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Thermally influenced microemulsion synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticle for

antimicrobial activity.

The scientific effort towards acompying complete control over the surface of atomic and
molecular size is called a Nano science. At most basic level this control not comes without
difficulty. The engineering of functional systems at the molecular level (scale) is the Nano
science. Nanoscience is the field that is still in its infancy and is expected to grow enormously in
the years to come, however in the last twenty year major developments were done. Now the
development of magnetic data storage device, microelectronic and chemical sensors have
increased the important benefits of nanoparticles [1]. One of the most important phenomena of
nanoscience are manipulates the matter into nano scale which completely changes the surface
properties of matter.

The deliberation of numerous scientists have been attracted toward metal and metal oxides for
many years.The larger particles of the bulk materials has stems mainly from their completely
new or improved properties. The variation in specific characteristics derived these novel
properties such as size, distribution and morphology of the particles [2] . Given such properties,
metal and metal oxide nanoparticles have potential applications in various areas, such as
electronics, cosmetics, coatings, medicine and biotechnology. Tin oxide (SnO2), is the most
exclusively studied metal oxide among nanostructured materials. The properties like high
transparency, low electrical sheet resistance and high chemical stability has increased further
attension towards SnO2 nanoparticles. The versatile applications of SnO2 in gas sensors, dye-
based solar cells, transparent conducting electrodes, optical devices and electronic devices gains
a great scientific and technical interest.

The synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs) with desirable size and structure morphology has increased
their importance because of their potential applications in various fields in material sciences
(Amutha et al., 2019) electronics and optics . Tin presents two oxidation states of + 2 and + 4,
therefore, two types of oxides are possible: stannous oxide (SnO—romarchite) and stannic oxide
(SnO2—cassiterite) . Tin oxide (SnO2) is one of the most interesting material due to a wide
band gap (3.6–3.8 eV) and higher excitons binding energy (130 meV) . Further SnO2 acts as
potential application in transparent conductive electrodes for solar cells, a gas sensing material
for gas sensors, photochemical and photoconductive devices in liquid crystal displays, gas
discharge displays, lithium-ion batteries, etc.
For synthesizing NPs it is the most suitable chemical method, because any high pressure and
temperature is not required in this method. Filtration and repeated washing are required for
removal of impure material, and it is a cost effective method.[3]
Nanoparticles of metal oxides are used for a large variety of applications including sensors,
optoelectronic materials, catalysis, and environmental remediation.[4]Limited synthesis of metal
oxide nanoparticles are essential for the several applications and solution phase methods provide
a large degree of control over the synthesis products. SnO2 is an important material due to its
properties such as high degree of transparency in the visible spectrum, strong physical and
chemical interactions with adsorbed species, low operating temperature and strong thermal
stability in air (up to 500o C).

Semiconducting properties tin dioxide nanoparticles are widely used as materials for gas
sensors, electrochemical current sources, solar batteries, and also are a promising matrix for rare-
earth luminophores. The procedure for obtaining tin dioxide nanoparticles is the tin tetrachloride
hydrolysis, however this reaction is too fast, which makes it difficult adjusting particle size.[ 5]It
is worthy of note that all SnO2 physicochemical properties are size dependent . Synthesis in
microemulsions; The promising checking the possibility of obtaining tin dioxide nanoparticles
by the synthsis in inverted micelles, which is also called synthesis in microemulsions.. Its
essence consists in the creation of a water-in-oil emulsion stabilized by surfactants. The collision
of drops containing separate reagents leads to the formation of a joint drop, the reaction zone
being limited by its volume. In the course of a chemical reaction an inorganic particle is formed
inside the drop, and the emulsion gradually convers to a suspension. The size of forming
emulsion drops can be adjusted by setting the process parameters (water-oil ratio, surfactant
concentration and nature), which, in turn, leads to variation of the final product particle size.
However the main problem consists precisely in the principles used to choose the process
parameters and in its applicability to the adjustment of tin dioxide nanoparticles size.

The extremely important process is the removal of bacteria from water that is used for drinking
and sanitation systems especially against concerns on growing outbreaks of water borne diseases
[6]. Between 2003 and 2005 in United States 282 people are affecting due to drinking water that
contains pathogen, there were four reported waterborne disease outbreaks attributed to pathogens
in drinking water affecting a lot of people. Conventional methods for disinfection of water are
dependent on chemical agents, that are ineffective against cyst-forming protozoa such as Giardia
and Cryptosporidium and also these methods often produce harmful by-products. A new
generation of technology called Nanotechnology that can have a large impact on economies
through new consumer products, manufacturing methods and materials usage. Water treatment
systems depend upon this technology that is cost effective.
By the use of nanotechnology, implementation of oligodynamic nanoparticles for water
disinfection is being explored. Oligodynamic nanoparticles based disinfection includes the use of
metals such as silver, gold, zinc, tin and copper due to their antimicrobial properties. Besides
their oligodynamic nature, they also possess catalytic properties .

