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Mean

The mean is the average of the numbers: a calculated "central" value of a set of numbers.

To calculate it: add up all the numbers, then divide by how many numbers there are.

Example
What is the mean of 2, 7 and 9?

Solution
Add the numbers: 2 + 7 + 9 = 18
Divide by how many numbers (i.e. we added 3 numbers): 18 ÷ 3 = 6
So the Mean is 6

Reference : https://www.mathsisfun.com/definitions/mean.html

Median
Is the “middle" of a sorted list of numbers.

To find the Median, place the numbers in value order and find the middle number.

Example:
Find the Median of {13, 23, 11, 16, 15, 10, 26}.

Solution
Put them in order: {10, 11, 13, 15, 16, 23, 26}

The middle number is 15, so the median is 15.

Mode
The number which appears most often in a set of numbers.

Example: in {6, 3, 9, 6, 6, 5, 9, 3}

Solution
The Mode is 6 (it occurs most often).

Reference :https://www.mathsisfun.com/definitions/mode.html

Standard Deviation
The standard deviation is defined as the average amount by which individual data items in a
data set differ from the arithmetic mean of all the data in the set.
The standard deviation is the square root of the variance. It is denoted by the symbol .
Example:
If electricity bills indollarsindollars of 8 houses are 70, 82, 76, 79, 83, 85, 72, 77 and mean is 78
then find the standard deviation.

Solution
Standard deviation

Reference : http://www.icoachmath.com/math_dictionary/Standard-deviation

Mean Deviation
Mean deviation is a statistical measure of the average deviation of values from the mean in a
sample. It is calculated first by finding the average of the observations. The difference of each
observation from the mean then is determined. The deviations then are averaged. This analysis
is used to calculate how sporadic observations are from the mean.

Example:
List data values in a column, for example:
2 5 7 10 12 14

Solution
Find the average of these values by adding them and then and dividing them by the number of
values. In our example, the average is 8.3 (2+5+7+10+12+14=50, which is divided by 6).

Find the difference between each value and the average. Using our example, the differences
are: 2 - 8.3 = 6.3 5 - 8.3 = 3.3 7 - 8.3 = 1.3 10 - 8.3 = 1.7 12 - 8.3 = 3.7 14 - 8.3 = 5.7

The average of the differences in our example is 3.66: (6.3+3.3+1.3+1.7+3.7+5.7 divided by 6).

Reference : https://sciencing.com/calculate-mean-deviation-7152540.html

Variance
Variance is a statistical measure that tells us how measured data vary from the average value of
the set of data.

In other words, variance is the mean of the squares of the deviations from the arithmetic mean
of a data set.

Examples :
Variance is the square of the standard deviation.
The formula for variance is

Example
Find the variance of the data set {1, 2, 3, 4, 10}.

Choices

A. 10
B. 9
C. 8
D. 7
Correct Answer: A

Solution:

tep 1: The mean of the data set {1, 2, 3, 4, 10} is [Use the formula for mean.]
Step 2: The standard deviation of the data set is
[Use the formula for mean.]
Step 3:
Step 4: The variance of the data set is [Substitute ]

Reference: http://www.icoachmath.com/math_dictionary/variance.html

Random Variable
Random Variable is a set of possible values from a random experiment.

Example:
Tossing a coin: we could get Heads or Tails.

Solution:
Let's give them the values Heads=0 and Tails=1 and we have a Random Variable "X":
random variable 1

In short:

X = {0, 1}

Note: We could choose Heads=100 and Tails=150 or other values if we want! It is our choice.

Reference :https://www.mathsisfun.com/data/random-variables.html

Null Hypothesis
The null hypothesis is the proposition that implies no effect or no relationship between
phenomena or populations. Any observed difference would be due to sampling error (random
chance) or experimental error. The null hypothesis is popular because it can be tested and
found to be false, which then implies there is a relationship between the observed data. It may
be easier to think of it as a nullifiable hypothesis or one the researcher seeks to nullify

Example
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Null Hypothesis Definition and Examples
What is the null hypothesis?
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A hypothesis is a prediction based on observations. The null hypothesis predicts no difference
from an experimental variable or between two populations.
A hypothesis is a prediction based on observations. The null hypothesis predicts no difference
from an experimental variable or between two populations. PM Images, Getty Images
by
Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated May 20, 2018
The null hypothesis is the proposition that implies no effect or no relationship between
phenomena or populations. Any observed difference would be due to sampling error (random
chance) or experimental error. The null hypothesis is popular because it can be tested and
found to be false, which then implies there is a relationship between the observed data. It may
be easier to think of it as a nullifiable hypothesis or one the researcher seeks to nullify.

The alternate hypothesis, HA or H1, proposes that observations are influenced by a nonrandom
factor. In an experiment, the alternate hypothesis suggests that the experimental or independent
variable has an effect on the dependent variable.

Also Known As: H0, no-difference hypothesis

How to State a Null Hypothesis


There are two ways to state a null hypothesis. One is to state it as a declarative sentence, and
the other is to present it as a mathematical statement.

For example, say a researcher suspects that exercise is correlated to weight loss, assuming a
diet remains unchanged. The average length of time to achieve a certain weight loss is an
average of 6 weeks when a person works out five times a week. The researcher wants to test
whether weight loss takes longer if the number of workouts is reduced to three times a week.

The first step to writing the null hypothesis is to find the (alternate) hypothesis. In a word
problem like this, you're looking for what you expect as the outcome of the experiment. In this
case, the hypothesis is "I expect weight loss to take longer than 6 weeks."

This can be written mathematically as: H1: μ > 6

In this example, μ is the average.

Now, the null hypothesis is what you expect if this hypothesis does not happen. In this case, if
weight loss isn't achieved in greater than 6 weeks, then it must occur at a time equal to or less
than 6 weeks.

H0: μ ≤ 6

The other way to state the null hypothesis is to make no assumption about the outcome of the
experiment. In this case, the null hypothesis is simply that the treatment or change will have no
effect on the outcome of the experiment. For this example, it would be that reducing the number
of workouts would not affect time to achieve weight loss:
H0: μ = 6

Null Hypothesis Examples


"Hyperactivity is unrelated to eating sugar" is an example of a null hypothesis. If the hypothesis
is tested and found to be false, using statistics, then a connection between hyperactivity and
sugar ingestion may be indicated. A significance test is the most common statistical test used to
establish confidence in a null hypothesis.

Another example of a null hypothesis would be, "Plant growth rate is unaffected by the presence
of cadmium in the soil." A researcher could test the hypothesis by measuring the rate of plant
growth of plants grown in a medium lacking cadmium compared with the rate of growth of plants
grown in a medium containing different amounts of cadmium. Disproving the null hypothesis
would set the groundwork for further research into the effects of different concentrations of the
element in soil.