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Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS SETTING

1.1.1 INTRODUCTION/BACKGROUND

Public architecture has always been a symbol of economic stability of regions


and countries since time immemorial. Government being one of the oldest institution
that humanity has long established before is of greater influence. Together with
architecture, it plays a vital role in the lives of its people.

Here in the Philippines, the government has three interdependent branches: the
legislative branch, the executive branch, and the judicial branch. Under the legislative
power is vested in the two-chamber Congress of the Philippines—the Senate is the
upper chamber and the House of Representatives is the lower chamber. This study
focuses on the Upper House of the bicameral congress.

Since its official establishment on 1916, exactly a century ago, the Senate of the
Philippines has moved its home many times. Eight to be exact since American
Colonization up to the World War and under administrative circumstances. From the
Goldenberg Mansion, where the First Session of the first Philippine Senate was held.
It moved to the Intendencia from 1916-1926 and was damaged by an earthquake. In
1926-1935, it occupied the Legislative Building now the present National Museum of
the Philippines. In 1945, with the liberalization of the country from the Japanese the
building along with Manila lay in ruins forcing the Senate to move in to the Temporary
Congress Building in Lepanto Street. It then moved to Manila City Hall in 1947-1948
which was temporary while the Legislative Building was under reconstruction. Then,
in 1949-1972, the building was made ready for use again.

After Martial Law was proclaimed on September 23, 1972—thus abolishing


Congress—the building was closed down and reinscribed with the name “Executive
House.” It was given over to various government offices. After the EDSA People Power
Revolution in 1986, the mixed use of the building continued—with the addition of the
restored Senate after 1987 and the replacement of the Prime Minister’s Office with the
Office of the Vice President. This state of affairs continued over the next decade, until

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various agencies were relocated, which in time left the National Museum as the sole
occupant of the building.

Since May 1997, the Senate has moved to the GSIS Building in Pasay City for
more space, paying an annual rent of P110, 000 000. 00 which is admitted by the
Senators to be not practical.

We are now a republic and independent country. Under no colonization and


other influence, meaning there is no need for the Upper Chamber to be moved from
time to time. Therefore, this issue must be enacted architecturally. Proposing this study
will seek an unconventional approach in building design of government offices and its
ancillary buildings. It will not be a question of what’s in greater influence rather a
collaborative effort in achieving a sustainable, secured, and economic design of the new
and permanent seat of the Philippine Senate.

1.1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Temporary residence only means resorting into great amount of leasing fee
which is evidently uneconomical for both the government and for its people. By 2012,
the Senate is said to be looking for a permanent relocation site near their present area;
tasked by then Senate President Juan Ponce Enrile to Senator Franklin Drilon. It is still
in a process of suggestions on where they would transfer but still left undecided until
now.

Institution alone without an adequate edifice will not be sufficient as a work


setting and in delivering efficient public services for the common good. With higher
amount of leasing fee which is when calculated together, it is more practical to construct
a new and well space programmed building for the occupants. Than to continue renting
over periods of time and spend more than what is economical. It will be an investment
as an initial stage of development but with the help of sustainability, the maintenance
cost will be lower than the annual rental cost.

Anyone involved in building design, procurement or maintenance in recent


years have been confronted in one way or another by the term sustainability. As an

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institutional building, it will be a forerunner among public offices in following the


mandate for green architecture especially now considering the present condition of
cities here in our country.

Inevitable and unbalanced coexistence of ecological sustainability and


economic growth that results to impediments such as congestion and waste of public
spaces can also be solved. By investing in innovative and responsible architecture for
the building and the locale as a whole.

1.1.3 ARCHITECTURAL THESIS GOALS/OBJECTIVES/STRATEGIES


1.1.3a THESIS GOAL

“To fight the illogicality, the government should have endeavored the opportunity
of owning structures and infrastructures and equipment that is central to their
respective operations.”

“To utilize innovative strategies in seeking a progressive architectural and design


solutions for institutional edifices.”

1.1.3b OBJECTIVES

I. To design a structure that will explore alternative approaches towards innovations of


vertical architecture.
 STRATEGIES

1. Evaluation of the site and the local surrounding environment.


2. Maximize the available lot and avoid wastage of space.

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II. To optimized green architecture being the new building standard within the city and
the region in general eventually.
 STRATEGIES
1. Ensure selection of consultants with ecological design credentials.
2. Make the most of the application of renewable resources found within the local.
3. Minimize construction methods that may cause other environmental problems.

III. To create a design that will break the breach between economic growth and
environmental viability.
 STRATEGY
1. Optimize the potential of the site and building orientation that can lead to
smaller costs for HVAC systems.

IV. To help with the promotion of public trust towards the government especially the
national level.

 STRATEGY
1. By designing a new and visually healthy facility, the people will be encouraged
to support other government projects knowing that they are the end beneficiaries of
these coming changes.

V. To integrate higher economic consciousness through saving money from the grand
leasing expenditures.
 STRATEGY
1. By providing a permanent home for the Senate, the government will be able to
achieve long term gains in saving budget and relocating it to other areas which needs
more attention like the education and health sectors.

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1.1.4 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS

1.1.4a SCOPE OF THE STUDY

With respect to the present condition of the Philippine Senate. With


considerations in their activities, work flow, and building circulation as well as the
commissions and organizations to be found in its building. The said project
encompasses the following:

 Relocation of the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the


Philippines to a permanent house.
 Provide facilities for the various services of the upper house of the
congress.
 Beautification of landscape design to promote the cleanliness and to give
the people another satisfaction of the project.
 Construction of a disaster proof facility.
 Acquirement of enough knowledge about the capacity of the main
building.
 Application of green strategies and environmental response to the
design.
 Promoting Filipino inspired designs.
 Provision of health, maintenance, and sanitation measures.

1.1.4b LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Being an architectural study, this will limit the ideals and concepts
within the circle of the only concerned field and the following:

 The proponents have minimal knowledge for the programs but not the one who will
implement it.
 The further study on how will be the flow of budgeting and financing inside the
structure after the construction.
 The further study on how new organization will be created inside the structure.

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1.1.5 PURPOSE/ RELEVANCE/ SIGNIFICANCE OF THE THESIS

Enhancement of the architectural vision in the Philippines will be given


focus in this research. By promoting Filipino design particularly for government
buildings like this one. It will have an impact towards the Filipino pride in having
peculiar and bold undertakings of building construction while uplifting Filipino
architecture.

Providing alternative and sensible design that will adapt to the present and
future changes both environmentally and socially. Also planning and programming
efficient spaces for necessary activities.

Improvement of the national government services through promotion of a


good work setting for the public servants and the common people.

Therefore, staging the three main aspects of architecture- the function, the
beauty, and the utilities of the proposed structure.

1.1.4 ASSUMPTIONS

The plan of the Senate to move out of the GSIS building first came out in
2008 under a resolution filed by Miriam Defensor Santiago.

In 2009, former Senate Majority Leader Juan Miguel Zubiri proposed to


transfer the Senate to the Film Center of the Philippines building instead of constructing
new edifice which would cost government between P500 to P1 billion. But his proposal
was taken down because of structural issues.
Then sen. Francis Escudero once suggested transferring to the Manila Central Post
Office in Lawton, Manila. But also rejected because of flooding issues and its grandeur.

University of the Philippines became also suggested site for the permanent
seat of the senate. But the student leaders didn’t approve because it could result to the

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violation of student’s democratic rights with the possible entry of military personnel in
the university as part of the Senate security staff.

They will also look into the possibly purchasing land and constructing a
new building for the Senate because the GSIS is not really an edifice originally built to
house a legislative body, Sen franklin Drilon said on an interview.
the Senate is still renting its offices in the Government Service Insurance System
(GSIS) at a cost of P11.943 million a month or P143.316 million a year. The Senate
transferred from the Old Congress Building to the GSIS property in 1997. It has paid
roughly over P2 billion in rent alone the past 18 years.

 Assumptions:
Since the proposal is a government building and in need of high security, the project
will be located in Pasay City near the Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex and
The GSIS Complex because of the limited access of public vehicles to prevent rallies
and other public attacks.

 Program:
The proposed construction of a permanent seat for the Senate of the Philippines will
lessen the expenses for the use of the building itself. Almost a billion would be saved
and can be used on other national projects. This proposal will also be flexible in
expansion if ever new type of legislative body will be approved.

 Cost and Construction:


Adapting green and resilient architecture will affect the cost of the project. Applying
those kind of designs will also help to the strength and design of the proposal.

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1.1.5 DEFINITIONS OF TERMS AND CONCEPTS

Bicameral

 Having two branches or chambers.

Congress

 The national legislative body of a country.


 A formal meeting or series of meetings for discussion between delegates, especially
those from a political party or labor union or from within a particular discipline.

GSIS

 A social security institution created by Commonwealth Act No. 186 that was passed on
November 14, 1936, and later amended under Republic Act No. 8291 dated June 24,
1997. GSIS, as designed in its charter, is a social insurance institution under
a defined benefit scheme.

Legislative

 Having the power to make laws.

Procurement

 The action of obtaining or procuring something.

Relocate

 Move to a new place and establish one's home or business there.

Stakeholder

 An independent party with whom each of those who make a wager deposits the money
or counters wagered.

Sustainability

 The ability to be sustained, supported, upheld, or confirmed.


 The quality of not being harmful to the environment or depleting natural resources, and
thereby supporting long-term ecological balance.

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1.2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

ARTICLE NO. 1
TITLE: High rent forces Senate to relocate
By: Kate Evangelista - INQUIRER.net
02:25 PM June 28, 2012

MANILA, Philippines — The Senate is looking for a new site to transfer its offices,
Senator Franklin Drilon confirmed Thursday.

In the weekly Kapihan sa Senado media forum, Drilon said that the Senate is paying
rent that totals to P110 million annually for their use of part of the GSIS Building in
Manila.

He said that this is not really practical and admitted that Senate President Juan Ponce
Enrile has tasked him and Senators Pia Cayetano and Ferdinand “Bongbong” Marcos
to form a committee to look for a new site.

Drilon said that they have been looking at several sites like the Film Center of the
Philippines that is near their current office and the Post Office building in Manila.

However, Drilon said they have structural issues regarding the Film Center and the Post
Office is too big and they find it not an ideal location since it is prone to flooding.

Meanwhile, Drilon said they are also looking at the University of the Philippines
campus in Diliman.

He added that they will also look into the possibly of purchasing land and constructing
a new building for the Senate. However, Drilon said that this is still in the preliminary
stages and that he cannot confirm any plans yet.

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ARTICLE NO. 2
TITLE: Senate eyeing UP Diliman campus for its permanent home, says Drilon
By: Kimberly Jane Tan - GMA News
6:33 PM June 28, 2012

Protesters would certainly find it more convenient. The Senate is considering moving
to the University of the Philippines (UP) Diliman campus in Quezon City.

During a weekly forum at the Senate on Thursday, Senator Franklin Drilon said Senate
President Juan Ponce Enrile has authorized him and Senators Pia Cayetano and
Ferdinand Marcos Jr., as a committee, to start examining the possibility of moving to a
new site, with UP Diliman as one possibility because of its location.

"We are paying about P110 million annually as rental to the GSIS and this is not really
an edifice originally built to house a legislative body," he said.

"Now, we will be examining the possibility of transferring to UP Diliman. We will be


having our own building. That’s public land. We can just use it or buy it," said Drilon.

The lower house is located at the Batasan complex, close to the sprawling 493-hectare
UP Diliman campus in Quezon City. The Senate would be competing with both
academe and business for the remaining empty space on the campus.

Nearly 38 hectares of the campus across Commonwealth Avenue are already reserved
for technology companies leasing land from UP, while the university itself is
experiencing a construction boom, with some buildings nearing completion and others
still in the planning stages.

When the Philippine Congress was restored by President Corazon Aquino in 1987, a
year after the ouster of Ferdinand Marcos who had abolished the bicameral legislature
when he declared Martial Law, the Senate occupied the old Finance building along
Padre Burgos street in Manila for some time. The building is now part of the National
Museum complex.

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The upper chamber is currently housed at the financial center of the Government
Service Insurance System (GSIS) along Roxas Boulevard in Pasay City.

He said the senators initially looked at the Film Center in Pasay City as a possible site,
but they had questions regarding its "structural capability."

Drilon said they also looked into the possibility of moving to the Post Office building
in Manila but it was too large, it was located in an often traffic-clogged district beside
the Pasig River, and the area was prone to flooding.

He said they also considered moving to the Batasan complex, where the Senate was
originally housed, but the area they occupied there was too small.

"One of the considerations is kailangan malapit sa House... kasi mahirap ang trabaho,
mahirap ang coordination," Drilon said. "No decision has been made. It’s in a
preliminary stage. We have not gone beyond examining options."

ARTICLE NO. 3
TITLE: Senate considering move to UP Diliman
By: InterAksyon.com
5:24 PM June 28, 2012 | Update 7:23 PM June 28, 2012

MANILA, Philippines - Senate President Juan Ponce Enrile has formed a committee to
study alternative sites for the Senate, Senator Franklin Drilon told reporters on
Thursday during the weekly Kapihan sa Senado. One leading candidate: the UP
Diliman campus in Quezon City.

Drilon said he had been asked and authorized to lead the search committee for a viable
site, and said the State University's main campus is an early option.

"We are still in the preliminary stages," he stressed.

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“The Senate President has authorized me and a committee composed of Senators Pia
Cayetano and Ferdinand Marcos to start examining the possibility of moving to a new
site,” Drilon said. “The GSIS building [where the Senate now holds office] was not
designed for a legislative body like the Senate, so we have to look for a new site and
preferably one near the House of Representatives where we can work more smoothly
as two legislative bodies.”

