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Santiago City, Philippines



Briefly describe the research problem.

Focus on the actual situation of the study site. The researcher may conduct interviews with the
potential participants of the study and determine the actual situation/experiences relative to the issue.
It is something that can be observed, experienced, or can be supported by statistical data

State the purpose of the study, including the audience who will benefit from it.

In writing this section, observe this format:

First Sentence:

The purpose of this ____ (research design) is to ____ (verb) the ____ (independent variable)
to ____ (dependent variable) for ____ (participants) at _____ (research site).)

For example:

The purpose of this survey (research design) study is to describe (verb) the effect of leadership
experience (independent variable) on sales volume (dependent variable) produced by hourly
employees (participant) at a major retail center in Santiago City (study site).

Qualitative : to understand; to examine the meaning of; to discover; to explore; to

develop; to describe
Quantitative : to describe a variable; to compare a variable composed of two or
more groups in terms of the dependent variable; to relate two or more variables

Second Sentence:

The result of this study will be beneficial to ____, ____, ____, and _____. (Fill-in the blanks
the stakeholders who will benefit in your study)

State the research questions or hypotheses

In writing this section, decide whether to ask questions about the relationship between/among
variables or make predictions about them. If you are going to ask questions, make sure you have both
descriptive and inferential questions. If you intend to predict relationships, decide whether to state null
or alternative hypotheses.

State the theory you will subject to a test in this study

In writing this section, follow these steps: First, identify the theory that will be used in your
study. Second, describe the theory emphasizing its main hypotheses. Third, describe the use of the

First Sentence: State the theory, for example:

This study is anchored on the theory of _____.

Second Sentence: Describe the theory, be able to include the citation, for example:

This theory explains that (describe the theory, include citation) blah blah blah (Author, year).

Third Sentence: Explain the appropriateness of the theory to your study, for example:

This theory is appropriate for the study because blah blah blah.

For example:

This study is anchored on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory. This theory identifies
priorities set by every person, considers human needs in ascending hierarchy based on importance
starting from physiological or basic physical needs; then security and safety needs, belonging and
social needs; esteem and status needs; and self-actualization and fulfillment needs (Lorenzana,
2003). This theory is appropriate for the study because it presupposes that an individual’s goal or
aspiration which is basically his/her need or priority in which in this study it will determine to what
extent the aspiration of out-of-school youth is influenced by the level of priority set for education.

Describe the type of literature you will do.

In writing this section, identify the topics or variables that you will review to support the study.

This is how to write it:

The researcher will conduct _____ (specify the type of literature review that you will do:
summative, narrative, methodological) review of literature and studies on ____, _____, _____,
____, ____, and ____. (Fill-in the topics that you will review for your study)


State the research design and explain why it is appropriate for this study.

First Sentence: State the research design

Second Sentence: discuss the purpose of the chosen design by citing an author of a research book
Third: Explain why the chosen design is appropriate for the study.
Research Approach : Quantitative; Qualitative
Research Strategy : Descriptive; experimental, quasi experimental
Research Design : Survey, observational, case study, phenomenological, pretest-post-test

For Example:

This study will utilize a case study as a research design. Case study is an in-depth investigation
of a single person, group, event, or community using data gathered from a variety of sources and by
using different methods (McLeod, 2008). This design is appropriate for the study in as much that
focus group discussion will be utilized to explore on what youth themselves identify as their most
important aspirations along with what they identify as the most influential factors.

Describe the study site and participants.

First Sentence: Describe the study site

Second Sentence: Specify the participants of the study with a focus on the eligibility and criteria in
selecting participants.

For Example:

The study will be conducted at six hospitals in Region 02, which composes of two educational
hospitals, two private hospitals, and two government hospitals. The participants of the study are the
nurses employed in the hospital for at least one year, regardless of the status of their employment.

Describe the population size, sample size, and method used in determining the sample. (optional)

First Sentence: Describe the total population

Second Sentence: Describe the Sample Size
Third Sentence: How the sample size will be selected (explain the sampling technique to be used)

For Example:

The total population of the study is 2,411 nurses. Using slovin’s formula a sample size of 740 is
determined which will be selected through stratified random sampling method.

Describe the data collection instrument/materials

In writing this section, do the following: First, discussed whether the instrument is designed for
this study, a modified instrument, or an intact instrument developed by someone else. Second, if you
will adopt an instrument developed by someone else, indicate that the developer granted you
permission or it should be clearly indicated that permission from the author will be sought. Third,
describe the parts of the instrument. For experimental studies, provide details of the materials used in
the study.
First Sentence : Describe the instrument to be used in the study, for example:

The primary instrument to be used in the study is a researcher-constructed questionnaire

based on the (give details of the basis in developing in the questionnaire).

The primary instrument to be used in the study is a questionnaire developed by Author known
as (name of the instrument/questionnaire). The researcher will secure permission from the author
for the use of the instrument.

Second Sentence : Describe the parts of the instrument. For example:

The questionnaire is composed of three parts, namely: Part 1 – (specify); Part 2 – (specify;
and Part 3 – Specify)

In case of a qualitative study:

The primary instrument to be used in the study to gather the needed data is an interview
guide to be developed by the researcher based on an extensive review of literature. It shall cover
probing questions on ______, ______, ______ (for the items to be filled-in the blanks, based it on
the research questions)

Describe the data analysis procedure.

In writing this section, discuss what statistical tools will be used to analyze the data and what
software will be used.

How to write it:

For RQ 1, mean and standard deviation will be used. For RQ 2, (specify the statistical
treatment). For RQ 3, (specify the statistical treatment). Microsoft Excel will be utilized in the analysis
of data.

For Qualitative Study

Analysis of data will be immediately done after the transcription of the interview. Data will
be transcribed verbatim, but will be translated in English to fit the need of the reader. Thematic
analysis will be employed where coded transcripts will be categorized to arrive at themes associated
to the research questions.
Describe the anticipated ethical issues in the study.

In writing this section, provide details on some ethical issues that this study will probably
encounter and how you will address these issues ethically.

 Secure permission from the authorities

 Informed consent (if not minor) or parent’s permission (if minor)
 Confidentiality of data
 Anonymity of participants

For example:

The researcher will protect the participant’s right to self-determination, anonymity and
confidentiality. For this reason, the participants will be given full information on the nature of the
study through a written informed consent which will be distributed with the questionnaire. The data
will be kept confidentially and the participants will be assured of their right to withdraw at any time.
The names of the participants will not be recorded and so all with the data that will be rendered.

Describe the pilot test you will perform before conducting this study to your intended participants.

In writing this section, if the instrument has not been validated yet, discus how the pilot testing
of the instrument will be conducted.

How to write it:

If researcher-constructed

The researcher-constructed questionnaire were derived from an extensive review of the

literature and it will be subjected to content validation by the research adviser and a practitioner in
the field. A pilot study will be undertaken to test the relevance and clarity of the questions as a basis
for refinement to avoid misunderstanding. A sample of ten of randomly selected students will be
involved in the pilot testing. The result of the pilot test will be reviewed and evaluated using cronbach
alpha tool to ensure its validity and reliability.

If adopted:

To further ensure the validity and reliability of the questionnaire to be used in the study pilot
testing will be conducted to a sample of ten randomly selected participants. The result of the pilot test
will be reviewed and evaluated using cronbach alpha tool to ensure its validity and reliability.

For Qualitative Study

The researcher-constructed interview guide will be subjected to content validation by the

research adviser and practitioners in the field. The interview will be run through a few individuals
who are not participants of the study to ensure its validity and reliability.