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ACOUSTICS

(SESSIONAL SUBMISSION)

AIR BORNE NOISE AND STRUCTURE BORNE NOISE


AIR BORNE NOISE
1. WHAT IS AIR BORNE NOISE?
ANS:- Airborne noises are transmitted by air and atmosphere such as the
radio, the barking of dogs or people carrying on conversations. When sound
waves traveling through the air reach a building element they hit it and
cause it to vibrate. These vibrations travel through the structure or building
and are radiated out the other side. This is due to airborne noise traveling
through windows and doors which is a major source of sound leakage.

This is as opposed to structure-borne sound that results from an impact on or


a continuous vibration against a part of a building fabric resulting in sound
being radiated from an adjacent vibrating surface.

(AIR BORNE NOISE)

2. CAUSES OF AIR BORNE NOISES IN BUILDING

These noise are caused by vibrations which transmit through a medium and
reach the ear or some other form of detecting device. Sound is measured in
loudness (decibels (dB)) and frequency (Hertz (Hz)).It is ultimately the sound
which can only be transmitted only through air and can be perceived atleast
by humun ear and hence have frequencies ranging in between 20Hz –
20000Hz.
Typically, airborne sound might be generated by:
 Speech.
 Television and radio.
 Animal sounds such as dogs barking.
 Transport.
Poor detailing or poor standards of workmanship can result in airborne sound
transmitting directly between spaces, for example through gaps around the
edge of doors, and may result in flanking sound, where sound travels around
a separating element, even though the element itself might provide very
good acoustic insulation. Even very small gaps can cause a significant
increase in the transmission of airborne sound.
Problems can also occur where doors, windows or other openings face onto
‘noisy’ spaces, such as a circulation space, a busy road or a school
playground. If this deters occupants from leaving elements of the building
open, this can affect the performance of natural ventilation strategies.

3. TREATMENT FOR REDUCING AIR BORNE NOISES


The amount of airborne sound in a space can be reduced by acoustic
absorption, which reduces the amount of sound reflecting back into the
space from the surfaces enclosing it, by acoustic insulation which reduces
the amount or sound transmitting into the space from an adjacent space
through the building fabric and by the elimination of gaps that might permit
direct transmission.
Airborne sound transmission can be tested by placing a loudspeaker in a
space to generate sound at a range of frequencies, and detecting any
resulting sound in an adjacent space with a microphone. The difference is
then calculated and adjustment made to take into account the sound
absorption characteristics of the ‘receiving’ space. Tests are typically carried
out in the range from 125 Hz to 4000 Hz.

STRUCTURE BORNE NOISE


1. WHAT IS STRUCURE BORNE NOISE?
Structure-borne noises are transmitted when sound arises from the actual
impact of an object on a building element such as a wall, floor or ceiling.
Examples of this could be footsteps of a person or the sound of an object
falling on the floor. Structure-borne sound occurs because the impact causes
both sides of the building element to vibrate, generating sound waves. This
can oftentimes be the hardest to isolate.
These sound are caused by vibrations which transmit through a medium and
reach the ear or some other form of detecting device. Sound is measured in
loudness (decibels (dB)) and frequency (Hertz (Hz)).
Sound in the built environment tends to be structure-borne or airborne.
Building Regulations Approved Document E - 'Resistance to the passage of
sound' describes structure-borne sound as, ‘...sound that is carried via the
structure of a building’. Structure-borne sound results from an impact on, or a
vibration against, a part of a building fabric resulting in sound being radiated
from an adjacent vibrating surface. A typical example of structure-borne
sound is footsteps on a floor which can be heard in a room below.
Structure-borne sound comprises five processes:
 Generation – the source of an oscillation.
 Transmission – the transfer of oscillatory energy from the source to the
structure.
 Propagation – the distribution of energy throughout the structural
system.
 Attenuation - when waves moving through structures encounter
structural or material changes they can be partially reflected which
reduces the energy transmitted, and so attenuates the sound.
 Radiation – the emission of sound from an exposed surface

2. REDUCTION OF STRUCTURE BORNE SOUND


Structure-borne sound can be reduced by:
 Carpets and pads.
 Resilient underlay – which can have a similar effect to carpets and
pads. Generally, they are made from recycled rubber, rigid fibreglass,
foam or other such materials.
 Resilient mounts, sound clips or spring ceiling hangers.
 Soundproofing compounds. Typically the compound is applied
between two rigid materials, such as subflooring. The compound
dissipates the vibrations caused by sound waves as they move through
the structure.
 A suspended ceiling system, raised floor or secondary wall structure.
 High mass constructions that include cavities or offset constructions to
prevent transmission of vibrations .

