods that are
safe.
• Give necessary instruction, training and supervision in application and use of health and safety
measures.
• Introduce organisational arrangements relevant to activities and size of undertaking.
• Provide PPE and clothing without charge to workers.
• Ensure that work organisation, particularly working hours and rest breaks, does not adversely
affect occupational safety and health.
• Take reasonably practical measures with a view to eliminating excessive physical and mental
fatigue.
• Keep up to date with scientific and technical knowledge to comply with the above.
Workers’ responsibilities Workers’ rights
Article 19 of C155 also places obligations on Article 19 of C155 states that every worker must
workers, expanded in R164 as follows: be:
• Take reasonable care of their own safety • Given adequate information on actions the
and that of other people. employer has taken to ensure safety and
• Comply with safety instructions and health.
procedures. • Given the right to the necessary training in
• Use all safety equipment properly. safety and health.
• Report any situation that they believe • Consulted by the employer on all matters of
could be a hazard and which they cannot safety and health relating to their work.
themselves correct. • Given the right to leave a workplace that he
• Report any work-related accident/ill has reason to think presents an imminent
health. and serious danger to his life or health, and
not be compelled to return until it is safe.
The role of enforcement agencies and consequences of non-compliance:
Enforcement in any government: The local authorities may send an inspector, under the Health & Safety
laws to shops, hotels, restaurants, garages, offices and residential homes.
The inspector has the right to:
• Enter premises at any reasonable time, accompanied by a police officer, if necessary.
• Examine, investigate and take samples and photographs.
• Seize, destroy or render harmless any substance or article.
• Issue enforcement notices and initiate prosecution
Breach of H&S legislation is usually a criminal offence, leading to:
Formal enforcement action:
• Improvement notice – It’s like a warning notice
• Prohibition notice – it’s a notice for stopping work or closure of a company
Prosecution:
• Organisation may be fined.
• Individuals may be fined or imprisoned.
Compensation through the civil courts
International standards and conventions (e.g. International Standards Organisation (ISO)
and the International Labour Organisation - ILO)
The International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)
• An international standard-setting body
• Composed of representatives from various national standards bodies
• Founded in 1947
• Produces world-wide industrial and commercial standards
The International Labour Organisation (ILO)
• Founded in 1919
• It is the only 'tripartite' United Nations agency
• Brings together representatives of governments, employers and workers to jointly shape
policies and programmes
• Derives Conventions that members ratify, and when ratified member countries are expected to
meet the requirements of the Convention
• Also, produces recommendations, guidelines, codes of practice and reports on issues that affect
health and safety
• Also, produces many informative books, including the very useful health and safety
encyclopaedia
BS OHSAS 18001: 2007 "Occupational Health & Safety Assessment Series"
BSI adopted OHSAS 18001 as a British standard in 2007.
Occupational health and safety management system (OHSMS) promotes a safe and healthy working
environment by providing a framework that helps organizations to:
• Identify and control health and safety risks
• Reduce the potential for accidents
• Aid legal compliance
• Improve overall performance
BS OHSAS: 2007 is made up of the following
1. Occupational Health & Safety Policy
2. Planning
3. Implementation and operation
4. Checking and corrective action
5. Management Review

Proposed External Sources of information on Health and Safety:


• National Safety Organizations e.g. IOSH Institution of Occupational Safety & Health
• Professional Consultants and Consultancy bodies
• Workers Unions & Governmental sources of laws & Regulations.
• Suppliers and Manufacturers.
• Internet:
a. The OSHA website: www.osha.gov
b. National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health USA: www.cdc.gov/niosh
c. The IOSH website: www.iosh.co.uk
d. The British Safety Council website: www.bscawards.org
e. The ILO website: www.ilo.org
f. The Health & Safety Executive UK website: www.hse.gov.uk
g. The European Agency for Safety & Health at Work: http://hwi.osha.europa.eu
Proposed Internal Sources of Information on Health and Safety:
• Policies & Internal Standards
• Health and Safety meeting minutes & recommendations
• Audits/inspections' reports
• Risk Registers & Risk Assessments
• Incidents' records & accidents investigation reports
REVISION QUESTIONS
Outline the difference between criminal and civil law

Qn. Outline why the management of an organisation might not consider health and safety to be
a priority.
• Competes with other business priorities such as production, which are the main aims of the
organisation
• May be an unproductive cost to the business
• Ignorance of legal duties
• Lack of care for staff welfare
• Focus on output and profitability at expense of worker well-being
• Cost to the business – taking a short-term view
• Ignorance of true cost to the business of worker ill health
• Competition within the business for access to limited funds
• Unwillingness or lack of resources to devote time to H&S management
• Failure to perceive hazards in their operations
• Cavalier attitude to the management of risks
Outline the term ‘health’, ‘safety’ and ‘welfare’ with relevant examples in relation to workers at work.
Outline what is meant by the direct cost of a health and safety incident, with an example for each.
Explain the social reasons for preventing accidents/incidents and ill-health in the workplace.
Outline the worker’s responsibilities and rights in the Occupational Safety and Health Convention
C155.
Explain what is meant by practicable duties placed on employers.
Outline why ISO international standards are not in any way binding on either governments or industry
merely by virtue of being international standards.
CONTENTS
1. The scope and nature of occupational health and safety
2. The moral, social and economic reasons for maintaining and promoting health and safety
3. The role of national governments and international bodies in formulating a framework for
regulation of health and safety
Element 2 health & safety management systems - PLAN
Key Learning Points:
On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content
through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be
able to:
2.1 Outline the key elements of a health and safety management system.
2.2 Explain the purpose and importance of setting policy for health and safety.
2.3 Describe the key features and appropriate content of an effective health and safety policy.
2.1 The key elements of a health and safety management system
A set of interrelated elements established to effectively manage health and safety.
These key elements form the backbone of any Occupational Health and Safety Management System.
There are mainly two systems commonly used worldwide.
These are:
• ILO – OSH 2001
• OHSAS 18001: 2007
Both ILO – OSH 2001, OHSAS 18001 follow the PDCA cycle:
• Plan – what you’re going to do.
• Do – it!
• Check – that what you’re doing is working.
• Act – if what you’re doing isn’t working as well as it should.
Key Elements of ILO-OSH 2001
1. Policy (Plan)
2. Organising (Plan)
3. Planning and implementing (Do)
4. Evaluation - monitoring, review, measurement, investigation (Check)
5. Auditing (Check)
6. Action for improvement - preventative and corrective action; continual improvement (Act)
1. Policy:
• Clear statement of commitment to health and safety.
• The typical policy consists of three main parts i.e. a "Statement of intent", "Organisation section"
and "the arrangements section".
2. Organising:
• Roles and responsibilities for health and safety at all levels in the organisation.
• HS communication, competence, Commitment & promoting positive HS culture.
3. Planning and implementing:
• Detailed arrangements to manage H&S.
• Risk assessments!
• Implement safe system of work; PTW, LOTO. JSA
• Develop arrangements to comply with national legislations & international standards.
4. Evaluation:
• Methods to monitor and review the effectiveness of the arrangements.
• Active (Proactive) monitoring; meeting annual objectives, legal compliance, planned preventive
inspections and audits... etc.
• Reactive monitoring: monitors failures to management controls; accidents investigations,
incidents' statistics, lawsuits… etc.
5. Action for improvement:
• Steps to correct issues found in the review.
• Management system to be reviewed periodically (or under changing circumstances; legislations)
to insure its existence, adequacy & effectiveness to deliver objectives.
• Corrective, preventive actions & recommendations from Audits
6. Audit:
Independent, critical and systematic examination/review of the management system.
Key elements of OHSAS 18001 – 2007
• Policy (Plan)
• Planning (Plan)
• Implementation and operation (Do)
• Checking and corrective action (Check)
• Management review (Act)
• Continual improvement (Act)
2.2 Purpose and importance of setting policy for health and safety
Outline the importance of an organisation’s health and safety policy.
The health and safety policy of an organisation is an important document that sets out the organisation’s
aims regarding health and safety, who is responsible for achieving these aims, and how the aims are to be
achieved (arrangements).
Outline the reason why the health and safety policy of two organisations might be
different?
The Health and Safety policy of an organisation should reflect the circumstances of the individual
organisation: the hazards and risks, the size and the complexity of the organisation.
The policy must therefore be developed and tailored to fit the organisation that it exists to serve.
2.3 The key features and appropriate content of an effective health and safety
policy
Organisations that successfully manage health and safety establish a formal, written health and safety
policy
Reasons why an organisation should have a written Policy
• Legal compliance.
• Meet management-systems standards (ILO-OSH 2001, OHSAS 18001).
• Clear communication.
• Continuous improvement.
An effective health and safety policy contains three key features:
1. Statement of Intent: What is going to be done?
2. Organisation: Who is going to do it?
3. Arrangements: How they're going to do it.
To be effective the health and safety policy of an organisation should be:
• Specific to the organisation and appropriate to its size and nature of its activities
• Developed in consultation with workers and managers
• Concise and clearly written
• In formats that are suitable for workers and managers
• In suitable languages
• Endorsed or signed by the employer or most senior (top) manager of the organisation
• Effectively communicated
• Monitored through audits
• Reviewed and revised as appropriate
• Should be adapted to fit the characteristics of the organisation
• Training and briefings will be necessary
• Format, complexity and language used should be considered
1. General Statement of Intent (WHAT)
• Setting overall aims and objectives.
• Complying with law.
• Achieving standards.
• Reminds workers at all levels of their responsibilities.
• Signed and dated by the most senior person.
• Regular review.
Organisation Section (WHO)
• Outlines the chain of command for health and safety management.
• Identifies the roles and responsibilities of staff.
• Usually includes an organisational chart relating to health and safety.
• Shows lines of communication and feedback
Arrangements Section (two categories general and specific) (HOW)
• Describes how things are done.
• Detailed description of policies and procedures.
• Usually a long document.
• Often separate from the policy document.
• Unique to each organisation.
General Arrangements Specific arrangements
Carrying out risk assessments. Chemical and biological substances
Information, instruction and training. Confined spaces
Compliance monitoring, including auditing. Contractors
Alcohol and drugs
Accident and near-miss reporting, recording and investigation.
Electricity
Consultation with workers. Fire
Developing safe systems of work. Maintenance work
Welfare and first-aid provision. Manual handling
Fire safety and prevention. Noise
Emergency procedures. Stress and violence
Allocation of resources Transport
Evaluation of performance Work at height
Lone working
The circumstances that may lead to a need to review the health and safety policy
• Passage of time, e.g. annually.
• Technological change and advancement
• Changes in organisation
• Legislation changes
• After an audit or an enforcement inspection
• Monitoring the policy may lead to the need for reviews
Qn. Identify what type of targets might be referenced in the policy (and where)?
The Statement of Intent may also set targets for the organisation to achieve. Possible targets might
relate to:
• Accident rates: to achieve a reduction in the accident or ill-health rate.
• Active monitoring: to complete successfully many active monitoring activities, e.g. successful
completion of 90% of all supervisor safety inspections over a year.
• Completion of key activities – such as the completion of risk assessments across the
organisation
• Delivery of training to all workers
• Development of a consultation process to engage the workforce
• Benchmarking against other organisations
Reasons that contribute to an ineffective HS Policy:
• Policy not properly communicated to / not understood by the workforce.
• Lack of leadership & commitment of top management.
• Production or other business activities given priority over HS.
• Minimal resources available to implement HS Policy.
• No monitoring of objectives' achievement.
• No proper training for management on leadership skills.
• Lack of senior management involvement in HS.
• Too much emphasis on rules for employees & little on senior management.
• No clear organizational structure; role conflict.
Standards & Guidance relating to Health and Safety Policy:
• OHSAS 18001: 2007
• ILO-OSH 2001 Guidelines on Occupational Safety & Health Management
An organisations health and safety policy should be:
• Specific to the organization and appropriate to its size and the nature of its activities;
• Concise, clearly written, dated and made effective by the signature or endorsement of the
employer or the most senior accountable person in the organization;
• Communicated and readily accessible to all persons at their place of work;
• Reviewed for continuing suitability; and
• Made available to relevant external interested parties, as appropriate.
The OSH policy should include, as a minimum, the following key principles and objectives to
which the organization is committed:
• Protecting the safety and health of all members of the organization by preventing work-related
injuries, ill health, diseases and incidents;
• Complying with relevant health and safety national laws and regulations, voluntary programs,
collective agreements on occupational health and safety and other requirements to which the
organisation subscribes;
• Ensuring that workers and their representatives are consulted and encouraged to participate
actively in all elements of the OSH management system; and
• Continually improving the performance of the OSH management system.
REVISION QUESTIONS
1. a) Identify the ILO ‘Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems’ 5
key elements.
b) Outline the requirement for TWO of the elements identified.
2. Outline the role of the health and safety policy.
3. Outline the key aims an organisation should commit to in their health and safety policy
statement.
4. Describe the key THREE features of an effective health and safety policy.
5. Describe how the health and safety policy should be communicated to workers and others.
6. a) Identify who should sign the health and safety policy statement.
b) Outline why the policy should be signed and dated.

CONTENT
1. The key elements of a health and safety management system
2. Purpose and importance of setting policy for health and safety
3. The key features and appropriate content of an effective health and safety policy
Element 3: Health & safety management systems - DO
Key Learning Points:
On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content
through the application of knowledge to familiar & unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able
to:
3.1 Outline the health and safety roles and responsibilities of employers, managers, supervisors,
workers and other relevant parties.
3.2 Explain the concept of health and safety culture and its significance in the management of
health and safety in an organisation.
3.3 Outline the human factors that influence behaviour at work in a way that can affect health
and safety.
3.4 Explain how health and safety behaviour at work can be improved.
3.5 Explain the principles and practice of risk assessment.
3.6 Explain the preventive and protective measures.
3.7 Identify key sources of health and safety information.
3.8 Explain what factors should be considered when developing and implementing a safe system
of work for general activities.
3.9 Explain the role and function of a permit-to-work system.
3.10 Outline the need for emergency procedures and the arrangements for contacting
emergency services.
3.11 Outline the requirements for, and effective provision of, first aid in the workplace
3.1 Organisational health and safety roles and responsibilities of employers,
directors, managers, supervisors, workers and other relevant parties
Organisational Health and Safety Roles and Responsibilities of:
1. Directors and senior managers
The main health and safety responsibilities of directors and senior managers are:
• Give an organisation its direction in terms of health and safety.
• Set health and safety priorities for the organisation.
• Allocate adequate resources and appoint competent persons.
• Allocate health and safety responsibilities in an organisation.
• Are responsible for ensuring that all the legal requirements are met.
• Prepare and sign a health and safety policy and to set goals and objectives for the organisation;
• Lead by example and to demonstrate commitment;
• Secure competent health and safety advice such as by appointing a Health and Safety Advisor;
• And to receive monitoring reports and instigate action to rectify any deficiencies that have been
found.
2. Middle managers
• Middle managers are expected to ensure health and safety is effectively established in their area
of control
• It is important to recognise that managers can only achieve success within their current
knowledge and experience
• A training needs analysis should be carried out to identify any gaps relating to their
responsibilities within the management system
3. Supervisors
The main health and safety responsibilities of supervisors are:
• They should control work in their area of responsibility and set a good example.
• They should take part in carrying out risk assessments, in the development of consequent safe
systems of work and ensure that members of their teams are fully briefed on the systems once
they have been introduced.
• They should carry out inspections of their working areas and deal with any unsafe conditions or
actions, reporting to managers if in any situation, they personally do not have the power to take
the necessary action.
• They finally have an important role to play in training, coaching and mentoring members of their
team.
4. Workers
The roles and responsibilities of workers include:
• Taking reasonable care of themselves and their fellow workers,
• Refraining from misusing equipment provided for their health and safety,
• Cooperating with their employer by following safe systems of work;
• And reporting accidents and unsafe situations to their supervisor or other nominated member
of management.
• They also have an important role to play in taking an active part in any consultation exercise set
up by the employer.
5. Person with primary health and safety functions, e.g. Health and Safety specialist.
The roles and responsibilities of health and safety specialists include:
• Providing advice and guidance on health and safety standards.
• Promoting a positive health and safety culture.
• Advising management on accident prevention.
• Developing and implementing health and safety policy.
• Overseeing the development of adequate risk assessments.
• Identifying health and safety training needs.
• Monitoring health and safety performance in an organisation.
• Overseeing accident-reporting and investigations.
6. Controllers of premises:
Must ensure that there are no risks to the Health & Safety of people using the premises as a place of
work?
People entering the premises to use machinery or equipment,
People accessing & exiting from the premises,
And those using substances provided in the premises.
7. Self-employed:
• Responsible of Health & Safety of themselves & others affected.
• Need to carry out their own risk assessments.
• Coordinate & cooperate with others working in the same premises.
8. Supply Chain (Suppliers, manufacturers & designers):
• Must ensure that items will be safe & free of risk to Health & Safety at all time: use, cleaning or
maintenance.
• Should carry out any necessary testing & examination to ensure that it will be safe.
• Provide adequate information (manuals, MSDS…etc.) about items' safe setting, use, cleaning,
maintenance & disposal.
• It is a trend recently to involve the supplier in the design process which is a good practice to
reduce the number of suppliers and improve quality management.
• Should take reasonable arrangements for continuous research & inform customers should any
new serious risks are proven.
9. Contractors:
• Employers are responsible for protecting people –including contractors & subcontractors- from
harm caused by work activities.
• Employees & contractors must make sure not to endanger themselves, their colleagues or
others affected by their work activities.
• Contractors must comply with OHS laws & regulations.
• Cooperation & coordination between contractors & employers is essential, to ensure all parties
meet their obligation in a safe manner.
• Employees to be trained & clearly instructed in their duties & on matters of HS.
The way that a client manages contractors can be broken down into four key areas:
• Selecting the contractor.
• Planning the work.
• Co-ordinating the work.
• Monitoring the work
Factors considered in the selection of a contractor
• Health and safety policy.
• Risk assessments.
• Qualifications and training records.
• Membership of a professional organisation.
• Maintenance and equipment testing.
• Previous or current clients.
• Accident records.
• Enforcement action.
• Adequate resources.
During any project undertaken by a contractor, the client must:
• Provide adequate supervision to contractor's OHS performance.
• Monitor the contractor's performance; follow up on contractor's OHS reporting of incidents,
accidents' data & investigation reports, Sick leaves & ill health reports.
• Keep good OHS communication & get involved in the planning phase of the project.
• Ensure contractor's safe system of work & emergency procedures established & implemented.
• Continuously check on Risk Assessment records & dates of review.
• Review the contractor's OHS MS performance by conduction regular OHS
Information to be shared between client and contractor during the planning stage of the
work:
• Hazards posed by the site and work carried out.
• Hazards posed by the contractor’s activities.
• Risk assessments.
• Method statements.
Shared responsibilities in the case of joint occupation of premises: co-operation and co-
ordination.
Joint Occupiers of Premises i.e. where two or more employers share a workplace, both shall:
• Communicate with on another Risks & Hazards related to each employer's scope of activity.
• Cooperate to ensure effectiveness of OHS measure, procedures & controls.
• Cooperate with one another to comply with legal requirements & work as a team.
3.2 Concept of health and safety culture and its significance in the management of
health and safety in an organisation
Meaning and extent of the term ‘health and safety culture’
The health and safety culture of an organisation is the shared attitudes, values, beliefs and
behaviours relating to health and safety.
The health and safety culture of an organisation can be influenced by:
• Management.
• Communication.
• Worker competence.
• Co-operation.
Relationship between health and safety culture and health and safety performance
In organisations with a positive safety culture:
• Health and safety is important to everyone.
• There is strong policy and leadership towards health and safety.
• Managers and directors lead on safety and workers believe in it.
• Health and safety performance is good:
• People work safely.
• There are fewer accidents and ill-health events.
In organisations with a negative safety culture:
• Most feel safety isn’t important.
• There is a lack of competence.
• Safety is low priority.
• Safety conscious workers are in minority.
• Health and safety performance is poor:
• There is a lack of attention to detail and procedure.
• Lack of care and poor behaviour results in accidents.
Indicators which could be used to assess the effectiveness of an organisation’s health and
safety culture:
• accidents,
• absenteeism,
• sickness rates/work-related illnesses
• staff turnover,
• level of compliance with health and safety rules and procedures,
• complaints about working conditions
• Visible leadership and commitment
• Communication
• Manager and worker involvement
• Workplace and equipment inspections
Influence of peers.
• Peer pressure will often promote good health and safety within a work team
• Each member of the team will watch over the activities of the other
• Peer pressure may have a negative influence as well.
• Managers and workers may receive direct or indirect pressure not to put effort into establishing
or working to good health and safety standards
Components of a positive Health and Safety culture:
• Leadership & Commitment to Health & Safety at all organizational levels.
• High standards of HS are achievable as a part of a long-term strategy.
• Risk Assessments & Adequate controls.
• A proper HS Policy.
• Relevant HS training program, communication & consultation.
• Prompt Investigation of all incidents & follow up on corrective actions.
Indications of a poor HS Culture:
• High Staff turnover & lower staff morale.
• Perception of a blame culture.
• No adequate HS resources.
• High accidents rate, Ill health reports and sick leaves.
• Poor levels of communication, cooperation & control.
• Higher insurance premiums
• Poor HS competency levels.
• Weak HS management structure.
• One of the good indicators of a Health and Safety culture is the Incident rate:
Factors promoting a negative OHS culture:
• Lack of leadership from management towards health and safety.
• Presence of a blame culture within the organisation.
• Lack of management commitment towards health and safety.
• Health and safety given a lower priority than other issues.
• Organisational changes.
• High staff turnover rates.
• Lack of resources, e.g. too few workers, low investment.
• Lack of worker consultation.
• Interpersonal issues, e.g. peer-group pressure, bullying.
• Poor management systems and procedures.
• External influences, e.g. economic climate.
• Lack of employee motivation
• Unrealistic working procedures
3.3 Human factors which influence behaviour at work
Human factors influencing safety related behaviour
Three significant factors influence worker behaviour:
The individual: The job: The organisation:
Personal characteristics. Nature of the job. Characteristics of the business.
Attitude. Task. Safety culture of the organisation.
Competence. Workload. Policies and procedures.
Motivation. Environment. Commitment and leadership from management.
Risk perception. Displays and controls. Levels of supervision.
Procedures. Peer-group pressure.
Consultation and worker involvement.
Communication.
Training.
Work patterns.

