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Chemical Water and Wastewater Treatment VIII

Article · April 2005


DOI: 10.2166/9781780402840

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Hermann H Hahn Erhard Hoffmann


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Chemical Water and
Wastewater Treatment IX

Proceedings of the
th
12 Gothenburg Symposium 2007
20–23 May, 2007
Ljubljana, Slovenia

Edited by
Hermann H. Hahn
Erhard Hoffmann
Hallvard Ødegaard
Published by IWA Publishing, Alliance House, 12 Caxton Street, London SW1H 0QS, UK
Telephone: +44 (0) 20 7654 5500; Fax: +44 (0) 20 7654 5555; Email: publications@iwap.co.uk
Web: www.iwapublishing.com

First published 2007


© 2007 IWA Publishing

Printed by TJ International (Ltd), Padstow, Cornwall, UK.

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The publisher makes no representation, express or implied, with regard to the accuracy of the
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Disclaimer
The information provided and the opinions given in this publication are not necessarily those of
IWA or of the authors, and should not be acted upon without independent consideration and
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British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data


A CIP catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

Library of Congress Cataloging- in-Publication Data


A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress

ISBN: 1-84339-145-7
ISBN 13: 978-1-84339-145-6
Preface
One day you read that the Millennium goals in the realm of Water Supply and
Sanitation will be met and then the next day you find reports that it is impossible
to stay abreast of the steadily deteriorating situation. It seems that this discrepancy
is not caused by a lack of technological instruments. Sometimes we are informed
that the new instruments of “public-private-partnership” (PPP) will bring us closer
to a solution of these problems. Yet the apparent need for equal opportunities to
all, at affordable costs, sheds doubt on the suitability of such PPP concepts. It is
this dilemma that determines our work to a larger degree than many a technological
development. For these reasons, this symposium and these proceedings start
with clear statements and tested recommendations on economic and organisatorial
aspects. It is in part legal framework that the European Union and the United
Nations provide, which guide the economic criteria reported in these papers. But
the reader also finds practical experience and the underlying economic and
managerial theory as it contributes to solutions to organisational questions,
developed by decision makers, economic experts and operators.
It is technology, foremost water technology, which determines the content of
this book. But then the incipient consideration of economic and sociological
parameters of former books has given way to a clear focus on regulations, finances
and organisation in the very beginning of the symposium. Experts from all over
the globe contribute solutions to technical, economic and organisational problems
in drinking water treatment and wastewater (and stormwater) collection, treatment
and reuse. There are new ideas in the field of chemicals, proven concepts in plant
operation, and possibilities for disinfecting all kinds of waters and recovering
secondary resources.
The editorial team, with its shared responsibilities, hopes that the readers of
this book will be pleased with the information it contains. Hallvard Ødegaard
structured the program work and Erhard Hoffmann cooperated successfully with
Karin Knisely to present again a well-formulated and readable opus. But most of
all, the editors are indebted to the authors of all the outstanding papers collected
in this book.

Karlsruhe/Trondheim
Mar 2007
H. H. Hahn
E. Hoffmann
H. Ødegaard

V
VI Committees

Organising Committee
Hermann H. Hahn, University Fridericiana, Karlsruhe, Germany
Torsten Hedberg, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
Jan Nobel, Kemira Kemwater, Sweden
Hallvard Ødegaard, The Norwegian University of Science
and Technology, Norway

Members of the Programme Committee


E. Arvin, Denmark
P. M. Huck, Canada
P. Balmér, Sweden
R. Mujeriego, Spain
M. Boller, Switzerland
M. Ottaviani, Italy
M. Swiderska-Broz, Poland
R. Pujol, France
B. Jimenez Cisneros, Mexico
F. Rogalla, UK
S. Dentel, USA
Y. Song, China
D. Dixon, Australia
J. C. van Dijk, The Netherlands
P. Dolejs, Czech Republic
Y. Watanabe, Japan
J. Fettig, Germany
T. Tuhkanen, Finland
S. S. Ferreira Filho, Brazil
H. Ødegaard, Norway
N. Graham, UK
Contents VII

Regulations, Finance and Political Influence


The Principle of Cost-Recovery in Article 9 of the
Water Framework Directive – a Price Driver for Water? ................ 3
P. Kessler
Water Privatization Models: Reasons, Characteristics,
Difficulties & Lessons ...................................................................... 11
J. Allouche and M. Finger
Project Financing as a Model of Private Participation
in the Sewerage Sector ................................................................... 25
Z. Mahmutspahic
Chemical Wastewater Treatment
The Potential of Chemical and Physical Wastewater
Treatment Technologies within the Scope of the
EU Water Framework Directive ..................................................... 37
A.F. van Nieuwenhuijzen, W.F. Slotema and J.F. Kramer
Microscreening in Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment ......... 49
M. Ljunggren, L.-G. Alm, B. Nilsson, E. Persson,
R. Strube, L. Svensson and J. la Cour Jansen
Optimising Chemical Dosage in Primary Settling Tanks ................. 59
J.P. Hangouet, R. Pujol, P. Bourgogne,
D. Ropert and G. Lansalot
Overcoming Limitations of Biofilm Reactors:
Optimising the Solids and Energy Balance ...................................... 69
T. F. Chan, F. Michelet, F. Rogalla and A. Cheng
Operational Experiences in Wastewater Treatment
Control of Filamentous Foam Formers by Chemical Addition ......... 83
C. Kragelund, B. Nilsson, K. Eskilsson, K. Fritzson,
A.-M. Bøgh and P. H. Nielsen
Phosphorus Removal at the Wastewater Works
of St.Petersburg, SUE “Vodokanal of St. Petersburg” .................. 93
A. Kinebas, B. Vasilev, A. Jantunen, L. Joensuu,
P. Peuraniemi and A. Klimenko
VIII Contents