REPRESENTATION OF TRANSMISSION OF AIR BORNE AND STRUCTURE BORNE


SOUND
In simple terms, the difference between structure-borne and airborne noise
lies in the transmission medium. Airborne noise consists of the progressive
movement of mass particles (vibrations) and is transmitted in the form of
sound waves at the speed of sound (344m/s). The differing frequencies (the
number of changes in pressure per second) generate characteristic tones.
For example, whistling has a high frequency, compared to the low frequency
generated by a growl of distant thunder.Structure-borne noise is transmitted
through solid structures, such as steel, wood, concrete, stone etc. This
includes for example impact sound and part of the noise generated by the
technical machinery installed in a building. The unit of measurement for
describing sound is the decibel ("dB").

FLANKING IN ACOUSTICS
On basis of origin a noise is classified in two categories:-
-AIR BORNE
-STRUCTURE BORNE,
The transmission of sound taking place here also have two different paths namely:-
- DIRECT TRANSMISSION.
- FLANKING PATHS.

1. WHAT IS FLANKING?

Flanking or flanking transmission is a term used by acoustical engineers


wherein the sound passes around, over the top or under the primary partition
separating two spaces. Flanking sound transmission can be especially
bothersome in multi-family residential buildings. The best time to guard
against flanking transmission is in the design and construction phase of the
dwelling. Simply specifying a high performance wall between adjacent
dwelling spaces is no guarantee to sound isolation and privacy upon
occupancy. Acoustical Surfaces Inc., offer both preconstruction and post
construction noise control consultations in addition to all of the products
needed to achieve demanded sound isolation.
Typical Flanking Sound Transmission Pathways Can Include

 Ceilings – Above and Through the Ceiling Space.


 Floors – Through Floor and Floor Joist Space.
 Through Windows.
 Fixtures & Outlets – Light Switches, Telephone Outlets, and Recessed
Lighting Fixtures.

 Shared Structural Building Components – Floor Boards, Floor Joists,


Continuous Drywall Partitions, Continuous Concrete Floors, and Cement
Block Walls.

 Structural Joints – Perimeter Joints at Wall & Floor, Through Wall &
Ceiling Junctures.

 Plumbing Chases – Junctures between the Walls & Floor Slab Above or
at the Exterior Wall Juncture.

 Around the end of the partition through the Adjacent Wall.

Flanking should be considered early in the design stage of new


developments and detailing should eliminate or minimise the inadvertent
downgrading of sound insulation. Junctions between elements in particular
can offer a potential flanking route if they are not carefully detailed and
constructed. Good briefing, supervision and inspection on site can help to
ensure that the quality of workmanship remains high so that details are
constructed as designed.
Flanking can be a particular issue where adjoining spaces have different
uses, such as; a lecture theatre next to an office, a private room adjacent to
a circulation space, or between neighbouring houses with different patterns
of occupancy and behaviour.

REPRESENTATION OF FLANKING TRANSMISSION OF NOISE BY FLANK PATH


HOME THEATRE SYSTEM
A home theatre system is a combination of electronic components designed
to recreate the experience of watching a movie in a theatre.
Factors determining good sound quality of the home theatre system are:-

 Room size
The first place to start is the room you intend to place your home
theatre system in. The size of the room will determine the size and type
of video display device (TV or projector) that would be best to use.
 Flooring
This will affect how sound, especially bass, is distributed throughout the
listening area. Hard floors will be more reflective, which can result in
unwanted sound echoes and uneven bass. Carpeted floors will help in
the absorption of unwanted audio artifacts.
 Location of audience
This is actually the distance between source (speakers) and receiver
(audience) which determines the best sound quality for the audience
to enjoy and depends upon the size of speaker as well as the screen
size.
 Audio Reproduction - Home Theatre Receiver or Preamp/Amp
Combination
The way this is implemented in a home theatre system is either a home
theatre receiver or Preamplifier/Amplifier combination.