Attitude:
A person’s point of view, or way of looking at something; how they think and feel about it.
How to change a person’s attitude
• Education and training.
• High-impact intervention ("aversion therapy").
• Enforcement.
• Consultation.
Outline the meaning of term “COMPETENCE”
A combination of: Knowledge. Ability. Training. Experience. (KATE)
A competent person isn’t just one who is trained nor is it someone who has been there a long time!
Perception
The way a person interprets information detected by their senses i.e. Sight, Hearing, Smell, Taste,
and Touch.
Factors that can affect perception of hazards and risks include:
• The nature of the hazard
• Previous experience
• Familiarity with the situation
• Memory; affected by experience & training.
• The level & nature of training
• Peer group influences
• Confidence in others’ abilities & judgments
• Age, attitude and sensory impairment
• Illness.
• Stress.
• Fatigue.
• Drugs and alcohol.
How to improve someone’s perception
• Understand why hazards are not noticed by talking to workers.
• Awareness campaigns/training.
• Highlight hazards, e.g. signs.
• Ensure adequate lighting is available.
• Reduce distractions, e.g. noise.
• Avoid excessive fatigue.
Suggest reasons why two people may perceive hazards differently.
Sensory impairment/disability, senses impaired by PPE or background noise, etc., illness, stress, fatigue,
drugs/alcohol, previous experience, training and education.
Aptitude: Natural predisposition towards a specific ability.
Human Failures:
1. Errors (unintentional deviation from an accepted standard) &
2. Violations (deliberate deviation from the standard).
Errors:
• Skill based errors:
• Slips
• Lapses
• Mistakes:
• Rule-based mistakes
• Knowledge-based mistakes
Violations:
• Routine,
• Situational &
• Exceptional.
How to reduce Human Failures:
• Carefully assess & control workplace stressors; noise, poor light, climate…etc.
• Reduce any organizational stressors.
• Ensure staff competency.
• Ensure supervision & giving clear information & work instructions/procedures.
• Clear roles & responsibilities.
• Prohibition of substance abuse.
• Reduce monotonous work & fatigue.
Motivation:
A person’s drive towards a goal; what makes them do what they do.
Care needed with the use of financial incentives!
The Motivation ABCs:
ACTIVATOR; time pressure, need for money, weather, supervisor, policies, standards…etc.
(activators tend to direct behaviour)
BEHAVIOR
CONSEQUENCE; rewards, supervisor approval, get done early, fit in with peer group… etc.
[consequences tend to motivate a behavior]
The age & experience affect the way a human behaves; young employees usually lack experience & are
not fully developed, can be easily excited & affected by peer group pressure & are more vulnerable,
although, they're more creative.
Elderly groups are more experienced, in control, but less creative and unable to fit into new
technologies; sometimes causes knowledge based errors due to applying outdated knowledge.
At times, human beings are easily affected by peer group pressure (the herd effect); hence, promoting
norms & values that in line with a positive OHS culture is crucial.
Employees need to be positively involved in OHS; in risk assessments, OHS training, loss prevention
meetings, reporting, encourage new improvement ideas & contribute in accidents' investigation.
3.4 How health and safety behaviour at work can be improved
Securing commitment of management
• One of the most important steps in establishing a positive health and safety culture
• Absence of management commitment indicates health and safety to be a low priority
• Helps ensure health and safety is properly integrated in the processes of the organisation
• Management should give equal priority to health and safety issues as they do to production and
quality
• By securing management commitment, health and safety is identified as one of the core values of
the organisation
• EMBED H & S INTO MEETINGS SO BECOMES A CORE VALUE
How can directors/managers demonstrate their commitment to health and safety?
• Behaving safely.
• Involvement in the day-to-day management of health and safety, e.g. by attending safety
meetings.
• Taking part in safety tours or audits.
• Promoting changes to improve health and safety.
• Enforcing the company safety rules.
Promoting health and safety standards by leadership and example and appropriate use of
disciplinary procedures
Visible leadership is demonstrated by:
• Behaving safely themselves.
• Involvement in the day-to-day management of safety - e.g. attending safety meetings.
• Taking part in safety tours and audits.
• Promoting activities to improve safety.
• Enforcing the rules.
Effective communication within the organisation:
There are three main methods used in communicating health and safety information within an
organisation.
a. Verbal communication.
b. Written communication.
c. Graphic communication.
Identify the methods used to broadcast various types of health and safety information in
communication within an organisation.
• Policies • Seminars • Emails
• Procedures • Training courses • Notices, poster
• Worker handbooks. • H&S Meetings campaigns
• Procedural manuals. • Toolbox talks. • Films.
• Safety briefings • Memoranda. • Signs.
Verbal Communication
Advantages Disadvantages
Personal. Language barrier.
Quick. Jargon.
Direct. Strong accent/dialect.
Check understanding. Background noise.
Feedback. Poor hearing.
Share views. Ambiguity.
Additional information (body language). Misinformation.
Forget information.
No record.
Poor quality (telephone or PA).
Written Communication
Advantages Disadvantages
Permanent record. Indirect.
Reference. Time.
Can be written carefully for clarity. Jargon/abbreviations.
Wide distribution relatively cheaply. Impersonal.
Ambiguous.
May not be read.
Language barriers.
Recipient may not be able to read.
No immediate feedback.
Cannot question.
Impaired vision.
Graphic Communication
Advantages Disadvantages
Eye-catching. Very simple.
Visual. Expensive.
Quick to interpret. May not be looked at.
No language barrier. Symbols or pictograms may be unknown.
Jargon-free. Feedback.
Conveys a message to a wide audience. No questions.
Impaired vision.
HS Committees: to discuss, share experience & provide recommendations on HS issues at different
organizational levels.
Effective HS committee meetings
• Brainstorm HS issues in a Proactive manner.
• Encourage Lateral Thinking.
• Respect Commitment of Management.
• Selected diversity of members.
• Good communication & control of communication barriers.
• Meeting minutes to be recorded & communicated.
• Recommendations & corrective actions to be considered & followed up by Management.
Ineffective HS committee meetings
• Infrequent meetings.
• Lack of commitment & Respect of management.
• No OHS Advisors attending
• No recommendations or poor follow up on corrective actions.
• Lack of authority to make decisions.
• No diversity of members.
• No minutes produced or recorded.
• Language problems or other communication barriers (see above).
What is the difference between “consulting” and “informing”?
Consulting - the two-way exchange of information and opinion between the employer and workers so
that the best course of action can be agreed. This implies that the employer listens to the concerns of
his workers and changes his plans as necessary. True consultation therefore provides an opportunity for
workers to feed back to management on their feelings and opinions on health and safety matters.
Informing - providing information to workers in a form that they can understand and then checking that
the information has been understood. The information flow is one-way and the employer does not have
to take any notice of feedback.
While Consultation is an interactive process where workers provide feedback & reflect on information
received by employers, "Informing" is more about one way method where employees receive information
from employers.
Health and Safety Consultation with employees & their representatives:
Topics employers should consult on include the following:
• Introduction of new measures affecting health and safety.
• Appointment of new advisers.
• Health and safety training plans.
• Introduction of new technology.
• Risk Assessments & any information about the control measures.
• Important health and safety issues to the employees or their safety representatives.
Employers need to consider confidentiality & security issues while consulting, not to disclose sensitive
information or documents.
• If the culture is one where safety is valued as much as production, then safety performance is
likely to be better.
• If the norms of the company are that the workforce is involved in the decision-making about
safety issues, then this will also have a positive impact on safety performance.
On the other hand, if the culture of the company is one which supports the belief that accidents are
always the fault of negligent individuals, then it is unlikely that management will examine its own role and
take positive responsibility for accident prevention.
Health and Safety Training:
This is the planned, formal process of acquiring and practicing knowledge and skills in a relatively safe
environment.
Training is a key component of competence. Its best achieved through the following steps:
• Identifying training needs. • Assessing trainees.
• Setting training Objectives. • Evaluation of the training program.
• Assessing trainees. • Monitoring feedback on workplace.
• Planning training program;
• Decide proper delivery method.
When is Health and Safety Training needed in an organisation?
• Induction training for new employees and visitors.
• Job change for new hazards following a change in job.
• Process change for new hazards associated with new ways of working.
• New technology for new hazards associated with plant and machinery.
• New legislation to prevent implications of the new legislation.
Factors considered when making a Training Needs Analysis (TNA)
• The type and function of the organisation
• The hazard and risk profile of the organisation – for example, if woodworking machinery is used,
training in its safe use should be provided.
• The accident history of the organisation may indicate that there are areas where awareness is
lacking or training is needed
• There may be statutory training requirements, e.g. for first-aiders, which need to be fulfilled.
• The level of training previously provided, together with the detail of which employees have been
trained and when.
Post training activities include
1. Maintain training records e.g.
• Who attended which sessions and
• When was, the session attended?
2. Carry out evaluation of effectiveness of the training, look for indicators such as:
• Reduced incidents.
• Increased awareness.
• Improved compliance with rules.
Topics to be covered in a health and safety induction training session
• Health and safety policy of the organisation.
• Site or company emergency procedures.
• First aid procedures and location.
• Location availability of welfare facilities.
• Safe movement around the site.
• Accident and incident-reporting procedures.
• Consultation arrangements.
• Health and safety rules.
• Personal protective equipment use and issue.
• Safe systems of work e.g. permit to work.
• Risk assessment system.
3.5 Principles and practice of risk assessment
Meaning of hazard, risk and risk assessment:
Hazard: ‘something with the potential to cause harm (this can include articles, substances, plant or
machines, methods of work, the working environment and other aspects of work organisation)’
Risk: ‘the likelihood/chance that a hazard will cause harm and its consequences’
Risk = Likelihood X Consequences
Risk assessment: It’s a formal process of identifying preventive and protective measures by evaluating
the risk(s) arising from a hazard(s), considering the adequacy of any existing controls, and deciding
whether or not the risk(s) is acceptable
Outline the meaning of the term reasonable practicability
This is the balance between cost and risk of harm where cost is time, effort and money.
It’s the main basis of a risk assessment.
Objectives of risk assessment; prevention of workplace accidents
The main objectives of a risk assessment are to:
• prevent death and personal injury;
• prevent other types of loss incident;
• prevent breaches of statute law, which might lead to enforcement action and/or prosecution;
• prevent the direct and indirect costs that follow on from accidents.
Risk assessors:
Risk assessors may include competent people:
Competent = Knowledge, Ability, Training, Experience
Team approach is very good.
The composition of the risk assessment team should have the following people:
• Employees familiar with tasks.
• Health and Safety practitioners/specialists.
• Technical specialists.
• Line managers and supervisors.
• Worker safety representatives.
Criteria for a ‘suitable and sufficient’ risk assessment
A suitable and sufficient risk assessment should have:
• State the name/competence of the risk assessor.
• Identify significant hazards and risks.
• Identify persons at risk and state how they are at risk.
• Workers and others, e.g. visitors and vulnerable.
• Evaluate effectiveness of existing controls and identify additional controls where necessary.
• Enable employer to prioritise controls.
• Record significant findings.
• Appropriate to nature of work.
• Proportionate to risks.
• State validity period.
Five steps of a risk assessment
1. Identify the hazards
2. Identify the people at harm and how
3. Evaluate the existing controls and identify additional controls
4. Record the significant findings
5. Review the risk assessment
1. Identification of hazards
There are five major categories of hazards around the workplace, these are:
1. Physical: E.g. electricity, noise, vibration, radiation, machinery.
2. Chemical: E.g. mercury, solvents, carbon monoxide.
3. Biological: E.g. viruses, bacteria, fungi.
4. Ergonomic: E.g. manual handling, repetitive tasks.
5. Psychological : E.g. stress, violence.
Methods used in identifying workplace hazards:
• HS Inspection Checklist
• Close Observation of tasks
• Accident, ill health or near miss data.
• Job safety analysis (SREDIM)
• Legal standards.
• Guidance ; ILO, OSHA, ISO, HSE... etc.
• Consultation
2. Identify who/what might be harmed & How:
• All Employees
• Visitors & Public.
• Contractors.
• Cleaning & Catering Staff.
• Trainees & Vulnerable groups; Pregnant/nursing women, young workers, disabled & lone
workers.
There are numerous ways in which a person can be harmed at work; Electrocuted, fall from a height, get
sick, poisoned, burned, cut, stressed… etc.
3. Risk Evaluation/Estimation:
What is risk?
It is a measure of the likelihood of harm occurring and the severity of that harm.
Or, to put it more simply: Risk = Likelihood × Severity
A. Likelihood/Probability of harm occurring: B. Severity/Consequences of Harm
1. Highly Unlikely 1. Minor Injury
2. Reasonably Likely 2. First aid injury
3. Even Chance 3. Lost Time Injury
4. Highly Likely 4. Hospitalising injury
5. Almost Certain 5. Major Injury or Fatality

The difference between Qualitative and Quantitative risk assessments


• Qualitative Risk Assessments is where a judgment is made as to whether the risk level is high,
medium or low in the terms of the risk of somebody being injured.
• Quantitative & Semi-quantitative Risk Assessments: attempts to quantify the risk level in terms
of numerical values of the likelihood & the severity of an incident, resulting in risk ranking.
• Qualitative risk assessment (based on opinion) uses words to describe likelihood and severity,
e.g. high, medium, and low.
• Semi-Quantitative risk assessment uses words and numbers to describe likelihood and severity.
Hierarchy of controls:
• Elimination; get rid of the hazard altogether – if possible.
• Substitution; replace a hazard with something less hazardous e.g. lead free flux.
• Engineering controls / Isolation; Machine guarding, Sound proof control rooms… etc.
• Administrative controls; Job rotation, Training, Work Instructions, Supervision, Information,
Safe System of Work, Emergency preparedness, Signs, Good House keeping
• Personal Protective Equipment; last line of defense.
Use of guidance; sources and examples of legislation
• International standards.
• National legislation.
• Industry standards.
• Guidance from regulators.
Risk Assessments should be then used to decide control measures to control the risk to an acceptable level; As
Low as Reasonably Practicable (ALARP). Levels of Tolerability & acceptance of risk varies widely between
organizations per size, policies & legal liabilities.
Risk based Prioritization:
High-risk activities require immediate action, while low risk activities might be allowed some time if
there is no imminent danger.
Residual risk; acceptable / tolerable risk levels
If risk is unacceptable, more action is needed.
If risk is lower, it may be tolerable for a short period.
If risk is acceptable, the risk is adequately controlled.
Prevention controls: Proactive control measures which help prevent accidents before happening e.g.
Training, Supervision… etc.
Mitigation controls: Control measures which help in reducing the severity & consequences of
accidents after occurrence e.g. PPE, Fire Extinguishers… etc.
4. Record your significant findings
Typical content to be recorded includes:
• Activity/area assessed and hazards.
• Groups at risk.
• Evaluation of risks and adequacy of existing control measures.
• Action plans for further precautions needed.
• Date of assessment and name of competent person.
• Review date.
Reasons for recording risk assessments?
• Accident Investigation.
• Future reference.
• Audits.
• Duty of care / Legal requirements.
5. Review the Risk Assessment
Reasons for review may include:
• Significant change in: Process, substances, equipment, workplace environment, personnel, law.
• After Audits.
• New Activities
• New info available / new technologies.
• If it is no longer valid e.g. after an accident, near-miss, ill health.
• Periodically, e.g. annually & If It is no longer valid.
Special Cases of Risk Assessments
1. Pregnant/Nursing Females: Need special Risk Assessment:
Specific hazards include: Certain chemicals, e.g. lead; Certain biological agents, e.g. rubella virus; Manual
handling; Temperature extremes; Whole-body vibration; Ionising radiation; Night shifts; Stress; Violence.
Precautions
• Pregnant women cannot deal with manual handling, chemicals, biohazards, and physical risks.
• Require special working conditions; comfortable place of work, rest rooms, no stress and no
lone working, less working hours… etc.
• Employers should give pregnant women a paid leave or find them a best alternative risk free job
till they get back to can doing their routine job.
• Employers need to consider that pregnant women will be increasing in size, using toilets more
frequently, will have morning sickness, will have mood swings, get easily irritated and tired etc.
2. Young Workers: Need special Risk Assessment:
• More likely to be easily exited & take Risks.
• Lack of experience & Knowledge.
• Affected by peer group pressure.
• Not yet physically fully developed.
• More vulnerable to radiation & carcinogens… etc.
• They need more training, more supervision & continuous communication.
3. Disabled Workers: Need special Risk Assessment:
• Cannot respond normally in emergencies & evacuations.
• Lack ability to access welfare facilities.
• Should be located on ground floors, with special exits & entrances.
• Need special ergonomics' considerations, in their work place.
• Need continuous consultation & to be considered in any Management System Reviews.
4. Elderly Employees: In organizations that hire very old employees:
• Weaker bones; easily to get broken.
• Weaker eyesight & hearing; affects the perception of depth, sounds & such.
• Over confidence & Over familiarization with some tasks.
• Using out dated methods to perform tasks can lead to errors.
• Incapable of adapting to new technologies & new theories.
• Lower Immunity; more vulnerable to diseases & heart attacks.
• Weaker physical capabilities; should be eliminated from high-risk tasks.
What about Lone workers?
All Vulnerable groups are to be considered when performing & reviewing
Risk Assessments, & proper control measures to be taken.
3.6 Preventive and protective measures
General principles of the preventive and protective measures with reference to ILO-OSH 2001:
Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems:
• eliminate the hazard/risk;
• control the hazard/risk at source, through the use of engineering controls or organisational
measures;
• minimise the hazard/risk by the design of safe work systems, which include administrative
control measures;
• where residual hazards/risks cannot be controlled by collective measures, the employer should
provide for appropriate personal protective equipment, including clothing, at no cost, and should
implement measures to ensure its use and maintenance.
Hazard prevention and control procedures or arrangements should be established and should:
• be adapted to the hazards and risks encountered by the organisation;
• be reviewed and modified if necessary on a regular basis;
• comply with national laws and regulations, and reflect good practice;
• consider the current state of knowledge, including information or reports from organisations,
such as labour inspectorates, occupational safety and health services, and other services as
appropriate.
General Hierarchy of Control:
There is a preferred method of controlling risk known as the hierarchy of risk control.
a) Elimination
b) Substitution
c) Engineering controls / Isolation
• Isolation, total enclosure.
• Separation, segregation.
• Partial enclosure.
• Safety devices.
d) Administrative controls
• Safe systems of work.
• Reduced exposure.
• Reduced time of exposure, dose.
• Information, instruction, training and supervision.
e) Personal Protective Equipment PPE: last line of defense.
Requirements: the employer must ensure that suitable PPE is provided:
• Appropriate for the risks involved.
• Consider ergonomic requirements & state of health.
• Can fit the wearer.
The employees are required to:
• Use any PPE provided per instructions & training.
• Ensure PPE returned to accommodation provided after use.
• Report to employer any loss of or obvious defect in PPE.
Benefits of PPE Limitations of PPE
Can be the only practical way during Only protects the person using it.
Emergency evacuation or rescue. It does not control hazard at source.
Can be used in confined spaces where Must be used properly; can be uncomfortable or not fitting,
other alternatives are not practical. need proper training & instructions.
Can be portable, easy to use Must be taken care of; regularly inspected, cleaned, stored
Disposable PPE reduce chance of properly, reported & replaced when needed.
infection. Might interfere with sensory input e.g. Ear protection might
Interim control. reduce hearing which increases risk in cases of emergency
Some hazards – only control option. alarms or warning horns.
Emergency back-up. Doesn’t remove the hazard.
Cheap (short-term). May increase overall risk.
Immediate protection. Incompatibility.
Unpopular, so often unworn.
Not good if wrongly selected.
Might get contamination and it is expensive in long-term.
3.7 Sources of health and safety information
Sources of Information
Internal sources of information External sources of information
• accident/ill health/absence records, • National legislation.
• audit and investigation reports, • Safety data sheets.
• maintenance records • Codes of practice.
• Medical records. • Guidance notes.
• Risk assessments. • Operating instructions.
• Safety inspections. • Trade associations.
• Safety-committee minutes. • Safety publications.
• International standards e.g. ILO, EU, OSHA, HSE,
Worksafe, OHSAS, ISO

3.8 Factors that should be considered when developing and implementing a safe
system of work for general work activities
Responsibility of the employer:
To ensure SSoW are available for activities that create significant risk, e.g. maintenance, hot work,
confined space work etc.
Role of competent persons in the development of safe systems:
The SSoW must be developed by people who can identify and control hazards.
• Should advise management on the adequacy of the safe system of work.
• Assist managers to draw up guidelines for safe systems of work.
• Should knowledgeable of the hazards & risks of all work activities.
• Communicate findings with workforce.
Workers involvement:
Workers should play an active part in the development of SSoW.
This helps the helps with the gaining of employee commitment and also helps improve the company’s
health and safety culture.
Importance and relevance of written procedures
• Ensure consistency.
• Provide a basis for training.
• Establish a standard (can be checked).
• Provide a written record for incident investigations/regulatory inspections.
Written procedures can be in many forms:
• Checklists.
• Short notes.
• Detailed health and safety manuals.
The distinction between technical, procedural and behavioural controls
Technical: Procedural: Behavioural:
• Equipment and • Safe systems of work • Awareness, knowledge,
engineered • Policy and standards skill, competence
solutions. • Rules • Attitude, perception,
• Access/egress • Procedures motivation,
• Materials • Permit-to-work communication
• Environment • Authorisation and coordination of actions • Supervision
• Correct PPE • Purchasing controls • Health surveillance
• Accident investigation and analysis • Training in the issue of
• Emergency preparedness PPE
• Procedures in the issue, use and maintenance of PPE
Development of a safe system of work
The developing SSoW we follow PEME
People – competence, ability.
Equipment – plant, equipment, PPE.
Materials – substances, articles, waste.
Environment – space, lighting, heating.
Analysing tasks, identifying hazards and assessing risks
Hazard identification and risk assessment
Introducing controls and formulating procedures
Instruction and training in the operation of the system
Monitoring the system
Job Task/Hazard/Safety Analysis or Safe system of work
Select the task.
Record the stages of the task.
Evaluate risks associated with each stage.
Develop the safe working method.
Implement the safe working method.
Monitor to ensure effectiveness.
Method for doing a job in a safe way, it takes account of all foreseeable hazards to
HS & seeks to eliminate or minimize these. Safe systems of work are formal & documented.
1. Employer is required by law to provide safe system of work and safe plant-
2. The safe system of work should be based on a thorough analysis of the job to be carried out e.g. Job
Safety Analysis.
3. Results of this analysis are then used to draw up safe operating procedures.
4. Workers are to be involved & consulted; they are the operators & the experts, they will be facing
the real risk, hence, those are the best people to help with the development of safe system of work.
5. Safe systems of work need to be written & documented in an easy to read format, integrated into
SOP(s) & signed by relevant managers to indicate approval, this is so that:
• The need for operators & supervisors to refer to separate manuals is minimized.
• Health & Safety are perceived as an integral part of normal production procedures.
6. Safe system of work needs to be communicated to the work force.
7. Adequate training should be given to make sure Safe systems of work is understood not only by
those directly involved in the doing the job but also to supervisors & mangers.
8. Training might include: Need for safe system of work, hazards involved, precautions; isolation, lock
out tag out, permit to work, PPE & emergency procedures… etc.
9. Safe Systems of work should be monitored to ensure they’re effective in practice, this involves:
• Inspection to identify how fully they are implemented.
• Reviewing the systems themselves, to ensure they stay up-to-date.
• Monitoring of implementation is a part of line managers' responsibilities.
All organizations must ensure their safe system of work is reviewed as appropriate.
When preparing a safe system of work, the following need to be considered:
• Identify the task to be done & break it down to steps.
• Identify potential hazards & carry out a sufficient & suitable Risk assessment.
• Personnel involved in the task & their competence; proper Training, knowledge & experience.
• Specific available work instructions or SOP(s)
• The supervisor & scope of responsibility.
• Any special tools, equipment or PPE.
• Precautions needed: Isolation, Lock out tag out (LOTO)… etc.
• Permit-To-Work if required.
• Informing other involved or affected departments.
• Communication of personnel involved.
• Emergency plans & arrangements.
• Planned precautions should account for all foreseeable risks & checked if more controls are
needed.
• Assess the environment; lighting, air quality, weather, pressure, vibration, working surface… etc.
• Documentation, review & monitor safe systems of work.
• Involving employees & managers & consultation.
Definition of and specific examples of confined spaces and lone working and working and
travelling abroad in relation to safe systems of work.
1. Confined spaces.
2. Lone working.
3. Travelling abroad.
Confined space can be defined as:
"Area with limited access or egress, not designed for continuous human occupancy & in which there is a
Risk of injury due to fire, explosion, overcome by gas, fumes, and vapours, lack of Oxygen, drowned, or
overcome due to high temperature… etc."
Confined space is an area with the three properties stated below
• A confined space is an area large enough and so configured that an employee can enter bodily
and perform their work
• A confined space has a limited or restricted means of entry or exit
• A confined space is not designed for continuous human occupancy.
One or more foreseeable specified risks exist:
• Fire or explosion.
• Loss of consciousness from gas, fumes, vapour, lack of oxygen.
• Drowning.
• Asphyxiation from free-flowing solid.
• Loss of consciousness from temperature.
• Mechanical Hazards
• Electricity
• Layout/ Internal Configuration
Controls & Precautions for confined space entry: Safe system for confined space work
• Avoid work in a confined space if possible. • Supervision.
• Carry out a risk assessment. • Competency.
• Have emergency and first aid arrangements in place • Communication.
before the work begins. • Atmospheric testing/monitoring.
• Trained personnel. • Ventilation.
• Develop and follow a Safe System of Work e.g. PTW • Removal of residues.
• Carry out proper analysis of the task & Risk Evaluation • Isolation, lock off in-feeds and out-feeds.
• Assign competent supervisor Conduct a Safety briefing • Isolation, LOTO electrical/machine hazards.
• Isolate energy & check air quality • PPE.
• Provide adequate ventilation & Gas Purging • Access/egress.
• Provide adequate tools & PPE • Fire prevention.
• Arrange for adequate communication • Lighting.
• Minimize the working time & regularly test air quality • Suitability of individuals.
• Emergency/rescue procedures.

2. Lone working
Lone Workers are people working by themselves without close or direct supervision, they need specific
safety procedures.
“Workers who are separated from their work colleagues.”
Lack assistance if things go wrong.
Communication with colleagues more difficult, i.e. Out of eyesight and Out of earshot.
Examples of lone workers
• Maintenance workers. • Receptionists (sometimes).
• Service engineers, e.g. gas, appliance. • Social workers/care givers.
• Garage forecourt attendants. • Health visitors/district nurses.
• Trainers/tutors. • Painters/decorators.
• Security guards. • Sales representatives (on the road).
Safe System of Work for Lone Working
• No lone working for high-risk activities, e.g. confined spaces.
• Remote supervision.
• Logging workers’ locations.
• Mobile phones or radios.
• Lone-worker alarm systems.
• Procedures for lone workers.
• Emergency procedures.
• Training for workers.
• Frequent visits by supervisors
• Automatic warning devices & alarms
3. Working and Travelling Abroad
Not the same as a holiday!
Brings additional hazards.
Risks when travelling related to:
• Security.
• Health.
Workers may also be “lone workers”.
SSoW Working Abroad
Employers have a duty to workers whom they send to work abroad and should provide:
• Pre- and post-visit briefings.
• Insurance.
• Health advice and vaccinations.
• Financial arrangements.
• Security training and advice.
• Cultural requirements advice.
• Accommodation.
• In-country travel.
• Emergency arrangements.
• 24-hour contacts.
3.9 Role and function of a permit-to-work system
A formal, documented safety procedure, forming part of a safe system of work for controlling high risk
activities.
Typical applications:
• Hot work • Excavation near buried services.
• High-voltage electrical systems. • Complex machinery.
• Confined-space entry. • Working at height.
• Operational pipelines.
The PTW is issued before conducting any hazardous work and it:
• Defines the scope of the work to be done.
• Identifies hazards and assesses risk.
• Establishes control measures to prevent and mitigate risks.
• Links the work to other associated work permits.
• Is authorized by responsible person(s).
• Communicates above to all involved in the work.
• Ensures adequate control over a return to normal operation.
PTW consists of 4 elements/parts:
1. Issue.
2. Receipt.
3. Clearance/return to service.
4. Cancellation.
There may also be an extension
1. Issue – Pre-Job Checks 2. Receipt – handover of permit:
Description of work to be carried out. Competent and authorised person issues permit
Description of plant and location. to workers;
Identify hazards and assess risks. workers sign to say they accept controls.
Identification of controls. Work can now start:
Additional permits, e.g. hot work. Plant/work area is now under the control of the
Isolation of services. workers.
PPE.
Emergency procedures.
3. Clearance – return to service: 4. Cancellation:
Workers sign to say they have left the workplace Authorised person accepts plant back and can
in safe condition, work is complete and remove isolations, etc. Cancels permit.
operations can resume. Plant is now returned to the control of the “site”.
Caution:
a) A good permit system is only as good as the persons using it. To work effectively:
b) Only authorised persons should issue permits.
c) Permit issuers must be familiar with the hazards of the workplace and the job to be carried out.
d) Precautions must be checked before permits are authorised (no issuing of permits from the desk!).
e) Permits must never be amended.
f) All permit conditions must be adhered to
g) Staff must be trained and competent
h) The system must be monitored to ensure that it is effective
i) The PTW system must be appropriate for the nature of the business e.g. a bakery may require a
less complex system than an oil rig
j) Sufficient time must be allowed to ensure permits are issued correctly, and staff trained to
appreciate this. Contractors, for example, may become stressed if the process is time-consuming,
but must appreciate that they are required to adhere to the system.
Below are the main types of Permit & the work to be covered by each
Application for PTW
• Work at Heights / Roof work • Work with Asbestos
• Work near overhead cranes • Work on pipelines with hazardous materials
• Repairing railway tracks • Excavation… etc.
Hot Work Permit:
a) Hot Work is potentially hazardous as a source of ignition in any plant in which flammable materials
are handled.
b) Hot Work includes cutting, welding, brazing, soldering & any process involving the application of a
naked flame.
c) Hot Work should therefore be done under the terms of a Hot Work Permit & a Safe System of
Work is followed.
Hot-Work Controls
• Remove flammable materials.
• Ensure the provision of fire-retardant blankets/screens.
• Ensure the floor is swept of debris.
• Ensure floors damped down, if necessary.
• Fire extinguishers at hand.
• Ensure a “Fire-watcher” present.
• Post-work checks to ensure no smouldering embers.
Work on High Voltage apparatus: work on voltage over 600 volts is very high risk:
Work must be justified that it’s not possible to work dead.
Must ensure that all the necessary precautions are in place.
Ensure all the workers to carry out the job are competent.
• Fatal electric shock/burns.
• Electric Fires/Explosions
• Safe System of work must be followed, PTW issued.
Machinery Maintenance
• Work is carefully planned and controlled: It may involve several people working.
• Ensure all the hazards are communicated.
• Services e.g. water and electricity are isolated and locked off.
• Stored energy is released before work commences.
• Workers are competent.
3.10 Emergency procedures and the arrangements for contacting emergency
service
Importance of developing emergency procedures
The employer must develop, communicate & implement an emergency response plan addressing at least
the following:
• Procedures to be followed.
• Suitable emergency equipment.
• Responsible staff.
• Training and information needs.
• Drills and exercises.
Procedures to be followed: in the event of a fire, for example, normal practice is for workers to exit
the building using the signed escape routes and assemble at a designated place. In the event of a bomb
threat the procedure is often the exact opposite: to go to a room inside the building away from
windows and external walls.
Provision of suitable equipment: if there is a chemical spill, for example, absorbent granules or booms
might be used to contain the spill and PPE used to prevent harm to those involved in the containment
operation. In the event of a release of toxic gas, respiratory protective equipment may be needed.
Nomination of responsible staff: in a fire situation, there is likely to be a need for fire wardens or
marshals, who walk through the building to check that everyone is aware of the fire evacuation; a fire
team may also be required, whose job will be to check the area where the fire is suspected to be.
Provision of training and information: workers will only know what to do when these various
emergencies occur if they have been provided with information and training. Any nominated individuals
will require additional training on their roles in the emergency and on the safe handling of any equipment
(e.g. PPE) that they might have to use. Members of the public may require information on emergency
procedures, which might be provided in the form of notices, or by means of public address-system
announcements.
Drills and exercises: emergency procedures should be practised to ensure that people are familiar with
the actions they might be expected to take. In this way, people’s responses become automatic. For
example, fire-evacuation drill should be conducted routinely in all workplaces and multiple-casualty
accident exercises should be practised if they are a foreseeable event.
What needs to be included in an emergency procedure
• why an emergency procedure is required
• size and nature of potential accidents and the consequences if they occur
• procedures for raising the alarm
• action of the employees on site
• dealing with the media
• arrangements for contacting emergency and rescue services
Importance of training and testing emergency procedures.
3.11 Requirements for, and effective provision of, first-aid in the workplace
First-aid requirements
Employers are required to provide adequate & appropriate equipment, facilities & personnel to enable First Aid
to be given to employees if they are injured or become ill at work.
An employer has a duty to make appropriate first-aid provision for his employees, which include:
• Facilities i.e. an appropriate location where first-aid treatment can be given.
• Equipment i.e. suitably stocked first-aid kits and other equipment.
• Personnel i.e. trained staff.
Suitable First Aid rooms should be provided when appropriate. Where possible the room should be
exclusive for First Aid purposes. The appointed person should oversee the room.
The employer must inform people of these arrangements.
Role, training and number of first-aiders
Trained personnel for first aid include:
1. First aider – full training.
2. Appointed person – basic training only.
1. Appointed Persons:
• Take charge when someone is injured or falls ill e.g. calls an ambulance.
• Look after the First Aid equipment.
• Keeping records of treatment given.
• Should not attempt to provide First Aid if not properly trained
• Should be available always (appoint more than one).
2. First Aider:
• Someone with valid & approved training in First Aid.
• Number will depend on the size of the organization & the nature of its activities.
• Provision must be sufficient to cover for absences & annual leaves.
Basic principle of first aid is to keep the injured person alive until professional medical assistance arrives,
sometimes called 'The 3 Ps':
• Preserve life.
• Prevent deterioration.
• Promote recovery.
Requirements for first-aid boxes
First Aid Box: should not contain any medications or tablets, quantities & contents depend on the
needs of the organization:
• Medical Adhesive plasters, • Pairs of examination gloves,
• Sterile eye pads, • eye wash bottles,
• Elastic Bandages, • burn jell… etc.
• Wound dressings,
Coverage in relation to shift work and geographical location.
Coverage will depend on:
• The general risk level of the workplace.
• The hazards present in the workplace.
• Accident history.
• Vulnerable persons.
• The number of workers.
• Work patterns and shift systems.
• Workplace location (geographic).
• The spread of the workplace.
NOTES:
Any Emergency response plan should be communicated, written & posted,
Practiced & supported by adequate resources & top management commitment.
A proper translation of the Emergency Response Plan to the local country's language needs to be seriously
considered.
Safety Signs:
1. Stop / Prohibition: Red circle with a bar, black pictogram on white background e.g. stop signs of No
Smoking
2. Warning sign: Black triangle yellow background with black pictogram e.g. warning signs of electric
current
3. Mandatory sign: Blue circle with a white pictogram e.g. obligation to wear PPE signs
4. Safe condition sign: Green square/rectangle with white pictogram e.g. fire exits signs
ELEMENT 4 HEALTH & SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS - CHECK
Key Learning Points:
On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content
through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to:
4.1 Outline the principles, purpose and role of active and reactive monitoring.
4.2 Explain the purpose of, and procedures for, investigating incidents (accidents, cases of work-
related ill health and other occurrences).
4.3 Describe the legal and organisational requirements for recording and reporting incidents.
4.1 Active and reactive monitoring
Active/proactive HS monitoring before the event:
• Ensure health and safety standards are correct and being met before accidents, etc. are caused.
• Measures progress.
• Involves identification through regular, planned observations of workplace conditions, systems and
the actions of people.
• To ensure that performance standards are being implemented and management controls are
working.
Reactive HS monitoring after the event:
• Using accident, incident and ill-health data to highlight areas of concern.
• Measures failure.
• Involves learning from mistakes.
• Whether they result in injuries, illness, and property damage or near-misses.
Active monitoring methods
a. Safety Inspection: Examination of workplace, statutory inspection, plant and machinery, pre-use checks.
b. Safety Sampling: Representative sample to judge compliance, less time-consuming.
c. Safety Survey: Detailed examination of one issue, topic.
d. Safety Tour: High-profile inspection by managers, can be used to observe behaviours, too.
e. Health Surveillance: Monitoring worker health shows effectiveness of controls.
f. Benchmarking: Comparison to other organisations, can compare between sectors.
g. Safety auditing: auditing is the systematic, objective, and critical evaluation of an organisation’s health
and safety management system.
Factors to consider when taking a workplace inspection:
• Type of inspection. • Objectivity of inspector.
• Frequency of inspection. • Use of checklists.
• Allocation of responsibilities. • Action planning for problems found.
• Competence of the inspector. • Training for inspectors.
Some factors to consider during the planning stage are:
• What needs inspecting?
• Who is to conduct the inspections and are they competent?
• When should inspections be conducted?
• What standards are to be used?
• Is a checklist required?
• What equipment is to be used?
• Is any PPE required?
• Where are, the findings recorded?
• Who will prepare the inspection report?
• Who will be responsible for ensuring that any remedial action is carried out?
Factors that influence timescales:
• Changing nature of the workplace • Severity
• Manufacturer’s recommendations • Previous inspection results
• Type and frequency of use • Presence of vulnerable workers
• Environmental conditions • Workers voicing concerns
Sampling
The role of sampling is to select, examine and establish the facts about a representative, partial amount
of a group of:
• Items
• People
• Areas
Representative Sampling is used to indicate the standard of compliance of the whole group
Sampling is conducted relating to the following:
• Specific hazards - noise or dust
• Good practice - wearing PPE
• General workplace hazards –walk through
Safety surveys
The role of a survey is to examine a narrow field of health and safety on an exploratory basis
The term ‘survey’ is usually applied to an exercise that involves a limited number of critical aspects, for
example:
• Noise survey
• Lighting survey
• Temperature survey
• PPE needs survey
Can also be interviews where information is gathered
Examples might be:
• Training needs
• Attitudes to health and safety
• Rules for specific tasks
Safety tours
• Opportunity for management to explore effectiveness of risk control measures through planned
visits
• Management commitment visible which develops a positive health and safety culture
• Gives an accurate picture of work conditions
• Can indicate deficiencies or success in managers
• Provides a forum for gaining the viewpoint of workers
• Details of the tour and outcomes
The topics that should be included on a workplace inspection checklist.
Fire safety Chemical safety
Escape routes, signs, extinguishers Use, handling, storage
Housekeeping Machinery safety
General tidiness, cleanliness Use of guards, interlocks, PPE
Environment issues Electrical safety
Lighting, temp, ventilation, noise Portable appliances, trailing leads, overloaded
Traffic routes sockets, etc.
Vehicle and pedestrian Welfare facilitates
Suitability, conditio
Competence and objectivity of inspector
• Inspections normally involve a physical examination of the workplace or equipment
• Identifying hazards and determining if they are effectively controlled
• Usually carried out by a manager, worker health and safety representative, equipment user or
technical specialist
• The inspector must be competent to inspect what it is that they are inspecting
• The qualifications, knowledge, skill and experience may be set out in national legislation
• Impartial approach critical
• Competence and objectivity of inspector
Advantages and disadvantages of checklist use during safety inspections