Among the sites considered by the committee were the Film Center inside the Cultural
Center of the Philippines complex in Pasay City, the central Post Office building at the
Liwasang Bonifacio in Manila and UP Diliman, near the Technohub Complex, in
Quezon City.

Film center, post office ruled out


“We looked at three sites. The first site we looked at is the Film Center. The
recommendation is not to go there because of questions pertaining to its structural
capability. The second is the Post Office, but again we did not proceed because one, it
is too huge; two, the location is not very ideal, and three, that area gets flooded. Now,
we will be examining the possibility of transferring to UP Diliman,” Drilon said.

“One of the considerations is it should be near the House of Representatives in order to


speed up coordination between the two chambers. We will be having our own building.
That’s (UP property) a public land. We can just use it or buy it,” he added.

The Lower House is in the Batasan Complex in Quezon City, roughly five kilometers
from UP Diliman.

One other suggestion submitted to Drilon’s committee is to utilize the government


center in Quezon City---that huge swathe of land bound by EDSA and East Avenue---
as the new site of the Senate. The suggestion was not yet considered by the committee.

“Again, we are just reviewing and examining the possible transfer, no decision has been
made. It’s in a preliminary stage; we have not gone beyond examining options. Another
edifice we’ve examined is the Batasan where the Senate was originally housed, but
that’s too small,” Drilon explained.

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Yearly rental at GSIS: P110 million

Today, the Philippine Senate is housed at the Government Service Insurance System
(GSIS) complex, paying P110 million annually as rental.

“We are paying about P110 million annually as rental to the GSIS and this is not really
an edifice originally built to house a legislative body,” Drilon said.

Prior to moving to Pasay City in 1997, the Senate was housed in the old Finance
Building of the national government in Manila. That structure now houses the National
Museum.

The Film Center has had structural problems from the start of its history, having been
rushed in time for a film festival during the Marcos era. The Film Center in fact
collapsed during construction, leading to charges and legend that some of the workers
that died in the accident remained buried in its foundations.

ARTICLE NO. 4
TITLE: Senate mulls moving to UP Diliman
By: Rappler.com
4:59 PM June 28, 2012 | Updated 8:21 PM June 28, 2012

Senators reject the Manila Film Center and the Central Post Office

MANILA, Philippines - Senate President Juan Ponce Enrile has asked fellow senators
to look for new sites that will house the legislative chamber, Sen Franklin Drilon told
reporters on Thursday, June 28.
Drilon said the University of the Philippines (UP) campus in Diliman, Quezon City, is
one possible site.

Moving to UP Diliman will make the senators closer to their counterparts in the House
of Representatives. The Batasan complex is also located in Quezon City.

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The Senate is currently renting space at the Government Service Insurance System
(GSIS) building in Pasay City. It is costing the chamber P110 million a year.

"This is not really an edifice originally built to house a legislative body,” said Drilon.

According to Drilon, Enrile tasked him, Senators Pia Cayetano and Ferdinand Marcos
to scout for possible sites.

Drilon said they have rejected the Manila Film Center and the Central Post Office as
options.

ARTICLE NO. 5
TITLE: Senate mulls moving to UP Diliman
By Ryan Chua - ABS-CBN News
04:19 PM June 28 2012 | Updated 03:31 AM June 29 2012

MANILA, Philippines - Some senators are studying the possibility of transferring to


another home from its present location in Pasay City.

Among the places being considered as a possible venue for a new Senate building is
the campus of the University of the Philippines in Quezon City, said Sen. Franklin
Drilon. He added that no decision has been made yet.

Drilon told reporters on Thursday that Senate President Juan Ponce Enrile has asked
him, Sen. Pia Cayetano, and Sen. Ferdinand Marcos Jr. to look for possible new sites
that will house the chamber.

At present, the Senate is just renting its space at the Government Service Insurance
System building in Pasay City for P110 million a year.

"This is not really an edifice originally built to house a legislative body," Drilon said.

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Aside from UP Diliman, earlier choices were the Manila Film Center and the Central
Post Office, but both options have been rejected.

ARTICLE: 6
TITLE: Film Center, Post Office as new Senate office?

By: The Philippine Star


Updated 12:35 PM July 4, 2012

MANILA, Philippines - The Senate remains on the lookout for a more suitable venue
to hold office in and to move closer to the House of Representatives.

In a television interview, Sen. Franklin Drilon said besides the huge rent the Senate
pays to the Government Service Insurance System for leasing a portion of the state
pension fund's building in Pasay City, the Senate needs to find a way to cut short the
travel time between it and the House of Representatives.

"Yearly, we are renting anywhere between P110 million and P120 million and we are
talking about [that amount] since 1992 here so that's a huge sum of money," Drilon
said.

He revealed that he and a few of his colleagues are looking for a better venue for the
Senate. Drilon said the first venue they considered was the Manila Film Center in Pasay
City.

However, he said they found the building's structure "very difficult".


The second venue was the "very elegant" Philippine Post Office building in Manila, but
found the venue "very big and that its surroundings get flooded."

The third offer came from the University of the Philippines for their properties along
Commonwealth Avenue in Quezon City, particularly at the UP-Ayala Technopark.

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"We are offered properties out of the campus and not in the campus. They have 493
hectares in all of UP System in Diliman alone. We are still looking at other options and
accepting proposals to us," he said.

Drilon added that as the Senate needs to work in coordination with the House of
Representatives, which holds office at the Batasang Pambansa Complex in Batasan
Hills in Quezon City, the two-hour travel time between Pasay City and Quezon City is
unacceptable.

He said the new Senate offices may be completed in 2016 when he finishes his term.

ARTICLE NO. 7
TITLE: Student leaders reject Senate move to UP

By: Keith Richard D. Mariano - Philippine Collegian


July 19, 2012

The university’s student leaders have expressed opposition to the proposed transfer of
the Senate of the Philippines to UP Diliman, fearing the possible deployment of military
personnel and displacement of communities within the campus.

UP Student Regent Cleve Robert Kevin Arguelles expressed concern on the possible
entry of the military and the displacement of urban communities located in the
university with the construction of the new Senate building.

Meanwhile, UP Diliman University Student Council (USC) Chairperson Gabriel Paolo


“Heart” Diño said that the university’s lands must be utilized for academic purposes.

In a June 26 press conference, Senator Franklin Drilon first revealed the Senate’s
ongoing search for possible sites near the House of Representatives (HOR), where the
new building of the higher chamber of the Congress will be located.

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The flagship campus of UP in Quezon City, which is about five kilometres away from
the HOR, is the leading option for the construction of Senate’s own building, said
Drilon, chairperson of the Ad Hoc Committee on the proposed transfer of the higher
chamber.

A part of the university’s property along Commonwealth Avenue is one possible site
for the new Senate building, which would likely occupy five hectares of UP property,
UP Diliman (UPD) Chancellor Caesar Saloma told the Collegian.

“Certainly, the new Senate Building will not be located inside the academic core of
UPD [since] its location will strictly follow the 2012 UP Diliman Land Use Plan,”
added Saloma.

The Senate is currently renting the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS)
Building in Pasay City for P110 million annually. The GSIS building was not designed
for a legislative body, said Drilon. “We have to look for a new site, preferably near
[HOR so] we can work more smoothly as two legislative bodies,” he added.

The proposed transfer of the Senate, however, is still in its preliminary stage with UPD
campus being one of the options for the relocation, said Drilon. Members of the Ad
Hoc Committee, Senators Pia Cayetano and Ferdinand Marcos III, are also studying
alternative sites including the government center in Quezon City along East Avenue,
he explained.

The Senate was formerly located in the building that currently houses the National
Museum in Manila before it moved to the GSIS Building in 1997.

Land utilization
The transfer of the Senate to UP was originally proposed by the university
administration as part of the university’s efforts to utilize campus lands to “protect and
promote the interests of the university.”
At present, at least 12 percent or about 60 hectares of UP Diliman’s 493 hectares of
land have structures including residential and commercial establishments that are built
without the university’s consent, said Saloma.

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“UPD land is public land that should be utilized for the common good. Allowing
[private individuals] to profit personally from public property is not only illegal but also
grossly unjust to the rest of the Philippine population,” explained Saloma.

If the proposal pushes through, the Philippine Senate would not be the first government
building to be constructed in UP Diliman. The Commission on Higher Education, the
Commission on Human Rights, the National Computer Center and the Philippine
Institute of Volcanology and Seismology are currently located within the university.

The university does not collect monthly rental from the government agencies currently
occupying UP’s properties. Instead, 20 percent of the total building floor space in each
agency is reserved for the university’s use. The entire structure eventually becomes a
UP property after 20 years.

The same terms may be adopted if the transfer of the Senate to the university pushes
through, although a longer lease period will be necessary, said Saloma.

“Being the national university of the country, UP should establish an enduring and
mutually beneficial partnership with the Senate so that both are able to accomplish their
purpose to bring about genuine and lasting prosperity to our country,” added Saloma.

Welfare of stakeholders

However, the student leaders rejected the planned utilization of the university’s land
for the new Senate building as the proposal undermines the welfare of the university’s
stakeholders.

As the national university, UP must always side with the people, said Arguelles.

“Ano na lang ang gagawin nila sa mga maralitang kasalukuyang naninirahan sa UP?
Dadalhin sa malayong lugar kung saan relatibong mas malayo sa kanilang
kasalukuyang trabaho?” said UP Diliman USC Committee on Committee Affairs Head
Mark Joseph Tagala.

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Also, the construction of the Senate building in UPD could result to the violation of
student’s democratic rights with the possible entry of military personnel in the
university as part of the Senate security staff, said Tagala.

Under the Sotto-Enrile Accord, an agreement between UP and the Department of


National Defense, military and police forces are prohibited to enter university premises.
The presence of military would make militant students vulnerable to surveillance and
red-tagging, explained Tagala.

“If the Senate will be transferring to UP, this might disrupt the academic environment.
The university must make dialogues and consultations with the stakeholders of the
university to fully discuss the effects of this scenario,” said Diño.

ARTICLE NO. 8
TITLE: Senate puts on hold plan to look for permanent home
By Jelly F. Musico
7:54 AM February 24, 2014

MANILA, Feb. 23 (PNA) – The Senate has put on hold its previous plan to look for a
permanent home.

” It was put on hold,” Senate President Franklin Drilon when asked about previous plan
to move from Pasay City to Quezon City, home of the House of Representatives.

In 2012, Drilon was designated to head an ad hoc committee that would examine the
possible transfer of the Senate from Government Service Insurance System (GSIS)
building in Pasay City.

The initial talks suggested the-499-hectare campus of the University of the Philippines
(UP) at Diliman in Quezon City as the possible site of new building for the upper
chamber.

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The plan of the Senate to move out of the GSIS building first came out in 2008 under a
resolution filed by Miriam Defensor Santiago.

In 2009, former Senate Majority Leader Juan Miguel Zubiri proposed to transfer the
Senate to the Film Center of the Philippines building instead of constructing new edifice
which would cost government between P500 to P1 billion.

Several senators and employees opposed Zubiri's proposal not only due to structural
defects but to rumors about the presence of ghosts in the Film Center building which
only few meters away from GSIS.

Several proposals also cropped up including construction of new Senate building inside
the Batasang Pambansa complex in Quezon City and transfer to Manila Central Post
Office in Lawton, Manila.

Last year, the Senate occupied additional space to house the multi-purpose hall and
office extensions of the senators near the session hall at the second floor of the GSIS
building south wing.

Except for senator Loren Legarda who holds office at the second floor, the rest of the
24 senators occupy the fifth and sixth floors for the respective satellite offices.

The Philippine Congress occupied the Old Congress Building along P. Burgos St. in
Manila from 1926 to 1945 with the Senate using the upper floors and the House
occupying the lower floors.

When the Congress building was destroyed in World War II, the two houses of
Congress moved at the Old Japanese Schoolhouse in Manila and returned to the
Congress building after its renovation in 1950.

In 1972, former President Ferdinand Marcos dissolved Congress and built the Batasang
Pambansa complex to house the unicameral parliament from 1978 to 1987.

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After the ouster of Marcos in 1986, the bicameral legislature was restored in 1987 and
the House inherited the Batansang Pambansa while the Senate returned to the Old
Congress building.

In May 1997, the Senate transferred to the GSIS building and paying the government
pension fund more than P100 million a year.

ARTICLE NO. 9
TITLE: House a homeowner while Senate remains homeless
By: Ernesto F. Herrera
9:01 PM May 25, 2015

AFTER 37 years, the National Housing Authority (NHA) just recently transferred the
title of the land of the Batasan Complex to the House of Representatives.

The House and the NHA have already signed the memorandum of agreement for the
conveyance of the title of the 19-hectare Batasan property in Quezon City.

With the land title the House is officially considered the property’s landowners and
cannot be evicted even by presidential action because it is protected by the
Constitutional provisions on private property.
Meanwhile, the Senate is still renting its offices in the Government Service Insurance
System (GSIS) at a cost of P11.943 million a month or P143.316 million a year.

The Senate transferred from the Old Congress Building to the GSIS property in 1997.
It has paid roughly over P2 billion in rent alone the past 18 years.

The amount could be more if reports are true that the total cost of the Senate rent is
actually P200 million a year. But the point is the House has spent nothing on rentals as
it owns Batasan Pambansa Complex while the Senate has spent billions. So the Senate
should find a home of its own.