A Home Theatre Receiver usually combines the functions of three


components:

1. A radio tuner for AM/FM and, in some cases, HD (High Definition


Radio), Internet Radio, or XM and/or Sirius Satellite Radio.
2. A Preamplifier that switches and controls which audio and video
source is selected (such as a Blu-ray/DVD player, VCR, CD player,
etc...) and processes the incoming stereo or surround sound signals
and distributes them to the correct amplifier channels and the
subwoofer output. The preamp in an AV receiver can also route
video signals coming from source components (such as a DVD
player) and direct the video signal to the TV.
3. A built-in Multi-channel amplifier (5.1, 6.1, 7.1, or more, channels)
that sends the surround sound signals and power to the speaker
system.
 Loudspeakers
The size and type of speakers dictate the sound quality of the sound.

The home theatre system also comes with an integrated amplifier


option with an AV receiver to handle the surround sound. It involves the
use of a speaker selector to switch the output to the main front
speakers from either the integrated amplifier or the AV receiver.

TYPES OF SPEAKERS:-
-Tweeters
A tweeter or treble speaker is a special type of loudspeaker (usually
dome or horn-type) that is designed to produce high audio
frequencies, typically from around 2,000 Hz to 20,000 Hz (generally
considered to be the upper limit of human hearing). Specialty tweeters
can deliver high frequencies up to 100 kHz.
-Woofers
A woofer is a technical term for loudspeaker driver designed to
produce low frequency sounds, typically from 40 Hz up to 500 Hz.
Woofers are generally used to cover the lowest octaves of a
loudspeaker's frequency range. In two-way loudspeaker systems, the
drivers handling the lower frequencies are also obliged to cover a
substantial part of the midrange, often as high as 2000 to 5000 Hz;
-Bass Reflex
A bass reflex system (also known as a ported, vented box or reflex port)
is a type of loudspeaker enclosure that uses a port (hole) or vent cut
into the cabinet and a section of tubing or pipe affixed to the port. This
port enables the sound from the rear side of the diaphragm to increase
the efficiency of the system at low frequencies as compared to a
typical closed box (sealed-box) loudspeaker or an infinite baffle
mounting.

SURROUND SOUND BASICS IN A HOME THEATRE SYSTEM

The main thing that sets a home theatre apart from an ordinary television
setup is the surround sound. For a proper surround-sound system, two to three
speakers are needed in the front and two to three to the sides or behind the
receiver. The audio signal is split into multiple channels so that different sound
information comes out of the various speakers.
The speaker in the centre anchors the sound coming from the left and right
speakers -- it plays all the dialogue and front sound effects so that they seem
to be coming from the center of your television screen, rather than from the
sides.
The speakers in the back work with the speakers in front to give the sensation
of movement (stereophonic effect) - a sound starts from the front and then
moves behind.
Some home theatre installers recommend the use of multiple subwoofers to
help deliver smoother bass response across a wider listening area. It's also
popular to go with a seven-channel speaker system, which uses two side-
channel and two rear-channel speakers for a more complete surround
experience. The latest trend is 3D audio, in which formats like Dolby Atmos
and DTS:X add an overhead sound element that provides an even more
immersive audio experience.
Speakers come in all shapes and sizes, from freestanding towers to bookshelf
models to thin speakers that mount on the wall. It's easier than ever before to
find speakers that are low in profile but high on performance.
Sometimes bipole and dipole speakers because they generate sound in
multiple directions, giving a more diffused sound.

BASS TRAPS IN HOME THEATRE


Bass traps help overcome low-frequency resonances. Customer home
theatre design installers typically place bass traps in the room's corners. Bass
traps diminish the negative effects of resonance, whereby indistinguishable,
uneven low frequencies accumulate from the three axes of the room's
corners.
The installers should place bass traps in the corners most affected by standing
waves, usually found with a sound pressure level SPL meter. A standard room
will typically require between one and two traps in the corners to increase
clarity and provide even bass response.

