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Phase Locked Loop Schematic Diagram Phase Noise PLL

Electronic Circuit Design Digital PLL PLL Synthesizer

PLL-Phase Locked Loops


 jojo  January 23, 2018  9 Comments

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Find Solution Examples for your Product Development. Renesas Electronics

Phase Locked Loops (PLL)


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The concept of Phase Locked Loops (PLL) rst emerged in the early 1930’s.But the technology was not developed as it
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now, the cost factor for developing this technology was very high. Since the advancement in the eld of integrated
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circuits, PLL has become one of the main building blocks in the electronics technology. In present, the PLL is available as a
single IC in the SE/NE560 series (560, 561, 562, 564, 565 and 567) to further reduce the buying cost ,the discrete IC’s are Arduino (70)

used to construct a PLL. ARM (3)

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The block diagram of a basic PLL is shown in the gure below. It is basically a ip op consisting of a phase detector, a low
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pass lter (LPF),and a Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO).
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Block Diagram – Phase Locked Loops
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The input signal Vi with an input frequency is passed through a phase detector. A phase detector basically a comparator Embedded Systems (7)
which compares the input frequency with the feedback frequency fo .The phase detector provides an output error Equipment Reviews (1)
voltage Ver (= +fo),which is a DC voltage. This DC voltage is then passed on to an LPF. The LPF removes the high
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frequency noise and produces a steady DC level, Vf (=Fi-Fo). Vf also represents the dynamic characteristics of the PLL.
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The DC level is then passed on to a VCO. The output frequency of the VCO (fo) is directly proportional to the input signal. Filter Circuits (16)
Both the input frequency and output frequency are compared and adjusted through feedback loops until the output Fire Alarm (3)
frequency equals the input frequency. Thus the PLL works in these stages – free-running, capture and phase lock.
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As the name suggests, the free running stage refer to the stage when there is no input voltage applied. As soon as the Gadget Reviews (6)
input frequency is applied the VCO starts to change and begin producing an output frequency for comparison this stage is Guides (15)
called the capture stage. The frequency comparison stops as soon as the output frequency is adjusted to become equal to
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the input frequency. This stage is called the phase locked state.
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Now let us study in detail about the various parts of a PLL – The phase detector, Low Pass Filter and Voltage Controlled History (26)
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1. Phase Detector
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This comparator circuit compares the input frequency and the VCO output frequency and produces a dc voltage that is Instruments (13)

proportional to the phase difference between the two frequencies. The phase detector used in PLL may be of analog or Integrated Circuits (20)
digital type. Even though most of the monolithic PLL integrated circuits use analog phase detectors, the majority of Inverters (5)
discrete phase detectors are of the digital type. One of the most commonly used analog phase detector is the double
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balanced mixer circuit. Some of the common digital type phase detectors are
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1.1 Exclusive OR Phase Detector Light Related (14)

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An exclusive OR phase detector is shown in the gure below.
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Exclusive-OR Phase Detector
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It is obtained as a CMOS IC of type 4070. Both the frequencies are provided as an input to the EX OR phase detector. Project Ideas (1)

Obeying the EX-OR concept the output becomes HIGH only if either of the inputs or fo becomes HIGH. All other Projects (7)
conditions will produce a LOW output. Let us consider a waveform where the input frequency leads the output frequency Proteus (16)
by θ degrees. That is, and fo has a phase difference of θ degrees. The dc output voltage of the comparator will be a
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function of the phase difference between its two inputs.
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The gure shows the graph of DC output voltage as a function of the phase difference between and fo. The output DC Radio Transmitters (19)
voltage is maximum when the phase detector is 180°.This type of phase detector is used when both and fo are square
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waves.
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1.2 Edge Triggered Phase Detector
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Edge triggered phase detector is used when and fo are pulse waveforms with less than 50% duty cycles. The gure of Tech News (86)

such a phase detector using an R-S Flip Flop is shown below. Two NOR Gate (CD4001) are cross-coupled to form an R-S Telephone Related (9)
Flip Flop. The output of the phase detector changes it’s logic state by triggering of the R-S Flip Flop. That is, the output of (4)
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the phase detector changes its logic state on the positive edge of the input and fo. The advantage of such a detector can
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be understood from the graph below. It is clear that the DC output voltage is linear over 360°.
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1.3 Monolithic Phase Detectors Testing Components (9)