Previously, the Senate was looking to transfer to the Manila Film Center inside the
Cultural Center of the Philippines, which is very near GSIS.

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But sources inside the Senate say there are several issues against it. One, the structural
integrity of the building was questioned by government engineers and the cost of fixing
the structural defects would be substantial. Two, the property is too small for the Senate
session hall and offices alone, so another building has to be constructed to
accommodate all the space requirements, which again would be expensive. And three,
Senate employees were simply afraid to transfer there.

The film center is said to be haunted by the ghosts of construction workers who were
killed during the building’s construction in 1981. Senate people told me the Department
of Foreign Affairs once tried a satellite office inside the building but it was short-lived
because the DFA personnel were spooked by ghostly encounters and asked to be
transferred as soon as possible.

Sen. Francis Escudero once suggested transferring to the Manila Central Post Office in
Lawton, Manila.

The post office building could not only accommodate the Senate’s space requirements
but it also has the historical and structural aesthetics suited for parliament (never mind
that the old building has ghost stories of its own.)

But what would happen to the Philippine Postal Corporation if the Senate takes over its
home? The postal building houses the country’s main mail sorting-distribution
operations. That is another matter.
Another possibility is for the Senate to construct an office inside the sprawling Batasan
Pambansa Complex. That was also one of the plans prior to the Senate’s transfer to the
GSIS: The Senate and the House together, which would facilitate the work of both
Houses owing to their proximity to each other (not to mention make it easier for
lobbyists to do their lobbying).

There had been other sites proposed for the 98-year-old Senate like the proposed
underground interconnection of the old Congress building with the old Finance and
Tourism buildings; Fort Bonifacio in Makati/Taguig; and the University of the
Philippines area in Quezon city.

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Personally, I miss the Old Congress building on Burgos Street. The Philippine Congress
occupied the Old Congress Building from 1926 to 1945 with the Senate using the upper
floors and the House occupying the lower floors (literally an upper and lower house).

When the Congress building was destroyed in World War II, the two houses of
Congress moved to the Old Japanese Schoolhouse in Manila and returned to the
Congress building after its renovation in 1950.
In 1972, Marcos dissolved Congress and built the Batasang Pambansa to house the
unicameral parliament. But after the Edsa Revolution in 1986 the bicameral legislature
was restored. The House inherited the Batansang Pambansa while the Senate took
residence in the Old Congress Building once again. I held office there for 12 years or
two terms as a senator.

As Erap said that building had character and ambiance compared to the GSIS building
where the Senate is in now, which looks more like a bank.

The Post Office building has character and ambiance too. The 16 iconic pillars that line
the steps going to the building’s lobby have been featured countless times in movies,
pictures and other works of art.
Designed by Juan M. Arellano and Tomás Mapúa, the post office building was built in
neoclassical architecture in 1926. It was severely damaged in World War II, and rebuilt
in 1946 preserving most of its original design.

The building was an integral part Daniel Burnham’s plan for the city of Manila, and is
strategically located on the frontage of the Pasig River with its main entrance facing the
Liwasang Bonifacio, and accessible from all converging avenues from Quiapo,
Binondo, Malate and Ermita.

The Manila Film Center has character, history and tragedy behind it too. Inspired by
Greece’s Parthenon, it was constructed during the time of Marcos with the aim of
enhancing the reputation of the Philippines around the world as a center of cinema, and
served as the main theater for the 1st Manila International Film Festival in January
1982.

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Tragedy struck at the height of its construction. On Nov. 17, 1981, a scaffolding of an
upper floor collapsed and fell over an unknown number of construction workers. The
bodies were allegedly left buried underneath the building because the construction had
to be rushed in time for the film festival, which is why alleged ghostly encounters are
still being reported to this day.

So where will the Senate find a permanent home?

Will they move from Pasay City to Quezon City to join the House? Will they build their
own new building somewhere? Will they transfer to the Film Center or the Manila
Central Post Office or back in the Old Congress premises? Or will the senators stay in
the GSIS building where the government pension fund would only be too happy to
receive their millions in rent?

ARTICLE NO. 10
TITLE: Old Legislative Building (National Museum of the Philippines)

April 12, 2013

The old Legislative Building during the pre-war years. © Skyscrapercity.com

The old Legislative Building is, without a doubt, the best example of neo-classical
architecture in the Philippines. It has been the place for the country's statesmen for
decades, it has witnessed wars, demonstrations and calamities.

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The building today is the present National Museum of the Philippines. Located on
Burgos Drive, this imposing edifice stands across the old walled city of Manila
(Intramuros). Originally designed by the American Ralph Harrington Doane and
Filipino Antonio Toledo in 1918 to be the future National Library as intended for the
Burnham Plan of Manila.

An aerial view of the walled city of Intramuros. In the foreground is the Legislative
Building. © Flickr/John Tewell

The building's front and side portion colonnaded with beautiful Corinthian
columns. © Pinoy Shooter

The construction of the building started in 1918, but had delays because of funding. In
1926, the Philippine Legislature decided to move into the building and thus changing
the layout of its interiors. The interiors of the structure was designed by the great Juan

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Arellano, who also built several Manila edifices such as the Post Office Building and
the Manila Metropolitan Theatre.

A plan for the City of Manila done by the American urban planner Daniel Burnham.
The positioning of the government edifices is seen near the old walled city. ©
Wikipedia

The Legislative Building was completed in 1926 and was inaugurated on July 11 of the
same year. Both the Philippine Legislature and the National Library occupied the
building. The total cost of construction was $2,000,000.00 or P4,000,000.00 in 1926
value.

The Session Hall of the Senate, circa 1926. © Official Gazette

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"The Old Session Hall of the Senate of the Philippines is a chamber like no other in the
country. Soaring three stories to the top of the Old Legislative Building, the hall was
clearly intended to be nothing less than a secular cathedral – a temple of wisdom for
enlightened debate and the making of laws.

During the early 1920s in the American colonial period, when the architect Juan
Arellano was revising the plans of Ralph Harrington Doane in order to convert
the building from the museum and library it was originally designed to be the seat of
the legislature, the Senate was led by Manuel L. Quezon, the leader of the movement
for Philippine independence from the United States. It is highly probable that Senate
President Quezon exercised muchinfluence over the design of the chamber where he
would preside over the body that he himself had helped establish in 1916. With his
strong personal aesthetic, well-known taste for grandeur, and deep belief in the need
to promote confidence and respect by the Americans in the nascent all-
Filipino institutions, it is easy to picture Quezon working with Arellano on
the dimensions and decoration of the Session Hall. Whatever the case, the
result was breathtaking with the combination of the lofty space with its
mezzaninegalleries for the public and the dizzying range of precast
ornamentation crowned by a magnificent hardwood ceiling."

The Legislative Building viewed from Burgos Drive. © Corregidor.org

"The most impressive features of the hall, taking full advantage of the architectural
space, are undoubtedly the series of Corinthian columns and pilasters, the main wall
above the rostrum with its fretwork and garlands, and most of all, the sculptural
groupings surrounding the top of the hall. This ornamentation and all other decoration

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in the Hall was the work of the most celebrated Filipino sculptor of the time, Isabelo
Tampinco—acontemporary of Juan Luna and Jose Rizal—and his sons Angel and
Vidal. Tampinco gave full rein to his deep knowledge of classical sculpture, as well as
to his personal artistic mission of Filipinizing many of
the traditionally Western elements and motifs of the neoclassical style. The result, an
entablature of great lawmakers and moralists through history and allegorical
groupings, was and remains to this day an outstanding and unique achievement in
Philippine art.

Filipino masses gather outside the Legislative Building for the inauguration of the
Philippine Commonwealth and its first president, Manuel L. Quezon. © Flickr/Sepia
Lens

The standing figures of the entablature represent great lawmakers and moralists of
history ranging from antiquity and Biblical times to the twentieth century, and include
Kalantiaw and Apolinario Mabini on the East (Main) Wall; Pope Leo XIII and
Woodrow Wilson on the West (Rear Wall); Moses, Hammurabi, Rameses the Great, Li
Si, Augustus and William Blackstone on the North (Right) Wall; and Solon, Averroes,
Justinian, Manu, Charlemagne and Hugo Grotius on the South (Left) Wall.
Surrounding the cartouches on all four walls are allegorical groupings representing
sovereignty, progress, arts and culture, industry, trade, farming, education, and so
on." (excerpt from Official Gazette)

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An aerial view of the inauguration of President Manuel L. Quezon outside the


Legislative Building. © The Kahimyang Project

Manuel L. Quezon's oath as President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines.


Notice the ornate podium of the Legislative Building. © Flickr/Manuel Quezon III

In 1935, the Legislative Building became the place of inauguration of the newly-
established Philippine Commonwealth. Also, this is where the late President Manuel L.
Quezon was inaugurated.

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The Legislative Building before the establishment of the Philippine Commonwealth. ©


Skyscrapercity.com via Nostalgia Filipinas

According to the description, it is a massive rectangular building which has a central


portion flanked by two interior courts. The central portion houses both the Lower and
Upper Houses. On the main floor, the House of Representatives held its sessions there
while the Senate is on the third floor. The senate chamber has a fifteen (15) meter high
ceiling. On its walls are statues of Filipino heroes and legislators, and on the two wings
of the building are the offices of the legislators.

The ever-beautiful central facade of the Legislative Building adorned with Corinthian
columns, ornate carvings and statues. © Facebook/Paulo Alcazaren via Nostalgia
Filipinas

A two-storey, four-columned portico adorned the entrance of the Legislative Building.


Over it is a triangular pediment with sculptures representing Luzon, Visayas,

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Mindanao, Law, Education, Commerce, and Agriculture. On each end of the building
is a two-columned portico complimenting its central facade. The sculptures were
designed and made by Otto Fischer-Credo, a German expatriate who resided in the
Philippines during the pre-war years. He was recalled back to Germany during the war
years to be an artist for the Third Reich, and did sculptures for Adolf Hitler and SS chief
Heinrich Himmler.

The front pediment of the Legislative Building containing sculptures representing


Luzon, Visayas, Mindanao (center), Law and Education (left), Agriculture and
Commerce (right). © Arkitekturang Filipino

The Japanese occupation of the Philippines meant a halt to the existing Commonwealth
Government. The Japanese had set up a Japanese-Sponsored Government headed by
the late Pres. Jose P. Laurel. The building was used as the assembly hall of the puppet
government. The speaker of the National Assembly was Benigno Aquino, Sr.,
grandfather of Pres. Benigno 'BS' Aquino III.

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A motorcade for Japanese Prime Minister Hideki Tojo in front of the old Legislative
Building on May 5, 1943. © Manila Nostalgia/Rene Dominguez

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A colored photo of the Senate chamber during the Japanese occupation. On the
podium speaking is Sec. Jorge Vargas. Take note of the Japanese military officer
seated. © Presidential Museum and Library

In February of 1945, American troops entered Manila trying to liberate the city from
the Japanese Imperial Army. The battle became the worst urban fighting in the Pacific,
sweeping eighty (80) percent of Manila's buildings. The Legislative Building was not
spared from total annihilation. Because of its massive size and thick walls, it became
the headquarters of the Japanese Imperial Army. The Americans shelled the building
until it was totally destroyed. Only the central portion of the building stood but still had
major damages.

A 2000lb bomb being dropped by American bombers onto the City of Manila. ©
WWII in Color via Nostalgia Filipinas

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A colored photo of the destroyed Legislative Building. © Presidential Museum and


Library

The war-torn Legislative Building. Note that the left portion of the building was still
standing. © Flickr/John Tewell

The Legislative Building (center), together with the Manila City Hall (left) and the
Philippine Normal School (right), in ruins after a heavy battle for the city. ©
Flickr/John Tewell

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Manila became an urban battlefield in which 100,000 civilians were killed. Many of
Manila's imposing structures were destroyed such as the Post Office, the Agriculture
and Finance Buildings, the UP campus, etc. After the Philippines became an
independent nation in 1946, the United States aided the Philippines with some
$400,000,000.00 of war damage payments, another $120,000,000.00 for public works
and left a total of $100,000,000.00 worth of war surplus.

Reconstruction of the Legislative Building is underway. © Skyscrapercity.com

The reconstruction of the Legislative Building started in 1949 until 1950. The building
was renamed from "Legislative Building" to "Congress-Republic of the Philippines".
The post-war version of the building was not as accurate as the pre-war version. The
original plans were not followed, the once colonnaded facade having the full, engaged
columns were replaced with a less ornate pilaster.

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The post-war Legislative Building. The building was rebuilt using the same
dimensions, but with lesser ornamentations. © Skyscrapercity.com

After its reconstruction, Congress once again held its sessions until 1972, when
Proclamation 1081 (Martial Law) was implemented by President Ferdinand Marcos.
The building was re-inscribed with the name "Executive House" which was lent to
different government agencies such as the Office of the Prime Minister on the fourth
floor, the Office of the Ombudsman (Tanodbayan) on the third floor, the National
Museum on the second floor and the Sandiganbayan (Peoples' Advocate) on the first
floor.

Leaders of SEATO member nations gather outside the Legislative Building in Manila
during a summit in 1966. Notice the less ornate portico of the post-war structure. ©
Flickr/Manhhai

The Senate, House of Representatives and other various government agencies occupied
the Legislative Building until 1997 when the Senate relocated its offices at the GSIS
Building in Pasay, making the National Museum its only occupant. The "National
Museum act of 1998" was turned into law which makes the Legislative Building,

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together with its adjacent buildings, the former Agriculture and Finance Buildings
under their care.