Advantages Disadvantages
▪ Enables prior preparation and planning ▪ Does not encourage the inspector to think beyond
the scope of the checklist
▪ Quick and easy to arrange
▪ Items not on checklist are not inspected
▪ Brings a consistent approach
▪ May tempt people who are not
▪ Clearly identifies standards
authorised/competent to carry out the inspection
▪ Thorough
▪ Can be out of date if standards change
▪ Provides readymade basis for inspection report
▪ Inspectors might be tempted to fill in the checklist
▪ Provides evidence for audits without checking the work area/equipment

Effective Report-Writing
Style – formal, free of jargon or slang, factual, persuasive, clear, and concise.
Structure – executive summary, introduction, main body, recommendations, conclusions.
Content – significant findings, evidence of findings.
Justified recommendations – moral, legal, economic arguments, action plan.
Reactive monitoring
Dealing with things that went wrong!
Accidents, incidents, ill health, other unwanted events and situations:
• Highlights areas of concern.
• Things that have already gone wrong.
• Measures failure.
It uses mainly two methods:
• Lessons from one specific event, e.g. an accident.
• Data collected over a period.
Methods of reactive monitoring
Identification Complaints from the workforce
Reporting Enforcement action
Investigation Civil claims
Collation of data and statistics, on the events
(historical)
Objectives of reactive monitoring
• To measure the negative outcomes from the organisation’s efforts
• Identify the significance of these outcomes and opportunities for improvement
• Systems must be in place to identify the event, record it and report it
• If reporting etc. is planned and encouraged it is not uncommon to find a large increase in
recorded events
• Events contribute to the ‘corporate memory’, helping to prevent a repeat in another part of the
organisation or later
Potential issues with the statistics:
• Data may be manipulated.
• Incidents may go unreported.
• Sudden increase in reporting of incidents can suggest a decrease in performance or could be due
to improved reporting
Enforcement actions
Often required during pre-tender qualifications.
Civil claims
Total cost of claims can be calculated.
This may be affected by:
• Advertising campaigns.
• Dissatisfaction with organisation.
Outline the meaning of active and reactive health and safety monitoring
a) Active monitoring - Active monitoring is concerned with checking standards before an
unwanted event occurs. E.g. tours, inspections.
The intention is to identify conformance with standards, so that good performance is recognised
and maintained; non-conformance with standards, so that the reason for that non-conformance
can be identified and corrective action put in place to remedy any shortfall.
b) reactive monitoring is the monitoring of data generated after something has gone wrong and
learning from mistakes
4.2 Investigating incidents
Reasons why we carry out incident investigations:
• Identify both direct, underlying and root causes.
• Prevention of recurrence.
• Data gathering and collection of evidence.
• Insurance purposes.
• Determine the economic loss caused.
• Increase staff morale.
• Establish if internal disciplinary procedures are necessary
• To update risk assessments.
• Discover trends.
• Establish legal liability, prepare defence, and meet legal obligations.
• Demonstrate commitment
Reasons for reporting incidents:
• To trigger the provision of first-aid treatment, etc.
• Preserve the accident scene for the investigators
• Enable the investigation to be carried out to prevent recurrences
• Meet any legal requirements to report incidents
• To record that an incident has occurred in the event of subsequent civil claims
Distinction between different types of incidents
1. Accident.
• Injury accident.
• Damage-only accident.
2. Near-miss.
3. Dangerous occurrence.
4. Work-related ill health.
1. Accident
An unplanned, unwanted event which leads to injury, damage or loss:
• Injury accident – where the unplanned, unwanted event leads to some sort of personal injury,
e.g. a cut hand.
• Damage only accident – where the unplanned, unwanted event leads to equipment or property
damage but not personal injury, e.g. a wall is demolished.
2. Near-miss
An unplanned, unwanted event that had the potential to lead to injury, damage or loss but did not.
3. Dangerous occurrence:
A specified event that should be reported to the relevant authority by statute law, e.g. a major gas leak.
4. Ill health:
A disease or medical condition that is directly attributable to work, e.g. dermatitis as a result of
exposure
to skin irritants.
Basic incident investigation procedures
First actions:
Safety of the scene:
Is the area safe to approach?
Is immediate action needed to eliminate danger before casualties are approached?
Casualty care:
First-aid treatment.
Hospitalisation if necessary
Also, consider that by-standers may be in shock.
Select the accident investigation team.
How to determine the level of Investigation
More minor incidents can be investigated by a line manager.
Major incidents, more complex events or incidents with high potential should be investigated by a team:
• Safety specialist. • Technical specialist.
• Senior manager. • Worker representative.
Steps of incident investigation
1. Gather factual information
2. Analyse the information and draw conclusions
3. Identify suitable control measures
4. Plan the remedial actions
The following equipment will be necessary during the investigation process
• PPE • Plans of area
• Camera • Pens and pencils and paper
• Measuring tape
Step 1: Gathering information
• Determine who should be involved in the investigation process
• Ensure accident scene remains undisturbed
• Collate all relevant documents
• Collect facts e.g. photo/sketch, measurements, notes, mark-up plans, samples.
• Identify witnesses
• Notify relatives of injured person
• Legal reporting requirements met
• Ascertain equipment needed
• Determine style and depth of investigation
• Interview witnesses.
• Examine documents.
Golden rules for interviewing accident witnesses
• Interviewing witnesses promptly after the event
• The interview should be in a quiet room with no distractions, one person at a time
• Establishment of a rapport between the witness and the interviewer.
• Explain the purpose of the interview and highlight that it’s not about blaming anyone.
• Use open questions, e.g. Who? What? Where? When? Why? How?
• Keep an open mind during the whole procedure.
• Explain that notes will be taken.
• Ask for a written statement from the witness.
• Recording the details if possible
• Summarising your understanding of the matter
• Expressing appreciation by thanking the witness.
Identify the documents to be examined during an incident investigation
• Site plans. • Permits-to-work.
• Company health and safety policy. • Maintenance records.
• Risk assessments. • Previous accident reports.
• Training records. • Sickness records.
• Safe systems of work.
Step 2 – Analysing Information
Immediate causes are mainly divided into two i.e. unsafe acts and unsafe conditions.
Unsafe acts e.g. Unsafe conditions e.g.
• Operating equipment without authority • Inadequate guards or barriers
• Failure to warn O secure • Inadequate or improper protective
• Operating at improper speed equipment
• Making safety devices inoperable • Defective tools, equipment or materials
• Removing safety devices • Fire and explosion hazards
• Using defective equipment • Poor housekeeping
• Using equipment improperly • Hazardous environmental conditions;
• Failing to use personal protective gases, dusts, smokes, fumes, vapors
equipment • High and low temperature exposures
• Working under the influence of /illumination
• Alcohol/drugs
Personal Factors Job/System Factors
• Physical incapacity • Lack of safe System of Work
• Mental incapacity • Lack of maintenance
• Lack of motivation • Inadequate standards
• Lack of knowledge/skill • Inadequate work instructions
• Lack of training • Inadequate purchasing system
• Physical stress
• Psychological stress
• Lack of inspection
• Wear & tear
Underlying/root causes:
Reasons behind the immediate causes.
Often failures in the management system e.g.
• No supervision. • Non-compliance with legal requirements
• No PPE provided. • Non-compliance with standards &
• No training. procedures
• Lack of equipment maintenance. • HS management system not implemented
• No checking or inspections. • HS MS audits & reviews'
• Inadequate or no risk assessments. recommendations not followed up
• Lack of HS Policy • Inadequate reporting & remedial actions
• Lack of top management commitment system
Step 3 – Identifying Suitable Control Measures
So, for the oil spill example, cleaning up the oil is a short-term fix for this incident only – action needs to
be taken to prevent spills, e.g. by implementing a planned maintenance inspection, safety tours, etc. The
action should prevent not only incidents in this area but repeat incidents across the site.
Step 4 – Plan the Remedial Actions
• Dangerous conditions must be dealt with immediately.
• SMART recommendations to be set by the end of the Investigation
• Responsibilities & deadlines to be clearly identified
• Recommendations to be classified per causes
• Interim actions may be possible if permanent solutions will take long to be implemented.
• Underlying causes will require more complex actions e.g. they will take time, effort, disruption,
money; there is need for prioritisation.
• Follow up by responsible parties & supervisors is crucial, to ensure implementation &
effectiveness of recommendations
Reasons why workers might not report accidents has appeared as an exam question:
• Unclear organisational policy on reporting incidents.
• No reporting system in place.
• Culture of not reporting incidents (perhaps peer-pressure involvement)
• Overly-complicated reporting procedures.
• Excessive paperwork.
• Takes too much time.
• Blame culture.
• Apathy due to management’s perceived response in the past.
• Concern over the impact on the company or departmental safety statistics (especially if this is
linked to an incentive scheme)
• Reluctance to receive first-aid treatment.
Most of these barriers can be dealt with by having a well-prepared, clearly-stated policy, adopting user-friendly
procedures and paperwork, and training staff in the procedures. An organisation can take disciplinary action
against workers who fail to report incidents if they have been given the training and means to do so.
Internal accident Record Contents
• Name and address of casualty. • Details of any equipment or substances
• Date and time of accident. involved.
• Location of accident. • Witnesses’ names and contact details.
• Details of injury. • Details of person completing the record.
• Details of treatment given. • Signatures.
• Description of event causing injury.
Some incidents need to be reported to regulator by law, e.g.
• Fatality. • Disease.
• Major injury. • Lost-time injuries.
• Dangerous occurrence.
Methods of data analysis & presentation:
• By nature of injury; cuts, abrasions, amputation… etc.
• By part of the body injured; head, hands, arms, feet… etc.
• By age & experience at the job
• By type of equipment use
• By type of loss; environmental, information, financial… etc.
• By location of the job
• Trends can be shown against
• Some indices can be calculated e.g. Incidence Rate (see element 4)
• Reports should be produced; simple tables, graphs & other charts showing trends &
comparisons
• All analysis reports should be available to employees as well as managers monthly, quarterly or
annually past performance of the same organization (or other organizations for benchmarking)
• Data to be communicated effectively; meetings, emails, websites… etc.
• Implement any recommendation based on the data analysis reports
• There is a variety of up-to-date computer software to analyze & manipulate data & produce statistical
reports in case significant numbers are involved.
Lessons learnt
It is important that lessons learned from accidents/incidents are shared with as many people who would
benefit from it as is possible
As a minimum, this must include different departments within an organisation
The more that the root causes are examined the more likely the lessons are to be relevant to other
departments
An incident in one department may reveal a need to improve job induction processes
Trade associations often take the lead in collating data on a non-attributable basis.
REVISION QUESTIONS
1. Outline with examples THREE different types of inspections that might be used in any
workplace.
2. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of the use of a checklist when carrying out
inspections.
3. Outline the function of an accident investigation.
4. Outline with examples the difference between immediate (direct) and indirect
(underlying) causes of an accident.
5. Outline the factors which should be considered when conducting accident investigations.
ELEMENT 5 HEALTH & SAFETY MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS – ACT
Key Learning Points:
On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content
through the application of knowledge to familiar & unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able
to:
5.1 Explain the purpose of, and procedures for, health and safety auditing.
5.2 Explain the purpose of, and procedures for, regular reviews of health and safety
performance.
5.1 Health and safety auditing
Meaning of the term ‘health and safety audit’
HS auditing is the systematic, objective, and critical evaluation of an organisation’s health and safety
management system.
OR
The structured process of collecting independent information on the efficiency, effectiveness and
reliability of the total health and safety management system and drawing up plans for corrective action”.
Purpose of health and safety auditing
• Ensure HS Management System is in place.
• Ensure adequate risk control systems & workplace precautions exist, implemented & consistent
with organizational hazards.
• Ensure that the HS MS is helping the organization to achieve the framework of objectives stated
in its policy.
Scope
Before an audit starts it is often useful to consider the scope of the audit by asking questions such as:
• Will the audit cover health, safety, welfare, environmental management or a combination of
them all?
• Will the audit cover one or more departments?
• How comprehensive will the audit be?
The entire scope of the health and safety management system should be subjected to a comprehensive
audit
Individual aspects of the health and safety system and procedures can be subjected to individual audits:
• Reporting and management of incident data
• Occupational stress
• Work at height
• Fire prevention and control
• Review of health and safety as part of the management system
The difference between an audit and an inspection
Health and Safety audit Health and Safety Inspection
Examines documents Checks the workplace
Examines procedures Checks records
Interviews workers Usually quick
Verifies standards Lower cost
Checks the workplace May only require basic competence
Can be a long process Part of an audit
Usually expensive
Requires high level of competence
1. Pre-Audit Preparations
The following should be defined:
• Timescales. • What documentation will be required?
• Scope of the audit. • Auditor competence.
• Area and extent of the audit. • Time and resources for auditors.
• Who will be required?
How to determine the competence of auditors; auditors should be able to:
Familiar with audit techniques
Familiar with work practices
Able to interpret standards
Up to date with new information and standards
2. During the Audit
Auditors use three methods to gather information:
Paperwork - documents and records.
Interviews - managers and workers.
Observation - workplace, equipment, activities and behaviour.
Typical documents examined during an audit:
• Health and safety policy.
• Risk assessments and safe systems of work.
• Training records.
• Minutes of safety-committee meetings.
• Maintenance records and details of failures.
• Records of health and safety monitoring activities e.g. tours, inspections, surveys, etc.
• Accident investigation reports and data including near-miss information.
• Emergency arrangements.
• Inspection reports from insurance companies, etc.
• Output from regulator visits, e.g. visit reports, enforcement actions, etc.
• Records of worker complaints
3. The End of the Audit
Verbal feedback session:
To managers.
Highlights of the audit.
The final written report to management should:
Give a clear assessment of the overall performance
Identify system deficiencies
Identify observed strengths
Make recommendations for improvement
Be accurately and clearly communicated
Prioritise significant findings and give appropriate timescales.
Correcting non-conformities:
Management - must take ownership of the audit report and recommended actions
Responsibility should be assigned to those in line management responsible for them, together with
completion dates
Progress on correcting non-conformities should be monitored through reports or feedback.
Major non-conformance:
Significant issue, needs urgent action.
Minor non-conformance:
These are less serious issues which are unlikely to result into injury or failure of the HS management
system.
They are mainly observations discovered during the audit process. The opinion given by auditor will be
adequate.
Advantages and disadvantages of external and internal audits
External audits
Advantages Disadvantages
• Independent of any internal influence • Expensive
• Fresh pair of eyes • Time-consuming
• May have wider experienced at auditing • May not understand the business, so make
• Experience of different types of workplace impractical suggestions
• Recommendations often carry more weight • May intimidate workers, so get incomplete
• Up to date with law evidence
• More able to be critical
Internal audits
Advantages Disadvantages
• Less expensive • Auditors may not notice certain issues
• Auditors are already familiar with the • Auditors may not have good knowledge of
workplace and what is practicable industry or legal standards
• Can see changes since last audit • Auditors may not possess auditing skills, so
• Improves ownership of issues found may need training
• Builds competence internally • Auditors are not independent, so may be
• Workplace more at ease subject to internal influence
• Familiarity with workplace and individuals

5.2 Review of health and safety performance


Purpose of reviewing health and safety performance
Reasons why an organisation should review its health and safety performance
• To identify if the organisation is on target,
• If the organisation is not, why not?
• What do we have to change so that we continually improve? For example, are there risks that
aren’t being controlled adequately? What needs to be done about them?
• Because monitoring is an essential part of any management system (as the saying goes, “if you
aren’t monitoring, you aren’t managing!”)
• Because reviews are also a required part of accreditation
Who should take part in review
It’s the role of senior management
Carry the responsibility, on behalf of the organisation, to ensure reviews of performance are conducted
Treat health, safety and the environment as equal partners to other business issues such as production
(service) and quality
Annual plans, targets and key performance indicators
• Compliance with legal and organisational requirements, new developments.
• Accident and incident data, and corrective actions.
• Inspections, surveys, tours, sampling.
• Absence and sickness data.
• Quality assurance reports.
• Audit reports.
• Monitoring data/records.
• External communications and complaints.
• Consultation results.
• Achievement of objectives.
• Actions from previous management reviews.
• Legal and best practice developments.
Maintenance of records of management review
• Every organisation must establish and maintain procedures for the maintenance of records of
the management review
• They should be maintained as appropriate to the system and the organisation
• Provides evidence of compliance with legal requirements
• Records provide the necessary evidence that effort is being applied to ensure health and safety
performance levels are being met
• They should be legible, identifiable and traceable to the review activity in question
Reporting on health and safety performance
• Reported at senior management level
• Situations where the review has been conducted by a work group drawn from the senior
management team
• The results of the review should be communicated widely in the organisation
• It is customary to include a statement of health and safety performance, along with other risks,
within the annual report
• Such reports should be available to all workers and other stakeholders
Feeding into plans as part of continuous improvement
• It is important that health and safety reviews take place in an analytical way questioning actions
taken are effective
• The strategic level plans enable the production of local level plans through information cascade
(to promote dynamic development)
• Health and safety objectives should be established for all development/improvement plans
• Should be subject to key performance indicators (KPI’s)
• Active reporting at meetings should be established for health and safety items such as the status
of inspections and risk assessments
Identify issues be considered in the management review of health and safety performance.
• Legal compliance
• Accident and incident data
• Findings of surveys/tours/audits
• Absence and sickness data
• Quality assurance reports
• Audit reports
• Monitoring data/records/reports
• External communications and complaints
• Consultation
• Objectives met
• Action from previous reviews
• Legal and best practice development
Report structure:
Title page
Title & subtitle (if there is one)
Name of the writer
Name of the person / organization to whom the report is addressed
Date of submission
Executive Summary
Provides a brief outline on what was achieved/decided/concluded in your report placed on a separate
page before the contents page
Can be written last so that every bit of necessary detail is taken from the finished report
It is about half a page in length
Table of Contents
Helps the reader to find a specific topic easier
Can give the reader a grasp of the overall content
Should be in the beginning but might be in the end of the report
Introduction
States the purpose of the report
Lists the objectives
Methodology used in analysis
Problems & methods used to tackle them
Main Body of the report
Detailed description of the findings
Significance of what was found
Graphs, tables & charts should be used
Better if divided into sections using numbering & bullet points
Keep It Short & Simple (KISS)
Conclusion
Demonstrates an understanding of what you achieved
Outline how you reached the conclusion
Recommendations / Corrective actions • Very crucial in OHS inspection reports
Must be specific & achievable
Responsible parties must be assigned
Time limit must be set clear; per the risk level
Based on the findings (to rectify violations)
Unit GC2:
Controlling workplace hazards
ELEMENT 1: WORKPLACE HAZARDS & RISK CONTROL
Key Learning Points:
On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content
through the application of knowledge to familiar & unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able
to:
1.1 Outline common health, welfare and work environment requirements in the workplace
1.2 Explain the risk factors and appropriate controls for violence at work
1.3 Explain the effects of substance misuse on health and safety at work and control
measures to reduce such risks
1.4 Explain the hazards and control measures for the safe movement of people in the
workplace
1.5 Explain the hazards and control measures for safe work at height
1.6 Explain the hazards and control measures for temporary works

1.1 Health, welfare and work environment requirements


Health and Welfare provisions
• Drinking water
• Sanitary conveniences
• Washing facilities
• Changing rooms
• Accommodation for clothing
• Rest and eating facilities
• First aid

Drinking water • Wholesome,


• labelled if not
• Must be readily accessible to all workforce
• Supply must be adequate
• SOP for sampling & testing
Sanitary conveniences • Sufficient numbers
• Separate for men and women
• Protected from weather
• Clean, lit & ventilated
• Provision for the disabled
Washing facilities • Close to toilets and changing rooms
• Showers if required
• Hot and cold water, soap, towels
• Means of drying
Changing rooms • For special work wear
• Lit, cleaned and ventilated
• Separate facilities for men and women
Accommodation for • Lockers, etc.
clothing • Personal clothing clean and secure
• Separate storage for dirty work wear
Resting and eating • Sufficient seats and tables
facilities • Away from work location
• Hygienic environment
• Means of preparing hot food and drink
• Separate facilities for new and expectant mothers