The monolithic type phase detector uses a CMOS type 4044 IC ,Which is highly advantages as the harmonic sensitivity Three phase circuits (1)

and duty cycle problems are neglected and the circuit will be respond only to the transition in the input signals. This is the Timer Circuits (3)
most preferred phase detector in the critical applications as the phase error and the output error voltage are independent Tone generator circuits (20)
of variations in the amplitude and duty cycles of the input waveforms.
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2. Low Pass Filter (LPF) Tutorials (163)

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A Low Pass Filter (LPF) is used in Phase Locked Loops (PLL) to get rid of the high frequency components in the output of USB Circuits (3)

the phase detector. It also removes the high frequency noise. All these features make the LPF a critical part in PLL and Videos (5)
helps control the dynamic characteristics of the whole circuit. The dynamic characteristics include capture and lock VLSI (36)
ranges, bandwidth, and transient response. The lock range is the tracking range where the range of frequencies of the PLL
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system follows the changes in the input frequency. The capture range is the range in which the Phase Locker Loops attains
the Phase Lock.

When the lter bandwidth is reduced, the response time increases .But this reduces the capture range. But it also helps in
reducing noise and in maintaining the locked loop through momentary losses of signal. Two types of passive lter are used Instant Quote
for the LPF circuit in a PLL. An ampli er is used also with LPF to obtain gain. The active lter used in PLL is shown below.

3. Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO)

The main function of the VCO is to generate an output frequency that is directly proportional to the input voltage. The Dimensions
connection diagram of a SE/NE 566 VCO is shown in the gure below. The macimum frequency of the VCO is 500 KHz. Length x Width mm

This VCO provides simultaneous square wave and triangular wave outputs as a function of the input voltage. The Quantity
frequency of oscillation is determined by the resistor R and capacitor C along with the voltage Vc applied to the control Choose Num (pcs)
terminal.
Layers
2 Layer

Thickness
Monolithic Phase Locked Loop 1.6mm

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PLL is now readily available as IC’s which were developed in the SE/NE 560 series. Some of the commonly used ones are
the SE/NE 560,561,562,564,565 and 567.The difference between each one of them is in the different parameters like Quote Now

operating frequency range, power supply requirements, and frequency and bandwidth ranges. Out of all the series the
SE/NE 565 is the most famous. It is available as a 14-pin DIP and also as a 10-pin metal can package. The 14-pin DIP and
its characteristics are given below.

Monolithic PLL Characteristics

Operating frequency range: 0.001 Hz to 500 kHz.


Operating voltage range: ± 6 to ± 12 V.
Input impedance: 10 k Q typically.
Output sink current: 1mA typically.
Output source current: 10 m A typically.
Drift in VCO centre frequency with temperature: 300 ppm/ °C typically.
Drift in VCO centre frequency with supply voltage: 1.5 %/V maximum.
Input level required for tracking: 10 mVrms minimum to 3 V peak-to-peak maximum.
Bandwidth adjustment range: < ± 1 to > ± 60 %.
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The block diagram and connection diagrams are shown in the gure below.
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The block diagram consist of a phase detector which acts as a phase comparator, an ampli er, and a low pass lter with
the combination of the resistor (3.6 kilo ohm) and capacitor C2. The output of the ampli er is fed back to the VCO. The Advertise With Us

different pins representing that of the IC are also shown in the block diagram. Pins 1 and 10 are the positive and negative Authors
supply pins. The pins 2 and 3 are the input to the phase detector. The input signals are fed through these pins in Datasheets
differential mode. Pin 4 is the VCO output and pin 5 is the phase comparator VCO input. If both these pins are shorted the
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output of the VCO is supplied back to the phase comparator. The output of the phase comparator is given to the ampli er.
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The ampli er has two outputs that goes to the external pins as the demodulator output (pin 7) and the reference output
(pin 6). An LPF circuit is formed by connecting the capacitor C2 between pin 7 and 10 with a resistor of value 3.6 kilo Electronic Project Kits

ohms. The value of C2 must be large enough to eliminate the variations in demodulated output and stabilize the VCO Lab Manuals
frequency. Electronic Circuits Lab