Decentralised Treatment of Runoff from Traffic Areas


– Principles and Practical Aspects .................................................103
J. Fettig, M. Miethe and V. Pick
Sludge Treatment and Residuals Recovery
Kemicond – Sludge Conditioning by an Acidic
Oxidative Treatment – Reaction Mechanisms and
Process Optimization ...................................................................... 117
C. Schaum, P. Cornel, P. Faria,
M. Recktenwald and O. Norrlöw
New Technologies for the Improvement of Sludge Dewatering ....129
J. Kopp
Experimental Comparison of Physico-Chemical
Treatments for Excess Sludge Reduction in
Wastewater Treatment Plants ........................................................141
G. Andreottola, P. Foladori and G. Ziglio
Chemical-Thermal Disintegration of Floating Sludge .....................155
B. Heinzmann and G. Engel
Coagulants and Flocculants
Beyond DLVO: Advancing the Capabilities of
Coagulation Process Models ..........................................................171
S. K. Dentel
Nano-Inorganic Polymer Flocculant: From Theory to Practice......181
D.S. Wang, X.H. Wu, L. Huang, H.X. Tang and J.H. Qu
Characterization and Coagulation Performance of
Liquid Poly-Silicic-Ferric Coagulant (PSF) and Solid PSF .............189
F. Ying and Y. Shuili
Coagulation in Drinking Water Treatment
NOM Characteristics and Treatability by Coagulation:
Comparison of Norwegian and Australian Waters .........................207
B. Eikebrokk, R. Fabris, M. Drikas and C. Chow
The Effect of Iron and Aluminium Chemicals in Humic Water
Treatment by High-rate Dissolved Air Flotation .............................221
P. Jokela, M. Vaahtera, T. Vuori and J. Meriluoto
Contents IX

An Investigation into the Importance of Cell Shape and Algae


Derived Organics on the Performance of Coagulation ..................231
R. Henderson, S. A. Parsons and B. Jefferson
Disinfection
Using Engineered Media to Minimize the Chemical
Dependency of Filtration ................................................................247
M.B. Emelko, D. Scott, and J. Bolton
A Mechanistic Approach to Predict Disinfection
By-Product Precursor Removal during
Conventional Coagulation ...............................................................257
E. Sharp, B. Borrill, E.H. Goslan and B. Jefferson
The Use of Hyproform Disinfection System in
Wastewater Treatment: Batch and Full Scale Trials ......................267
P. Ragazzo, N. Chiucchini and F. Bottin
Membrane Filtration
Impact of Coagulation on the Structure and Hydraulic
Properties of Fouling Layers in Submerged
Membrane Filtration .......................................................................279
P. Kovalsky, S. Santiwong, G. Bushell and T.D. Waite
Ceramic Membranes and Coagulation for TOC
Removal from Surface Waters .......................................................289
J. Abrahamsson, U. Eriksson, G. Milton,
J. Clement, F. Rogalla, K. Hattori and K. Yambe
Removal of Selected PhACs and EDS in Surface
Water by Membrane Filtration with Biological
Filtration Pre-treatment ..................................................................297
C. Guay, S. Peldszus, P.M. Huck, B.
McPhail and D.B. Mosqueda-Jimenez
Chemical Treatment for Management of
Membrane Concentrate ..................................................................307
K. L. Mercer and J. E. Tobiason
X Contents
Oxidation in Drinking Water Treatment
Impact of UV/H2O2 on Drinking Water Chlor(am)ine
Demand and By-products ...............................................................319
N. Paradis and R. Hofmann
Treatment of NOM-Containing Water by a
Photocatalytic-Vacuum UV Reactor ..............................................329
K. Azrague, S.W. Osterhus and H. Ødegaard
Adsorption for Removal of Micro Pollutants
Performance Evaluation of Granular Activated Carbon
for the Removal of Selected Pharmaceuticals and
Endocrine Disrupting Substances from Drinking Water .................343
Z. Yu, S. Peldszus and P.M. Huck
Removal of p-Nitrophenol by Different Types of
Ultrafiltration and Powdered Activated Carbon Adsorption ...........353
I. Ivancev-Tumbas, R. Hobby, S. Panglisch,
M. Sustrath, B. Kreckel and R. Gimbel
Antibiotics Removal Using Oxidation, UV Irradiation
and Adsorption ................................................................................363
K.-J. Choi, S.-G. Kim and S.-H. Kim
Arsenic Removal
Purification and Concentration of Phosphorous in
Municipal Wastewater by Zirconium Sulfate-Surfactant
Micelle Mesostructure ....................................................................373
T. Hanzawa, Y. Watanabe, H. Satoh, M. Iwamoto,
S. H. Lee and K. H. Yeon
Removal of Arsenic by Iron Oxides in Granular
Sand Filters in Water Works Treating Groundwater .......................381
E. Arvin and L. Ramsay
Elimination of Arsenic Substances from Groundwater
for Production of Drinkable Water Using Microdrop
Reactor System ..............................................................................389
E.G. Søgaard and C. Sønderby
Authors Index ............................................................................. 401

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