Ventilation
• Should be effective & sufficient & free from any impurities
• Air inlets to be sited free from any potential contaminants
• Ensure workers are free from uncomfortable draughts
• Ensure continuous fresh air flow
• Use LEV or Dilute Ventilation if required
• Implementing ambient air quality standards
Heating & Temperature
• Ensure reasonable temperatures in all workplaces during working hours
• Air conditions to be used where possible
• AC to be regularly inspected & maintained
• Provide thermometers to indicate room temperature
• Provide suitable PPE where AC is not adequate e.g. on entering big restaurants' cold stores
Lighting
• Poor lighting increases the risk of accidents e.g. slips, trips & falls.
• Provision of sufficient & suitable lighting; shall be natural light if possible
• Provision of sufficient emergency lighting in all rooms, kitchens, rest rooms & emergency routes
• Consider using blinds on windows in cases of reflective screen glare
• Windows & skylights to be kept clean & free from obstruction
Seating & Workstations
• Sitting for prolonged periods can cause health risks; blood circulation problems & MSD(s)
• Workstations to be arranged so that work is done safely & comfortably
• Workstations to be arranged to allow safe evacuation in cases of emergency
• Work surface should be at comfortable height to the worker; avoid bending & stretching
• Workers should not stand for prolonged periods on solid floor.
• Refer to control measures of DSE
The effects of exposure to extremes of temperature; preventive measures
Health and safety issues associated with
working in HOT, and COLD Control Measures for working in HOT
environments? and COLD
Hot environments: Cold environments: Hot environments: Cold environments:
• Dehydration • Hypothermia • Ventilation • Prevent or protect
• Muscle cramps • Lethargy • Insulate/shield heat from draughts
• Heat stress • Frostbite sources • Shield/lag cold surfaces
• Lethargy • Slip hazards • Provide cool refuges • PPE - insulating
• Headaches • Freeze burns • Drinking water • Provide warm refuges
• Fainting injuries • Frequent breaks • Frequent breaks
• Heat exhaustion • Job rotation • Job rotation
• Heat stroke • Appropriate • Access to warm food
• Burns, cancer, etc. clothing and drinks
• Treat icy floors
Prevention of falling materials through safe stacking and storage.
• Storage areas clearly defined
• Separate areas for different items
• Segregation of certain materials and substance
• Clean and tidy areas routinely inspected
• Appropriate warning signs
• No work activities in storage areas
Safe material stacking procedures:
• Each stack for one material only
• Set maximum stack height
• Stacks should be vertical
• Use pallets to keep materials off the ground
• Allow space between stacks for safe movement
• Protect stacks from being struck by vehicles
Safe storage of Flammable materials:
• Liquids, solids, gases in separate stores
• Store oxygen separate from other gases
• Open-air stores away from buildings
• Fire-resistant internal stores
• Two exits for larger stores
• Warning signs / safety signs
• No hot work in or near storage areas
• Correctly rated electrical equipment
• Firefighting equipment provided
• Inspect regularly
1.2 Violence at work
Any incident in which a person is abused either verbally or physically, threatened or assaulted in
circumstances relating to their work
Risk factors relating to violence at work (both between employees/workers and third parties)
Appropriate control measures to reduce risks from violence at work
Risk Factors for Violence Groups/occupations Control measures for violence at work
• Cash handling at risk of violence • Assess the risk, record & review assessment
• Lone working • Healthcare / social • Organizations to enforce zero tolerance
• Representing authority care providers violence policy
• Wearing a uniform • Police • Avoid using cash; use credit cards
• Dealing with people under • Social workers • Means of communication: cell phones, alarms,
stress • Bus and taxi radios… etc.
• Dealing with people under drivers • Physical barriers e.g. fences, bullet proof
the influence of alcohol or • Firefighters and booths for ticketing
drugs paramedics • Use close circuit television cameras CCTV
• Censuring or saying "no" • Traffic wardens • Strict security measures e.g. ID, finger print
• Dissatisfaction with the • Railway staff access, no visitors… etc.
treatment/service received • Estate agents • Avoid lone working & night working
• Bullying & harassment • Provide adequate training & information;
• Terrorism is now included negotiation skills, stress management… etc.
• Report, investigate & record all incidents of
aggression
1.3 Substance misuse at work
Types of substances misused at work, e.g.
• alcohol
• legal/illegal drugs
• solvent
Risks to health and safety from substance misuse at work
Effects of alcohol and drug abuse on safety performance:
• Sensory impairment
• Skewed perception
• Impaired motor control
• Fatigue and drowsiness
Increased risk for:
• Driving
• Operating machinery
• Making decisions
• Work at height
• Electrical workers
General symptoms how they would affect the workplace:
• Late attendance of employees
• Increased absenteeism by employees
• Poor work quality
• Reduced output
• Increased dishonesty
• Development of bad habits e.g. theft
• Mood swings
• Poor relationships with other employees
Control measures to reduce risks from substance misuse at work.
Alcohol and drug abuse risk control measures include:
• Assess the risk & the size of the problem
• Drugs and alcohol policy:
• No alcohol at work or during working hours
• Statutory legal requirements
• Non-statutory requirements set by the employer
• Random drugs and alcohol testing
• Access for workers to rehabilitation and treatment
• Disciplinary procedures
• Information, instruction and training of managers, supervisors and workers
1.4 Safe movement of people in the workplace
Hazards to Pedestrians
• Slips, trips and falls on the same level
• Falls from height
• Collision with moving vehicles
• Striking by moving, flying or falling objects
• Striking against fixed or stationary objects
• Maintenance activities
Slips: Trip Hazards:
• Due to reduced friction between feet & • Uneven or loose floor surfaces;
walking surface; • trailing cables;
• wet or dusty floors, • objects on the floor;
• spill contamination frost and ice; • loose carpets;
• unsuitable footwear, • floor holes;
• varnished wooden floors. • cables across walkways;
• rubbish and uneven floor.
NOTE: Slips & Trips are usually caused by poor housekeeping and lead to falls at the same level.
Falls from a Height (Fall Hazards): Striking against fixed or stationary objects:
• working next to an unprotected edge; • colliding against a part of a building,
• working on fragile material above a drop; • opened drawer, lying,
• using access equipment; • protruding steel bars and or any other
• using ladders; object on the floor… etc.
• Standing on objects to reach high levels
Collision with mobile equipment like Being struck by moving, falling or flying
vehicles: objects:
• Pedestrian walkways that require pedestrians • moving parts of machinery,
to walk in vehicle traffic routes; • flying objects e.g. ejected parts or materials,
• Pedestrian crossing points; thrown objects;
• Exits that open onto vehicle traffic routes; • falling objects e.g. loads falling from height;
• Areas where people must work adjacent to • objects dislodged from height;
moving vehicles; • effect of weather conditions;
• poor lighting; • unstable objects
• over speeding of vehicles;
• no clear separation between pedestrians &
vehicles;
• lack of warning signs & barriers.

Control measures for the safe movement of people in the workplace:


Risk Assessment is crucial to be done for all work activities & controls will be set per the level of risk
following the Hierarchy of control.
• Slip resistant surfaces;
• spillage control and drainage;
• designated walkways;
• fencing and guarding;
• use of signs and personal protective equipment;
• information, instruction, training and supervision
• good housekeeping,
• keeping a safe place of work,
• cleaning aisles & passage ways,
• consider introduction of slip resistant surfaces.
• Follow a Safe System of Work & issue PTW.
• Ensure a safe place of work in the design phase if possible.
• Suitable maintenance systems, reporting & procedures to follow up on corrective actions.
Maintenance of a safe workplace:
• cleaning and housekeeping requirements,
• access and egress,
• environmental considerations (lighting), including during maintenance activities.
1.5 Working at height
Construction Hazards & Control
Safe place of work:
• Construction site locked & secured with Proper signs posted
• Secure & sound perimeter fence with signs posted, use CCTV
• Ladders safe & stored securely when not used
• All excavations fenced, signs posted & covered when not in use
• Secure storage & safe handling of all flammable & hazardous substances
• All scaffolds, hoists & cranes are safe for use
• Good housekeeping is crucial
• Proper arrangements for waste disposal
Working at height:
• All work activities where there is a risk of falling a distance liable to cause personal injury
• Working on scaffold or a mobile elevated working platform MEWP
• Working on top of a container & using ladders or stepladders
• Working with high trees & forestry
• Climbing permanent structure e.g. phone pole
• Painting & working near excavation in which worker could fall
• Roof & chimney working
Basic hazards and factors affecting risk from working at height include:
• vertical distance, • unstable/poorly maintained access
• fragile roofs, equipment,
• deterioration of materials, • weather and falling materials
• unprotected edges,
Protection against falls from work at height:
• Carry out sufficient & suitable Risk Assessment
• Avoid working at heights where possible
• Implement safe system of work i.e. PTW
• Provision of a properly constructed working platform
• Use suspension equipment & collective fall arrest
• Individual fall restrainers (safety harness) as last resort
• If none of the above is practicable; use ladders/stepladders
Methods of avoiding working at height:
• Using extendable tools from ground level to remove the need to climb a ladder
• Installing cables at ground level
• Lowering a lighting mast to ground level
• Ground level assembly of edge protection
Practical examples of collective protection using work equipment to minimize the distance and consequences of a
fall:
• Safety nets and soft landing systems, e.g. air bags, installed close to the level of the work
An example of personal protection used to minimize the distance and consequences of a fall:
• Industrial rope access, e.g. working on a building façade
• Fall-arrest system using a high anchor point
If safety nets are used, make sure that:
• They are installed as close as possible beneath the roof surface; to minimize free fall distance
• They are securely attached and will withstand a person falling onto them
• They are installed and maintained by competent personnel.
• Safety nets and safety net installations shall be drop-tested at the jobsite after initial installation
and before being used as a fall protection system, whenever relocated, after major repair, and at
regular intervals if left in one place.
• Defective nets shall not be used. Safety nets shall be inspected at least once a week for wear,
damage, and other deterioration. Defective components shall be removed from service.
• Materials, scrap pieces, equipment, and tools which have fallen into the safety net shall be
removed as soon as possible from the net and at least before the next work shift.
If safety harnesses are used, make sure that:
• They are securely attached to an adequate anchorage point (trolley guard rails are not usually
strong enough)
• They are appropriate for the user and in good condition
• They are properly used - ensuring this requires tight discipline.
• Limits free fall distance to a minimum.
• Safety netting is the preferred fall arrest option since it provides collective protection and does
not rely on individual user discipline to guarantee acceptable safety standards. They can simplify
systems of work and can protect not only roof workers, but also others such as supervisors.
Emergency rescue
Before work at height on site begins:
• Identify emergencies that could affect your work site.
• Establish a chain of command.
• Document procedures for responding to emergencies and make sure they’re available at the
site.
• Post emergency-responder phone numbers and addresses at the work site.
• Identify critical resources and rescue equipment.
• Train on-site responders.
• Identify off-site responders and inform them about any conditions at the site that may hinder a
rescue effort.
• Identify emergency entry and exit routes.
• Make sure responders have quick access to rescue and retrieval equipment, such as lifts and
ladders.
During on-site work:
• Identify on-site equipment that can be used for rescue and retrieval, such as extension ladders
and mobile lifts.
• Maintain a current rescue-equipment inventory at the site. Equipment may change frequently as
the job progresses.
• Re-evaluate and update the emergency-response plan when on-site work tasks change.
• When an emergency occurs first responders should clear a path to the victim.
• Others should direct emergency personnel to the scene.
• Make sure only trained responders attempt a technical rescue.
• Prohibit all nonessential personnel from the rescue site.
• Talk to the victim; determine the victim’s condition, if possible.
• If you can reach the victim, check for vital signs, administer CPR, attempt to stop bleeding, and
make the victim comfortable.
After an emergency:
• Report fatalities and catastrophes to regulatory bodies.
• Identify equipment that may have contributed to the emergency and put it out of service.
• Have a competent person examine equipment. If the equipment is damaged, repair or replace it.
If the equipment caused the accident, determine how and why.
• Document in detail the cause of the emergency.
• Review emergency procedures. Determine how the procedures could be changed to prevent
similar events; revise the procedures accordingly.
• Make sure a competent team carries out a thorough accident investigation and identifies root
causes.
Fragile roofs & surfaces:
• Requires specific Risk Assessment
• Implement safe system of work
• Hazards; roofing material that deteriorates with age & weather
• Exposed edges, unsafe access equipment & falls from ridges
• Must use safe means of access; scaffolding, ladders… etc.
• Provide suitable barriers, guard rails & warning signs
• Only competent & authorized personnel to work on roofs
• Use PPE & fall protection devices as last resort
Protection against falling objects:
• Involves construction workers & public members
• Provide covered walkways & suitable netting to catch falling objects
• Waste material to be brought down via chutes or hoists
• Only minimal quantities of building material to be stored on working platforms
• Appropriate guard rails with toe boards.
• Provide PPE; Head protection to workers, contractors & visitors
• Display signs illustrating mandatory head protection
Inspection of access equipment.
1. Ladders Safety
Hazards associated with ladder use Controls & precautions when using ladders:
Sited away from live overheads
• Falls from height e.g. falling off the
ladder Solid, flat base
• The ladder toppling sideways Hands on stiles, never on rungs
• The ladder base slipping out from Correct angle (1:4 rule – 75o)
the wall Top of the ladder must be against solid support
• Objects falling from height Ladder secured at the top
• Contact with live overheads Top of the ladder should extend above working platform
Only one person on ladder at any one time
Nothing should be carried while climbing (3-point contact)
Wooden ladders should not be painted
Ladders shall be inspected frequently, those with defects repaired
Precautions for the safe use of stepladders:
• Daily inspections before use • Don’t work off top 2 steps
• Fully open • Avoid over reaching
• Locking devices in place • Avoid side-on working
• Firm, level ground
Precautions for the safe use of trestles and staging platforms
• Large enough to allow passage of equipment/materials
• Free from trip hazards and gaps
• Fitted with toe boards and handrails
• Kept clean and tidy
• Not overloaded
• Erected on firm, level ground
2. Scaffolds safety
Main Components of a fixed scaffold
Standards – Uprights or vertical tubes
Ledgers – Horizontal tubes
Transoms – Short horizontal tubes spanning across ledgers
Bracing – Diagonal tubes
Base plates – Underneath the standards
Sole boards – Timber under base plates
Work platform – Fully boarded
Guardrails – Enclose work platform
Toe-boards – provide lip to platform

Hazards associated with fixed scaffolds Reasons why a scaffold may collapse.
Falls from scaffold during erection Overloaded work platform
Falls from work platform Soft ground
Falling objects Scaffold not tied in
Collapse Insufficient bracing
Standards not upright
Standards bent or damaged
High winds
Incorrect couplers
Scaffold struck by mobile plant
Scaffold erected by incompetent workers
Scaffold not inspected prior to use
Controls & Precautions when using scaffolds:
• Scaffold construction only done by competent persons
• The footing or anchorage for scaffolds shall be sound and rigid to carry the maximum intended
load
• Overhead protection must be provided for personnel on a scaffold exposed to overhead hazards.
• Guardrails & toe boards must be installed on all open sides.
• Observe the safe working load of the scaffolds
• Provision of a safe means of access to the working platform
• Ensure to stop work in bad weather e.g. storms, high winds, and ice or snow.
• Regular Inspections and maintenance of the scaffold must be made & recorded
• Provision of adequate training,
• Instructions & supervision
• Provision of adequate PPE & fall protection measures
Inspection Systems – Scaffolds Points to consider during scaffold inspection
• Often a legal requirement to inspect • Condition of tubes (especially standards)
• When first erected • Tying and bracing
• After substantial alterations • Condition of the work platform
• After any event, likely to have affected its • Edge protection
strength or stability • Ground conditions
• At regular intervals not exceeding 7 days • Safe access
• Before work at the start of every shift • Safe working load
• Periodically
Mobile tower scaffold safety
Hazards of a mobile tower scaffold Precautions for safe working on a mobile tower scaffold
• Falls from the work platform • Ensure guardrails are properly installed
• Objects falling • Observe SWL to avoid overload
• Collapse of the structure • Ensure that its wheels are locked
• Overturn (toppling) • Ensure that its only used on a firm, levelled ground
• Unintended movement of the • People, materials off mobile tower when moved
wheels • Avoid using near overhead lines
• Contact with live overheads • Outriggers should be used where necessary
• No climbing outside of tower use access ladders
• Only trained operatives should use it
• Selection, erection & dismantling of mobile scaffold towers
must be done by competent personnel
• Persons should never over-reach
• Tower should be inspected on a regular basis & reports &
records kept
Mobile Elevated Working Platform (MEWP)
Hazards of MEWPs Precautions for safe use of MEWPs
• Falls from height • Ensure equipment is used on a firm, stable ground
• Objects falling from height • Clearance of obstructions and overheads before use
• Collapse of the equipment • Installation of barriers to exclude vehicles, etc.
• Overturn (toppling) of the • Ensure the that guardrails are installed on the cradle
equipment • Controls inside the cradle
• Contact with live overheads during • Ensure that it’s not driven with the cradle raised
work • Observe the SWL so as to avoid overload
• Unauthorised use of the equipment • Ensure its inspected regularly and prior to its use
• Only trained, authorised staff should be allowed to
use

1.6 Hazards and control measures for works of a temporary nature


The impact on workplaces from hazards associated with works of a temporary nature
(including building maintenance, renovation, demolition and excavations)
1. Demolition:
Hazards associated with demolition works Demolition: Control:
Falls from height or at the same level Full written Risk Assessment
Falling debris & premature collapse of structure Full site investigation by a competent person
Plant, vehicles, machinery Arrangements to protect workers & public from
Live overheads hazardous substances e.g. Asbestos
Buried services Safe system of work; PTW, Isolation… etc.
Exposure to asbestos
Emergency arrangements; first aid, fire… etc.
Dust and fumes
Explosives Means of preventing premature collapse or collapse of
adjacent buildings
Noise & vibration from equipment
Arrangements for waste disposal
Biological hazards
Sharps Training & adequate work instructions
Manual handling Arrangements with public & neighbor buildings
Fires Post relevant warning signs
Provide adequate PPE

2. Excavations
Hazards associated with Excavations: Precautions & Controls:
Collapse of the sides Competent person should supervise the work &
Materials falling on workers in the excavation workers
Falling of people or vehicles in the excavation Arrangements to prevent sides of excavation from
Equipment e.g. pneumatic drill collapsing e.g. digging at safe angle (sloping) or shoring
Hazardous substances up with timber
Influx of ground or surface water & drowning or
Keep vehicles away & use audio /visual warnings
entrapment
Contact with underground services Safe system of work; PTW
Access & egress to the excavation Site must be well lit at night
Fumes, lack of Oxygen & other health hazards Isolate mains of water supply to avoid flooding
Available underground service location drawings
Safe access by ladders is essential
Provide PPE

Precautions for excavation work


Prevention of Prevention of vehicles and Preventing people Precautions – Prevention of
collapse materials from falling in from falling: Striking Buried Services
Battering Spoil heaps away from Barriers and toeboards Plans of the area
Shoring excavation Good lighting and signs Detection equipment, e.g.
Use of trench Barriers and signs Crossing points metal detectors
box Stop-barriers (especially for Access ladders cable detectors
reversing vehicles)
Ladders to extend 5 ground radar
Minimise vehicles close to rungs above edge of Hand digging
unsupported excavations excavation
Identification, support where
Hard hats, steel toe caps
necessary
Mechanical digging
Inspection & reporting for excavations:
• After any event affecting the strength or stability of excavation (ex: climate)
• Before work at the start of every shift
• After accidental fall of any material
• Inspections & reports to be done by competent personnel
• Reports should be done periodically per legal and/or other requirements
• A copy of the report to be given to the manager, kept on site & retained for an adequate period
after work is completed
Main risks associated with vehicles & traffic routes near excavations
• Overturning on slopes & at edges of excavations
• Poor maintenance of vehicles & braking systems
• Driver error due to lack of training / experience
Controls for risks associated with vehicles & traffic routes near excavations
• Designated traffic routes & signs
• Speed limits & speed monitoring
• Proper inspection & maintenance
• Wheel chocks when vehicles are parked
• Provision of roll-over protection & seat belts
• Visual & Audible warning
• Refer to "Element Seven" for more information
Fire & other Emergencies arrangements:
• Relevant Emergency Response plans should be in place;
• Medical Evacuation & structural collapse.
• Arrangements should include location of assembly points, provision of fire extinguishers
• Site evacuation procedures, contact with emergency services
• Accidents reporting & investigation procedures
• Training, Instructions & drills
3. Electricity
Electricity hazards specific to construction
• Contact with overhead power lines
• Contact with buried services
Precautions of working with electricity
• Ensure that the distribution systems are suitable
• Ensure the use of control devices e.g. fuses, earthing, low voltage and RCDs used
• Ensure user checks are carried out
• Ensure that regular inspection and testing carried out
• Ensure that temporary systems properly designed and installed
• Ensure that electricity cables are protected from damage
Overhead Power Line – Precautions
• If possible isolating the power supply would be better (LOTO)
• Using SSW and permit systems
• Sleeve low voltage power lines
• Using barriers, signage and goal-posts
• Using banksmen
• Using non-conducting equipment
4. Maintenance works
It involves a wide range of activities, including:
• maintenance of lighting units
• Cleaning activities
• Maintenance of heating and ventilation systems
• Maintenance of services
• Maintenance of lifts
• Repair of the building structure
Main control measures relating to the management of works of a temporary nature
• Communication and co-operation
• Appointment of competent people
• Risk assessment
• Segregation of work areas
• Amendment of emergency procedures
• Welfare provision

REVISION QUESTIONS
1. Identify the effects of extremes of temperature on the body.
2. Identify control measures in the workplace to reduce risks to pedestrians.
3. Explain the risks to workers from the misuse of substances at work.
4. Outline how an employer may determine the size of the problem of violence at work.
5. Explain how work at height may be avoided.
6. Identify planning considerations necessary to ensure adequate welfare facilities for workers carrying out
works of a temporary nature
ELEMENT 2 TRANSPORT HAZARDS & RISK CONTROL
Key Learning Points:
On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content
through the application of knowledge to familiar & unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able
to:
2.1 Explain the hazards and control measures for the safe movement of vehicles in the
workplace
2.2 Outline the factors associated with driving at work that increase the risk of an incident and
the control measures to reduce work-related driving risks

2.1 Safe movement of vehicles in the workplace


Hazards relating to vehicle movements arise from:
• Driving too fast
• Reversing
• Silent operations of machinery
• Poor visibility
Typical non-movement related hazards arise from:
• Loading
• Unloading
• Securing and sheeting loads
• Coupling vehicles and trailers
• Maintenance work on vehicles
Typical Risks associated with Vehicle Operations
• Loss of control – due to mechanical or environmental reasons
• Overturning – laterally or longitudinally
• Collisions with other vehicles
• Collisions with pedestrians and fixed objects
• Driver error may cause or compound each of these hazards
Factors that could cause a forklift truck to overturn?
• Cornering whilst being driven too fast
• Uneven loading of the forks
• Driving over potholes
• Driving with the load elevated, especially cornering
• Uneven tyre pressures
• Driving across a slope (rather than straight up/down the fall line)
• Excessive braking
• Collisions, especially with kerbs
Factors that can increase the risk of collisions in a workplace:
• Driving too fast
• Inadequate lighting
• Reversing without the help of a banksman
• Blind spots, such as corners and entrances
• Bad weather conditions (e.g. rain)
• Obstructed visibility (e.g. overloaded forklift truck)
• Poor design of pedestrian walkways and crossing points
• Lack of vehicle maintenance
Control measures for safe workplace transport operations
• Vehicle-free zones • Good visibility
• Pedestrian-free zones • High-visibility clothing
• Traffic route layout • Signage
• Segregation • Maintained roads/pathways
• Marked walkways • Avoid gradients
• Separate access points
Parking rules for a forklift truck:
• Apply the handbrake
• Lower the forks and tip the mast forwards
• Remove the key
• Do not obstruct a traffic route
• Do not obstruct a pedestrian route
• Do not obstruct emergency escape routes
Control measures which can reduce the risk of accidents from reversing vehicles include
• Avoidance of reversing by implementing one-way traffic systems
• Segregation of pedestrians and vehicles or the provision of refuges
• Good vehicle selection so that drivers have adequate visibility
• Provision of audible reversing alarms and flashing beacons
• Provision of mirrors at blind spots to see approaching pedestrians
• Use of high visibility clothing
• Ensuring that the area is well lit
• Provision of banksmen
• Training for drivers and pedestrians working in the area
Safe Vehicles
Suitable for their intended use
Suitable for the environment and conditions
Maintained in safe working order
Only driven by suitably trained, qualified staff
Inspected routinely before use
Fitted (if necessary) with:
• Seat for the driver (and any passengers) • Horn
• Seat belt • Audible reversing alarm
• Roll bar or roll cage • Beacon or flashing light
• Guard to protect the driver in the
event of falling objects
Fork lift pre-use checks
• Tyre pressure • Lifting and tilting
• Parking brakes and service breaks systems/hydraulics
• Steering • Audible warning
• Fuel, oil and water systems leak free • Lights
• Batteries and chargers • Mirrors
The Driver
The driver should be:
• Competent to drive the vehicle
• Medically fit to drive
• Provided with specific information, instruction and training
• Supervised
Vehicle Operations:
Loss of control & Overturning of vehicles; collisions with other vehicles, pedestrians or fixed objects can
be caused by:
• Lack of Training, Driving training, Information, Instructions & supervision.
• Passageways are too narrow, too steep, slippery, uneven… etc.
• Place of work: Poor lighting, dust, noise… etc.
• Poor or no road markings, no barriers or clear safety signs, lack of warnings sound systems.
• Vehicles overloaded, load unbalanced or unsecured… etc.
• Poor maintenance; no system for scheduled maintenance.
• Over speeding, reversing inside building, operating without authorization, failure to wear PPE
etc.
• Lack of management commitment.
2.2 Driving at work
Manage driving like any other hazard
• Policy
• Responsibilities
• Organisation
• Systems
• Monitoring
Legal responsibilities
Policy – An organisation’s policy should cover work-related driving and should recognise that this
activity puts a duty on the employer to manage the risk created. Specific arrangements must be made.
Responsibility – There must be top-level commitment to the organisation’s policy and responsibility
must be allocated at a senior level to ensure that necessary authority and resources are available to back
that commitment.
Organisation – Work-related driving will often involve different groups of workers in different ways.
An organisation’s policy should be developed with all of those various groups of workers in mind and
often involves various interested parties from different parts of the organisation (e.g. training
department, health and safety department, fleet managers).
Systems – Specific arrangements must be made to ensure that vehicles are maintained, inspected and
tested in accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations and law. Driver qualifications and fitness
may have to be checked. These management systems must be established and checked periodically to
ensure that they are still working adequately.
Monitoring – Various methods can be used to monitor the effectiveness of arrangements made. For
example, a road traffic accident reporting system should exist
Legal responsibilities- individuals driving whilst at work are bound by the national laws governing road
safety and road traffic offences, an individual in breach of these laws could face personal penalties,
although they were driving for work-related reasons. For example, a sales representative caught
speeding would be personally liable for the offence, not the organisation. However, if offences were
permitted with the knowledge of the organisation, the company may also face legal action.
Factors which affect the risk of being involved in a road traffic incident include:
• The distance travelled
• The driving hours
• Work schedules
• Stress
• Weather conditions
Evaluating the risks
Factors considered when carrying out a risk assessment for work based driving?
Driver Vehicle Journey
Competency Suitability condition/ safety Time & Distance
Fitness and health ergonomics Weather & Routes
Training Scheduling
1. The driver
Competency
• Driver’s license checked
• Experience and ability
Training
• Advanced or defensive driving courses
• Vehicle safety, pre-use inspection
Fitness and health
• medical examination
• eyesight checks
• drugs policy
2. The Vehicle
Suitability
• Minimum requirements, standards
• Insurance and MOT if private vehicles used
Condition
• Maintained
• Pre-use inspections
• Defect reporting
Safety equipment
• Seat belts, airbags, head restraints
• Emergency triangles, first-aid kit, spare tyre
• Fire extinguisher
Ergonomic
• Adjustability of seat position and controls
3. The journey
Precautions to be taken to reduce the risk of accidents when planning a journey
Scheduling – scheduling journeys at the right time of day:
• Avoid travelling at peak traffic times.
• Avoid travelling when drivers will feel naturally fatigued (2 - 6am and 2 - 4pm).
• Allowing flexibility of deadlines.
Time – allowing sufficient time for the journey:
• Time allowed must be realistic given the route chosen, weather conditions and anticipated breaks.
• Unrealistic deadlines put pressure on drivers to speed.
• Rest breaks must be factored into journey times. A fifteen-minute break every two hours is
recommended.
• There are statutory requirements for professional drivers
Distance –
• travel distances must be reasonable:
• It may be possible to minimise travel distances by using other forms of transport for some of the journey.
• Distance must not be excessive and consideration should be given to the length of the driver’s day
outside of driving time.
Weather conditions – weather forecasts and adverse weather conditions must be considered when journey
planning and travelling:
• Drivers should have access to reliable weather forecast information so that they can journey plan
accordingly.
• Drivers should be given guidance on adverse weather conditions when they should not travel.
• Drivers should be given advice on additional safety during adverse weather.
Control measures to reduce work-related driving risks
The driver
• Employers duty to ensure drivers are competent, fit and in good health
• Hold a valid driving licence (needs to be seen)
• Regular assessments of driver competence and monitoring the validity of documentation
(disqualification)
• May invalidate insurance
• Drivers may have to maintain a certificate of professional competence
The vehicle
Ensure safety equipment is available and used, for example:
• Seat belts and air bags installed, maintained and used correctly
• Two-wheeled vehicle users should have appropriate safety helmets and protective clothing
• Vehicles fitted with speed-limiting devices and electronic trackers
• Vehicles to carry first-aid equipment
• Additional equipment, such as high-visibility clothing, warning triangle, warm clothing or a
blanket, shovel, portable lighting and welfare facilities
The journey
• Planning and scheduling is essential
• Plan routes thoroughly
• Realistic scheduling
• Sufficient time allocated to complete journeys
• Plan overnight stops
• Bad weather/traffic conditions
• Delivery schedules adjusted
Incident reporting
• Record information about all incidents
• Report “near-misses”
• Emphasis in training on how to recognise, analyse and learn from such events
• Data provided should be analysed
• Any changes or improvements noted
• These should be communicated to those concerned and the work-related road safety
procedures updated