In 2010, the Legislative Building was declared a National Historical Landmark by the
National Historical Commission of the Philippines. Also on the same year, the National
Museum began the restoration of the Session Hall, returning its pre-war grandeur. The
hall's restoration was completed in October, 2012.

The newly-restored Senate Session Hall of the Legislative Building. Restoration of the
Session Hall was completed in 2012. © Interaksyon.com

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ARTICLE NO. 11
TITLE: HOMES OF THE SENATE OF THE PHILIPPINES

Since its establishment a 100 years ago, the Senate of the Philippines—the upper
chamber of the Legislature—has moved its home many times.
I. Goldenberg Mansion, Inaugural Session of the Senate (1916)

The Old Goldenberg Mansion. Photo courtesy of Skyscraper City.

Built by the Eugster Family, the Goldenberg Mansion was acquired by Jose Moreno
Lacalle, the Oidor (auditor) of the Audiencia (Supreme Court during the Spanish
Colonial Period). The mansion was later occupied by Admiral Patricio Montojo of the
Spanish Navy from 1897 to 1898. Later, it served as the Spanish Royal Navy Club in
1898. During the American Colonial Period in 1899, the mansion became the home and
headquarters of General Arthur MacArthur. By 1908, it became the school building of
the Philippine School of Commerce. Finally, it was here, on October 16, 1916, where
the First Session of the first Philippine Senate was held.

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II. Intendencia (1916 – 1926)

The Intendencia Building (La Aduana). Notice the “Senate of the Philippines”
signage. Photo courtesy of John Tewell.

In 1823, the La Aduana or the Customs Building, was constructed in Intramuros, based
on the plans of Tomas Cortes. In 1863, it was damaged by an earthquake. Upon the
direction of Luis Perez Sonjue, the Aduana was rebuilt. In 1901, during the American
Insular Government, the Office of the Archives moved into the building. It was
the Jones Law of 1916 that made it necessary for the newly formed Philippine Senate
to look for a new home. After its opening session, the Senate moved in. It was then
known as the Intendencia (meaning: public administration office). When the Senate
finally moved to the new Legislative Building in 1926, the building was taken over by
the Bureau of Customs.

III. Legislative Building (1926 – 1935)

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The Legislative Building as it appeared soon after its completion in 1926. Photo taken
from the Manuel L. Quezon III Collection.

The building was designed by Ralph Harrington Doane, the consulting architect of the
Bureau of Public Works. It was initially intended to be the Philippine Library, which
was in line with the Burnham Plan for Manila. But when the Capitol Building—
envisioned in the same urban plan—was abandoned, the site of the Library was chosen
instead to house the Philippine Legislature. For this new purpose, Juan Arellano
substantially modified Doane’s plans.

On July 16, 1926, the impressive structure was inaugurated during the opening of the
second session of the Seventh Philippine Legislature. It dominated approaches from
both Luneta and Plaza Lawton along Padre Burgos Avenue. In the presence of
Governor-General Leonard Wood, Senate President Manuel L. Quezon, House
Speaker Manuel Roxas, all the legislators, and an audience of prominent personages,
the envoy of President Calvin Coolidge of the United States, Colonel Carmi A.
Thompson, observed:

“You have this day consecrated a new home for your deliberations, and your friends
across the sea will point with pride to this structure as an index of your material
progress.” Indeed, the pro-Independence lobby in Washington, D.C., would refer to the
Legislative Building as having been “designed by Filipino brains and built by Filipino
hands.”

The building was seen as a sign of the readiness of the Filipinos for self-government
and independence. In fact, the origin of the “lower house” and “upper house” terms
dates back to the Legislative Building, as the Senate moved to its session hall at the
second floor, while the House moved to their session hall on the ground floor.

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The pre-war Senate Session Hall as it appeared soon after the Senate moved in, in
1926. Photo taken from the Manuel L. Quezon III Collection.

During the Commonwealth Period, when the legislature became a unicameral National
Assembly, the sessions alternated between the old Senate Session Hall and the old
House Session Hall below, before settling in the upper chamber. Hence, President
Quezon’s last State of the Nation Address was addressed to the joint session of
Congress at the Senate Session Hall, on January 31, 1941. In the years of the Japanese
Occupation, the Senate Session Hall was the seat of the National Assembly under
House Speaker Benigno S. Aquino, Sr., and was the venue for many historic addresses
by President Jose P. Laurel.

IV. Temporary Congress Building (1945 – 1948)

The Temporary Congress Building at Lepanto St., Manila. Photo from Assembly of
the Nation: A Centennial History of the House of Representatives of the Philippines.

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With the liberation of the Philippines from the Japanese in March 1945, the Legislative
Building, along with the rest of Manila, lay in ruins. As such, President Sergio Osmeña
delivered his first and last State of the Nation Address in the presence of the restored
bicameral Congress on June 9, 1945, at a school house in Lepanto Street that was used
as a temporary Congress Building for both the Senate and the House of Representatives

V. Manila City Hall (1947-1948)

Temporary Senate offices after WWII, Manila City Hall, Manila, Philippines, May
1948. Photo courtesy of LIFE Magazine via John Tewell.

Photographic records suggest that the Senate later moved to the Manila City Hall circa
1947-1948, which at the time was still riddled with bullet holes from the Battle of
Manila. The move was a temporary one, as the reconstruction of the Legislative
Building was ongoing. The Senate held their sessions at the city council’s session hall
within the building.

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Photo courtesy of LIFE Photo Collection.

Senators Lorenzo Tañada, Carlos P. Garcia, Geronima Pecson, Pablo David, Vicente
Madrigal, in the temporary Senate session hall (now the city council session hall) in
the Manila City Hall (circa 1947-1948). Photo courtesy of the National Library of the
Philippines.

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Senators Vicente Madrigal, Geronima Pecson, Pablo David, Carlos P. Garcia,


Camilo Osias, and Eulogio Rodriguez Sr. meet in one of the office rooms at the
temporary Senate home in the Manila City Hall (circa 1948). The view opens to the
balcony with possibly a view of the ruins of the Legislative Building. Photo courtesy
of the National Library of the Philippines.

Senator Lorenzo Tañada delivers his privilege speech in the new Senate Session Hall
in the rebuilt Legislative Building, as Senators Camilo Osias (sitting in the seat of
Senator Quintin Paredes), Geronima Pecson, and Eulogio Rodriguez Sr. looks on.
(circa 1950). Photo courtesy of the National Library of the Philippines.

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VI. Legislative Building (1949 – 1972)

The Legislative Building with scaffolding circa 1949. Photo courtesy of the National
Library of the Philippines.

After the war, most of the Legislative Building lay in complete ruin. The core of the
building, including the Senate Session Hall—though burnt and heavily damaged—
survived basically intact. The building was rebuilt in 1949 by the U.S. Philippine War
Damage Corporation to the same dimensions of the original Legislative Building,
though with far less exterior and interior ornamentation than the original. It was
renamed “Congress – Republic of the Philippines” and made ready for use again on
January 24, 1949, in time for President Elpidio Quirino’s first State of the Nation
Address. This marked the first opening session of Congress in the rebuilt edifice. The
Senate Session Hall was also repaired according to the original design, but at some
point, plans were changed and the hall was segmented vertically into two parts through
the addition of a wooden floor laid across at the top level of the balustrades of the
mezzanine galleries. The purpose was to fix the acoustics, as many people recounted
(like former American governor general Francis Burton Harrison) that one “could
hardly catch the words” of the orator in the rostrum.

The ornamentation of the main wall was segmented and truncated. Over time, more
interventions took place, obscuring further the sense of the architectural space.
Nonetheless, the hall continued to serve the Senate from 1949 to September 22, 1972.

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The Senate Session Hall at the Legislative Building in the 1960s. Photo courtesy of
the National Library of the Philippines.

By the early 1960s, the statues of President Manuel L. Quezon and Sergio Osmeña were
added on the two sides of the front portico of the Legislative Building.

VII. Legislative Building (1987 – 1998)

Senator Neptali Gonzales (right) delivers a speech in 1987 inside the Senate Session
Hall in the Legislative Building. Senate sessions are generally better attended than
those in the House, where most days, there is no quorum. Photo from The
Rulemakers.

After Martial Law was proclaimed on September 23, 1972—thus abolishing


Congress—the building was closed down and reinscribed with the name “Executive
House.” It was given over to various government offices, such as the Office of the Prime
Minister on the fourth floor, the Tanodbayan (or Ombudsman) on the third floor, the

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National Museum on the second floor, and the Sandiganbayan on the ground floor. The
Senate Session Hall remained closed and the old House Session Hall was converted to
the main art gallery of the museum, which featured Juan Luna’s Spoliarium, which was
moved from the Department of Foreign Affairs at Padre Faura (today the Supreme
Court).

After the EDSA People Power Revolution in 1986, the mixed use of the building
continued—with the addition of the restored Senate after 1987 and the replacement of
the Prime Minister’s Office with the Office of the Vice President. This state of affairs
continued over the next decade, until various agencies were relocated, which in time
left the National Museum as the sole occupant of the building. The building’s status
was confirmed by the passage into law of the “National Museum Act of 1998”
(Republic Act No. 8492). In the Museum’s master plan, the Old Legislative Building
was designated as the home for the fine arts galleries, and eventually a National
Museum of Art—a purpose that is being steadily realized.

VIII. GSIS Building (1998 – present)

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Facade of the Senate of the Philippines in its present location. Photo from Wikimedia.

Since May 1997, the Senate has moved to the GSIS Building in Pasay City for more
space, paying an annual rent of P110,000,000.00. By 2012, there were plans to move
the Senate to a permanent location.

1.3 THEORETICAL/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Since the project envelopes new and experimental design solutions,


particularly the application of kinetic architecture strategy it will be incorporating
technological and green concepts. The proponents envisions the image of the proposed
structure based on the continuous undertaking of research regarding how an
institutional building can also be a pioneer in promoting green models, sustainable and
highly secured facilities. The collective amount of data will then be translated into
concepts in molding the design concept and inspiration from the general analysis of the
site up to the building specifics and materials to be used.

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1.4 METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH

For the research construction and gathering of data, both qualitative and
quantitative methods are to be administrated. Initial consultations for legal bases, both
architectural and other allied professions were conducted as support for the proposal.
With consent from the higher officials particularly the Senate Secretary in proceeding
in proving this study to be feasible. And are therefore to be presented on the following
chapters of the study.

As part of the requested documents, the proponents sought the approval of access
for the provision among the necessary papers relevant to the study which are the
following:

 Population or the occupants of the Senate Building including its ancillary


buildings. For the acknowledgement of the essentials in relation of the people to the
structure; e.g. How dense the building is at present and if there’s a need for additional
requirements in spaces.

 The latest master plan of the space occupied by the Senate in the GSIS Building.
To be oriented with the present rooms and other included spaces.

 The flow or circulation of activities inside the building. In order to determine the
space and planning techniques that must be considered and used in the said proposal.

 Historical and other related literature of the study.

 The financial aspects of the leasing of the Building.

 Recommendations. Or the site and relocation of the edifice. As for other amenities that
may be added in the coming future. Other government agencies that may be asked for
other documents in order for this research to be a feasible one.

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1.5 BIBLIOGRAPHY

REFERENCES:

1. Senate of the Philippines Official Website. https://www.senate.gov.ph/


2. Homes of the Senate of the Philippines. http://www.gov.ph/featured/homes-senate/
3. News Article, “High Rent Forces Senate to Relocate”. 28th June, 2012.
http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/219857/high-rent-forces-senate-to-
relocate#ixzz4FaMy8eDp
4. News Article, “Senate eyeing UP Diliman campus for its permanent home, says
Drilon”. 28th June, 2012 http://balita.ph/2009/09/30/senate-eyes-manila-film-center-
building-as-new-home/
5. News Article, “Senate to transfer offices to haunted building?”. 19th August, 2010
http://news.abs-cbn.com/nation/08/18/10/senate-transfer-offices-haunted-building
6. News Article, “House a homeowner while Senate remains homeless” 25th May, 2015
http://www.manilatimes.net/house-a-homeowner-while-senate-remains-
homeless/186532/

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Chapter 2: PRESENTATION OF DATA

2.1 DATA MANAGEMENT


2.1.1 PRESENT CONDITION

1. DEMOGRAPHIC DATA
The analysis of population will focus on its present size and growth, past trends and
distribution. Since population relates to both land use allocation and provision of socio-
economic needs and services, its analysis cannot be divorced from the other input
studies in the other chapters.

Population Size and Growth Rate

As of 2010, the total population of Pasay City was 392,869 persons which constituted
3.31 percent of Metro Manila’s population of 11,855,975 persons. Pasay City’s
population growth had been decelerating over the census years. A decrease in
population was posted during the 1995-2000 period. The following period (2000-
2010), however, showed an increase of 37,961 persons which represented an annual
growth rate of 1.02 percent.

Table 2.1.1 Total Population and Annual Growth Rate of Pasay City, 1903-
2010
Census Year Population Annual Growth
Rate (%)
1903 8,201 -
1918 18,697 5.65%
1939 55,161 5.29%
1948 88,728 5.42%
1960 132,673 3.41%
1970 206,283 4.51%
1975 254,999 4.33%
1980 287,770 2.45%
1990 368,366 2.50%

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1995 408,610 2.10%


2000 354,908 -2.78%
2010 392,869 1.02%
Source: NSO, NSCB

Population Density
The City has a total land area of 1,569.56 hectares. The three largest barangays which
account for approximately 65% of the total land area are Barangays 76 (426.63 has.),
183 (314.03 has.) and 192 (279.20 has.).