SOUND REINFORCEMENT SYSTEM


A sound reinforcement system is the combination of microphones, signal
processors, amplifiers, and loudspeakers in enclosures all controlled by a
mixing console that makes live or pre-recorded sounds louder and may also
distribute those sounds to a larger or more distant audience. In many
situations, a sound reinforcement system is also used to enhance or alter the
sound of the sources on the stage, typically by using electronic effects, such
as reverb, as opposed to simply amplifying the sources unaltered.
When it comes to a live performance, certain instruments can be heard
without sound reinforcement, like a cello or organ. However, the soft notes of
an acoustic guitar may need to be amplified so that the audience can hear
it clearly. This is where a sound reinforcement system comes in.

PRINCIPLE OF SOUND REINFORCEMENT SYSTEM

A typical sound reinforcement system consists of; input transducers (e.g.,


microphones), which convert sound energy such as a person singing into an
electric signal, signal processors which alter the signal characteristics (e.g.,
equalizers that adjust the bass and treble, compressors that reduce signal
peaks, etc.), amplifiers, which produce a powerful version of the resulting
signal that can drive a loudspeaker and output transducers (e.g.,
loudspeakers in speaker cabinets), which convert the signal back into sound
energy (the sound heard by the audience and the performers). These
primary parts involve varying amounts of individual components to achieve
the desired goal of reinforcing and clarifying the sound to the audience,
performers, or other individuals.

SIGNAL PATH IN SOUND REINFORCEMENT


Sound reinforcement in a large format system typically involves a signal path
that starts with the signal inputs, which may be instrument pickups or a
microphone that a vocalist is singing into or a microphone placed in front of
an instrument or guitar amplifier. These signal inputs are plugged into the
input jacks of a thick multicore cable called snake which then delivers the
signals of all of the inputs to either one or more mixing consoles.
Once the signal arrives at a channel on the mixing console, this signal can be
adjusted in many ways by the sound engineer. A signal can be equalized,
compressed (to avoid unwanted signal peaks), or panned (that is sent to the
left or right speakers) before being routed to an output bus. The signal may
also be routed into an external effects processor, such as a reverb effect,
which outputs a wet (effected) version of the signal, which is typically mixed
in varying amounts with the dry (effect-free) signal. Many electronic effects
units are used in sound reinforcement systems, including digital delay and
reverb.
Once the audio engineer has made all the adjustments to a signal (e.g., the
lead vocalist's singing through a microphone), such as equalization, adding
effects, and so on, the signal is then electronically routed to a section of the
mixing console known as "bus", also called a "mix group" which may be
routed through an additional bus before being sent to the main bus to allow
the engineer to control the levels of several related signals at once.
The mix of all the different signals and channels to the stereo master faders
on the console. Mixing consoles also have additional "sends", also referred to
as auxes or aux sends (an abbreviation for "auxiliary send"), on each input
channel so that a different mix can be created and sent elsewhere for
another purpose. One usage for aux sends is to create a mix of the vocal and
instrument signals for the monitor mix.
The next step in the signal path generally depends on the size of the system in
place. In smaller systems, the main outputs are often sent to an additional
equalizer, or directly to a power amplifier, with one or more loudspeakers
(typically two, one on each side of the stage in smaller venues, or a large
number in big venues) that are connected to that amplifier.

Signal path in sound reinforcement system

SYSTEM COMPONENTS

INPUT TRANDUCERS
 MIXING CONSOLES
 SIGNAL PROCESSORS
 EQUALIZERS
 COMPRESSORS
 NOISE GATES
 EFFECTS
 FEEDBACK PROCESSORS
 POWER AMPLIFIERS

OUTPUT TRANSDUCERS
 MAIN LOUDSPEAKES
 MONITOR LOUDSPEAKERS
 IN-EAR MONITORS
APPLICATIONS OF SOUND REINFORCEMENT SYSTEM

 RENTAL SYSTEMS
 LIVE MUSIC CLUBS AND DANCE EVENTS
 CHURCH SOUNDS
 LIVE THEATRE
 CLASSICAL MUSIC AND OPERA
 LECTURE HALLS AND CONFERENCE ROOMS
 SPORTS SOUND SYSTEMS.

BY-
VISHAL RANJAN
SCHOLAR NO: (151110041)