REVISION QUESTIONS
1. Outline control measures to reduce work-related driving risks.
2. Identify TWO design features of the vehicle intended to minimise the consequences of an
overturn.
3. Outline the possible causes of a dumper truck overturning.
4. Explain how non-movement related hazards may result in injury to drivers.
5. Outline the measures that could be used to segregate pedestrians and vehicles in the
workplace.
ELEMENT 3 MUSCULOSKELETAL HAZARDS & RISKCONTROL
Key Learning Points:
On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content
through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be
able to:
3.1 Explain work processes & practices that may give rise to work-related upper limb disorders &
appropriate control measures.
3.2 Explain the hazards & control measures which should be considered when assessing risks
from manual handling activities.
3.3 Explain the hazards, precautions & procedures to reduce the risk in the use of lifting &
moving equipment with specific reference to manually operated load moving equipment.
3.4 Explain the hazards & the precautions & procedures to reduce the risk in the use of lifting &
moving equipment with specific reference to powered load handling equipment.
3.1 Work-related upper limb disorders
Meaning of musculoskeletal disease and work related upper limb disorders (WRULDs)
Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSD’s) are disorders of various parts of the body
These are caused by work and/or working conditions
Typically affecting:
• Muscles • Nerves
• Joints • Bones
• Tendons • The localised blood circulation system
• Ligaments
Most MSDs are cumulative disorders resulting from repeated exposure to high or low intensity loads
over a long period
These mainly affect areas such as:
• Back
• Neck
• Shoulders
• Upper limbs
Work-related upper limb disorder (WRULD) is a generic term for a group of disorders that affect:
• The neck
• Any part of the arm from fingers to shoulders
Recognised WRULD conditions include:
• Carpel tunnel syndrome
• Tenosynovitis
Examples of repetitive operations
• keyboard operation, • Packing workers
• assembly of small components, • Dressmakers
• bricklaying and • Agricultural workers
• checkout operators • Musicians
• Cleaners
The ill-health effects of poorly designed tasks and workstations include issues such as:
• Fatigue or strain on the eyes
• Headaches
• General fatigue
• Aches, pains and muscle strains
• Aches and pains from poor seating design and positioning
Assessment of a display screen equipment workstation
Display screen equipment (DSE) is a device or equipment that has a display screen for graphics, words
or numbers
Main risks arising at work with DSE are musculoskeletal disorders
Risks are often low but can still be significant if good practice is not followed
While carrying out a DSE assessment, consider:
• Display screens • Document work • Laptop
• Keyboard • Desk • Environment
• Mouse • Chair • Individual
• Software • Working posture
Task & Workstation Design
Ergonomics; the scope of Ergonomics is very wide incorporating the following areas of study:
• Personal factors, of the worker physical, mental & intellectual abilities, body dimensions &
competence in the task required.
• The machine & associated equipment dealt with
• Interface between worker & the machine-controls, including seating arrangements, hand tools &
control panels.
• Environmental issues affecting the work process; lighting, temperature, humidity, noise… etc.
• Interaction between worker & task; production rate, posture & system of work
• The organization of work; shift working, break & supervision.
• The task/job; safe system of work, job is not too strenuous or repetitive & development of
suitable training packages.
• Anthropometry; study of the physical measurements of human body & the variations of these
measurements among people.
Ill-health effects of poor Ergonomics
Work Related Upper Limb Disorders Preventative & Precautionary measures:
(WRULD) • Elimination of repetitive & strenuous actions;
• Group of illnesses affecting the neck, shoulders, perform job in a different way.
arms, elbows, wrists, hands & fingers. • Ensure correct equipment is always used
• The term Repetitive Strain Injury RSI is • Use mechanical aids
commonly used to describe WRULD. • Introduce job rotation; reduced time of
• Cause by repetitive movements; pulling, pushing, exposure
reaching, twisting, lifting, squeezing & hammering. • Ensure poor posture is eliminated in design
• Main symptoms; aches in back, neck & shoulders, phase
swollen joints, muscle fatigue, tingling, soft tissue • Undertake a suitable & sufficient Risk
swelling & restriction to joint movement. Assessment
• Condition is usually chronic, gets worse with • Introduce a Health Surveillance program
time & may lead to permanent damage. • Ensure employees are given adequate training,
• Typical groups at risk; painters, decorators, information & work Instructions
desktop computer users & pneumatic drill • Ensure a program of preventative maintenance
operators. is introduced
• Examples of WRULD; Carpal Tunnel Syndrome • Keep up-to-date with advice on equipment
(affecting tendons passing through carpal bone in from manufacturers.
the hand), Frozen Shoulder & Tenosynovitis
(inflammation affecting the tendons).
What factors relating to the task increase the risk of musculoskeletal injuries?
1. Repetition – the need for repetitive movements when carrying out the task (e.g. typing for several
hours).
2. Force – the physical force required to perform the task and the strain this puts on the body (e.g.
closing stiff catches on a machine).
3. Posture – any requirement to adopt an awkward posture (e.g. stooping over into a bin to pick out
contents).
4. Twisting – any twisting action required by the task (e.g. twisting the wrist when using a screwdriver).
5. Rest – the potential for the worker to rest and recover from any fatigue (e.g. a worker on a
production line cannot stop the line; they have to keep working even when fatigued).
The factors giving rise to ill-health conditions:
Musculoskeletal Disorders Risk Factors
Task Environment Equipment
Repetition Lighting Equipment design
Force Glare Equipment adjustability
Posture Other environmental parameters
Twisting
Rest
Display Screen Equipment (DSE) use is associated with three basic ill-health hazards:
1] Musculoskeletal Disorders MSD(s)
• Tenosynovitis is the most common to affect the wrist of the user
• If the condition is ignored; tendon & the tendon sheath around the wrist will be permanently
injured
• Commonly caused by continuous use of a keyboard & can be relieved by by the use of wrist
supports.
• Other WRULD resulting from poor posture can cause: pain in the back, neck, shoulders &
arms.
2] Visual problems
• Eye strain & visual fatigue, very common
• Sore eyes & headaches
• Reflective glare, screen distance from user & screen alignment with head are among the most
common causes of visual problems related to DSE
3] Psychological problems:
• Stress related problems
• May have environmental causes; noise, heat, humidity or poor lighting.
• Sick building syndrome
• Lack of understanding of the software packages being used
Risks associated with display screen equipment DSE Control Measures
use
WRULDs Work station risk assessment
Eye strain Provide basic DSE workstation equipment to
Back pain minimum standards
Fatigue and stress Plan work routine
Provide (free) eyesight tests and spectacles if
required
Provide information and training on:
Risks
Preventative measures
Factory Assembly Line
Factory Assembly Line General Control Specific Control Measures
Risks Measures
WURLDS – handling small Carry out an ergonomic Automate
components assessment Re-layout the workstation
Eye strain – temporary fatigue Adjust workstation to the Seating
Back Pain – sitting or standing in worker Comfortable shoes and
a fixed position Plan work to allow rest floor mats
Fatigue and stress – due to breaks Short, frequent breaks or
infrequent rests and a Training job rotation
demanding work schedule Appropriate lighting
Ergonomically designed hand tools

Preventative & Precautionary measures for the use of DSE:


• Adequate lighting, minimum noise, adequate ventilation
• Enough leg room under & around the desk & provide feet rest if needed
• Use of blinds, if necessary, to avoid reflective screen glare
• Try standing up when taking phone calls, have “No Internal Email” day where employees have to
leave their desks and go to colleagues to deliver messages
• Setting computer reminders to move every 20 minutes, taking more frequent breaks & having
meeting rooms with no chairs to make meetings shorter
• Screen; adjustable, clear, no glare & set in correct alignment with head
• Keyboard; detachable, wrist pads, adjustable & clear
• Chair; adjustable, arms rests, lumbar support & stable
• Enough work space & use of headset to answer the phone
• Use appropriate user-friendly software.
• Use mouse pads with built in wrist pads & documents holder
“Other easy-to-implement actions are using stairs rather than lifts, offering to do the tea round and
drinking more water and speaking to people in person. Even stretches at the desk help.”
3.2 Manual handling hazards and control measures
Meaning of manual Handling
"Manual handling" is the movement of a load by human effort alone; transporting or supporting loads directly
or indirectly using bodily force.
Common Manual Handling Hazards:
• Too Heavy loads & Poor posture during lifting.
• Dropping load.
• Sharp edged or hot loads.
Common manual handling injuries:
• Back injury
• Tendon and ligament injuries
• Muscle injuries
• Hernias
• WRULDs (Work-related-upper-limb-disorders)
• Cuts, burns and broken bones
Assessment of manual handling risks
Four main factors considered while assessing manual handling risks
1. Task
2. Individual
3. Load
4. Environment
The Load The Individual The task The Environment
• Weight • Capability, Strength & • Height of load • Space restrictions
• Size and bulk Fitness. • Repetition of • Floor condition
• Easy shape to • Heart disease, High Blood movement e.g. slippery /
lift? Pressure… etc. • High work rate uneven
• Stability • History of back pain or • Distance • Changes in level
• Centre of injury, hernia… etc. • Awkward position e.g. • Light levels
gravity • Pregnancy in women. stooping / twisting • Temperature
• Grip • Proper PPE to be used; • Rest breaks • Humidity
points/handles? Gloves, safety boots… • Vertical distance
• Is it hot, sharp, etc. • Lifting above shoulder
etc.? • Competency; proper height
manual handling training, • Distance of load from
Information, experience of body
the task & attitude.
Means of avoiding or minimising the risks from manual handling:
General Control measures:
1. Avoid Manual handling; as far as possible.
2. Assess the manual handling task properly; L I T E
3. Reduce Risk of injury; implement adequate controls
4. Record & review the assessment.
Controls: Load:
• Reduce the weight; divide the load to more than one package if possible.
• Provide better grasp e.g. use handles.
• Secure the loads properly & ensued balance.
• Avoid too hot, cold, sharp edges or hazardous materials.
• Provide information & instruction on the package e.g. Fragile.
Controls: Individual:
• Select right person for the task; competent. (Proper training, information & experience).
• Use proper PPE & warm up prior to start manual handling.
• Do not lift heavy objects in cases of: pregnancy, hernia, back injury, heart disease… etc.
Controls: Task:
• Use mechanical lifting mechanisms.
• Do not lift while seated; best to lift at waist height.
• Ensure adequate recovery time between tasks.
• Team lifting, no bending, twisting or stretching… etc.
• Reduce travel distance & lifting duration.
• Avoid awkward postures.
• Implement proper lifting techniques (see below)
Controls: Environment:
• Good House Keeping; Clean up spills & avoid loose carpets, rugs… etc.
• Provide adequate lighting, ventilation, avoid dust, noise & vibration
• Avoid working in extremes of weather conditions, dust storms… etc.
Efficient movement principles for manually lifting loads to reduce risk of musculoskeletal
disorders due to lifting, poor posture and repetitive or awkward movements.
1. Design
2. Automation
3. Mechanisation
4. Other considerations
Design
• Risks from manual handling may be minimised using good design of the workplace
• Can involve placing items where they can be conveniently handled
• Improving work layouts so that travel distances are minimised
• The design of loads can also minimise risks
• Can include designing the load to be smaller
• Can also mean designing in handles or features that make it easier to grip the load, such as
‘sticky grip’ areas on plastic sacks
Automation
High volume applications
Usually introduced where food processing or high volume component despatch is required
Examples include:
• Bottle or can filling
• Sorting, such as with letters and parcels
• Transferring of materials into warehousing
Systems are dependent on the movements of goods and material from one point to another
Using either conveyer systems and/or remotely operated material transfer trucks
Mechanisation

Other considerations
Ergonomic approach
Involving the workforce
Training
Recommended Proper Lifting Technique:
1. Use proper PPE, check the load, clear the route you intend to take & make sure it's clear, well lit & safe, ask
for help if the load is too heavy or hard to grasp.
2. Get as close as possible to the load.
3. Position one foot ahead of the other to maintain your line of strength, both feet should be on both sides of
the load.
4. Bend your knees & get a firm grip of the load.
5. Look forward & keep your back straight in line with your head & neck.
6. Lift using your lower limb muscles.
7. Keep the load at waist level & as close to your trunk you can.
8. Move your feet & do not twist, use side stepping if possible.
9. Put down the load in the same method you lifted it up.
10. In case of team lifting; a plan should be set on how to lift, move & put down loads.
3.3 Manually operated load handling equipment
Manually operated load handling equipment e.g.
• Sack truck/trolley
• The pallet truck
• People-handling hoists
• People-handling aids
Factors that might increase the risk of injury using trolleys:
• Trolleys are difficult to maneuver.
• Trolley wheels are poorly maintained.
• The trolleys and their loads are too heavy when other risk factors, such as the number of times
a trolley is moved or the workplace layout, are considered.
• Surfaces over which trolleys are pushed are uneven or mismatched.
• Trolleys are moved over large distances or up steep slopes.
• Trolleys are difficult to grip due to the absence or poor location of handles.
• The person pushing the trolley is unable to see over the load.
Control measures using trolleys:
• Replace trolleys with automatic conveyors.
• Mechanize the movement of trolleys, e.g. use a trolley-towing device.
• Ensure trolley wheel size and type are suitable for the job.
• Reduce the weight of the load placed on the trolley.
• It is safer to push rather than pull a trolley.
• Provide trolley brakes.
• Provide an appropriate trolley handle design.
• Locate trolley handles at a height, which suits the worker.
• Restrict the maximum stacking heights of trolleys to improve visibility, weight and posture for
users.
• Ensure regular pre-planned maintenance of trolleys.
• Provide low gradient ramps.
• Provide automatically opening doors.
Hazards and controls of pallet trucks
• Crushing, trapping, manual handling strain injuries and electricity hazards
• Control measures include training and authorised use, identification of safe working loads,
inspection and maintenance, designated areas for parking
Hazards and controls of people handling aids
• Manual handling risk of injury to the care giver back
• Route should be inspected
• Hoist wheels should always be locked before loading or unloading
• Consideration should be given to the care giver footwear
• Ceiling hoists run on permanently fixed tracks
• Considerable risk of workers experiencing musculoskeletal disorders
• Slide sheets allow basic handling without the need to lift the patient
• Slide sheets reduce manual handling effort and strain, minimising the risk of back and other
injuries to care givers
Safety in the use of Mechanical Lifting & handling Equipment: General requirements:
• Strong, stable, inspected & suitable lifting equipment.
• Equipment to be installed & positioned correctly.
• Secure the load & position it in balance.
• Equipment to be marked for Safe Working Load.
• Lifting operations to be planned, assessed, supervised & performed in a safe manner by
competent personnel.
3.4 Powered load handling equipment
Mechanical lifting & handling Equipment include:
• Forklift trucks • Cranes
• Lifts and hoists • Lifting accessories
• Conveyors
Conveyor systems Hazards: belt conveyors, roller conveyor Conveyor systems Controls:
• Trapping of hands between rotating rollers & belt; • Guards, edge protection & restricted access.
• in running nip. • Complete enclosure of conveyors & PPE.
• Entanglement e.g. of hair or loose clothing. • Warning signs, emergency stop controls,
• Loads falling from conveyor. Information & Clear Instructions.
• Impact against overhead system; people riding conveyors • Mechanical aids, grounding or bonding,
• Contact with sharp edges, burns, cuts… etc. maintenance system in place & proper
• Manual Handling hazards, noise, vibration & electrical training; Mechanical lifting, first aid,
hazards… etc. emergency response…etc.

Forklift Trucks Hazards: Forklift Trucks Controls:


• Overturning; uneven driveways, sudden • Adequate driver training & use of competent drivers.
braking, wheels hitting an obstruction… etc. • Clear work Instructions & supervision.
• Overloading; exceeding the SWL, insecure • All Forklifts to be marked for SWL.
& unbalanced load. • Never lift humans & avoid reversing.
• Collisions & striking pedestrians (unaware • Safe stacking & balanced loads.
of the silent operating electrical truck) • Secure the load. No overloading.
• Overhead Obstructions, Poor vision. • Obey speed limits & drive only in marked lanes.
• Lack of maintenance & speeding. • Park & recharge in designated areas; never block emergency
• Battery charging; fire & explosion. exits.
• Lack of driver training, information, • Be aware of pedestrians, use audio signals & lights for
experience & supervision. warning.
• Lifting humans. • Drive with forks down, brakes on, engine off, forks down
• Noise, vibration, exhaustion fumes & • Never allow unauthorized operation.
manual handling hazards. • Planned preventive maintenance & drivers to check truck
prior to operation & report any unsafe conditions.
Cranes
Crane Hazards: Tower cranes, Mobile cranes, Crane Controls:
overhead cranes… etc. • Competent operators; proper training,
• Over turning, over loading & poor slinging. instructions, experience & supervision.
• Insecure & unbalanced load; falling load. • Good visibility & adequate lighting & assessing
• Collision with overhead structure, striking distance to of movement.
a pedestrian… etc. • Safe drive ways & weather conditions.
• Operator's error, lack of training & • Use of safety signs, audible & visual warnings.
competence. • Barriers to stop any pedestrians from entering a
• Lack of maintenance, Regular inspection & crane operation area; PPE.
reporting. • Regular planned preventive inspections &
maintenance.
• Ensure adequate communication.
• Never exceed the SWL. Secure the load & conduct
thorough Inspection prior to each use.
• Operators to report any unsafe condition
immediately.
Factors which will affect all cranes
• Soft or uneven ground conditions
• Underground voids or cellars
• Load bearing capacity
• Adverse weather conditions
• Workers or people nearby
• Insufficient room
• Proximity to overhead power lines, buildings or other cranes
• Tall cranes
Hoists
Hoists Hazards: Hoists Controls:
• Overloading & failure of lifting chains or • Secure the load & never exceed SWL.
ropes; Falling loads. • Competent & well-trained personnel.
• Striking moving parts or fixed objects. • Adequate lighting & weather conditions.
• Being struck by falling loads or moving parts • Never allow passengers on goods hoist.
of the hoist. • Thorough inspection prior to each operation;
• Falling from a hoist; when used unsafely to Safe System of Work.
carry humans. • Implemented planned preventive maintenance
& inspection system; reporting any unsafe
conditions immediately.
Thorough Examination of lifting equipment:
• visual check,
• testing components,
• testing under operating conditions;
To be carried out by a competent person independent from the employer.
Inspection: used to identify whether the equipment can be operated, adjusted and maintained safely in
case of any defect; normally performed by a competent person who is usually an employee appointed by the
employer.
A competent person who is independent from the employer should undertake a thorough
examination/testing of lifting equipment:
• Before the first use of the equipment.
• After equipment assembly in a new location.
• Every 6 months for persons' lifting equipment.
• At least every 12 months for all other lifting equipment.
• According to a specific examination schedule.
• In case of exceptional condition that could endanger the safety of equipment e.g. severe
weather.
• The competent independent person carrying out the examination must notify the employer of
any defect they believe dangerous.
• Equipment to be inspected at suitable intervals between thorough examinations; frequency &
extent of inspection are determined by the level of risk presented by the lifting equipment.
Special requirements for lifting equipment used for lifting people
• Must prevent so far as is reasonably practicable a person using it, while carrying out activities
from the carrier, being crushed trapped or struck or falling from the carrier.
• Must have suitable devices to prevent the risk of a carrier falling.
• Must be designed in a way such that a person trapped in any carrier is not thereby exposed to
danger and can be freed.
• Suitability; Persons may be lifted by only means of work equipment and accessories provided for
this purpose.
• Where a person in such a carrier might fall 2 m or more, the carrier should be fitted with
suitable edge protection.
• Assess the risks arising from other work equipment, structures or objects, which the persons
being lifted, may strike.
• The carrier (such as a cage or basket) should be of a safe design, made of sound and suitable
material and of adequate strength
• Daily inspections of the equipment by a competent person; and
• Providing adequate instruction and training for all persons involved in the lifting operation
• You should ensure that in the event of malfunction of the lifting equipment that persons being
lifted are not exposed to danger and a reliable means of rescue is available.
• Equipment used for the lifting of people should have a safety coefficient relating to its strength of
at least twice that required for general lifting operations.
ELEMENT 4 WORK EQUIPMENT HAZARDS & RISK CONTROL
Key Learning Points:
On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content
through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be
able to:
4.1 Outline general requirements for work equipment
4.2 Explain the hazards and controls for hand-held tools
4.3 Describe the main mechanical & non-mechanical hazards of machinery
4.4 Explain the main control methods for reducing risk from machinery hazards
4.1 General requirements for work equipment
"Work Equipment" is anything used to do a job of work, including employees' own equipment;
Types of work equipment
• Hand tools e.g. screw drivers, wrenches, hammers, handsaws…etc.
• Power tools e.g. Chainsaws, Drills…etc.
• Machinery e.g. photocopiers, concrete mixers, grinders, circular saws… etc.
• Others e.g. Forklift trucks & lifting equipment, mobile working platforms, ladders, scaffolds… etc.
Suitability of work equipment for the task; work equipment must conform to some standards:
• Initial integrity
• The place where it will be used
• The purpose for which it will be used
Manufacturers & suppliers need to make sure the machinery is safe when supplied and has the CE
marking. Manufacturers should:
• Assess all foreseeable risks & find out about HS hazard likely to be present when the machinery
is used.
• Consider safety issues in design phase & Design the machinery free of HS risks is possible.
• Provide appropriate safe guards, use warning signs, to warn of hazards.
• Fix CE marking on the machine to show they have complied with relevant supply laws.
• Provide the buyer with information & instructions to explain how to install, use & maintain the
machinery safely.
• Issue a Declaration of Conformity" for the machine to show it complies with essential HS
requirements.
Prior to purchasing new equipment, Buyers need to consider:
• What the equipment will be used for.
• Where & how it will be used.
• Who will use it; skilled personnel, employees…etc.
• What HS risks might come out?
• How well manufacturers control HS risks.
Safe Use & Maintenance of Equipment with specific Risks; Hierarchy of control:
• Eliminating the risks
• Taking physical Engineering controls to control risks e.g. guards
• Appropriate administrative controls; safe system of work
The Use, repairs, servicing or maintenance of such equipment should be restricted to designated
authorized personnel who:
• Received sufficient Training.
• Received adequate information & familiar with work instructions.
• Have enough experience & sufficient skills to carry out such tasks.
Information, Instruction & Training;
Personnel (employees, workers, supervisor, managers…etc.) using & maintaining work equipment need
to receive sufficient information, instruction & training which at least should cover:
Training, information and, where appropriate, written instructions will include those on the:
• Conditions and methods of use of the work equipment, including the capacities and limitations
of the equipment
• Risks that may arise from use of the equipment
• Precautions to be taken to avoid and reduce risk
• Safe operating procedures provided by the manufacturer/supplier
• Those drawn from experience in using the work equipment
The complexity of equipment, the level of risks involved & the competence of the person doing the job, will al
determine the amount of training required.
Maintenance:
• must be done by competent well trained maintenance personnel.
• A safe System of Work to be used; ensure safe environment, proper isolation procedures, right tools
& equipment for the job…etc. e.g. to implement Permit To Work.
1. Planned Preventive maintenance; regular scheduled maintenance to replace parts & service as
appropriate in a proactive manner.
The main benefits of PPM are:
• Extended life of components
• Assurance of reliability
• Confirmation of condition of components
• Reduced risk of loss-producing failure events
• Ability to carry out work at a suitable time
• Better utilisation of maintenance staff
• Less standby facility required
• Demonstrates the employer has taken steps to meet the legal duties to maintain safe equipment
2. Condition Based maintenance; monitoring the condition of critical parts & carrying out
maintenance as necessary.
3. Break down based maintenance; reactive & only takes place when failures occur.
Inspection:
• After installation for the first time.
• After assembly at a new site or a new location.
• At reasonable intervals & following incidents.
• Prior to each use in high risk equipment & as a part of the Work Permit procedures.
Maintenance hazards
• Mechanical: Entanglements, machinery traps, contact, shearing traps, in-running nips, ejection,
unexpected start-up
• Electrical: Electrocution, shock, burns
• Pressure: Unexpected pressure releases, explosion
• Physical: Extremes of temperature, noise, vibration, dust
• Chemical: Gases, vapours, mists, fumes
• Structural: Obstructions, floor openings, voids
• Access: Work at heights, confined spaces
Maintenance controls
• Isolation
• Lockout and tagout
Risks to Maintenance Staff Maintenance Precautions
• Guards and enclosures removed • Work is carefully planned and controlled: May be several
• Safety devices removed or disabled • people working.
• Power sources exposed • Hazards are communicated.
• Stored power released, e.g. • Services are isolated and locked off.
compressed spring • Ensure stored energy is released, cover live parts with
• Access awkward insulating material, and use additional PPE
• Manual handling heavy parts • Ensure that all workers are competent.
• Additional hazards, e.g. power tools • If dangerous moving parts are accessed, ensure they run at
very slow speed OR fit purpose-made maintenance guards
• Precautions for safe access
• Use manual handling aids
When should the inspection machines be done?
• After installation for the first time.
• After assembly at a new site or a new location.
• At reasonable intervals & following incidents.
• Prior to each use in high risk equipment & as a part of the Work Permit procedures.
Operation controls & the working place: Operators' responsibilities:
• Equipment controls to be easily reached from any Users of Work Equipment should:
operating position. • Only operate equipment authorised to use
• Not to permit accidental startup of equipment. • Follow instruction and training
• Adequate Red Emergency stop buttons • Only use equipment for its intended
• Be clearly marked to show what they do purpose
• Equipment should be stable; bolting or clamping • Carry out safety checks before use
• Maintain housekeeping (clear & unobstructed) always • Not use equipment if it is unsafe
• Adequate light &ventilation, clean & tidy up the equipment • Report defects immediately
if not in use • Not use equipment under the influence of
• Controls to be isolated from high-risk operations. drugs or alcohol
• Provide adequate work instructions & clear warning signs. • Keep equipment clean and in safe order

4.2 Hazards and controls for hand-held tools


Hand Tools Hazards Hand Tools' Controls
Hazards Controls
• Tool may shatter • Tools suitable for the task
• Handle may come loose • Information, instruction and training
• Tool may be blunt requiring excessive force • Visual inspection of tools
• Human error, e.g. hits thumb with hammer • Substandard tools maintained or discarded
• Misuse & poor maintenance; • Maintenance of tools
• Broken handles • Supervision of practices
• Flying particles • Protected & isolated for electrical use
• Electric shock or burns • Good quality material which will not chip of, fly off
• Regular documented inspection of hand tools
• Proper storage to prevent damage or corrosion
Hand-held Power Tools' Hazards Hand-held Power Tools' Controls
Hazards Controls
• Electrical hazards • Careful selection considering task and environment
• Entanglement in rotating parts • Instructions from manufacturer and in-house rules
• Dust & particles flying off cutting • Training and information, competence of user
• Cut wounds due to sharp blades. • Supervision to ensure proper use
• Tripping hazards from extended • Tools used for intended purpose
cables. • Guards and safety devices in place
• High noise levels. • Power cables controlled, do not abuse
• fuel • Ejected parts controlled, e.g. secured work area
• vibration • Control of noise, dust, vibration, petrol and electrical equipment
• ejection of materials • Protect against electricity by isolation and earthing.
• Regular maintenance, inspection & report defects.
• Maintain clean & tidy work area.
• Only use accessories & parts recommended by manufacturer.
• Manual Handling & hand to arm vibration risks.
• Use correct PPE; safety glasses, gloves, respirators & dust masks