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Pins 8 and 9 are used to connect the external resistor (R1) and external capacitor (C1). The values of R1 and C1 help to
adjust the free running frequency (fr) of the PLL. Though the value of C1 can be anything, the value of resistor R1 must Microprocessor Lab
have a value between 2 to 20 kilo ohms. All these factors can be used to determine the center frequency of the PLL. Privacy Policy

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The free running frequency of the PLL is given as fr = (1.2)/(4R1C1) Hertz
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The lock range of the PLL is given as fLock = (+/-){(8fr)/V} Hertz
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The capture range of PLL is given as fc = (fLock/[2* 10^3*C2])^1/2

The lock range usually increases with an increase in input voltage but falls with an increase in supply voltage. PCBFOX

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Phase Locked Loop (PLL) – Working

Let us consider the free running frequency to be fr. Let fr be the frequency at which the Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is

running without input signal. Let the input signal fi that is increasing from zero be applied to the phase comparator.

A graph between the error voltage and input frequency is shown below. It can be seen that when the input frequency is
lesser than 1,the error voltage Ver is reduced to zero. At this time the VCO will operate at the free running frequency, fr.
When the input frequency, increases and reaches 1, the error voltage jumps from zero to a negative voltage. This value
will be equal to the difference between the input frequency and actual VCO output frequency ( – fo).This resulting error
voltage is then processed by ltering, amplifying, and applying the ampli ed voltage Vd to the control terminals of the
VCO.

The instantaneous frequency of VCO decreases because fo falls for negative values of Vd and increases for positive
values of Vrf. At some instant of time, the decreasing frequency of the VCO equals n1 (lower edge of the capture range),
then lock results-in, and the output signal frequency of the

VCO may be equal to the input signal frequency (that is, fo = ). The VCO frequency locks with input signal frequency up
to 2 (the upper end of the lock range). If the input signal frequency exceeds 2 then error voltage Vg will fall to zero and
the VCO will operate at the free running frequency fr, as illustrated in gure. If the input signal frequency is now slowly
swept back and it attains the value of fd1 then the loop (VCO frequency) locks with the input signal frequency, causing a
positive jump of the error voltage Ver. So the VCO output frequency increases from fr continuously till fo becomes equal
to . The VCO frequency fo locks with the input signal frequency upto fd2 (the lower edge of the lock range) as shown in
gure by dotted lines. Now if the frequency of the input signal falls below fd2, then the error voltage Ver will fall to zero
and the VCO will operate at the free running frequency.

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COMMENTS

Mark E Harder
February 12, 2018

Where are the graphs and gures mentioned in the article?

giri
January 9, 2018

what are the uses of PLL and phase detector??

reemios
October 1, 2017

it is useful article,thank you so much, but can you attach and add the references please, thank you again
.

Sanjeeviraj
June 29, 2016

Good explanation

Paul Blase
February 25, 2016

Question. I’ve been reviewing PLL’s and nd that I cannot understand one thing: The VCO puts out a
frequency dependent on the input voltage, and therefore needs a steady-state non-zero voltage to pull
it away from its free-running frequency. On the other hand, the output from the LPF is a sinusoid that
reaches zero amplitude when the phases match, regardless of frequency. Where does the offset voltage
come from that maintains the new VCO frequency when the loop is locked?

Veena P Nair
January 7, 2016

Such a wonderful and simple explanation. Thank you for the help.

Dr. D. Syam
October 7, 2014

Good introduction to this important subject.

prena
January 20, 2011

i am nal year student. can you suggest me a project idea in embedded system

WAQAS
October 8, 2016

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