As of 2010, the average population density of the City was estimated at 226 (persons
per hectare). The three most densely populated barangays are Barangays 178 (4,328
persons/hectare), 182 (3,808 persons/hectare) and 14 (3,010 persons/hectare), while the
least densely populated barangays are Barangays 76 (4 persons/hectare), 192 (15
persons/hectare) and 35 (52 persons/hectare).

Household Distribution
The number of households in 2007 was 98,274, an increase of 20,094 households (26%)
from the recorded 78,180 households in 2000. On the other hand, the average
household size decreased from 4.53 in 2000 to 4.1 in 2007.

Age – Sex Distribution


The age-sex distribution of the City’s population in 2007 illustrates a predominance of
females over males indicated by the overall sex ratio of 96 males per 100 females.
However, males are predominant in number over females at birth to age 14 and at ages
30-39.

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Table 2.1.2 Household Population by Age and Sex, 2007


Age Group Both Sexes Male Female Sex
Number %* Number %* Number %* Ratio*
All Ages 402,436 100.0 197,052 100.0 205,384 100.0 95.9
Under 1 9,853 2.4 5,166 2.6 4,687 2.3 110.2
1-4 33,824 8.4 17,301 8.8 16,523 8.0 104.7
5-9 39,328 9.8 20,411 10.4 18,917 9.2 107.9
10-14 34,914 8.7 17,751 9.0 17,163 8.4 103.4
15-19 39,229 9.7 18,388 9.3 20,841 10.1 88.2
20-24 46,632 11.6 21,625 11.0 25,007 12.2 86.5
25-29 48,003 11.9 23,017 11.7 24,986 12.2 92.1
30-34 35,149 8.7 17,831 9.0 17,318 8.4 103.0
35-39 29,489 7.3 14,961 7.6 14,528 7.1 103.0
40-44 22,873 5.7 11,320 5.7 11,553 5.6 98.0
45-49 18,969 4.7 9,221 4.7 9,748 4.7 94.6
50-54 15,012 3.7 7,255 3.7 7,757 3.8 93.5
55-59 10,729 2.7 5,154 2.6 5,575 2.7 92.4
60-64 7,142 1.8 3,124 1.6 4,018 2.0 77.8
65-69 4,925 1.2 2,092 1.1 2,833 1.4 73.8
70-74 3,150 0.8 1,205 0.6 1,945 0.9 62.0
75-79 1,822 0.5 745 0.4 1,077 0.5 69.2
80 and 1,393 0.3 485 0.2 908 0.4 53.4
above
Source: NSO, 2000 and 2007
*Computed

Dependency Ratio
Table 3-6 presents the Age Dependency Ratio of the City in 2007. The young dependents (0-
14 years old) consisted 29.3 percent of the household population while the old dependents (65
years old and above) comprised 2.8 percent. The working-age population (15-64 years old)
constituted the remaining 67.9 percent.

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The over-all dependency ratio was 47.29. This indicated that for every 100 working-age
population, there were about 47 dependents (43 young dependents and 4 old dependents).

Table 2.1.3 Age Dependency Ratio, 2007


Age Group Household % to Household Dependency Ratio
Population Population
0-14 117,919 29.3 Young Dependency 43.16
Ratio
15-64 273,227 67.9
65 and above 11,290 2.8 Old Dependency Ratio 4.13
Total Dependency 47.29
Ratio
Source: NSO, 2007

Educational Attainment

Table 2-4 shows the Percent Distribution of Household Population 5 years old and over by
Highest Grade Completed in 2007. There were 19.53 percent who had attended or completed
elementary education, 36.93 percent who had reached or completed secondary education, 15.91
percent who were college undergraduates, 15.37 percent who were academic degree holders
and 0.12 percent who were with post-baccalaureate courses. There were slightly more females
than males among those with academic degrees and post-baccalaureate courses. Those who
had no education at all comprised 3.36 percent.

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Table 2.1.4 Percent Distribution of Household Population 5 Years Old and Over by
Highest Grade Completed and Sex, 2007
Highest Grade Both Sexes Male Female
Completed HH Pop. Percent HH Pop. Percent HH Pop. Percent
5-Years to Total 5-Years to Total 5-Years to Total
Old and Old and Old and
Over Over Over
No grade 12,063 3.36 6,310 3.61 5,753 3.12
completed
Pre-School 7,421 2.07 3,917 2.24 3,504 1.90
Elementary 70,051 19.53 34,284 19.64 35,767 19.42
High School 132,494 36.93 63,353 36.29 69,141 37.54
Post Secondary 12,077 3.37 5,975 3.42 6,102 3.31
College Under- 57,072 15.91 28,735 16.46 28,337 15.39
graduate
Academic 55,152 15.37 26,320 15.08 28,832 15.65
Degree Holder
Post Baccalaureate 446 0.12 206 0.12 240 0.13
Not Stated 11,983 3.34 5,485 3.14 6,498 3.53
TOTAL 358,759 100.00 174,585 100.00 184,174 100.00
Source: NSO

In 2011, there are 194,211 members of the population in Pasay City that are considered
economically active or belonging to the age group 15 years old and over. There are more
females (99,605 or 52%) than males (94,606 or 48%) that are considered economically active.

In 2008 and 2005, there are 186,845 and 187,845 belonging to the group 15 years and over,
respectively. There are also more females than males under this category in both years.

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Number of Housing Units, By Type of Building, and Construction Materials

There were a total of 91,237 occupied housing units in 2007. This accounts to a ratio of 108
households for every 100 occupied housing units or 4.4 persons per occupied housing unit.

Of the 91,237 occupied housing units, 33.6 percent had outer walls of concrete/brick/stone,
20.3 percent of wood and 38.9 percent of half concrete/brick/stone and half wood. Most of the
occupied housing units (72.9 percent) were of galvanized iron/aluminum.

Table 2.1.5 Occupied Housing Units, Households, Household Population and Ratio of
Households and Household Population to Occupied Housing Unit, 2007
Occupied Households Household Ratio
Housing Units Population Household to Household
Occupied Population to
Housing Unit Occupied
Housing Unit
91,237 98,274 402,436 1.08 4.41
Source: NSO, 2007

Table 2.1.6 Percentage of Occupied Housing Units by Construction Materials of the


Outer Walls and Roof, 2007
Construction Total Construction Materials of the Roof
Materials of Occupied Galvani Tile/ Half Wo Cogo Makeshi Asbest Not
the Outer Housing zed Concr Galva od n/ ft/ os/ Repor
Walls Units Iron/ ete/ nized Nipa Salvage Others ted
Alumin Clay Iron / d/
um Tile and Ana Improvi
Half haw sed
Conc
rete
PASAY 91,237 66,592 5,202 12,89 3,2 15 746 1,869 683
1 39

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Concrete/Bric 33,364 27,695 3,517 1,663 145 - 1 203 140


k/Stone
Wood 18,504 14,071 368 1,589 2,3 10 19 65 66
16
Half 35,536 24,242 1,262 9,290 655 - 5 28 54
Concrete/Bric
k/ Stone and
Half Wood
Galvanized 657 272 16 291 76 1 1 - -
Iron/
Aluminum
Bamboo/Sawa 23 7 - 12 3 1 - - -
li/ Cogon/Nipa
Asbestos 29 4 19 1 12 - - 2 1
Glass 2 1 1 - - - - - -
Makeshift/Sal 848 112 - 7 11 - 714 - 4
vaged/
Improvised
Materials
Others/Not 2,256 188 19 38 21 3 6 1,563 418
Reported
No Walls 8 - - - - - - 8 -
Source: NSO, 2007

A. Tenure on the Homelot


In 2007, 47.60 percent of the households lived in lots they rented while 36.92 percent lived in
lots they owned/being amortized.
Table 2.1.7 Households by Tenure Status of Lot, 2007
Tenure Status of the Lot Number of % Share
Households
PASAY 98,274 100.00
Owned/Being Amortized 36,287 36.92
Rented 46,781 47.60

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Rent-Free with Consent of Owner 9,167 9.33


Rent-Free without Consent of Owner 3,594 3.66
Tenure Status of the Lot Number of % Share
Households
Not Reported 1,617 1.65
Not Applicable 828 0.84
Source: NSO, 2007

In 2011, there were 3,657 households who lived in makeshift housing, a 30.3 percent increase
from 2008-2009 figure. The number of households who were informal settlers increased by
391 percent from 2008-2011.

Table 2.1.8 Magnitude of Households Living in Makeshift Housing and Informal


Settlers, 2008-2009 and 2011
2008-2009 2011
Population Households Population Households
Magni Propo Magni Propo Magni Propo Magni Propo
-tude r-tion -tude r-tion -tude r-tion -tude r-tion
Households 2,805 4.0 13897 5.2 3657 5.2
living in
makeshift
housing
Households 3,062 4.4 47141 17.7 11992 17
who are
informal
settlers
Source: CBMS Core Indicator, Pasay City, 2008-2009 and 2011

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Table 2.1.9 Labor Force Participation by Gender, Pasay City, Various Years

Employment Data 2005 2008 2011


Members 15 Years and
Male 90,404 90,241 94,606
Above
Female 97,511 96,604 99,605
Total 187,915 186,845 194,211
Members of the Labor Force
Male 67,930 66,086 69,174
(Magnitude)
Female 41,804 41,799 46,107
Total 109,734 107,885 115,281
Members of the Labor Force
Male 62% 61% 60%
(Proportion)
Female 38% 39% 40%
Total 100% 100% 100%
Labor Force Participation
Male 75% 73% 73%
Rate
Female 43% 43% 46%
Total 58% 58% 59%
Source of Basic Data: Pasay City Community-Based Monitoring System (CBMS) 2005, 2008,
2011

Table 2.1.10 Members of the Population 15 Years Old and Above, Pasay City, Various
Years

Members 15 Years Old and Above

Male
Number

Female
Total

Year

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Labor Force
Of the economically active population in Pasay City in 2011, a total of 115,281 are members
of the labor force. There are 69,174 males that are members of the labor force, which constitutes
60% of the total. On the other hand, there are only 46,107 female members of the labor force
or 40% of the total. It is of note that while there are more females that are economically active
members of the population, there are more males that are members of the labor force.

In 2005 and 2008, the members of the labor force are 107,855 and 109,734, respectively. Labor
force generally increased through the years, by 1,875 members from 2005 to 2008, and by
5,538 members from 2008 to 2011. Similarly, there are more male than female members of the
population in the years considered.

Table 2.1.11 Members of the Labor Force, Pasay City, Various Years

Members of the Labor Force


Male
Number

Female
Total

Year

Table 2.1.12 Proportion of the Members of the Labor Force, Pasay City, Various Years

Proportion of the Members of


the Labor Force
Percentage

Male
Female
Total

Year

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2. PHYSICAL DATA
MACRO-SITE DATA (PHILIPPINES)

PHILIPPINES
(ISLAND GROUPS)

ISLAND Regional Pro- Munici- Population(20


NO Cities Brgy.
GROUPS/Region Center vince palities 10)
LUZON 38 66 704 19,592 48,520,774
San
Ilocos Region I Fernando, 4 9 116 3,265 4,748,372
La Union

Cagayan Valley II Tuguegarao 5 3 90 2,331 3,229,163

San
Central Luzon III Fernando, 7 13 117 3,102 10,137,737
Pampanga

CALABARZON IVA Calamba 5 14 128 4,011 12,609,803

MIMAROPA IVB Calapan 5 2 71 1,458 2,744,671

Bicol Region V Legazpi 6 7 107 3,471 5,420,411


Cordillera
CA
Administrative Baguio 6 2 75 1,176 1,616,867
R
Region
National Capital NC
Manila 0 16 0 798 11,855,975
Region R
VISAYAS 17 45 364 12,355 22,198,465
Western Visayas VI Iloilo City 6 16 117 4,051 6,843,643
Central Visayas VII Cebu City 4 16 116 3,003 6,398,628
Eastern Visayas VIII Tacloban 6 7 112 4,390 3,912,936
Negros Island To Be
NIR 1 6 19 911 4,194,525
Region Designated
MINDANAO 26 33 422 10,082 21,968,174

Zamboanga IX Pagadian 3 5 67 1,904 3,230,094

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Peninsula

Cagayan de
Northern Mindanao X 5 9 84 2,022 3,952,437
Oro
Davao Region XI Davao City 4 6 43 1,162 4,156,653

SOCCSKSARGEN XII Koronadal 4 5 45 1,194 3,829,081

Caraga XIII Butuan 5 6 67 1,310 2,293,480


Autonomous
AR
Region In
M Cotabato City 5 2 116 2,490 4,120,795
Muslim
M
Mindanao
POLITICAL BOUNDARIES/ AREAS AND LAND USES

SOURCE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ph

 POLITICAL BOUNDARIES/ AREAS AND LAND USES

Numbers of Regions, Provinces and Barangays

The Philippines are divided into three island groups: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. These are
divided into 18 regions, 81 provinces, 144 cities, 1,490 municipalities, and 42,029 barangays.

The Philippines, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines, is a sovereign island
country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean. It consists of 7,107 islands that
are categorized broadly under three main geographical divisions: Luzon, Visayas, and
Mindanao. Its capital city is Manila while its most populous city is Quezon City; both are part
of Metro Manila.