4.3 Mechanical and non-mechanical hazards of machinery


Mechanical Hazards i.e. contact with or being caught up in moving parts
Non-Mechanical Hazards i.e. From power source or things being emitted by the machine
Main mechanical and other hazards as identified in BS EN ISO 12100 -1 and how harm may arise
Mechanical Non-mechanical
• Crushing hazard; being trapped between & a fixed structure. • Electricity
• Shearing; traps part of the body between moving & fixed part • Noise
• Cutting or severing; contact with cutting edge. • Vibration
• Entanglement; between revolving parts of the machine which • Hazardous substances
grips loose clothing, hair or work material. • Ionising radiation
• Trapping (drawing-in); as in between meshing gears or • Non-ionising radiation
between pulleys & belts. • Extreme temperatures
• Impact; moving part directly strikes a person. • Ergonomics
• Stabbing or puncture; particles from a machine under pressure, • Slips, trips and falls
• Friction/abrasion; on grinding wheels. • Fire and explosion
• High pressure fluid injection Injuries caused by liquids released • Manual Handling & Lifting
under pressure • Psychological effects

4.4 Control measures for reducing risks from machinery hazards


Machinery Safeguards: Protective Devices
• Fixed guards • Two-handed controls
• Interlocked guards • Protective appliances
• Adjustable/self-adjusting guards • Emergency stop controls
• Trip devices • Personal protective equipment
• Information, instruction, training and
supervision
Machinery Safeguards:
1. Fixed Guards: Completely prevent access to dangerous parts of machinery; are fixed in place; require a
tool for removal
2. Adjustable Guards:
a) User adjusted; fixed or movable which are adjusted by user for a operation, its limitation is that
it needs frequent adjustment.
b) Self-adjusting guards; adjusts itself to accommodate the passage of material for instance, it still
may allow access to dangerous parts & requires careful maintenance.
3. Interlocking Guards: movable guard, whose movement is connected to the power control of the
machine; the machine will not operate till the guard is closed. Limitation is that they need constant check to
ensure they are operating.
4. Trip Devices: detects when a person approaches close to danger point & stops the machine before
injury occurs. It could be physical barrier, electrical, photoelectric with sensors or pressure-sensitive mats.
Two-handed control devices: require the operator to have both hands on the controls (safe place) before
the machine can be operated. Limitation is that they only protect the operator's hands; therefore, it is
critical that the machine's design does not allow any other part of the operator's body to enter the danger
zone during operation
Protective Appliances push stick, jig, clamps
• Designed to keep operators’ hands away from danger
• Examples include: Push-sticks, jigs, clamps
Application of Safeguards to a range of machines:
Machinery Hazards associated Appropriate Safeguards
Office • Contact with moving parts; when • All enclosing case
Photocopier clearing a paper jam. • Access doors are interlocked;
• Electrical; during maintenance • Machine switches off automatically when gaining
• Exposure to Ultraviolet light access.
• Health hazards; toner & ozone • Isolation of internal live electric parts
• Noise & Ergonomics • Maintenance
• Use the cover to protect from UV
Office • Drawing in between rotating • Enclosed fixed guards around the cutters
Document cutters. • Interlocks fixed to the cutter heads
Shredder • Contact with rotating cutters. • Trip device; starts the machine when paper is
• Electrical & Noise fed in.
• Possible dust from cutting.
Manufacturi • Contact with the rotating wheel • Wheel enclosed as much as possible in strong
ng & • Drawing in between the rotating casing
maintena wheel & a badly adjusted tool rest. • Adjustable screen to be fitted over the wheel.
nce – • Bursting wheel - ejecting fragments. • Only proper trained personnel should use it
Bench top • Electrical; faulty wiring. • Maximum speed to be marked on the machine
grinder • Noise & Vibration • Adjustable tool rest to be adjusted as close as
• Health hazards; Dusts possible to the wheel
• Fires due to sparks & hot • Implement Portable Appliance Testing
fragments. • Dust extraction
Manufacturi • Entanglement around rotating parts • Motor & drive to be fitted with
ng & • Contact with drill or work piece; • fixed guards.
maintenance cutting or puncturing • Spindle to be guarded by an adjustable guard
– • Being struck by work piece • Use clamp/vise to secure work piece
Pedestal • Electrical; faulty wiring/lack of • Use goggles
Drill grounding • Keep the machine clean, tidy & unplugged when
• Dusts not in use
Agricultural / • Contact & Entanglement with • Design should restrict access to bottom blade
Horticultural rotating blades trap.
Cylinder • Trapping of hands by rotating • Drives & motor to be enclosed in fixed guard
mower blades • Use suitable dust mask & only run engine in
• Health hazards; dusts, fumes & hay open air
• Noise & Vibration • Silencers for noise
• Manual Handling /Ergonomics.
Agricultural • Entanglement in the rotating part. • Moving engine parts enclosed
/Horticultura • Cutting on contact with the cutting • Rotating head to have fixed top guard
l head • Run engine only in open air
Strimmer • Ejection of particles • Proper safety boots
• Noise / Vibration • Anti-vibration handles
• Ergonomics; musculoskeletal • Dust masks & hearing protection & gloves
• Health hazards from herbicides &
or/ animal faeces
Retail - • Crushing; between ram & • Access doors to loading area to be
Compactor machine sides. • interlocked.
• Trapping & Entanglement with • Dives of motors to be properly guarded
rotating parts • Regular inspection & testing
• Electrical
• Manual Handling
Retail – • Drawing in between belts & rollers • All traps between belt & rollers to
Check out • Entanglement have fixed or interlocked guards
conveyor • Electrical • Emergency Stop Buttons
system • Manual Handling
Construction • Entanglement with the moving • Design should allow the user to see anyone in
– Cement parts of motor the trapping area.
mixer • Trapping • Drum gearing to be enclosed
• Dusts / Noise • No one allowed to stand on machine
• Manual Handling • Goggles & PPE
• Eye injury; in case of cement splash
Construction • Contact with the cutting blade • Fixed guards to the blade below the bench
– bench • Ejection of the work piece • Adjustable top guard to the blade above the
mounted • Entanglement with moving parts of bench
Circular saw the motor • Extraction ventilation for wood dust
• Dusts / Noise / Vibration • Safety glasses & Dust masks
• Electric; faulty wiring, grounding.
Basic Requirements for Guards and Safety Device
• Compatibility with the process
• Adequate strength
• Maintained, not rough or sharp
• Allow maintenance without removal
• Doesn’t increase overall risk or restrict user's view
• Doesn’t restrict operator’s view
• Not easily by-passed
"The use of PPE is crucial as the last line of defense to control machinery & handheld tools hazards;
• Coveralls; protects against loose parts of clothing getting entangled.
• Safety Glasses; protects against ejected parts of material.
• Ear protection; protects against machinery noise
• Safety boots; protects against feet crushing by pieces of work falling onto them
• Hair nets; prevent hair from getting entangled in moving machinery parts.
Do not wear gloves where there is a risk of them becoming entangled in moving parts of
machinery"
REVISION QUESTIONS
1. Outline the duties of workers when they discover a damaged piece of work equipment.
2. Outline the benefits of introducing a scheme of planned preventive maintenance for
equipment in regular use.
3. Explain the term lock-out and tag-out (LOTO).
4. Outline how the use of LOTO systems reduces the risk to maintenance workers.
5. Outline the purpose of emergency stops fitted to machinery.
6. Identify the design and positioning requirements for emergency stops.
7. Explain why stability of work equipment is important when in use.
8. Identify factors which may affect the stability of work equipment.
ELEMENT 5 ELECTRICAL SAFETY
On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content
through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to:
5.1 Outline the principles, hazards & risks associated with the use of electricity in the workplace
5.2 Outline the control measures that should be taken when working with electrical systems or using
electrical equipment in all workplace conditions.
5.1 Principles, hazards and risks associated with the use of electricity at work
Current (I): is the flow of electrons from one position to another;
• Direct Currents: type of current that moves only in one direction i.e. -ve to +ve e.g. batteries
• Alternating Current: type of current that flows in two directions e.g. mains supply).
Electrical pressure (Voltage - V): The driving force or pressure which “pushes” an electrical current
around a circuit; its measured in volts
Resistance to flow (R): The resistance of a circuit to the passage of the electrons, it is measured in Ohms

V=I×R I = V/R R = V/I


Main Hazards associated with Electricity
• Electric Shock
• Electric Burns
• Fires & Explosions
• Arcing
• Portable Electrical Equipment
• Secondary Hazards
Electric Shock:
Occurs when the body becomes part of the electrical circuit; the current enters the body at one point and
must leave at another.
Three basic ways to be shocked:
1. Contact with both wires of an electrical circuit.
2. Contact with one wire of an electrical circuit and ground source.
3. Contact with ground source and a metal part that is in contact with a wire of an electrical circuit.
The effect of an electric shock on a human body depends on:
• Voltage – the higher the voltage, the greater the current
• Duration – the length of time that a person is exposed
• Current path – the route that the electricity takes through the body
• Frequency – of the AC current
• Resistance – skin condition, clothing, etc.
• Contact surface area – the more skin that is in contact, the more severe the injury
• Environemental factors – metal surfaces, humidity, etc.
Causes of electrical fires
• Electrical equipment may be faulty and overheat
• The system may be overloaded
• Equipment may be misused
• A flammable atmosphere may be present
• Electrical equipment may produce heat or sparks as part of its normal operation
• Poor internal connections
Static Electricity
• Build-up of potential difference (volts) between surfaces, it is caused by friction
• Surfaces become "charged"
• Spark caused on contact with earth
Arcing
Ability of electricity to “jump” across an air gap
Usually involves high voltage
Main hazards associated with arcing include:
• Electric shock
• Burns (direct, indirect)
• Damage to eyes from UV radiation emitted
Conditions and practices that are likely to lead to accidents while working with electrical
equipment:
• Using unsuitable equipment
• Using equipment in wet, damp or humid conditions
• Misuse of electrical equipment
• Physical abuse such as driving over cables
• Repairs carried out improperly
• Continued use of faulty, defective equipment
• Chemical/abrasion damage to the flex
• Physical damage due to hostile environments
• Lack of inspection testing or maintenance
Secondary effects of exposure to electricity
Physical injury caused by an electrical incident, such as:
• Cuts • Fall from height
• Bruises • Burns
• Broken bones
Further Hazards, Risks and Dangers of Electricity
• Work near overhead power lines
• Contact with underground power cables
• Work on mains electricity supplies
• Use of electrical equipment in wet environments
Consider the following precautions
• Using battery powered or low voltage • Carry out pre-use checks
equipment • Train operators in correct use
• Use RCDs • Avoid using in wet conditions
• Locate cables carefully • Routine visual inspection and testing
• Use double insulted equipment
5.2 Control measures when working with electrical systems or using electrical
equipment in all workplace condition
Protection of Conductors
Insulated to prevent contact with live conductor:
• Cable coverings unbroken
• Equipment casing intact Inspect to ensure protection is in place Ensure electrical panels are locked
Strength and Capability
Factors considered while selecting electrical equipment:
• The electrical system that it will become a part of.
• The task that it will perform.
• The environment in which it will be used.
• No electrical equipment should be put into use where its electrical strength and capability may be
exceeded.
The use protective systems e.g.
Device Working mechanism
Fuses • Designed to protect the equipment not the people!
• Form a weak link in a circuit
• Designed to overheat and melt if the current exceeds the fuse rating
• Rating should be above operating current required by equipment but less than the
current rating of the cable in the circuit
Advantages of fuses:
• Very cheap and reliable.
• Offer a good level of protection for the electrical equipment against current overload that might damage the
equipment or cause overheating, fire or explosion.
Limitations of fuses:
• Protect equipment and not people
• Very easy to bypass, e.g. by wrapping the fuse in tinfoil.
Miniature Circuit • Protects equipment not people
Breakers • Electro-mechanical device which does the same thing as a fuse
• Rating should be above operating current required by the equipment but less than the
current rating of the cable in the circuit
• Tamperproof
Circuit breakers are resettable fuses
Advantages of MCBs - they do not have to be removed to be reset and so they are more tamper-proof than
fuses.
Limitations of MCBs are like those for fuses.
Earthing • Outer metal casing connected to earth by wire
• Provides fault current with a low resistance path to earth
• Electric shock should be minor
• Will usually blow the fuse
Advantages of earthing:
• It protects the person from fatal electric shock.
• It often provides secondary protection to the equipment because a large fault current flowing to earth will
overrate the fuse or MCB.
Limitations of earthing:
• A poor or broken earth connection will prevent the earth from working properly, but since the earth wire
does not take part in the normal functioning of the equipment this fault can go completely undetected.
• It is easy to disconnect and disable.
Isolation of • Deprives the circuit of power
supply • Ensures that it cannot be re-energised by applying some form of lock
• Should be clearly labelled
• Circuit should be tested
• Often referred to as Lock-off/ Tag-out LOTO
Advantage of isolation as a form of protection is that it is a very effective method of ensuring that
people cannot be injured by electrical energy when working on an electrical system.
Limitation of isolation is that, by definition, the electrical system is dead. Certain types of testing, fault
finding and electrical installation and repair work should be carried out with the electrical system on and live. In
these circumstances isolation cannot be used.
Double • Live parts cannot be touched
Insulation • Two layers of insulation
• Either layer sufficient to provide protection
• Eliminates need for earth protection
The advantage of double insulation is that it relies on insulation rather than the electrical system itself
for safety.
The limitation of double insulation is that the insulation must be routinely visually inspected because there is
no earth protection.
Residual Current • Designed to protect people
Devices (RCD’s) • Interrupt supply in event of a small leak of current to earth
• Very sensitive: 30 mA
• Very fast: 30 ms
• Compare current in live and neutral
• Should be regularly tested
The advantage of RCDs is that they provide excellent protection for people in the event of electric
shock.
The limitations of RCDs are that they:
• Do not provide over-current protection (they are not a fuse and work on a completely different principle).
• should be tested periodically and this is often not done.
• Can cause repeated circuit tripping, this can encourage people not to use them or to disable them.

Reduced and • For hand tools, the 110 volts centre-tapped (CTE) system is recommended
Low Voltages • System relies on the mid-point of the reduced voltage transformer being earthed
• Maximum shock voltage is 55 volts, but full 110-volt supply powers the equipment
• Systems reduced to 25 volts are often used for lighting on construction sites
The advantage of low voltage systems is that the system is inherently safer.
The limitation is that low voltage systems are inefficient at transmitting power and therefore cannot be used
for many industrial applications
Competent Knowledge of electricity and electrical work
Person Ability to understand electrical system, hazards and precautions.
Training in the safe working with electricity
Experience of electrical work

Safe Systems of Work


1. Work “dead” whenever possible
2. Work on or near live electrical equipment only under exceptional circumstances and if controlled
tightly
Working on a Dead System Working on a Live System
Before working on a machine check: May be controlled by national laws SSOW to include:
• Isolation and lock-off • Permit-to-work
• Warning signs • Competent person
• Prove test equipment • Insulating PPE e.g. Boots, gauntlets
• Prove dead • Insulated tools
• Prove test equipment again • Designated work areas
Working on or near buried Cables Working on or near overhead power lines
May be struck during excavations Usually uninsulated, protection through:
Can result in: arcing, shock, burns, fire • Isolating the power supply when working near power lines. If
Precautions power cannot be isolated, it may be possible to sleeve low
• Check plans voltage power lines.
• Detection equipment • Using SSoW and permit systems to control access into danger
• Expose by hand digging areas.
• Identify and label • Using barriers, signage and goal-posts to keep plant and vehicles a
safe distance from power lines.
• Using banksmen when plant is manoeuvring near power lines.
• Using non-conducting equipment, such as fibreglass ladders.

Emergency action in case of contact with live electrical systems


• Don’t touch the casualty
• Call for help
• Isolate casualty from the power supply
• Call for ambulance
• Check casualty for breathing
• Place the casualty in recovery position if he/she is still breathing
• Start CPR if not breathing
• Treat burns
• Treat for physical shock
• Ensure medical help is obtained
Electrical Inspection and Maintenance
This applies to both fixed wiring systems and portable electrical appliances. There are mainly three forms
1. User checks
2. Formal visual inspection
3. Combined inspection and testing
1. User Checks 2. Formal Visual Inspection 3. Combined Inspection and Test
• Damage to cable sheath • Remove plug cover and • Often known as Portable
• Damage to plug check fuse Appliance Testing (PAT) testing
• Flex fully insulated, no kinks/splits • Check if the cord grip is ok • Visual inspection may fail to detect
• Inadequate joints • Check if terminals are things like loss of earth integrity,
• Unsecured sheath • secure and no signs of deterioration of insulation
• Wet or contaminated internal damage • Inspection and test is justified when
• Damage to casing of equipment • Only done by competent suspect equipment is defective,
• Burns / scorch marks person after repair/modification and at
appropriate intervals

Factors that determine the frequency of PAT:


• Legal standards and codes of practice
• Type of equipment
• Manufacturers’ recommendations
• Initial integrity/soundness of the equipment
• Age of the equipment
• Working environment
• Frequency and duration of use
• Foreseeable abuse of the equipment
• Effects of any modifications or repairs
• Analysis of previous maintenance records
Advantages and Limitations of Portable Appliance Testing
Advantages Limitations
• Demonstrates legal compliance • Provides proof of safety at one moment in time only
• Detects faults not visible • Does not ensure safe use or prevent misuse Items
• Allows early removal/repair of unsafe may be missed and then remain untested
equipment • Can't be applied to all equipment (e.g. computers)
• Identifies trends or patterns of faults

REVISION QUESTIONS
Explain the progressive effects that electrical shock may have on the body.
Explain how an electrical earth protects against indirect electric shock.
Explain the purpose of electrical double insulation.
Identify typical user checks that should be carried out, prior to using a portable item of electrical equipment.
Outline the factors to consider when determining the frequency for the inspection and testing of electrical
equipment.
Identify the advantages and disadvantages of the use of a fuse as a protective device in an electrical circuit.
ELEMENT 6: FIRE SAFETY
Learning outcomes
On completion of this element, candidates should be able to demonstrate understanding of the content
through the application of knowledge to familiar and unfamiliar situations. In particular they should be able to:
6.1 Describe the principles of fire initiation, classification & spread
6.2 Outline the principles of fire risk assessment
6.3 Describe the basic principles of fire prevention & the prevention of fire spread in buildings
6.4 Outline the appropriate fire alarm system and fire-fighting arrangements for a simple workplace
6.5 Outline the factors which should be considered when implementing a successful evacuation of a
workplace in the event of a fire
6.1 Fire Initiation, Classification and Spread
Basic principles of Fire
What is Fire?
Fire is a rapid chemical process in which oxygen combines with another substance (“fuel”) in the presence
of a source of heat
This reaction is called combustion. During this reaction heat, flames and smoke are produced
The Fire Triangle has mainly three things needed for a fire to start FUEL/HEAT/OXYGEN:

1. Sources of ignition: 2. Sources of Fuel: 3. Oxygen:


• Naked flames • Solids; wood, paper, rubber, • Air, wind, ventilation systems
• External sparks plastics, fabrics • Cylinders for medical or
• Internal sparking • Liquids; paint, varnish, petrol, welding purposes.
• Hot surfaces diesel, kerosene • Oxidizing agents e.g.
• Static electricity • Gases; LPG, Acetylene & peroxides
Hydrogen.
Methods of extinguishing a fire:
1. Cooling: reducing temperature e.g. use water
2. Smothering/suffocation: reducing Oxygen level e.g. use fire blanket
3. Starvation: limiting fuel e.g. switching off gas valve
4. Chemical reaction: interrupt combustion reaction e.g. use Halon extinguishers
Classification of FIRE
CLASS DESCRIPTION

Class A Combustible solid materials – wood, paper, plastic, fabrics and rubber
Flammable liquids and liquefiable solids – petroleum products, paints, solvents,
Class B adhesives
Flammable gases – propane, butane, acetylene, hydrogen sulphide, methane,
Class C hydrogen

Class D Combustible metals – potassium, magnesium, sodium

Class F High temperature fat

Principles of heat transmission and fire spread


a. Direct burning – the simplest method of fire spread where a flame front moves along or through the
burning material. For example, set fire to the corner of a piece of paper and then watch the flame front
spread across the paper.
b. Convection – the principle that hot air rises and cold air sinks. Hot gases generated by the fire rise
straight up from the fire:
• Inside a building these hot gases will hit the ceiling and then spread out to form a layer underneath
the ceiling. When these hot gases touch any combustible material (such as a wooden curtain pole)
they may heat that material up sufficiently so that it bursts into flame.
• Outdoors these convection currents will contain embers that are carried on the currents until the air
cools and the embers are dropped to the ground. This is a common way for forest fires to travel and
jump over obstacles (such as roads).
c. Conduction – the principle that heat can be transmitted through solid materials. Some metals conduct
heat very efficiently (e.g. copper). Any pipes, wires, ducts or services running from room to room can act
as conduits for heat and spread the fire.
d. Radiation – heat energy can be radiated through air in the form of infrared heat waves which travel in
• straight lines (just like light) and can pass through transparent surfaces (such as glass). Radiant heat
generated by a fire shines onto nearby surfaces and is absorbed. If the material heats up sufficiently it
can burst into flames.
Common causes & consequences of Fires in workplaces
Causes Consequences
• Faulty electrical equipment • Death; overcome by smoke, burns… etc.
• Deliberate ignition (arson) • Personal Injury
• Hot work • Building damage
• Smoking • Loss of business & Jobs
• Cooking appliances • Environmental damage
• Heating appliances • Transport routes disruption
• Unsafe use & storage of flammable liquids and gases • Legal effects
• Mechanical heat
• Chemical reactions
6.2 Fire Risk Assessment
The main reasons for carrying out a fire risk assessment are to:
• Determine the chances of a fire starting
• Prevent harm to people
• Minimise the cost of fire in the workplace
• Ensure an organisations fire safety procedures, prevention measures and precautions are all in place
and working correctly
• Comply with legislation/law
Factors to be considered in carrying out the assessment
Measures include:
• Reduction of the risk of fire
• Prevention of fire spread
• Adequate means of escape from fire
• Maintenance measures to ensure means of escape
• Means to detect and warn of fire
• Fire actions/instructions and training
• Actions to mitigate the effects of a fire
1. Identify Fire hazards
• Identify any combustibles: amount of combustibles at work place should always be minimal, never
obstruct fir exits, Good housekeeping is crucial.
• Identify any sources of heat: heaters, boilers, engines, smoking… etc.
• Identify area with high content of Oxygen; medical wards, welding areas.
• Identify Unsafe acts & Unsafe conditions
2. Identify locations & Persons at significant risks:
• Consider people in the premises
• Consider how fire, heat or smoke could spread to areas that people occupy
• Identify where the people are that may be at risk
• Identify people who are especially at risk
• Consider how people will be warned of fire
• Consider members of the fire response team
Step 3 - Evaluate, remove or reduce and protect from risk
Risk reduction by prevention:
• Reduce sources of ignition
• Minimise potential fuel for a fire
• Reduce sources of oxygen
Risk reduction by protection:
• Reducing unsatisfactory structural features
• Fire detection and warning
• Means of escape
• Means of fighting fire
• Maintenance and testing
• Fire procedures and training
NOTE
1. Low Risk: is where there are minimal risks to people; low likelihood of fire to take place and where
people have plenty of time to react to a fire alarm.
2. Medium Risk: where an outbreak of fire is likely to remain, confined or spread slowly. Effective fire
warning & evacuation procedures.
3. High Risk: is where the available time needed to evacuate is limited; presence of highly flammable material
and high fire risk to people in the premises.
Decide if existing control measures are adequate or more are needed:
• Means of escape adequate to the size of workplace & number of employees.
• Means of fire detection & giving warning in case of fire
• Fire safety signs e.g. fire exit, no smoking, manual call point
• Firefighting equipment & systems; extinguishers, sprinklers.
4. Recording the findings:
Findings of the assessment must be recorded for purpose of:
• showing duty of care,
• evidence in accident investigation & prosecution,
• insurance
• legal requirement
• auditing.
The record should include:
• Date the assessment was made
• Hazards identified
• Personnel affected
• Actions to be taken & controls in place or planned & when.
• Conclusions & risk Evaluations
The significant findings should include details of:
• The fire hazards identified
• The actions that have been or will be taken to remove or reduce the chance of fire occurring
• Persons who may be at risk, particularly vulnerable groups
• The actions that have been taken to reduce the risk to people from the spread of fire and smoke
• The actions people need to take in case of fire, including details of any person nominated to carry out
a specific function
• The information, instruction and training that has been identified.
Emergency plans
An emergency plan should be devised to include:
• How people will be warned if there is a fire
• Action on discovery of fire
• Action on hearing alarm
• Details of the evacuation process
• Means of escape - travel distances
• Location of assembly points
• Identification of escape routes - signs, emergency lighting
• Arrangements for fighting the fire
• Specific staff duties
• Safe evacuation of people who need assistance to escape, including any phased evacuations
• Safe working practices in high risk areas
• Procedures for calling the Fire Service
• Appliances/machines/power sources that need to be stopped or isolated if there is a fire
• Staff training needs and arrangements for providing training
• Arrangements for inspection and maintenance of all equipment.
5. Monitor & review Assessment on regular basis:
The assessment and the fire safety measures must be reviewed regularly
A review should be done if:
• In cases of incidents
• After audits
• Change in activity, place, equipment or personnel
• At reasonable intervals of time
• In cases of change in legislations or regulations
Consideration of temporary workplaces and changes to workplaces.
• Serious fires can occur during maintenance and construction work.
• Additional fire precautions may be needed
• Ensure to carry out a new fire risk assessment
• There is an increased risk of fire due to increase in sources of ignition or fuel
• Temporary works affect controls in place at the premises
• Because of isolation of smoke detectors or an alarm system
• Well controlled escape routes may become cluttered during temporary work
Well controlled escape routes may become cluttered, pay attention to:
• Accumulation of flammable waste and building materials
• Obstruction or loss of exits and exit routes
• Fire doors being propped open/wedged open or removed
• Openings created in fire resisting structures
• Isolation of fire detection or fixed fire-fighting systems
• Additional electrical equipment
• The addition of new people to the premises that may be unfamiliar with fire arrangements, for
example, alarms, routes, roll calls, assembly points
• Use of hot work process
• Introduction of flammable products
• Addition of new people to the premises that may be unfamiliar with fire arrangements
• People working in unusual locations
• People working outside normal working hours
Need for continual review as work progresses
In all workplaces, there is a need to actively review and revise the fire risk assessment
This may result in changes to the fire safety measures that apply and the fire/emergency plans
This aspect of fire safety is vital in construction sites or any other workplace where layout changes are
constantly taking place
Depending on the number of changes, fire safety should be inspected weekly or even daily
The following fire safety measures should not be compromised:
• Escape routes
• Access to fire alarms
• Audibility of fire alarm systems
• Access and availability of fire-fighting equipment
• Suitability of fire safety signage
• Need for and suitability of escape lighting
• New staff and the need for ‘fire induction’
• Fire protection/fire resistant structures within the building
• Introduction of new fire hazards, for example, hot works
• Correct storage/use of flammable materials
• Site security/arson prevention
6.3 Fire prevention and prevention of fire spread
Control Measures to minimize the Risk of Fire in a Workplace
1. Elimination or reduction
• Where possible employers should seek to eliminate the use of flammable materials in the workplace
• If not possible the amount used should be reduced and kept to the minimum
• Stored in suitable containers
• Flammable materials not in use be kept in a purpose designated well-ventilated storage area.
• Dispose of in a controlled manner if no longer needed
• Control delivery and storage
2. Control sources of ignition:
Hot work is any process that can be a source of ignition, including welding, cutting, grinding, brazing and
soldering processes
Precautions
• SSOW i.e. hot work permit
• Combustible materials must be removed from the area or covered over
• Suitable fire extinguishers need to be readily available
• Consideration must be given to the effects of heat on the surrounding structure, and to where
sparks, flames, hot residue or heat will travel
Smoking
• Smoking in public buildings (including workplaces) is prohibited by national laws
• Enforce inhouse no smoking policy
• Designate a smoking area with ash tray and suitable fire extinguisher
Arson:
External security
• Control of people with access to building/site
• Patrol guards
• Lighting at night/CCTV
• Control of keys
• Structural protection
• Siting of waste containers/skips at least 8m from buildings
Internal security
• Good housekeeping/clear access routes
• Inspections/audits
• Visitor supervision
• Control of delivery/dispatch pick up areas
• Control of sub-contractors
• Control door access by keypad or electronic locks
Mechanical heat
• Friction from drive belts or bearings
• Controlled by routine maintenance
• Drive-belt tension examined and belt condition checked for signs of overheating
• Bearings can be lubricated or greased
• Maintenance should include replacement of wearing parts
Electricity
• Equipment must be maintained, inspected and tested
• Ensure circuits and their insulation are not damaged
• Ensure system is not overloaded
• Portable and fixed electrical appliances should be checked
Cooking and heating appliances
• Must not be left unattended
• Their use closely supervised
• Source of energy (gas or electric) must be maintained, inspected and tested
3. Implement Safe System of Work:
• Safe person
• Safe materials
• Safe equipment
• A safe environment (workplace)
Implement a permit to work system for activities such as welding, high voltage and any hot work.
4. Good house Keeping; is Crucial in preventing fires, always clean up wastes, non-used solid materials &
clean up spills of dangerous substances.
Safe storage & use of Flammable liquids:
The following safety principles should be applied:
V = Ventilation • Well ventilated, dry & cool place.
I = Ignition • Clear warning signs & barriers
C = Containment • No sources of ignition
E = Exchange • Segregate; incompatible chemicals do not mix
S = Separation • Construction to be fire resistant
• Away from heat & direct sunlight
• Provided with firefighting systems & extinguishers
• Adequate fire Exits & Emergency response plan
• Proper training, instructions & supervision
• Provided with Secondary spill containment
Control measures for storage in open air include:
• Storage away from ignition sources
• Formal storage area on a concrete pad
• Bunded all around
• Away from other buildings
• Secure fence and gate 2m high
• Marked by signs warning of flammability
• Signs prohibiting smoking or other naked flames
• Protection from sunlight
• Flameproof lighting
• Provision for spill containment materials
• Fire extinguishers nearby
• Full and empty containers separated
• Clear identification of contents
• Clear of combustible materials
Liquefied petroleum and other gases in cylinders
1. Storage
Safe storage requirements include:
• Storage area should be in a clear open area outside
• Stored in a secure compound - 2m high fence
• Safe distance from hazardous materials, liquids or general waste
• Stored safe distance from any building
• If stored inside building, kept away from exit routes
• Well ventilated area
• Oxygen cylinders at least 3m away from flammable gas cylinders
• Acetylene may be stored with LPG
• Controlled access to stores
• More than one exit may need to be available
• Lock storage compound when not in use
• Protection from sunlight
• Flameproof lighting
• Empty containers stored separate from full
• Fire extinguishers located nearby