Nanocrystalline SnO2 can be prepared by many methods such as,

1.Alkoxide hydrolysis method.[ 7]
2.Liquid phase precipitation ,
3. method
4. Sol-gel method .
Complicated equipments, high cost of raw material, long reaction time, and
serious powder agglomeration are required for these methods so these methods
have some disadvantages. In past years, more attention has attracted by
hydrothermal method for the preparation of nano-sized oxides. In this method,
high temperature and pressure can provide a special environment for the growth
of nanoparticles, thus the morphology of product can be easily controlled.
Compared with other methods, it has the following features: Good crystallization
powders can be obtained directly without calcination; powders have good
dispersion, narrow particle size-distribution, large specific surface area and high
activity; and there is little pollution in the process

In catalysis field tin oxide( SnO2)attained a little attention.[8] compared to other

metal oxides. However, tin oxide supported catalysts have been reported to be
active for oxidative dehydrogenation of propane, CO oxidation, esterification
reaction, reductionofNO/NO2 to N2 and hydrogenation reaction of nitrate. Tin
oxide has been more commonly used as a catalyst for The oxidation of organic
compounds has used tin oxide as a catalyst. In most of its applications, high
surface area metal oxides such as SnO2 is favorable and preferred due to high
number of surface active groups. Generally, the high surface area SnO2 can be
produced, [9] with various surfactants such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide,
CTAB, dodecylamine, tetradecylamine and sodium dioctylsulfosuccinate, AOT.
However, the difficulty to remove the surfactant from the sample, affects the
properties of the final product. SnO2 can be synthesized using a variety of
techniques such as sol-gel, hydrothermal methodprecipitation, carbothermal
reduction, polymeric precursor and thin film by chemical vapor deposition. In a
sol-gel process the precursor solution is converted into an inorganic solid by a)
dispersion of colloidal particles in a liquid (sol) and b) conversion of sol into rigid
phase (gel) by hydrolysis and condensation reactions. The sol-gel method is well
applicable for the synthesis of nanoparticles of oxides of different metals like Sn,
Ti, V, Zr, Ta, Nb, Hf, In, Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Sm, W, Li, Al in aqueous, non-aqueous
(organic) mediums with or without surfactants.


Nanomaterials have variety of physical chemical and functional properties and have attracted significant

industrial and scientific interest. Metal oxide semiconductors are effective and low cost.SnO 2 is an n type

semiconductor in its purest ground state having bandgap of 3.6eV. Due to highly sensitive gas sensing

and optical properties it is considered as the most promising functional material. Particle size and shape of

nanoparticles effect the conductivity and optical properties of SnO2 [10]. It has large number of
applications for gas sensors and, transparent conductivity electrode and solar cells. It is also used in

lithium batteries, optoelectronic devices. SnO2 is also used as catalyst for the oxidation of organic

compounds. It has to high degree of transparency in the visible spectrum which make SnO2 an important

material (rohana adnan).

Stannic Dioxide Nanoparticles

The SnO2 nanoparticles is an important semiconductor having wide band gap energy in the range of 3.6

eV and and 3.9 eV . The SnO2 is an n-type semiconductor in its purest ground state. The crystal structure

of SnO2 is tetragonal/rutile as presented in different places. Tin dioxide has been widely studied due to

their distinctive properties such as excellent optical, electrical, great thermal stability and chemical

property. Numerous methods have been used to fabricate Stannic dioxide nanoparticles, e.g., spray

pyrolysis [11]. hydrothermal, evaporation tin grains in air , chemical vapor deposition [12]. thermal

evaporation of SnO2 powders , rapid oxidation of elemental tin and the sol-gel method [13]. The SnO2

NPs have useful application in solar cells in lithium batteries, in gas sensors transistor, and as catalyst and

glass electrodes.

Tin dioxide (SnO2), an n-type semiconductor with a wide band gap of 3.6 eV, has been widely

used in photocatalytic degradation of organic dyes(Han et al., 2009)photovoltaic devices,

rechargeable lithium batteries, and so on. In particular, remarkable receptivity to variations in

gaseous environments and excellent chemical stability have made SnO2 the bestknown gas-

sensing material. Over the past decades, considerable efforts have been made to improve the

sensitivity and selectivity of SnO2-based solid-state gas sensors through modifying the sensing

material itself and the fabrication technique, such as doping of catalytic metal particles,

hybridization of different sensing materials,and optimization of working temperature. In

principle, gas sensing by metal-oxide semiconductors like SnO2 is based on the oxidation–

reduction reaction of the detected gases occurring on the semiconductor surface, which leads to
an abrupt change in conductance of the sensor. For this reason, the gas-sensing ability of metal

oxide semiconductors is in theory very sensitive to the crystal faces of the sensing materials.