To the north of the Philippines across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan; Vietnam sits west across
the South China Sea; southwest lies Malaysia in the island of Borneo across the Sulu Sea, and
to the south the Celebes Sea separates it from other islands of Indonesia; while to the east it is
bounded by the Philippine Sea and the island-nation of Palau. Its location on the Pacific Ring
of Fire and close to the equator makes the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons, but
also endows it with abundant natural resources and some of the world's greatest biodiversity.
At approximately 300,000 square kilometers (115,831 sq mi), the Philippines is the 64th-largest
country in the world.

With a population of about 92,337,852 people (2010 census), the Philippines is the seventh
most and the12th most populated country in the world. An additional 12 million Filipinos live

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overseas, comprising one of the world's largest Diasporas. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are
found throughout the islands. In prehistoric times, Negritos were some of the archipelago's
earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples.
Exchanges with Chinese, Malay, Indian, and Islamic states occurred. Then, various nations
were established under the rule of Datus, Rajahs, Sultans or Lakans.

 CLIMATE

The Philippines has a tropical maritime climate that is usually hot and humid. There are three
seasons: tag-init or tag-araw, the hot dry season or summer from March to May; tagulan, the
rainy season from June to November; and tag-lamig, the cool dry season from December to
February. The southwest monsoon (from May to October) is known as the Habagat, and the
dry winds of the northeast monsoon (from November to April), the Amihan. Temperatures
usually range from 21 °C (70 °F) to 32 °C (90 °F) although it can get cooler or hotter depending
on the season. The coolest month is January; the warmest is May.

The average yearly temperature is around 26.6 °C (79.9 °F). In considering temperature,
location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor. Whether in the extreme
north, south, east, or west of the country, temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range.
Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of Baguio at an
elevation of 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) above sea level is 18.3 °C (64.9 °F), making it a popular
destination during hot summers.

Sitting astride the typhoon belt, most of the islands experience annual torrential rains and
thunderstorms from July to October, with around nineteen typhoons entering the Philippine
area of responsibility in a typical year and eight or nine making landfall. Annual rainfall
measures as much as 5,000 millimeters (200 in) in the mountainous east coast section but less
than 1,000 millimeters (39 in) in some of the sheltered valleys. The wettest known tropical
cyclone to impact the archipelago was the July 1911 cyclone, which dropped over 1,168
millimeters (46.0 in) of rainfall within a 24-hour period in Baguio. Bagyo is the local term for
a tropical cyclone in the Philippines.

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o Climate Types

There are four recognized climate types in the Philippines, and they are based on the distribution
of rainfall (See the Philippine Climate Map). They are described as follows:

• Type I. Two pronounced seasons: dry from November to April and wet during the rest of the
year.

• Type II. No dry season with a pronounced rainfall from November to January.

• Type III. Seasons are not very pronounced, relatively dry from November to April, and wet
during the rest of the year.

• Type IV. Rainfall is more or less evenly distributed throughout the year.

There are three recognized seasons: (the hot season or summer from March to May), (the rainy
season from June to November), and Taglamig (the cold season from December to February).

The humid southwest monsoon (May-October) is known as "Habagat". The cool and dry winds
of the northeast monsoon (November April) are called "Amihan".

These seasons can seriously get mixed up by the El Niño / La Niña effects. El Niño brings dry
weather and even droughts. La Niña stands for rainy weather and floods.

Philippine Climate Map

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o TYPHOON STATISTICS
PAGASA analyzed all tropical storms and typhoons of 100°-140° east and 0°-40° north from 1950 to
now. They only count storms with sustained wind speed (10 minutes average) of over 65 km/h. About
50% of all storms does not make landfall and only few touch the Philippines.

The 63 years average is 26 storms and typhoons per year over the northwestern Pacific.

January to end of April can be considered as storm/typhoon free months. May and June and later in the
year November and December are moderate with an average of 2 storms/typhoons making landfall in
the Philippines.But from July to end of October there are up to 6 tropical storms or typhoons making
landfall in the Philippines.

Most typhoons hit northern Luzon with a yearly average of 3.7 storms. Then follow the Central Visayas
with 2. Storms per year and the Eastern Visayas - Leyte/Samar with 1.9 storms. The Bicol region and
the National Capital Region (NCR) count 1.2 storms that make landfall. The safest regions are
Mindanao and southern Palawan. South-western Mindanao nearly never gets hit by a strong storm.

The Philippine Regions covered by Luzon

No. of
No. of cities
Region (Regional Population Land area provinces (including
Regional center
designation) (2010) 2
(km ) (including associated
associated islands*)
islands*)

National

Capital
11,855,975 638.55 Manila N/A 16
Region

(NCR)

MIMAROPA*
2,744,671 29,621 Calapan 5 2
(Region IV-B)

Ilocos Region (Region San Fernando


4,748,372 13,055 4 9
I) (La Union)

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Central Luzon
San Fernando
10,137,737 21,543 7 13
(Pampanga)
(Region III)

Cordillera

Administrative
1,616,867 19,294 Baguio 6 2
Region

(CAR)

CALABARZO

N 12,609,803 16,368.12 Calamba 5 18

(Region IV-A)

Cagayan Valley (Region


3,229,163 31,159 Tuguegarao 5 4
II)

Bicol Region (Region


5,420,411 18,054.3 Legazpi 6 7
V)

Population Land area


Region Regional center Provinces Cities
(2010) (km2)

The Philippine Regions covered by Luzon

SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luzon#Demographics

Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines. Located in the northernmost regio of
the archipelago, it is the economic and political center of the nation, being home to the country's capital
city, Manila. With a population of 48 million as of 2010, it is the fourth most populous island in the
world after Java, Honshu and Great Britain.

Luzon may also refer to one of the three primary island groups in the country. As such, it includes the
Luzon mainland, the Batanes and Babuyan groups of islands to the north, Polillo Islands to the east,
and the outlying islands of Catanduanes, Marinduque, Masbate, Romblon, Mindoro, and Palawan,
among others, to the south.

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Average Temperature (C) in Luzon

SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luzon#Ave.Temp.

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Average Rainfall in Luzon SOURCE: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luzon#Ave.Temp.

SUB MACRO-SITE DATA (National Capital Rregion)

 POLITICAL BOUNDARIES/ AREA

(National Capital Region)


Annual
Pop.
Local Population Area pop. Per capita
density Cityhood
government unit (2010 census) (km²) growth GDP
(per km²)
rate
Caloocan 1,489,040 53.33 25,907 3.06 $9,426 1962
Las Piñas 552,573 41.54 12,815 1.65 $8,678 1997
Makati 529,039 27.36 20,736 3.41 $29,259 1995
Malabon 353,337 15.76 23,076 0.98 $4,334 2001
Mandaluyong 328,699 11.26 27,138 1.29 $20,258 1994
Manila 1,652,171 38.55 43,079 0.68 $23,731 1571
Marikina 424,150 21.5 12,500 1.14 $10,346 1996
Muntinlupa 459,941 46.70 9,699 2.48 $13,789 1995

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Navotas 249,131 10.77 22,780 0.87 $5,296 2007


Parañaque 588,126 47.69 11,589 2.88 $10,146 1998
Pasay 392,869 19.00 21,214 1.77 $6,876 1947
Pasig 669,773 31.00 20,240 3.04 $12,032 1995
Pateros 64,147 2.10 29,495 1.05 $3,324 N/A
Quezon City 2,761,720 161.12 16,630 2.92 $11,213 1939
San Juan 121,430 5.94 21,101 0.87 $16,893 2007
Taguig 644,473 47.88 12,810 3.82 $12,342 2004
Valenzuela
POLITICAL BOUNDARIES/ AREA

SOURCE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metro_Manila

The City of Manila proper is the national capital of the Philippines. The wider Metropolitan Manila
area is the seat of government. The executive and judicial branches of government are based in Manila
as represented by Malacañan Palace, the official office and residence of the President of the Philippines,
and the buildings of the Supreme Court of the Philippines respectively. However, the upper house of
the legislature, the Senate of the Philippines, is based in Pasay, and the lower house, the House of
Representatives of the Philippines, in Quezon City.

Metro Manila is the smallest of the country's administrative regions, but the most populous and the
most densely populated, having a population of 11,855,975 (2010 census) in an area of approximately
638.55 square kilometers (246.55 sq mi). It is also the only region without any provinces, instead being
subdivided into 17 local government units: 16 cities and one municipality.

NATIONAL CAPITAL REGION MANILA WEATHER AND CLIMATE CHART


(AVERAGES)

Maximum Minimum

January 29°C / 84°F 23°C / 73°F

February 30°C / 86°F 24°C / 75°F

March 31°C / 88°F 25°C / 77°F

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April 33°C / 91°F 26°C / 79°F

May 32°C / 90°F 25°C / 77°F

June 32°C / 90°F 25°C / 77°F

July 30°C / 86°F 25°C / 77°F

August 31°C / 88°F 25°C / 77°F

September 30°C / 86°F 25°C / 77°F

October 31°C / 88°F 25°C / 77°F

November 30°C / 86°F 24°C / 75°F

December 29°C / 84°F 22°C / 72°F

Weather and Climate Chart

SOURCE: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metro_Manila

 CLIMATE
Manila is a very hot part of the Philippines, average temperature is 26°C. Humidity ranges from 51%
(mildly humid) to 97% (very humid) with much sunny weather and a fairly constant climate.
Temperatures rarely stay too far from the 30°C / 86°F mark on thermometers. Humidity levels can be
high for much of the year in Manila, although do noticeably fall during February, March and April.

By the end of April, rainy weather begins to make more of an appearance in Manila, followed by the
typhoon season, predictably falling between June and November. The climate remains hot throughout
this period and even in July and August, when precipitation levels top 400 mm / 16 inches per month,
sunshine is never too far from hand if you are patient.

When the rain is torrential in Manila, an umbrella really is pretty pointless and you will need to find
cover. However, even the heaviest showers soon begin to taper off, and the arrival of November sees a
very obvious change in the climate, marking the beginning of the welcomed dry season.The improved
weather from November through April means that these really are the best months to visit Manila,
although May and June remain fairly popular months also.

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 ADJOINING AREAS AND USES

The metropolis is the Philippines' center of commerce, education, and entertainment. It is located on
the island of Luzon, bordered by the province of Bulacan on the north, Rizal on the east, Laguna on the
south, Cavite on the southwest, and Manila Bay on the west. Though it is the smallest region in the
country, Metro Manila is the most populous of the twelve defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines
and the 11th most populous in the world with a population of 11,855,975 (2010 census) people.

 ACCESS

Metro Manila has an extensive system of highways connecting the various cities and municipality. The
major roads include ten radial roads, which branch out from central Manila and five circumferencial
roads which from a series of cencentric semiconductors arcs around downtown Manila. An important
circumferential road is the Circumferential Road 4, the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue or more
popularly known as

EDSA. It traverses the cities of Pasay, Makati, Mandaluyong, Quezon City and Caloocan.

MRT Line 3 follows the alignment of EDSA, from Taft Avenue in Pasay up to TriNoma, terminating
before it reaches Caloocan. Circumferential Road 5 serves the people near the regional limits of Metro
Manila and also serves as an alternate route for Circumferential Road 4.

Prominent radial road includes the Radial Road 1, composed of Roxas Boulevard and the Manila-Cavite
Expressway (Coastal Road) that connects Metro Manila to Cavite, Radial Road 3 or the South Luzon
Expressway that connects Metro Manila to Laguna, Radial Road 6, composed of Aurora Boulevard and
Marcos Highway that runs up to Rizal and Radial Road 8 or the North Luzon Expressway that serves
as the gateway to the north.

At present, the construction of the Metro Manila Skyway Stage 3 and the NAIA Expressway Phase 2
is ongoing, which are part of the Metro Manila Dream Plan. Other ongoing projects in the dream plan
include the rehabilitation of EDSA, and the construction of the missing road links for the
circumferential roads (e.g. Taft Avenue Flyover, Metro Manila Interchange Project Phase IV).

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A. Micro-Site Data/CITY PROFILE

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 BOUNDARIES

In terms of area, Pasay City is the third smallest political subdivision in the National Capital
Region. It is adjacent to the City of Manila and is bounded to the south Parañaque, to the
northeast by Makati and Taguig and to the west in Manila Bay. The city is located at latitude
14º 32' and longitude 121º 00'.

 AREA

The City has a total land area of 18.50 square kilometers of which 5.5050 square kilometer is
the City proper, 9.5 square kilometers is being occupied by the Civil Aeronautics
Administration (CAA) complex, which include the Ninoy Aquino International Airport
(NAIA) and the Villamor Air Base and the rest of the reclamation area with 4.00 square
kilometers. Thus, among the local government in the region, Pasay has the greater area devoted
to utilities covering 51.35% of its total land area or 9.50 square kilometers. The City is known
for its entertainment - business-restaurants, coffee shops, and clubs, particularly those located
along Roxas Boulevard, facing Manila Bay. A large part of Metro Manila's "tourist belt" is
located in the City. Pasay is composed of seven (7) districts, divided into twenty (20) Zones,
with a total of 200 Barangays. Zone 19, Covering Barangays 178 and 191 is the largest among
the zones with an area of 5.10 square kilometers. Zone 1, on the other hand, is the smallest
covering Barangays 1 to 3 and 14 to 17 with an area of 100,000 square meters (0.1 sq. km.).