2. Transport
Safe transportation requirements include:
• Upright position
• Secured to prevent falling over
• Protection in event of accident
• Transport in open vehicle preferably
• Avoid overnight parking while loaded
• Park in secure areas
• Driver hazard information and warning signs
• Driver training
• Fire-fighting equipment
3. General use
General requirements for use of LPG and other gas cylinders include:
• Any spare cylinders must be secured in a purpose-built store until required for use
• Fixed position to prevent falling over
• Well ventilated area
• Away from combustibles
• Kept upright unless used on specifically designed equipment
• Handled carefully - do not drop
• Allow to settle after transport and before use
• Consider manual handling and injury prevention
• Requirements include:
• Upright position
• Secured to prevent falling over
• Protection in event of accident
• Transport in open vehicle preferably
• Avoid overnight parking while loaded
• Park in secure areas
• Driver hazard information and warning signs
• Driver training
• Fire-fighting equipment
Properties of common building materials
Structural element Behaviour in fire
Concrete Usually performs well in a fire
Steel Severely affected by high temperatures
Brick Usually very resistant
Timber Thin timber will burn quite quickly; thick timber will survive for longer
Glass May shutter if not reinforced with Georgian wire
Structural measures to prevent spread
• Measures to prevent spread of fire and smoke include:
• Fire-resisting structures
• Compartmentalisation
• Fire stopping of ducts, flues and holes
• Fire-resisting self-closing doors
• Smoke seals and intumescent material
• Early and rapid detection of a fire by use of sophisticated fire alarm systems
• Sprinklers in large compartments
• Control of smoke and toxic fumes by ventilation systems
Characteristics of a fire door
• Able to withstand fire for a set time
• Fitted with self-closing devices
• Fitted with fire resistant hinges
• Fitted with intumescent strip
• Fitted with a cold smoke seal
• Have vision panels of fire-resistant glass
• Clearly labelled
Protection of openings and voids
• Use of fire barriers such as fire shutters, cavity barriers and fire curtains
• Minimise the effect on the structure being worked on
• Involves planning for the prompt re-instatement of protection of openings and voids
• The temptation to leave all breaches to the end of work and then re-instate them should be avoided
• The longer that breaches are left open the higher the risk from fires
• Fire doors also used to ensure openings are protected in the event of a fire
• Fire doors can often withstand fires for 30 minutes
• Fire doors can be fitted with mechanical systems to keep the door open or contain self-closing devices
Use of suitable electrical equipment in flammable atmospheres
Classification of areas where explosive atmospheres may occur
There are three zones for gases and vapours:
Zone 0: Flammable atmosphere highly likely to be present for long periods/continuously
Zone 1: Flammable atmosphere possible but unlikely
Zone 2: Flammable atmosphere unlikely except for short periods of time
There are three zones for dusts:
Zone 20: Dust cloud likely to be present continuously or for long periods
Zone 21: Dust cloud likely to be present occasionally in normal operation
Zone 22: Dust cloud unlikely to occur in normal operation, but if it does, will only exist for a short period
Selection of equipment and protective systems
Different forms of electrical equipment will provide a different equipment protection level (EPL), the types of
protection include:
‘Intrinsically safe’ - cannot produce a spark with sufficient energy to cause ignition
‘Flameproof’ - ingress of explosive atmosphere is controlled and any ignition is contained in the equipment
‘Increased safety’ equipment - do not produce sparks or hot surfaces

6.4 Fire Alarm Systems and Fire Fighting Arrangements


Fire Detection
Essential that some form of fire detection and alarm system is used in the workplace:
• Heat detection
• Radiation detection
• Smoke detection
• Flammable gas detection
Smoke detectors Heat detectors
• Detect small smoke particles • Detect excessive heat generated by a fire
• Two main types: ionising and • Usually less sensitive and give later warning
optical • Two main types: rate of temperature rise type and fixed
• Can give rise to false alarms temperature type
• May not detect fires that are giving off smoke but not much heat

Types of fire alarms


The sophistication will depend on the complexity of workplace
• Simplest system – someone shouts "Fire!"
• Simple with more noise – hand bell, whistle or air horn
• Manually-operated fire alarm – manual call points
• Automatic fire detection and alarm – automatic detectors, manual call points, linked to
sounders/lights
Single-stage alarm: Sounds throughout the whole of the building and signals a total evacuation
Two-stage alarm: An evacuation signal is given in the affected area, together with an alert signal in other areas
Nominated worker alarms: In some premises, an immediate total evacuation may not be desirable. A controlled
evacuation by the nominated workers may be preferred, to prevent distress and panic to the occupants
Portable fire extinguishers
Portable fire extinguishers should always be sited:
• On the line of escape routes
• Near, but not too near, to danger points
• Near to room exits inside or outside
• In multi-storey buildings
• In groups forming fire points
• So that no person need travel more than 45 metres to reach one
• With the carrying handle about one metre from the floor
• Away from excesses of heat, cold, dirt or dust
Fire-fighting equipment training requirements
Training should include:
• Understanding of principles of combustion/classification of fires
• Identification of various types of fire extinguisher available
• Identifying if the extinguisher is appropriate to the fire and ready to use
• Principles of use and limitations of extinguishers
• Considerations for personal safety and the safety of others
• How to attack fires with the appropriate extinguisher(s)
• Any specific considerations
Extinguishing media
Water (portable fire extinguisher - colour code - red)
Foam (portable fire extinguisher - colour code - cream)
Dry powder (portable fire extinguisher - colour code - blue)
Carbon dioxide (CO2) (portable fire extinguisher - colour code - black)
Wet chemical (Portable extinguisher - colour code - Yellow)
Extinguisher type Class of fire suitable for
Water – Red Label A

Carbon dioxide – Black label A, B and electrical fires

Foam – Cream label A and B

Dry Chemical Powder (DCP) – Blue label A, B, C and electrical fires (class D is special)

Wet chemical– Yellow label A and F

WATER – suitable for Class A fires. Works by cooling the fire. Standard water extinguisher is not
suitable for use on Classes B, D or F fires or live electrical equipment (risk of shock). Certain specialised
water extinguishers are available for use on Class B and F fires

CARBON DIOXIDE – suitable for Class A and B fires, especially fires involving live electrical
equipment. Works by smothering the fire. Not suitable for use on Class D fires. Must be used with care
because the body of the extinguisher gets very cold during use and can cause a freeze-burn injury.
FOAM – suitable for Class A and B fires. Works by smothering the fire or by preventing combustible
vapours
from mixing with air.
DRY POWDER – suitable for all classes and use on live electrical equipment. Works by smothering
the fire. Can be very messy.
WET CHEMICAL – suitable for fires involving high temperature cooking oils and fat
Limitation of Extinguishers
• MUST use the correct extinguisher on the right fire
• Water can boil, causing burning liquids to “explode” in a fireball
• Water conducts electricity so NEVER use on electrical fires
• Powder is effective but may destroy electrical equipment
Other Fire-Fighting Equipment
Fire blankets – physically smothers fires, e.g. fat fires in kitchens
Hose reels – used in large buildings for fire teams
Sprinkler systems – sited in buildings and warehouses, automatically dowses the fire
Siting of Extinguishers should be:
On fire exit routes
Close to exit doors
Close to specific hazards Clearly visible and signed Unobstructed access
Maintenance of Extinguishers
Inspection should be: Regular and frequent Ensure they're in place In good working order
Maintenance should be: Usually once a year by a certificated engineer
Inspection, testing, dismantling
NB: Records of the above all should be kept in Fire Log
Access for fire and rescue services and vehicles
Ensure the fire and rescue services can access a building as quickly as possible to prevent wastage of time.
The responsible person should ensure that facilities, equipment and devices provided are maintained
Vehicle access
• Minimum access requirements for pumping appliances and high reach appliances will vary
• Access will be required for a minimum to 15% of the perimeter or within 45m of every point of the
footprint of the building, up to a maximum of 100% of the perimeter
Access for firefighting
In low rise buildings, additional access requirements are not required
Use of ladders, in conjunction with the vehicle access requirements, are normally sufficient
In higher-rise buildings additional facilities are needed, these include
• Firefighting lifts
• Firefighting stairs
• Firefighting lobbies (firefighting shaft)

6.5 Evacuation of a Workplace


Means of escape
Travel distances Stairs
• Significant component of a successful means If stairs are part of the escape route, the following must
of escape plan be ensured:
• Travel distances are judged based on distance • Fire resistant structure
to a place of safety in the open air and away • Fitted with fire doors
from the building • Doors must not be wedged open
• The distance needs to be kept to the • Wide enough to take the required number of
minimum people
• Must lead direct to open air
• Non-slip/trip and in good condition
• No combustible storage within staircase
• Adequate lighting
Passageways Doors
• Route should lead directly to the open air • Exits to open outwards
• Via a protected route where necessary • Easily operated
• Route to be kept unobstructed • Should not be locked
• Provided along escape routes
• Prevent spread of fire & it’s a means of escape
• Not wedged open
• Lead to open air – safety
• May be fitted with a vision panel
Emergency lighting Exit and directional signs
Emergency escape lighting system should cover: • Fire escape signs are provided to guide escape via a
• All exit door from a work area place of relative safety to the place of ultimate safety
• All escape routes • Fire escape signs are not needed on the main route
• Intersections of corridors into or out of a building
• Outside all final exit, external escape routes • Alternative escape routes and complicated escape
• Emergency escape signs routes do need to be signed
• Fire alarm call points and firefighting equipt • Signs directing to the assembly point will also be
• Equipt that need shut down in an emergency needed
• Lifts/stairways
• Changes in floor level
Assembly points
• An assembly point is a place of safety where people can wait whilst an accident/incident is being
investigated
• Confirmation that everyone has evacuated
The main factors to considered in selection are:
• Safe distance from building
• Sited in safe position
• Not sited to obstruct the fire and rescue service
• Able to walk away from assembly point back to a public road
• Clearly signed
• More than one provided with communication between points
• Measures provided to decide if evacuation successful
• Identify person in charge to meet fire/rescue service
Emergency evacuation procedures
• The employer should establish appropriate procedures, including fire drills, to be followed in the
event of serious and imminent danger
• They should nominate enough competent persons to implement evacuation procedures
• Evacuation procedures need to reflect the type of emergency, the people affected and the premises
involved
These would include:
Fire instruction notices
• Placed at conspicuous positions in all parts of the location
• Adjacent to all fire alarm call points
• Printed notices stating the action to be taken on discovering a fire and on hearing the fire alarm
• It is usual to also state what someone must do when they discover a fire
Fire action
On discovering a fire: On hearing the alarm: On evacuation:
• Sound the fire alarm • Leave the building using nearest exit • Do not stop for personal belongings
• Call the fire service • Close doors behind you • Do not use lifts
• Go to the assembly • Go to the assembly point • Do not return to the building unless
point • Get out of the building and stay out authorised to do so
• Report to assembly point
Fire training
The training should cover:
• Fire prevention
• Recognition of fire alarms and the actions to be taken
• Understanding the emergency signs
• Location of fire escape routes and assembly points
• Requirements for safe evacuation
• Location and operation of call points
• How the fire service is called
• Location, use and limitations of fire-fighting equipment
• Consideration of people with special needs
• Identity and role of fire marshals
Role and appointment of fire marshals
• A person should be nominated to be responsible for coordinating the fire evacuation plan
• They may appoint persons such as fire marshals to assist
• The way in which they assist will vary between organisations
• Fire marshals’ appointment should be made known to workers
• The appointment of fire marshals helps the employer to meet the general responsibility to establish
competent persons to assist with health and safety
Day – to- day role of fire wardens
• Monitor general fire safety
• Report unsafe practices /conditions
• Report faults, incidents and near misses
• Discuss evacuation arrangements with staff and offer guidance on procedure
• Remain familiar with escape routes and check accessible
• Take a lead role during fire drill
• Provide feedback on success of fire drills
Role of fire wardens when the fire alarm sounds continuously
• Wear-high visibility clothing
• Instruct people to leave via the nearest escape route
• Ensure that all persons have left their designated area
• Help people to leave the premises
• Shutdown vital or dangerous equipment
• Be the last person to leave their area and report to any person in charge that it is clear or that they
are waiting in a refuge for assistance
• Report to a central assembly point
• Communicate with other wardens /senior warden/incident controller
• Liaise with fire and rescue service on arrival, if required
Fire drills
• Fire emergency response routine should be tested at regular intervals to ensure all staff is familiar
with the action to be taken.
• Drills (simulation exercises) are the best way to practice emergency response
• Drill should be carried out twice a year or more frequently according to the risk rating of the
workplace.
• A program of fire drills should be planned, implemented & reported with corrective actions for
coming drills.
• Drills should be recorded with timing in details & reported to senior management.
• Fire alarm system should be testing for functioning every week.
• All employees should get adequate training, instructions & information on fire emergency response &
first stage firefighting where appropriate.
Importance of fire drill exercises:
• Act in a calm, orderly and efficient manner
• Those designated with specific duties carry them out in an organised and effective manner
• The means of escape are used in accordance with a predetermined and practised plan
• Enables people involved to practice and learn under as near realistic conditions as possible
• Identifies strengths and weaknesses in the evacuation procedure
• Helps people to respond quickly to the alarm
• Should be carried out at least once a year
Roll call
All registers including visitor’s books, staff login records should be brought to the assembly point
Provisions for people with disabilities
• When planning a fire evacuation system employers need to consider who may be in the workplace,
their abilities and capabilities
• Any disability, for example, hearing, vision, mental or mobility impairment must be catered for
• Some arrangements may be to provide the person with a nominated assistant(s) to support their
speedy escape
• In some cases, disabled people may need to use a refuge area, a relatively safe waiting area for short
periods
• Some buildings may be equipped with an evacuation lift
Building plans to include record of emergency escape
• Record emergency escape arrangements
• Aid the national emergency services
• Help identify the quickest and shortest route
• Can also be used to aid search and rescue
Plans should clearly identify:
• Call points
• The siting of fire-fighting equipment/sprinklers (if fitted)
• Fire doors
• Travel distances
• Escape routes
• Refuge areas for the disabled
• Assembly points
Provision for vulnerable groups, the employers should:
• Identify & make special risk assessment for all vulnerable people who require special help.
• Consider possible appropriate escape routes
• Enable safe use of lifts
• Enable people with disabilities to summon help in emergencies
• Train staff to be able to help their disabled colleague e.g. implement a "buddy" system

REVISION QUESTIONS
1. Describe how an understanding of the principles of the fire triangle has been used to develop
techniques for extinguishing fires.
2. Outline TWO methods, with an example for each, how a fire can be extinguished.
3. Outline the main methods by which fires may spread through a structure.
4. Outline the reasons for carrying out a regular review of fire safety measures.
5. Explain why good ‘housekeeping’ in the workplace is essential to ensure safe escape in a fire.
6. Identify EIGHT items that should be included in a hot work permit-to-work.
7. Outline the factors which should be considered before the location of a fire assembly point is
decided upon.
ELEMENT 7 CHEMICAL & BIOLOGICAL HEALTH HAZARDS &
RISK CONTROL
Learning Outcomes
7.1 Outline the forms of, the classification of, and health risks from exposure to, hazardous substances
7.2 Explain the factors to be considered when undertaking an assessment of the health risks from substances
commonly encountered in the workplace
7.3 Explain the use and limitations of Occupational Exposure Limits including the purpose of long term and short
term exposure limits
7.4 Outline control measures that should be used to reduce the risk of ill-health from exposure to hazardous
substances.
7.5 Outline the hazards, risks and controls associated with specific agents.
7.6 Outline the basic requirements related to the safe handling and storage of waste.

7.1 Forms of, Classification of and Health Risks from Hazardous Substances
Forms of chemical agent:
Two or More elements combined into one substance form a chemical compound.
Chemical Substances have many forms.
• Dust • Liquids
• Fumes • Smoke
• Gases • Solids
• Mist • Fibres
• Vapours
Forms of biological agents:
• fungi,
• bacteria
• viruses
Main classification of substances hazardous to health:
• irritant, • carcinogenic,
• corrosive, • mutagenic
• harmful, • reproductive toxin
• toxic/very toxic,
Classification of Chemicals Hazardous to Health
Harmful: Substance, which if swallowed, inhaled or penetrates the skin, causes limited health risks. Risks
can be minimized or removed by following the instruction provided with the substance.
Irritant: Non-corrosive substance, which can cause skin or lung inflammation after, repeated contact.
People who react that way to a substance are sensitized or allergic to that substance.
Corrosive: Substances that will cause chemical burns to human tissue. Usually strong acid or alkali e.g.
sulphuric acid.
Toxic: Poisonous substance which will prevent the function of one or more organs within the body e.g.
liver, kidney… etc.
The effect on health depends on the concentration & the toxicity of the substance, the frequency of
exposure & the effectiveness of controls in place.
Carcinogenic: Substances suspected to promote abnormal development of cancer cells e.g. Asbestos.
Mutagenic: Substance that damage genetic material causing abnormal changes that can be passed on from
one generation to another.
The effects on health of hazardous substances may be either acute or chronic
Acute: short duration, appear rapidly after short term exposure & usually reversible e.g. nausea & vomiting
Chronic: long duration, develop over a long period of time which may take many years, produced by
prolonged exposure to hazardous substances resulting in gradual, usually irreversible illness e.g. cancer.
Acute Chronic
• High levels of exposure • Lower levels of exposure
• Short exposure time • Longer exposure time
• Quick effect • Long term effect
E.g. high concentration of chlorine gas E.g. repeated exposure to solvents

7.2 Assessment of Health Risks associated with hazardous substances


Routes of entry of hazardous substances into the body and body reaction.
1. Inhalation
• inhalable dust
• respirable dust (<7microns)
2. Ingestion
3. Absorption through the skin
4. Injection through the skin
• needle stick
• cuts and grazes
• bites
Defence mechanisms
Respiratory defences include:
• Sneezing & coughing • Macrophages
• Nasal hair/mucous • Inflammatory response
• Ciliary Escalator
1. The sneeze reflex.
2. Filtration in the nasal cavity (which has a thick mucus lining that particles stick to). This is very effective
at removing large particles; only particles less than 10 microns in diameter pass through.
3. Ciliary escalator – the bronchioles, bronchi and trachea are lined with small hairs (cilia). Mucus lining
these passages is gradually moved by these cilia up out of the lungs. Any particles trapped in this mucus are
cleaned out of the lungs by this mechanism. This filtration mechanism is effective at removing all particles
larger than 7 microns in diameter.
4. Macrophages – scavenging white blood cells that attack and destroy particles that lodge in the alveoli
(where there are no cilia to extract them).
5. Inflammatory response – any particles that cannot be removed by macrophages are likely to trigger an
inflammation response. This causes the walls of the alveoli to thicken and become fibrous. This can be
temporary or may result in permanent scarring (as with silicosis).
Skin Defences
Waterproof barrier comprised of:
• Outer layer of dead cells (epidermis)
• Sebum – biocidal properties
• Inflammatory response
Assessment of Health Risk
• Identify the hazardous substances present and the people who might potentially be exposed.
• Gather information about the substance.
• Evaluate the health risk.
• Identify any controls needed and implement them.
• Record the assessment and action taken.
• Review.
Factors to consider when carrying out an assessment of hazardous substance exposure:
• Hazardous nature of substance
• Potential ill-health effects
• Physical forms
• Routes of entry
• Quantity
• Concentration
• Number of people
• Frequency of exposure
• Duration of exposure
• Existing control measures

Sources of Information
Product Labels Guidance Documents
• Name of substance In the UK, Workplace Exposure Limits are published by the Health
• Hazardous components and Safety Executive (HSE) in Guidance Note EH40. In the USA,
• Risk phrases indicating danger Threshold Limit Values are published by the American Conference of
• Precautions Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH).
• Details of supplier In the EU, Indicative Limit Values are published by the EU

Manufacturers’ Safety Data Sheets


• Details of substance and supplier
• Composition of substance
• Hazard identification
• First aid measures
• Fire-fighting measures
• Accidental release measures
• Handling and storage
• Exposure controls/PPE
• Physical/chemical properties
• Stability and reactivity
• Toxicological information
• Ecological information
• Disposal requirements
• Transport information
• Regulatory information
• Other information
The sources of information we have highlighted are important, but they have limitations in assessing
health risk:
• They contain general statements of the hazards. They do not allow for the localised conditions in which
the substances are to be used which affect the risk.
• The information can be highly technical and therefore meaningless to the non-specialist.
• Individual susceptibility to substances varies; a person can be very prone to the health effects of a certain
chemical.
• They provide information about the specific substance or preparation in isolation and do not consider
the effects of mixed exposures.
• The information represents current scientific thinking and there may be hazards present that are not
currently understood.
Hazardous Substance Monitoring should be done when:
• Failure or deterioration of the controls can result in serious health effects
• To ensure an OEL is not exceeded
• To check effectiveness of control measures
• After any change occurs which could affect control
• Techniques for inhalation exposure assessment to measure the quantity of the hazardous substance in
the atmosphere surrounding the workplace
Hazardous substance monitoring methods
1. Stain Tube Detector (semi-quantitative): Grab sampler
• Direct reading glass indicator tubes filled with chemical crystals à change color when a hazardous
substance passes through them.
• The glass tube is opened at each end & fitted into a pumping device.
• Very like the technique used by the police to test breath alcohol in motorists.
• A specific quantity of contaminated air is drawn by means of a pump through the tube & the crystals
change color.
• The tube is calibrated that the extent of the color change along the tube indicates the concentration
of the substance within the air sample.
Advantages: Limitations:
• Low cost • Cannot be used to measure concentrations of dusts or
• Quick • fumes, only good for gases and vapours
• Gives immediate result • It is substance specific
• Beneficial in emergencies • Inaccurate
• Cheap • Can only give instantaneous results not TWA.
• No additional analysis • Fragile
needed • Used incorrectly
2. Passive Sampling: 3. Dust Monitoring Equipment
• No pumping mechanism • Worn by worker whilst working
• Long-term sampling • Indicates personal exposure
• Gases and vapours • Pre-weighed filter
• Sample diffused on to absorbent surface • Pumped air
• Laboratory analysis • Filter re-weighed
• Highly accurate • Gives average value over time
• Can be used for personal monitoring of TWA
4. Smoke Tubes/Sticks 5. Dust Lamp (Tyndall Lamp)
• Simple devices • Strong beam of light
• Generate inert smoke • Highlights fine particles of dust
• Visualise air currents • Used to determine efficiency of
• Assess effectiveness of extraction systems exhaust ventilation
Limitations of the above Monitoring methods
• Accuracy of results
• Variations in personal exposure
• Absence of a standard
• Other exposure routes
7.3 Occupational exposure limits
“The maximum concentration of an airborne substance averaged over a reference period, to
which employees may be exposed by inhalation.”
Occupational Exposure Limits OEL is a generic term for occupational air standards, used for personal
monitoring to assess if workers are exposed to unacceptable levels of hazardous substances.

Exposure limit Period Combat ill-health effects of:


Short term exposure limits • Acute effects
(STEL) 15 minutes • Very high exposure for a short time
Long term exposure limits • Chronic effects
(LTEL) 8 hours • Lower exposure over longer period
Significance of Time-Weighted Averages
• A worker can be exposed to different levels of inhalation of a hazardous substance throughout the
working day.
• At sometimes they may be exposed to high levels of contaminant
• At other times the exposure level may be low. In many cases, it will not be practical to measure an
individual’s exposure for all the working period.
• A time-weighted average is equal to the sum of the part of each period which is multiplied by the
exposure level of the contaminant in that period.
• It is then divided by the hours in the working day (usually eight hours) and the level indicated as a
time- weighted average (as seen above).
• That is, the average of all the total exposures in the working day. This can be significant where the
concentration of the chemical changes through the day or the time exposure varies.
Limitations of Exposure Limits
• Being below a limit does not prove it is safe:
• Only concerned with inhalation
• No account of individual sensitivity or susceptibility
• Many developed on male physiology
• No account of synergistic or combined effects
• Invalid if normal environmental conditions change
• Organisation may not realise that controls are no longer effective and limits are not adhered to
• Monitoring equipment may become inaccurate
• Some limits are only “guidelines”
• Non-inhalation effects, e.g. Dermatitis, aren’t considered
UK USA No global standard as yet
• OELs are known as • OELs known as Threshold Limit • EU
Workplace Exposure Values (TLV’s) IOELVs are EU legal limits of
Limits (WEL’s) • Published by American exposure to chemicals that are set
• Published by HSE, full Conference of to protect workers in the EU from
Government Industrial Hygienists the ill-health effects of hazardous
(ACGIH) substances in the workplace
Application of Relevant Limits

What is the difference between an 8hr TWA and a 15 minute STEL?


