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Polytechnic University of the Philippines

College of Political Science and Public Administration


Department of Political Science
Sta. Mesa, Manila

JANDUSAY, JENNELIE N.
Bachelor in Political Science 4-2

CHALLENGING ORTHODOXY AND AUTHORITY by EDWARD SAID


(Seminar Paper)

The article was part of Edward Said’s Culture and Imperialism, which is a collection of the essays and articles.
The article was merely about the how the approaches in orthodoxy and authority are being challenged, the author
believed that these approaches were quite problematic and there are some problems when it comes to using these
different approaches. Before anything else, the author defined the word orthodoxy and authority in a different manner,
when Said speaks of orthodoxy he is referring to the dominant theories of the world that have led to “gigantic
caricatural essentializations” that represent the “other” as monolithic categories - “Islam”, “Communism”, “Japan”,
and the “West” (for example); and when the author speaks of authority he is referring to the power that sustains “the
new post-colonial international configuration,” that is, the system of states and borders that is both created and
reinforced by these monolithic categories. According to the author, there are challenges to the orthodoxy and authority
and the fact that “crossing borders as well as the representative deprivations and exhilarations of migration has become
a major theme in the art of the post-colonial era.” Accordingly, Said points out that not only people cross borders, but
more importantly the mass media does as well. Thus, the author says we need new challenges to orthodoxy and
authority, ones that understand how the mass media has created a centralizing culture which lays the framework for
what kind of questions can be asked and by whom.

The whole article only showed that because of the present situation of the world and the growing
globalization, things need to be more accessible, in what way, since social media has been used in the article as a way
of crossing borders of the people, we need to emphasize the great importance of social media in our society. Social
media has been very influential in the past years not only as a source of information but also as a way of participating
in the different issues. Social media is also used in mobilizing people, as seen in the present situation of the world
especially in the case of the Philippines, it is an effective tool for encouraging people to participate in different
movements concerning certain political or socio-economic issues. The use of social media by people nowadays was
very rampant, almost every people in the population are using social media and has social media accounts, we can
come up to the point to say that people seemed to believe more on what they see on social media rather than what the
real world is saying. When Said said the world need to be more accessible, we can say that the world indeed reached
to the point of accessibility because of social media. We can therefore conclude that, even there are challenges when
it comes to the approaches of orthodoxy and authority, answers were given and justified. Challenges are quite normal
in the real world, almost every one experienced challenges, the twist is how are we able to cope, adapt and face these
challenges especially now that the real world is changing.