 EXISTING GENERAL LAND USE

There are at least six (6) distinct subdivisions of land and water areas in the present-day Pasay
City and these are basically reflective of the history of settlements that evolved within the city
over the past 100 to 150 years. These are as follows:

 The Original Settlement Area (OSA) which was generally populated well before the
year 1900;
 The Old Reclamation Area (ORA) which was largely settled between 1900 to circa (c.)
1950;
 The Original Villamor Air Base Area (OVABA) which was in use from the 1950s to
the present (parts of which have been converted for use as the site of the NAIA 3
Terminal and of the Megaworld Resorts World property development, on either side of
Andrews Avenue);

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 The Airport Area (AA) which was developed mainly between 1950 and the early 1980s;
 The New Coastal Reclamation Area (NCRA) which was developed between the mid-
1950s and the present; and
 The City Waters Area (CWA) which is the present off-coastal portion of Pasay City at
Manila Bay.

The Original Settlement Area (OSA) is generally located between Taft Avenue (which was
generally part of the original coastline or the “aplaya” and the swamps) and the Tripa de Gallina
(which was used as a waterway for travel and trade to destinations as far north as the present-
day Pampanga Province and to destinations as far east as the present-day Rizal Province (via
the present-day Pasig River). The OSA is primarily residential - commercial in terms of current
land uses and is generally characterized by relatively narrow road rights-of-way (RROWs),
small to medium size lot cuts, a very dense residential population and medium to high intensity
commercial activities along the key thoroughfares which largely serve local (intra-city) needs.

Among the other important thoroughfares in the OSA are sections of Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue
or Circumferential Road 3 (C-3) for the Metropolitan Manila Area (MMA), Antonio S. Arnaiz
Avenue (formerly Libertad) and the Epifanio de los Santos Avenue (EDSA) or Circumferential
Road 4 (C-4) for the MMA, with all of these key roads linking Pasay City to Makati City;
Dominga St., Burgos St., Zamora St., Protacio St., Tramo, etc., linking Pasay City to the City
of Manila. Among the key non-residential intra-city or intra-metropolitan destinations in the
OSA are the commercial establishments along the roads mentioned. Both the Light Rail Transit
(LRT) Line 1 and the EDSA Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) are considered as within the OSA.

The Old Reclamation Area (ORA) is the present area generally located between Roxas
Boulevard, i.e., invariably referred to as MMA Radial Road 1 (R-1) and Taft Avenue, i.e.,
invariably referred to as MMA Radial Road 2 (R-2). The ORA at present is generally
characterized by wide to very wide RROWs, medium to very large size lot cuts, a dense
residential population (mix of low to high density upscale residential developments) and high
to very high intensity commercial activities along the key thoroughfares which largely serve
intra-city, metropolitan and extra-metropolitan (intra-regional) needs. The ORA is
predominantly commercial – institutional - residential in character of land use and is the site of
a huge number of commercial establishments which cater to many higher order urban functions
that make the same key metropolitan destinations.

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Among the other important thoroughfares in the ORA are longer sections of Sen. Gil Puyat
Avenue or MMA Circumferential Road 3 (C-3), Arnaiz Avenue and EDSA or MMA
Circumferential Road 4 (C-4) which all link Pasay City to Makati City, F.B. Harrison - Quirino
Avenue and Leveriza - Park Avenue (both linking Pasay City with the City of Manila to the
north and Paranaque City to the south). Among the key non-residential intra-city or intra-
metropolitan destinations in the ORA are the hotels, dining and entertainment establishments
along Roxas Boulevard, the Pasay City Hall along F.B. Harrison Avenue, the Baclaran
commercial area particularly the garment centers along Taft Avenue Extension (formerly
Mexico Road or the Avenida de Mexico), motels (motor hotels) along Cuneta Avenue and F.B.
Harrison Avenue and all other commercial establishments along the roads mentioned.

The Original Villamor Air Base Area (OVABA) is the present area generally located between
the South Luzon Expressway or the SLEX, i.e. also the MMA Radial Road 3 (R-3) and
Andrews Avenue, which presently separates the Villamor Air Base (home of the Philippine Air
Force or the PAF) and the areas formerly controlled by the Bases Conversion Development
Authority (BCDA) from the areas controlled by the Manila International Airport Authority
(MIAA), i.e., the Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) - domestic airport – cargo airport
– general aviation airport complex. The OVABA is predominantly institutional - residential in
land use and is now generally characterized by relatively wide RROWs, small to medium size
lot cuts, a dense residential population and low to very low intensity commercial activities
along the key thoroughfares which largely serve metropolitan and extra-metropolitan (regional)
needs.

Among the other important thoroughfares in the OVABA are Sales St., and other Villamor Air
Base roads which serve non-residential intra-city or intra-metropolitan destinations such as the
various PAF offices and the aforementioned Resorts World property development.

The OVABA now has the following key occupants:

 The PAF at areas southeast (SE) of Sales Avenue;


 The NAIA International Passenger Terminal (IPT) 3 located southwest of Andrews
Ave.;
 The Resorts World property developments located northeast of Andrews Ave.;
 The Presidential Hangar Area southeast of Sales Ave.;
 The Airmen’s Village at areas northeast of Andrews Ave.; and

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 The Villamor Golf Course (VGC).

The present-day Villamor Air Base in actual control of the Philippine Air Force (PAF) only
consists of PAF areas along Sales Ave. and the VGC. All of the other areas are under separate
administrative and physical control by entities other than the PAF, i.e. the BCDA, Megaworld,
the MIAA and the LGU of Pasay City.

The tandem of Sales Avenue and Adndrews Avenue are directly connected to the SLEX/ R-3
via grade-separated (elevated) connectors and shall soon be linked to the Coastal Road/ R-1
area via an extension of the grade-separated (elevated) connector under the Public-Private
Partnership (PPP) program of the National Government.

The Airport Area (AA) is the present area generally bounded by the SLEX/ R-3 and the City
of Taguig to the east, by Parañaque City to the south and to the west and by Andrews Avenue
and portions of the Tripa de Gallina to the north. The AA is the site of the NAIA - domestic
airport - international/ domestic cargo airport - general aviation airport complex, i.e.
approximately 640 hectares (has.) in surface area. The AA is predominantly transportation -
utilities in land use and its peripheral areas host settlements now generally characterized by
narrow to wide RROWs, medium to large size lot cuts, residential populations ranging from
low to very high densities and medium to high intensity commercial activities along the key
thoroughfares which largely serve metropolitan and extra-metropolitan (regional) needs.

Among the other important thoroughfares in the AA are the NAIA Road, the Domestic Road,
and the Ninoy Aquino Avenue (linking Pasay City with Parañaque City to the south) and
Merville Avenue. Among the key non-residential intra-city or intra-metropolitan destinations
in the AA aside from the NAIA - domestic airport - cargo airport - general aviation airport
complex are the Nayong Pilipino - Philippine Village Hotel Complex along NAIA Road, the
general aviation and cargo air operations facilities along Domestic Road, the DOTC’s Light
Rail Transit Authority (LRTA) and the LRT Line 1 depot and the old Civil Aeronautics Board
(CAB) cum Air Transportation Office (ATO, now the Civil Aviation Authority of the
Philippines/ CAAP) compound and general aviation facilities along both sides of Andrews
Avenue and all other commercial establishments along the roads mentioned.

The other important locators-landowners in the AA are as follows:

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 The Manila International Airport Authority (MIAA) which operates four terminals at
the NAIA i.e. IPT 1 (NAIA 1) in Parañaque City, IPT 2 (NAIA 2/ Centennial Terminal),
IPT 3 (NAIA 3) and the Domestic Airport, the last 3 all within Pasay City;
 The Philippine Airlines (PAL);
 The Bureau of Customs (BC); and
 The Bureau of Immigration (BI).

The New Coastal Reclamation Area (NCRA) is the present area generally located between
Roxas Boulevard, i.e. the MMA R-1 and the reclamation area coastline along the Manila Bay.
The NCRA of Pasay City is part of the estimated 1,500 hectares (has.) of the Boulevard 2000
Project, i.e. a reclamation project stretching from Pasay City to Cavite Province. The portions
of the Boulevard 2000 Project found in Pasay City are two (2) reclaimed islands namely 1) the
130.0 has. Cultural Center - Financial Center Area (CC-FCA) and the 180.0 hectares Central
Business Park Island A [CBP-I(A)], where the Mall of Asia (MoA) and its ancillary
developments, all introduced by the SM Group of Companies, are sited. The NCRA is now
generally characterized by wide to very wide road ROWs, large to very large size lot cuts, a
high residential population (high--rise condominium dwellers) and high to very high intensity
commercial activities along the key thoroughfares which largely serve intra-city, metropolitan
and extra-metropolitan (regional) needs. The NCRA is predominantly institutional/ cultural -
commercial - residential in land use and is the site of a huge number of institutional cum
cultural and institutional - commercial establishments which cater to many higher order urban
functions that make the same key metropolitan destinations.

Among the other important thoroughfares in the NCRA are the Central Boulevard, the partially
completed Bay Boulevard and the partially completed Seaside Boulevard (all linking Pasay
City with the city of Manila to the north and Parañaque City to the south) and the EDSA
Extension to the CBP-I(A)/ MoA area. Among the key non-residential intra-city or intra-
metropolitan destinations in the NCRA are the hotels, convention facilities, exposition centers,
government offices, financial centers and tourism/ cultural establishments within the CC-FCA.
The ferry terminal to Bataan which is beside the Tanghalang Francisco Balagtas (former Folk
Arts Theater) is also within the NCRA.

The important locators-landowners in the CC-FCA portion of the NCRA are as follows:

 The Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP);

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 The Tanghalang Francisco Balagtas (former Folk Arts Theater);


 The Westin Philippine Plaza Hotel;
 The Philippine International Convention Center (PICC);
 The Film Center;
 The Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) Headquarters Office cum
Philippine Senate (in one edifice);
 The Philippine National Bank (PNB) Financial Centre;
 The World Trade Center;
 The Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) - PTTC Complex;
 The Coconut Palace;
 The Social Security System (SSS), lot only;
 The Philippine National Construction Corporation (PNCC), lot only;
 The Land Bank of the Philippines (LBP), lot only.

The CBP-I(A) portion of the NCRA now has the following key locators-landowners:

 The Metrobank Group with its Toyota Manila Bay Showroom cum service center, the
Le Pavilion event center, several occupied high-rise residential condominiums, with
new ones presently under construction and a general hospital complex, all forming part
of a high-intensity/ density mixed use development;
 The SM Group with its Church of the Way, the Truth and the Life, its Arena, the SMX
Convention Center, various large office and residential condominium and hotel
buildings/ complexes, parking structures and its centerpiece Mall of Asia (MoA), all
forming part of a very high intensity/ density mixed use development; and
 The Philippine Reclamation Authority (PRA), now with possibly less than 20.0
hectares of land as possible sites for high-intensity/ density mixed use developments.

The City Waters Area (CWA) is the present off-coastal portion of Pasay City at Manila Bay
and extends from the seawall of the NCRA up to say 400 meters offshore and even beyond, up
to where the present depth stands at about 10.0 meters (m). There is still a huge potential for
additional reclamation in this area (i.e. more than 500.0 has. can still be reclaimed as part of
the future Pasay City.

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Table 0.1.13 Estimated Land Use Distribution of Pasay City, 2001

Land Use Category Land Area Percent to Total


(hectares) (%)
Residential 1 17.06 0.95
Residential 2 and 3 550.13 30.48
Commercial 1, 2 and 3 66.10 3.66
Industrial 23.45 1.30
Institutional 179.13 9.92
Cultural 14.92 0.83
Tourism 7.51 0.42
Planned Unit Development (PUD) 298.54 16.54
Open Spaces (Road ROW) 136.48 7.56
Cemetery 4.26 0.24
Utilities and Transportation 507.52 28.12
TOTAL 1,805.11 100.00
Note: Computed from digitized map, subject to ground survey/confirmation.

Of particular interest is the NCRA which takes up about twenty two percent (22.0%) of
the total land area and classified under the 1997 zoning ordinance passed by the Pasay City
Council as planned unit developments (PUDs). While a PUD has been officially defined by the
Housing and Land Use Regulatory Board (HLURB) in its 1996 fourth (4th) revised edition of
the Model Zoning Ordinance (MZO) as a land development scheme wherein the project site is
comprehensively planned as an entity via a unitary site plan which permits flexibility in
planning/ design, building siting, complementarity of building types and land uses, usable open
spaces and the preservation of significant land features, the term PUDs may also refer to any
type of proposed development that may be initially profitable for its private and/or public
developers but which may turn out to be too costly (socially/ environmentally,
financially/economically, legally/politically, etc.) for Pasay City in the long run.

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Existing Land Use Map

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 TOPOGRAPHY/ LANDFORM
The western part of Pasay City is level to nearly level while its southeastern part is gently
sloping to gently undulating. It is characterized by coastal plains along the Manila Bay in the
west and sloping areas extending in the south-east direction. Surface elevations range from 2
meters above the mean sea level on the coastal plains and 24 meters on the southeast part of
the city.

Pasay consists of two terrain units, an eastern undulating section and a western alluvial portion,
which extends up to Manila Bay. The undulating to gently sloping terrain is underlain by a
gently dipping sequence of pyroclastic rocks essentially made up of tuffs, tuffaceous
sandstones and conglomerates belonging to the Guadalupe formation. This formation is
represented by massive to thickly bedded lithic tuff and tuffaceous sandstone.

The two major geologic formations of Pasay are:


a.) Quarternary Alluvial (QA1) which is comprised of detrital deposits mostly silt, sand
and gravel; and,
b.) Guadalupe formation (GF) of which the upper member (Diliman Tuff) is thin to
medium bedded, fine-grained, vitric tuffs and welded volcanic breccias with
subordinate amounts of tuffaceous, fine to medium grained sandstone.

