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Thomas Aquinas:

AMONG all human pursuits, the pursuit of wisdom is more perfect, more noble, more
useful, and more full of joy.

It is more perfect because, in so far as a man gives himself to the pursuit of wisdom,
so far does he even now have some share in true beatitude. And so, a wise man has said:
"Blessed is the man that shall continue in wisdom" (Ecclus. 14:22).

Some of our beliefs about God are beyond the ability of our nature to comprehend through
reason, while others are naturally comprehensible. The truths about God exceed all the
ability of the human reason. Such is the truth that God is triune. But there are some truths
which the natural reason also is able to reach. Such are that God exists, that He is one, and
the like. In fact, such truths about God have been proved demonstratively by the
philosophers, guided by the light of the natural reason. Our knowledge of God is limited by
the fact that our knowledge derives from the senses, and the objects of our senses (the
physical world) fall short of the notion of a divine substance. But they can indicate at least
that God is, even if not what God is. Yet, beginning with sensible things, our intellect is led
to the point of knowing about God that He exists. Moreover, we often do not understand
even the nature of sensible things, so how could we understand the nature of something
that can never be the object of the senses? We must acknowledge that there are some
aspects of God which reason cannot comprehend, but this is not sufficient grounds for
rejecting as false those things said about God (such as that God is triune).

If God created human beings, then God makes also determines how He is to be made
known to them. Since Aquinas holds that God can be known through reason, the question
arises as to why God should also make himself known through faith, in a way that reason
cannot grasp. Perhaps supernatural inspiration is "useless" in the face of a superior, rational,
way to God.
Aquinas answers by noting that the way of reason is not necessarily superior, and this in
three ways.
Few humans would know God, due to the many impediments to the proper exercise of
reason: the lack of disposition to such investigation, the exigencies of life, the natural
tendency toward laziness. And though God has given us an appetite for knowledge, it is
usually not sufficient motivation for the undertaking of a task of the magnitude of proving
by reason God's existence.
It takes a long time to train toward the goal of proving God's existence. Such training is
generally not undertaken by youth, who are subject more to passion. If the human race had
to rely on reason in order to know God, it "would remain in the blackest shadows of
ignorance."
Many people are suspicious of the products of reasoning, due to its many failures. So even if
God's existence has been proved, they would doubt the power of demonstration.

Many people think that we should not believe what is beyond reaons; that
reasonableness is the standard against all belief is to be judged. Aquinas has three
responses.
The first is practical: that belief in God is necessary for a higher good than can be found in
the objects of reason alone. In particular, there are "spiritual and eternal goods" which are
beyond the grasp of reason, yet which should be sought by human beings.

That God is higher than reason can attain gives a true notion of God.

The pretensions of reason are curbed by faith. Many who champion reason are led into
error because they presume that their reason is the measure of all things.

Although some truths about God are beyond reason, there is another kind of evidence for
them: the working of miracles. Some are extraordinary, such as the raising of the dead,
while others occur perpetually, such as the unchangeableness of the heavens. Even more
remarkable is the sudden eloquence of simple, untutored people filled with the Holy Spirit.
The most remarkable of all is that human beings in great numbers reject the sensible world
in favor of the insensible. Finally, that all this would come to pass was prophesized by God.

The signs given by God have been effective, resulting in a massive conversion to Christianity.
This makes the further working of miracles unnecessary. Again, Aquinas points to the
phenomenon of simple persons believing beyond their means as the greatest miracle of all.

There is no opposition between faith and reason, as can be shown in several ways.

We are endowed to believe what reason shows to be true, and we are moved by faith
insofar as it is the work of God. Both ar true, so they cannot be in conflict.

What we know by nature through reason is given to us by God, who also gives us faith. The
teaching of the same teacher will not be in conflict.

God would not paralyze our thinking by opposing reason and faith.

The bottom line is that any arguments brought against the doctrine of faith can be
countered, since they cannot show that faith is in conflict with reason.