• An 8hr TWA is intended to control longer term exposure to lower levels of a substance to
prevent chronic effects
• A 15 min STEL is intended to control short term exposure to high levels of substance to
prevent acute effects
Limit Values IOELV
Efforts of global Harmonization: United Nations Globally Harmonized System of
Classification and Labeling of Chemicals GHS (the purple book)
The GHS is a system for standardizing & harmonizing the classification & labeling of chemicals. It is a logical
& comprehensive approach to:
• Defining health, physical & environmental hazards of chemicals;
• Creating classification processes that use available data on chemicals for comparison with the
defined hazard criteria; and communicating hazard information, as well as protective measures, on
labels & Safety Data Sheets (SDS).
• Developed under UN through ILO and IOMC:
7.4 Control Measures
The Principles of Good Practice Implementing the Principles of Good
Practice
• Minimise emission, release and spread of • Elimination or substitution
hazardous substances • Process change
• Account for relevant routes of entry • Reduce exposure times
• Use control measures proportionate to the risk • Enclosure or segregation
• Ensure effectiveness and reliability of controls • Local Exhaust Ventilation
• Use PPE where control cannot be achieved by other • PPE
means • Personal hygiene and protection
• Regular checks and review of control measures • Health Surveillance/monitoring
• Provide information and training
• Ensure controls do not increase overall risks

Elimination and Substitution Change the Process


• Eliminate process e.g. outsource painting Do the job differently, e.g.
• Change work e.g. screw rather than glue • Applying solvent by brush rather than spraying
• Dispose of unwanted stock • Vacuuming rather than sweeping to keep dust levels
• Substitute hazardous for non-hazardous down
e.g. irritant to non-hazardous floor
cleaner, or corrosive to irritant
Reduce Exposure Times Enclosure or Segregation Segregation
• Job rotation Enclosure Keep people
• Exclude non-essential personnel • Totally enclose the substance away
• Link to WEL’s • Prevent access to it Designated areas
Local Exhaust Ventilation
The Basic components of an LEV System
1. An intake hood that draws air from the workplace in the immediate vicinity of the contaminant.
2. Ductwork that carries that air from the intake hood.
3. A filter system that cleans the contaminant from the air to an acceptable level.
4. A fan of some sort that provides the motive force to move the air through the system.
5. An exhaust duct that discharges the clean air to atmosphere
Factors that can affect the Effectiveness of LEV
• Poorly positioned intake hoods
• Damaged ducts
• Excessive amounts of contamination
• Ineffective fan
• Blocked filters
• Buildup of contaminant in the ducts
• Sharp bends in ducts
• Unauthorised additions to the system
Inspection of LEV Systems
Routine visual inspection: Integrity checks, e.g. filters, contaminant build up, etc. Planned preventative
maintenance e.g. replacing filters, lubricating fan bearings, etc. Periodic testing: Ensure air velocities are
adequate
Dilution ventilation Limitations of Dilution Ventilation
Diluting the contaminant • Not suitable for highly toxic
Changes the air substances
Passive dilution - vents • Compromised by sudden release of
Active dilution - powered fans large quantities of contaminant
Used where: • Do not work well for dust and
• WEL is high where the contaminant is released at
• formation of gas or vapour is slow a point of source
• operators are not close to contamination Important to • Dead areas may exist
know whether contaminant is lighter or heavier than air
Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE)
There are two types:
1. Respirators which only filter contaminated air
2. Breathing apparatus (BA) used in oxygen depleted atmospheres to provide clean source of air
Use and benefits Limitations
Filtering Face-Piece Respirators
Cheap Low level of
Easy to use protection Seal not
Disposable effective
Uncomfortable
Half Mask or Ori-nasal Respirator
Good level of filtration No built-in eye protection
Good fit Negative pressure inside face-piece
Easy to use Uncomfortable
Full Face Respirator
Good level of filtration Restricts vision
Good fit Negative pressure inside face-piece
Protects the eyes Uncomfortable

Powered Respirator

Intermediate level of filtration Heavy to wear


Air movement cools wearer No tight face seal
Air stream prevents inward leak Limited battery life

Fresh Air Hose BA: Air demanded by user or pumped

Air from outside the work room Hose must be tethered


Supply not time restricted Bends or kinks make breathing difficult
User restricted by limited hose length

Compressed Air BA: Air under pressure

Supply of air is not time-restricted Positive pressure Hose can be long, but not endless
inside face-piece Wearer not burdened with cylinder

Self-contained BA Pressurised cylinder

• Complete freedom of movement • Supply is time-restricted Equipment bulky and


• Positive pressure inside face-piece heavy More technical training required

What factors do you think should be considered when selecting RPE for use by workers? (The
Suitability of RPE) Factors to consider
• Concentration of the contaminant and its hazards
• Physical form of the substance
• Level of protection offered by the RPE
• Presence or absence of oxygen
• Duration of time that it must be worn
• Compatibility with other items of PPE
• Shape of the user’s face
• Facial hair
• Physical requirements of the job
• Physical fitness of the wearer

RPE Information, Instruction and Training Other PPE that may be required
(areas
covered)
• Users should understand: Hand protection
• How to fit the RPE • gloves, gauntlets
• How to test it to ensure that it is • chemicals, biological agents, infection
working effectively through cuts
• The limitations of the item Eye protection
• Any cleaning requirements • spectacles, goggles, visors
• Any maintenance requirements (e.g. Body protection
how to change filter) • overalls, aprons, whole body protection
Personal Hygiene and Protection
• Hand-washing routines
• Careful removal and disposal of PPE to prevent cross-contamination to normal clothes
• Prohibition of eating, drinking and smoking in work areas
• Washing facilities
• Changing facilities
• Rest areas
Vaccination
• Against biological agents, e.g. Hepatitis B, Tetanus, Typhoid
• Worker consent is required
• Immunity not always achieved
• Creates a false sense of security
Health Surveillance
Health monitoring
• signs of disease,
• symptoms of chronic conditions, e.g. flour workers have lung function tests to check for asthma
Biological monitoring
• checks for contaminants within the body, e.g. lead
Pre-employment screening
• establishes a ‘baseline’
Control of Carcinogens, Mutagens and Asthmagens
In addition to standard control measures:
• Total enclosure of process or handling systems
• Prohibition of eating, drinking and smoking
• Regular cleaning
• Warning signs
• Safe storage, handling and disposal

7.5 Specific Agents


Organic Solvents:
• Used widely in the industry as cleansing & degreasing agents.
• Used as varnishes, paints, adhesives, glue strippers, thinners & printing inks.
• Divided into Hydrocarbons & Non-Hydrocarbons.
• All are heavier than air, sensitizers & irritants to eyes & respiratory system
• Some are narcotics, cause dermatitis or affect the brain & nervous system.
• Some causes kidney & liver failure on the long run.
• Very volatile & evaporates fast at room temperature
Carbon Dioxide:
Characteristics of CO2 Typical controls:
• Colourless, odourless gas • Competent engineers for gas systems
• By-product of combustion, e.g. poorly maintained boilers • Maintenance and testing of boilers and flues
• Inhalation hazard • Good ventilation
• Prevents red blood cells absorbing oxygen • LEV for workshop vehicle exhausts
• Chemical asphyxiation • Siting of equipment containing
• Low levels – worsening headaches combustion engines
• High levels – rapid unconsciousness and death • CO alarms
• Confined space entry controls
Carbon Monoxide:
• Colorless, odorless & tasteless gas, impossible to detect without detection device.
• It enters the blood & binds with the red blood cells more readily than Oxygen forming Carboxyl
hemoglobin, thus, restricting Oxygen supply to vital organs.
• Its effects include: headaches, nausea, drowsiness, flushed appearance & ultimately asphyxiation.
• Produced as an exhaust gas from a vehicle or a heating system because of incomplete
combustion.
Lead:
• Heavy, soft & easily worked metal.
• Affects mainly the brain & spinal cord, the blood & blood production.
• Effects are usually chronic & cumulative, normally enters body by inhalation, ingestion or skin contact.
• Early symptoms include colic, headache & nausea
• It also causes weakened muscles of the upper & lower limbs
• Widely used in roofing & plumbing work.
• Major uses in lead alloys & in the production of solder, pigments & ammunition.
Wood dust: Typical controls
• Inhalation hazard • Alternative work methods
• Causes asthma • Dust suppression by water LEV
• Hard woods can cause cancer • RPE
• Heath surveillance
Silica: Typical controls
• Component of rock • LEV
• Quarries, pottery and construction industry • Vacuuming rather than sweeping
• Inhalation hazard • RPE
• Causes scar tissue to form in lungs • Health surveillance
Asbestos:
Naturally occurring mineral fibres used for fire-resistant building and lagging materials
1. Blue (crocidolite);
2. Brown (amosite);
3. White (chrysotile)
Why was asbestos used in industry and buildings?
• asbestos cement roofs
• ceiling tiles
• fire break walls
• floor tiles
• downpipes
• pipe lagging
Where might it be found? Boiler gaskets; Asbestos brake linings etc.
Health Risks: Work with Asbestos - Controls
• asbestosis In general:
• lung cancer • Work must be notified to the enforcement agency
• mesothelioma • Work area sealed
• diffuse pleural • PPE and RPE
thickening • Negative pressure ventilation system with efficient filters
• Asbestos waste securely double bagged, labelled, disposed as hazardous waste
• Dust levels monitored inside and outside sealed work area
• Worker exposure must not exceed control limit
• Health surveillance provided
.

Managing Asbestos in Buildings


• Occupiers/owners must be aware of presence of asbestos
• Need an asbestos management plan
• Maintain asbestos register – identify locations
• Record of regular inspections
• Monitoring condition
Left alone and undisturbed asbestos will not cause harm to anyone.
Cement:
Harmful effects:
Irritation of the eyes, respiratory tract, skin
Allergic dermatitis and corrosive burns to skin on repeated/prolonged contact
Typical controls:
• Eliminating or reducing exposure
• PPE – gloves, dust masks, eye protection
• Removal of contaminated clothing
• Good hygiene and washing skin on contact
Leptospirosis: Weil's disease
Leptospirosis Typical controls
• Infected urine from: rats, mice, cattle and horses • Good housekeeping, pest control
• Contaminated water in contact with cuts, grazes, etc. • Good personal hygiene
• Dairy farmers, sewage workers, water sports • PPE, especially gloves
instructors • Covering cuts and grazes
• Flu-like symptoms, jaundice, liver damage (Weil’s • Issuing ‘at risk cards’ to workers
disease)

Legionella:
Legionnaire’s disease Typical controls
• Water-loving soil bacteria • Enclosing water systems
• Inhalation hazard • Water treatment, e.g. chlorination
• Mists particularly high risk • Hot water >60oC
• Flu-like fever, pneumonia • Biocides (treatment chemicals)
• Prevention of limescale
• Routine cleaning of cooling towers
• Water sampling and analysis

Blood Borne Viruses


HIV/AIDS Typical controls:
Hepatitis A • PPE: gloves, eye protection
• contracted orally by cross contamination of • Disposal of material as clinical waste
faecal matter, e.g. sewage workers • Prevention of needle stick injuries
Hepatitis B • Decontamination and disinfection
• transmitted in body fluids, e.g. blood • Vaccination
• health care workers, fire-fighters, police • Accident procedures, e.g. needle tick injuries
Symptoms – jaundice, liver damage
7.6 Safe Handling and Storage of Wastes
Waste is:
“Something that is discarded or is going to be discarded”
General hierarchy of control
• Prevention
• Prepare for Reuse
• Recycling
• Other Recovery
• Responsible disposal
Classification of Waste
Hazardous wastes are generally highly flammable, toxic, carcinogenic or corrosive. May include many
household products such as refrigerators, freezers, televisions, fluorescent light tubes and computer
monitors which, although not immediately hazardous, may cause longer-term problems.
Non-hazardous waste - refers to materials which are not covered by the above description of
hazardous waste and includes household waste, paper, wood and other biodegradable materials.

Hazards associated with waste: Control measures for waste


• Spills • Sufficient size / suitable location, bunded if necessary
• Manual handling • Clearly labelled.
• Contamination of people who handle it • Secure.
• Unlabelled therefore unknown hazard • Minimise risk of water pollution.
• Overflow of waste into water courses • Separate different wastes.
• Waste is stolen • Avoid incompatibilities.
• Mixes with incompatible waste • Use appropriate, sound containers.
• Unsuitable containers fail to contain it • Minimise quantities.
• Waste is dumped • Protect from the elements.
• Skip lorries reversing • Proper disposal of special / hazardous wastes –
• • Compactors for cardboard consignment notes etc.
ELEMENT 8: PHYSICAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTHHAZARDS
& RISK CONTROL
Learning Outcomes
8.1 Outline the health effects associated with exposure to noise and appropriate control measures
8.2 Outline the health effects associated with exposure to vibration and appropriate control measures
8.3 Outline the health effects associated with ionising and non-ionising radiation and appropriate control
measures
8.4 Outline the meaning, causes and effects of work related stress and appropriate control measures

8.1 Noise
Effects of Exposure to Noise
Physical effects: Psychological effects:
• Temporary reduction in hearing sensitivity • Stress
• Temporary ringing in the ears • Difficulty concentrating
• Noise Induced Hearing Loss (NIHL) • • Increased errors
• Tinnitus (persistent ringing in the ears)
• Inability to hear vehicles, alarms and speech

Sound Pressure:
• The difference between the average local pressure of the medium outside of the sound wave in which it is
traveling through (at a given point and a given time) & the pressure found within the sound wave itself
within that same medium.
• Sound pressure can be measured using a microphone in air & a hydrophone in water.
• The unit for sound pressure is the Pascal (symbol: Pa).
Sound Intensity:
• The sound power per unit area
• The units of intensity are W/m2 (watts per square meter).
Frequency:
• Number of cycles per unit time.
• Measured in cycles per second 7 he unit is Hertz Hz
• The human ear detects vibrations from 20 to 20 000 Hz
Decibel dB:
• It is a logarithmic unit of measuring noise
• It is not linear; doubling the intensity of noise increases its level by 3dB
• dB (A) is a weighting filter used to approximate the human ear's response to sound (other units like dB
(C) and dB (B) are for higher noise levels and uncommonly used at workplace)
Noise assessment
Different types of noise meter that can be used to undertake noise measurement include:
Simple sound level meter – measures instantaneous noise levels and can be used for spot checks or for very
simple surveys.
Integrating sound level meter – measures noise over a period and gives a time-weighted average
over that period; useful for most noise surveys.
Dosimeters – integrating sound level meters worn by the worker to give a measure of personal noise exposure;
useful for work areas where people move around a lot. The results of a noise survey need to be interpreted to
give an accurate estimate of workers’ exposures. These exposures can then be compared to the legal standards
and any necessary action identified.
Noise measurement and assessment is a complex topic that should only be undertaken by a competent
person.
Acceptable & Unacceptable Levels of Noise:
Exposure Action Value: level of noise at which certain action must be taken. Exposure Limit Value: level of
noise above which an employee must not be exposed. These Exposure action & Limit Values are:
a) Lower Exposure Action Level: 80 dB (A) / 8 hours / day b) Upper Exposure Action Level: 85 dB (A) / 8
hours / day c) Exposure Limit Value: 87 dB (A) / 8 hours / day
If the daily noise exceeds the lower exposure action level, a noise assessment should be carried out by a
competent person.
If the working day is 12 hours, then the action levels must be reduced by 3 dB (A) because the action levels
assume 8-hour working day.
General Requirements for Noise Control:
• Assess the noise levels & keep records.
• Constantly review assessments
• Reduce risk from noise exposure by using engineering controls
• Reduce time of exposure
• Provide adequate Training, information & work instructions
• Review manufacturer's recommendations & information on equipment’s' noise level
• Consult employees & representatives on noise issues
• Establish hearing protection zones; marked by signs & notices.
• Educate employees to see their doctor if they feel any hearing problems
• Provide appropriate Hearing Protection as needed
Basic Noise Control Measures
Source Pathway Receiver
Eliminate Insulation Acoustic haven
Substitute Isolation Hearing protection
Modify process Absorption
Maintenance
Damping
Silencing
Outline reasons why hearing protection is an inefficient method of reducing noise exposure in a
noisy workplace
Don’t enclose the sound – only protects 1 person
Rely on:
• Use for all exposure time –meaning short exposure without them has big effect on dose received
• Uncomfortable
• Require supervision
• Require maintenance
• May interfere with communications, alarms etc.
Muffs:
• Muffs may be incompatible with another PPE
• Good fit – no facial hair, jewellery etc. for muffs
Ear plugs:
• Must be fitted properly into ear canal
• May introduce infection
• Not easy to supervise – can’t see them
• May be wrong frequency type or attenuation level
Ear defenders or muffs
Advantages Limitations
• Easy to supervise and enforce • Uncomfortable when worn for a long time
Less chance of ear infections • Must be routinely inspected, cleaned and maintained

• Higher level of protection possible • Efficiency may be reduced by long hair, spectacles or
• Can integrate with another PPE earrings.
• Reusable • Incompatible with some other items worn (e.g. spectacles)
• Needs dedicated storage facility

Ear plugs
Advantages Limitations
• Cheap and easy to use • Difficult to see when fitted, so supervision and
• Disposable • enforcement difficult
• Available in a range of types and designs • Risk of infection if dirty
• Often more comfortable to wear • Need to be correctly sized to fit the individual
• Do not interfere with any other items • Effectiveness decreases with usage
worn (e.g. PPE) • Interfere with communication

Hearing protection should be given with:


• Information, instruction, training and supervision
• Safe storage
• Cleaning
• Maintenance
• Replacement
Attenuation
Information is required on the:
• Noise in the workplace from survey
• Attenuation characteristics of the hearing protection from manufacturer
• Ear muffs give higher attenuation than ear plugs
Health Surveillance
Audiometry allows:
• Identification of workers with pre-existing hearing damage; with new hearing damage
• Removal/exclusion of such workers from high noise areas
• Investigation of noise controls to rectify problems
Identify occupations at risk from noise induced hearing loss and the potential causes.
• Construction workers – Plant, machinery, e.g. concrete breakers
• Uniformed services – Small arms and artillery
• Entertainment sector workers – Loud music
• Manufacturing sector workers – Industrial machinery
• Call centre workers – Acoustic shock from headsets

8.2 Vibration
Effects of Exposure to Vibration
Hand-Arm Vibration Syndrome (HAVS)
• Vibration white finger (blanching)
• Nerve damage
• Muscle weakening
• Joint damage
Hand Arm Vibration HAV: Preventive & Precautionary measures:
• Caused by exposure of the hand & arm to • Avoid the use of vibration equipment (when
external vibration possible)
• Examples: Pneumatic drills, sanders, grinders, • Carry out Risk Assessment; estimation of
powered lawn mowers & chain saws employees' exposure to vibration
• Best-known disease is Vibration White Finger; • Develop good maintenance & inspection
circulation of blood in the hands is adversely regime for tools & machinery
affected. • Introduce work pattern that reduces
• Early symptoms; tingling & numbness after exposure
work • to vibration
• Sensory nerves are then affected as well as • PPE; gloves & warming clothes
muscles • Establish & implement a reporting system for
• Late symptoms; pins & needles, loss of grip the employees so that any symptoms are
strength, Carpal recorded & investigated
• Tunnel Syndrome & loss of sense of touch. • Health Surveillance
• Risk depends on: vibration exposure level, • Follow up & measure Vibration exposure
duration of exposure & the tightness of the limits
grip on the tool. • & make sure it is always within international
permissible limits
• Stop smoking
Whole-Body Vibration
• Damage to spinal discs Preventive & Precautionary measures:
• Vertigo • Proper risk assessment & exposure level
• “Whole-body vibration is shaking or jolting monitoring
of the human body through a supporting • Proper training, awareness & supervision
surface (usually a seat or the floor), for • Provide vibration isolation for operator seats;
example when driving or riding on a vehicle proper seat suspension
along an unmade road, operating earth- • Provide padded seats with dampening material
moving machines or standing on a • Introduce work schedules to avoid long
structure attached to a large, powerful, periods of exposure in a single day and allow
fixed machine which is impacting or for breaks where possible
vibrating.” • Access to the cab which is not awkward or
• Whole body vibration in a seated position difficult
has been found to increase the prevalence • Adjustable seats with back support
of reported low back pain. • Proper Maintenance of vehicles and using those
• Operations such as tractor driving, forklift with best suspension system for the job
operating, truck driving, and driving earth • Follow the manufacturer’s instructions’ manual
moving machines have been found to result • Health surveillance and educating workers
in increased back pain. when and how to report any early signs of back
pain to the health care provider

Vibration Exposure Limits


Standards vary according to national law
At or above the Daily Exposure Action Value
• Vibration risk assessment
• Reduce exposure level
• Training
• Health surveillance
At or above the Daily Exposure Limit Value (ELV)
• Vibration risk assessment
• Reduce exposure below the ELV
The role of Health Surveillance in vibration:
• Identify anyone exposed or about to be exposed to hand-arm vibration who may be at risk, for
example people with blood circulatory diseases
• Identify any vibration-related disease at an early stage in employees regularly exposed to hand-arm
vibration;
• Help you prevent disease progression and eventual disability;
• Check the effectiveness of your vibration control measures.
The role of supplier/manufacturer in vibration prevention & control:
• Design and construct vehicles and/or machines which reduce whole-body vibration to the minimum
that can be achieved
• Provide instructions on safe use of the machine in its intended application;
• Instructions on vibration emissions & the proper use of machinery
• Any maintenance procedures to maintain the performance of vibration reduction
• Features; whether there is likely to be any remaining risk from vibration;
• Instructions on how to use the equipment to avoid risk from vibration
• Transparent communication about any manufacturing problems that may be found out, emergency
contact numbers and updates about new technologies that may be designed to minimize risk and
render the older machinery obsolete
• Providing professional technical Hands on training to clients when as needed

8.3 Radiation
There are two major categories:
Ionising Non-ionising
• higher energy • lower energy
• can change the structure of atoms • heating effects
• does not change the structure of atoms

Types of Ionising Radiation

Can penetrate the body and cause serious and permanent harm:
• Alpha particles
• Beta particles
• X-Rays
• Gamma rays
• Neutrons
Alpha Particles Beta Particles
Weak penetrating power Can penetrate skin and living tissue
Stopped by thin material, e.g. paper, skin Health effects:
Health effects: • Inside and outside body – hazardous
• Outside body - not particularly hazardous Occupational uses:
• Inside body (ingestion/inhalation) - very • Sterilisation, thickness gauges
hazardous
Occupational uses:
• Smoke detectors,
• medical labs
X-Rays Gamma Rays
Can be generated and switched off Very penetrating
High penetrating power Health effects:
Health effects: • Inside and outside body - very hazardous
• Inside and outside body - very hazardous Occupational uses:
Occupational uses: • Industrial radiography, e.g. pipelines
• Medical radiography
• Baggage security
Neutrons Occupational Sources uses of Ionising
Emitted by some radioactive sources Radiation
Very high penetration Alpha particles – smoke detectors and science labs.
Health effects: Beta particles – science labs and thickness gauges.
• Outside body - very hazardous X-rays – medical radiography and baggage security
Occupational uses: scanners.
• Nuclear power stations Gamma-rays – industrial radiography.
Neutrons – nuclear power stations.

Effects of exposure to ionising radiation


Acute Health Effects Chronic Health Effects
Radiation sickness (The larger the dose, the • Cancer
greater the risk) • Genetic mutation
• Nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea • Birth defects
• Blistering and ulceration of skin
• Hair loss
• Dermatitis The larger the dose, the greater the risk
• Cataracts
• Anaemia
• Reduced immune system
• Infertility
Protection from Ionising Radiation
Basic radiation Control Strategies: (TDS – Time/Distance/Shield)
• Carry out a specific sufficient & suitable Risk Assessment
• Avoid using radioactive material as far as possible
• Engineering controls to enclose source of radiation e.g. thick concrete, lead barriers
• Reduce the time of exposure; job rotation & shifts
• Implement Health surveillance & dose monitoring
• Segregate by increasing the distance between workers & radiation source as far as reasonably
possible
• Effective Emergence response planning
• Prominent fencing & signs around radiation areas with authorized access (controlled area)
• Provide adequate training, information & strict work instructions
• High standard of personal hygiene
• Correct disposal of radiation waste
• Radiation Protection Supervisor: employee appointed by management to ensure control
arrangements are implemented.
• Radiation Protection Adviser: Expert of radiation appointed by management to give advice on
• compliance & any aspect of dealing with Radiation.
• Proper adequate Personal Protective Equipment PPE; last resort e.g. whole body radiation suites.
Non-Ionising Radiation
Non-ionising radiation is present in most workplaces and is used for various applications. Typical
occupational sources include:
1. UV – sunlight; arc-welding.
2. IR – red-hot steel in a rolling mill; glass manufacture.
3. Visible light – laser levelling device; laser pointer.
4. Microwaves – industrial microwave oven in a food factory; telecommunications equipment (e.g. a
mobile phone antenna).
5. Radiowaves – radio, TV or radar antennae.
Types Sources Health Effects
Ultra-violet (UV) Sunlight Skin burns
Arc welding Arc eye (photokeratitis)
Skin cancer
Visible light lasers Temporary blindness

Infra-red (IR) Red hot steel Redness and skin burns, retinal burns,
Glass manufacture cataracts
Microwaves Food preparation Internal heating
Telecommunications Organ damage
Radiowaves Radio, TV Internal heating
radar Organ damage

Protection from Non-Ionising Radiation


Types Protection
Ultra-violet (UV) • Cover exposed skin
• Protect eyes
Visible light, lasers • Low class: avoid shining in eyes
• High class: eye protection, shielding, non-reflective surfaces
Infra-red (IR) • Cover exposed skin
• Protect eyes
Microwaves • Safe distance
• Isolate and lock off
Radiowaves • Safe distance
• Isolate and lock off
Health Surveillance
• May be legally required by an approved physician:
• Before working as a classified worker
• During periodic health reviews (medicals)
• Special surveillance if dose limit is exceeded
• After ceasing work as a classified worker
Special consideration for pregnant or breastfeeding workers
Types of examination include:
• Skin checks
• Respiratory checks
• Exposure records
• Sickness records
8.4 Physiological Stress
Physiological Stress
Stress is an adverse reaction to excessive pressure

Health effects: Causes of stress


• psychological Demands - excessive
• physical Control - weak
• behavioural Support - poor
• serious ill-health if prolonged Relationship - difficult
Role - undefined
Change - uncertainty

OR
Causes of Stress:
• Content of the job: work overload, work too easy, time pressure, deadlines etc.
• Work organization: long working hours, shift work, non-consulted organizational changes
• Workplace culture: communication, involvement in decision making, feedback, support etc.
• Environment: noise, temperature, lighting, ergonomics
• Work role: conflict of interest, clarity of role
• Home-work interface: transportation problem, childcare issues, relocation
• Relationships: bullying, harassment, verbal & physical abuse
Effects of Stress
Psychological Physical Behavioural
• Anxiety • Sweating • Sleeplessness
• Low self-esteem • Heart rate • Poor concentration
• Depression • Blood pressure • Poor decision-making
• Skin rashes • Mood swings
• Muscle tension • Irritability
• Headache • Alcohol consumption
• Dizziness • Drug misuse
• Absence from work

OR
Ill-health effects of stress: Stress Control:
• Increased irritability & sleep difficulties • Identify stressors & Assess the risk
• Increased intake of drugs, cigarettes & • Improve ergonomics & working environment
alcohol • Interpersonal communication skills training
• Digestive system disorders • Stress awareness & Time management & time off work
• Circulatory system disorders e.g. high • Provide achievable demands relative to the hours of work
blood pressure • Avoid overloading the employees
• Decreased immunity & increased • Provide a space of decision making
susceptibility to infection • Consult on organizational change & involve employees in it
• Anxiety & depression • Employees receive adequate support
• MSD(s), fatigue & chronic headache • Employees have control over the pace of work
• Employees are not subjected to unacceptable behavior
• Employees understanding their clear roles &
responsibilities
• Employees receive regular & constructive feedback