From the viewpoint of chemical activity, metaloxide nanocrystals with particular exposed crystal

planes, such as high-index facets, may be good sensing materials, because high-index facets

having high densities of atom steps, ledges, kinks, and dangling bonds usually exhibit much

higher chemical activity. However, such a strategy to improve sensitivity and selectivity of

sensors has not attracted much attention up to now, possibly due to the difficulty of synthesizing

metal-oxide nanocrystals with specific exposed crystal planes.


Preparation and characterization

All the reagents were of analytical grade purchased from sigma-aldrich, and used without further
purification. Tin chloride and sodium hydroxide were used. Double distilled water is used
throughout the experiment.

Synthesis of SnO2

For the synthesis of SnO2 nanoparticles we take SnCl2.2H2O and dissolve it in 1000 ml of

deionized water .80ml of this solution was taken and dissolved in 20ml ethanol. After this the pH

of the solution was maintained at 10 by adding NaOH. The mixture was heated and stirred for 30

minutes. After this the solution was cooled washed 3-4 times with distilled water and dried in

oven to obtain powdered sample


An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. Antimicrobial

medicines can be grouped according to the microorganisms they act primarily against. For
example, antibiotics are used against bacteria and antifungals are used against fungi. They can
also be classified according to their function. Agents that kill microbes are called microbicidal,
while those that merely inhibit their growth are called biostatic. The use of antimicrobial
medicines to treat infection is known as antimicrobial chemotherapy, while the use of
antimicrobial medicines to prevent infection is known as antimicrobial prophylaxis.

The main classes of antimicrobial agents are disinfectants ("nonselective antimicrobials" such as
bleach), which kill a wide range of microbes on non-living surfaces to prevent the spread of
illness, antiseptics (which are applied to living tissue and help reduce infection during surgery),
and antibiotics (which destroy microorganisms within the body). The term "antibiotic" originally
described only those formulations derived from living microorganisms but is now also applied to
synthetic antimicrobials, such as the sulphonamides, or fluoroquinolones. The term also used to
be restricted to antibacterials (and is often used as a synonym for them by medical professionals
and in medical literature), but its context has broadened to include all antimicrobials.
Antibacterial agents can be further subdivided into bactericidal agents, which kill bacteria, and
bacteriostatic agents, which slow down or stall bacterial growth. In response, further
advancements in antimicrobial technologies have resulted in solutions that can go beyond simply
inhibiting microbial growth. Instead, certain types of porous media have been developed to kill
microbes on contact.
Selman Waksman, who was awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine for developing 22
antibiotics—most notably Streptomycin.

Antibacterial are used to treat bacterial infections. The drug toxicity to humans and other animals
from antibacterial is generally considered low.(depends)[citation needed] Prolonged use of
certain antibacterial can decrease the number of gut flora, which may have a negative impact on
health. Consumption of probiotics and reasonable eating can help to replace destroyed gut flora.
Stool transplants may be considered for patients who are having difficulty recovering from
prolonged antibiotic treatment, as for recurrent Clostridium difficult infections.

The discovery, development and use of antibacterial during the 20th century has reduced
mortality from bacterial infections. The antibiotic era began with the pneumatic application of
nitroglycerine drugs, followed by a "golden" period of discovery from about 1945 to 1970, when
a number of structurally diverse and highly effective agents were discovered and developed.
Since 1980 the introduction of new antimicrobial agents for clinical use has declined, in part
because of the enormous expense of developing and testing new drugs.[8] In parallel there has
been an alarming increase in antimicrobial resistance of bacteria, fungi, parasites and some
viruses to multiple existing agents.

Antibacterial are among the most commonly used drugs and among the drugs commonly
misused by physicians, for example, in viral respiratory tract infections. As a consequence of
widespread and injudicious use of antibacterial, there has been an accelerated emergence of
antibiotic-resistant pathogens, resulting in a serious threat to global public health. The resistance
problem demands that a renewed effort be made to seek antibacterial agents effective against
pathogenic bacteria resistant to current antibacterial. Possible strategies towards this objective
include increased sampling from diverse environments and application of metagenomics to
identify bioactive compounds produced by currently unknown and uncultured microorganisms as
well as the development of small-molecule libraries customized for bacterial targets.

Antimicrobial use is known to have been common practice for at least 2000 years. Ancient
Egyptians and ancient Greeks used specific molds and plant extracts to treat infection.

In the 19th century, microbiologists such as Louis Pasteur and Jules Francois Joubert observed
antagonism between some bacteria and discussed the merits of controlling these interactions in
medicine. In 1928, Alexander Fleming became the first to discover a natural antimicrobial
fungus known as Penicillium rubens and named the extracted substance penicillin which in 1942
was successfully used to treat a Streptococcus infection.
Antimicrobial activity


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