Members of the Pleistocene Guadalupe Formation underlie almost half of the terrain where
Pasay lies. These are mainly Alat Conglomerate and Diliman Tuff. Early Pleistocene to late
Pleistocene conglomerate, silty mudstone and tuffaceous sandstone comprise the lower
member while late Pleistocene well-bedded tuff units make up the upper member. The
constituents of the Diliman Tuff were most likely derived from a volcano on the central lobe
of Laguna de Bay to the south based on its aerial distribution pattern and lithological similarity
with those in the northern vicinity of the central lobe of Laguna de Bay. On the other hand,
Quartenary alluvial deposits of the Marikina Alluvial plain and Pasig River Delta plain cover
the western areas of the city. The presence of the marine sediments suggests that the quartenary
alluvium was probably deposited after uplift of the Guadalupe formation.

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Rock Formations
Metro Manila's physiography is divided into six zones: the Manila Bay, the Coastal Margin,
the Guadalupe Plateau, the Marikina Valley, the Laguna lowlands and the Laguna de Bay.
Pasay City belongs to the Coastal Margin or the low lying flat strip of land east of Manila Bay
with an elevation of less than 5 meters above mean sea level.

Land And Soil Characteristics


As per Metro Manila Land Resource Evaluation Project by BSWM, Pasay has the following
land and soil characteristics:

B. Active Tidal Flats (Coastal Landscape)


Active tidal flats, with an almost flat relief, have an elevation that ranges from 0 to 1.5 meters,
sometimes reaching up to 3 meters above the mean sea level. This land system has very poor
drainage characteristics. Waterlogged areas pose a corrosion problem to underground uncoated
steel pipes or structural reinforcement. Poor drainage is also a problem in sewage disposal in
areas not served by public sewer facilities. It is further characterized by slow permeability, high
compressibility, and possible flooding during seasonal high water table. Soil texture or the
different sizes of particles in the soil mass are clay, silty clay, and sandly clay loam. The parent
materials of this land classification are tidal mudflats with muck and peat locally, alluvial
sediments.

C. Former Tidal Flats (Coastal Landscape)


The former tidal flats consist of areas more inland and slightly higher than the active tidal flats.
They occupy the almost flat plains, backswamps and depression of the coastal landscape
formed from marine and flovio-marine deposits. Slightly lower than the alluvial plain, its
elevation ranges from 2 to 5 meters. It has slow to moderate permeability and a soil texture of
clay to silty clay loam. It is poorly drained and prone to moderate seasonal flooding, highly
compressible, and corrosive to uncoated steel pipes. Its parent materials are alluvial sediments,
former tidal mudflats underlain with peaty and mucky materials.

WATER BODIES

Pasay City is bounded in the west by Manila Bay and is traversed by two minor rivers that feed
the Paranaque River: the Estero de Tripa de Gallina and Maricaban Creek. The city lies within
the Manila Bay Watershed area. The bay has a catchment area of about 17,000 square
kilometers that is made up of about eight river basins, nearest of which to the city is the

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Parañaque-Las Piñas river basin which is made up of three major rivers: the Parañaque, Las
Piñas and Zapote Rivers. These river systems essentially serve about 1,500 hectares of low-
lying areas along the Manila Bay and functions as the principal drainage channel of the area.
The geomorphic setting of these low-lying areas and the hydraulic action of the Manila Bay
basin and the South China Sea make the city vulnerable to flooding, a condition aggravated by
the inadequate capacity and poor maintenance of its drainage facilities.

Groundwater Resources
Pasay being situated on a delta has produced locally-confined aquifers. Groundwater
utilization, however, has resulted in significant draw-down causing much land subsidence and
saline water intrusion particularly in the coastal areas. The groundwater basin contains several
connected and interrelated aquifers, composed of tuffaceous sandstone and conglomerates
belonging to the Guadalupe Formation. These facets of Guadalupe Formation in the
southeastern part of the city have thickness of approximately 1,300 to 1,200 meters.

Recharge to the aquifers comes from rainfall and inflow from the extension of these aquifers.
However, these are already over exploited due to uncontrolled pumping and excessive
underwater withdrawal, a practice done principally by high-density residential, commercial and
industrial establishments. This situation leads to a partial depletion of the aquifers resulting in
the lowering of water levels and high pumping costs.

CLIMATE
Atmospheric Temperature
The climate of Pasay is classified as Type 1 under the Corona classification used by Philippine
Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) depending
on rainfall pattern. It is characterized by two pronounced seasons: rainy season from May to
October and dry season from January to April, when rainfall drops to 10-30-mm/ month. In
general, Metro Manila is directly influenced by an average of 6 tropical cyclones per year.

Pasay has an average normal annual temperature of 27.5 C. The warmest months are April,
May and June while the coldest months are December, January and February with the minimum
temperature of 25-26C.

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Monthly Mean and Annual Climatic Data


Mean Temperature Deg. C.

Station: NAIA, Pasay City Latitude: 14°’31’ N


Period: 2009-2011 Longitude: 121°’01’00’ E
Elevation: 21.063 M
Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
2009 25.9 27.7 29.1 29.3 29.1 28.2 28.1 28.5 27.6 27.7 28.1 26.7 28.0
2010 27.1 28.0 29.3 30.3 31.7 30.1 29.2 28.7 29.0 28.4 28.3 27.3 28.9
2011 26.7 27.1 28.1 28.6 29.7 no 27.8 28.1 27.9 28.2 28.4 27.4 28.0
data
Total 79.7 82.8 86.5 88.2 90.5 58.3 85.1 85.3 84.5 84.3 84.8 81.4 84.9
Mean 26.6 27.6 28.8 29.4 30.2 29.2 28.4 28.4 28.2 28.1 28.3 27.1 28.3
StDev 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.9 1.4 1.3 0.7 0.3 0.7 0.4 0.2 0.4 0.5
Source of Data: PAGASA

Monthly Total and Annual Climatic Data


Cloudiness (0ktas)
Station: NAIA, Pasay City Latitude: 14°’31’ N
Period: 2009-2011 Longitude: 121°’01’00’ E
Elevation: 21.063 M
Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
2009 5 5 4 5 5 6 6 6 7 6 4 4 5
2010 4 2 3 3 3 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5
2011 5 4 5 3 3 no 6 7 6 5 5 5 5
data
Total 14 11 12 11 13 12 18 19 19 17 15 14 15
Mean 5 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5
StDev 0.6 1.5 1 1.2 1.2 0 0 0.6 0.6 0.6 1 0.6 0
Source of Data: PAGASA

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The PAGASA station recorded an annual rainfall amount of 1,873 mm in 2011.

Monthly Rainfall (mm)

Station: NAIA, Pasay City Latitude: 14°’31’ N


Period: 2011 Longitude: 121°’01’ E
Elevation: 21m
Year Month
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
2011 64.0 1.0 69.0 6.0 346.0 no 298.0 306.5 287.5 188.0 151.5 156.0 1873.5
data
Source of Data: PAGASA

Natural Hazards/Constraints
Flooding
Tsunamis are giant sea waves generated by under the sea earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
Not all submarine earthquakes, however, can cause the occurrence of tsunamis. Tsunamis can
only occur when the earthquake is shallow-seated and strong enough (M 7.0) to displace parts
of the seabed and disturb the water over it (PHIVOLCS). The coastal area of Pasay City is
among the most hit by tsunamis and has a high potential for future tsunamis.

Typhoons and their associated hazards, such as strong winds, storm surges, and floods, are
among the most recurrent and damaging calamities our country is prone to. Some 20 storms
and typhoons pass the Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) every year. These are most
frequent during the months of May to December with peak occurrences in the month of
November.

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Flood Hazard Map of Metro Manila

Source: DENR-MGB, 2009

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Flood Prone Areas

Source: Socio-Economic Profile of Pasay, 2001

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Figure 0-1 Flood Hazard Map of Malibay Quadrangle

Source: DENR-MGB, 2009

Subsidence
No traced earthquake fault line traverses the city of Pasay. However, the city is not spared
from other related geologic hazards such as tsunamis, ground shaking, and liquefaction.

Liquefaction is associated with the phenomenon of quick-condition failure which is generally


obtained when pore water in a liquefied layer rises into overlying near-surface sediments that
results in a condition resembling quicksand. Areas that are prone to liquefaction are those
underlain by water-saturated, thick fine to coarse sand layers such as those along the Pasig
River Delta Plain, lake shore areas of Laguna de Bay and the shorelines of Manila Bay. Figure
2-9 shows the city’s Liquefaction Hazard Map with potential zones classified into high,
moderate and low based mainly on the presence of clay layers which help inhibit liquefaction

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Figure 0-2 Liquefaction Hazard Map

Source: Socio-Economic Profile of Pasay, 2001

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 EXISTING STRUCTURE

There are 11,644 establishments registered in Pasay City in 2011.


Number of Establishments by Industry, Pasay City, 2012

Industry Establishments
Number Percent
Manufacturing 361 3.1
Manufacturers, assemblers, importers, repackers, processors, 361 3.1
brewers, distillers, rectifiers, producers and compounders of
liqours, distilled spirits, and wines or manufacturers of any
article of commerce of whatever kind or nature
Wholesale/Retail Trade 5,366 46.08
Retailers 4,279 36.75
Wholesalers, distributors, or dealers in any article of 1,039 8.92
commerce or whatever kind of nature
Peddlers 40 0.34
Dealers of fermented liquors, distilled spirits and/or wines 7 0.06
Dealers in tobacco 1 0.01
Transportation, Storage and Communication 96 0.82
Common Carrier 37 0.32
Private warehouse or bodegas of wholesalers, retailers, 34 0.29
exporters or importers
Terminal Garage for buses & other utility vehicle 22 0.19
Cold Storage & Refrigeration Cases 2 0.02
Franchise Tax - Telephone Company 1 0.01
Community, Social and Personal Services 4,169 35.80
Owners/Operators of business rendering or offering services. 2,682 23.03
Owners or operators of cafes, cafeteria, ice cream and other 1,234 10.60
refreshment parlors, restaurants, Soda-Fountain, bars,
carinderia, and food caterers.
Owners/operators of amusement places 91 0.78
Private Universities, Colleges, Schools/Educational/Vocational 45 0.39
institution

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Hotels 34 0.29
Nursery, vocational and other school not regulated by DECS 23 0.20
Owner or Operators of amusement/vending devices 20 0.17
Theater or Cinema House 11 0.09
Boarding House 9 0.08
Lodging House 8 0.07
Social Club or Voluntary Association 8 0.07
Dancing schools/driving school/speed reading/EDP/judo 2 0.02
karate, etc.
Owners or operators of privately-owned public market and 2 0.02
shopping centers
Finance, Insurance, Real Estate and Business Services 1,374 11.80
Residential Lessor or Sub-lessor of Real Estate 538 4.62
Banks and other financial institutions 446 3.83
Commercial Lessor or Sub-lessor of Real Estate 377 3.24
Insurance Company 8 0.07
Financing Company 5 0.04
Other Categories 278 2.39
Non stock/Non profit 159 1.37
Industry Establishments
Number Percent
Businesses exempt from Business Tax 103 0.88
No line of business class 8 0.07
All Others 8 0.07
Total Number of Establishments 11,644 100.00
Source of Basic Data: Pasay City Information and Communication Technology Office

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3. SECTORAL DATA
A. GENERAL PUBLIC SERVICES

 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE

City Administration
The three (3) structural components of the City Administration (Executive, Legislative,
Barangays) are profiled in Institutional Sector of this SEP:

A. The Executive Departments and Offices


The main planning and implementing component of the City Administration are the
departments. They are under the supervision of the Local Chief Executive (LCE).

 The Organization Structure


a) There are 55 departments, 28 located within the City Hall, and 14 Outside. In the
organizational structure chart, it will be noted that all offices report directly to the Local
Chief Executive (the Mayor). In public management textbooks, the most effective span
of control is 6 – reporting directly to managing person (this could be doubled, assuming
the other 6 are “non-critical”). In the Draft CLUP, some rationalization will be
analyzed, and recommendations to provide for “delegation” - to effect a more efficient
organizational management arrangement.

b) NATIONAL OFFICES. Linked with the city departments are national offices
operating in Pasay City, such as DepEd, DILG, COA, PNP, COMELEC, DOH,
Regional Trial Court, Metro Trial Court, etc.

Table 2.1.14 Department Offices

Name of Department Contact Number/s


1. City Treasurer 833-2854
2. City Assessor 834-9446
3. General Services Office 891-8796
4. Information and Communications Technology Office 834-8814
(ICTO)
5. Local Civil Registrar 832-7915

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6. City Health Office 831-8201


7. People's Law Enforcement Board 833-1934
8. City Administrator 833-2161 / 833-3738
9. City Legal Affairs 833-3729
10. Business Permit and License Office 833-3726
11. Urban Development and Housing Office 833-1174
12. Pasay City Social Welfare & Development 831-8871
Name of Department Contact Number/s
13. City Planning and Development Office 834-0433
14. City Budget 833-3728
15. Tricycle-Pedicab Franchising and Regulatory Office 831-9344
16. City Information Office 831-6459
17. City Tourism & Cultural Affairs 551-0523
18. Human Resource Management Office 833-3723
19. City Library 831-6688
20. Barangay Action Center 831-3322/831-3366
21. Solid Waste Management Office 551-9798
22. City Accountant 833-2180
23. Public Employment Service Office 834-0238
24. Public Order and Safety Unit 831-8840
25. City Engineering Office 831-5925
26. Pasay City Rescue 833-8512
27. City Cooperative Development Office 551-5233
28. City Secretariat 833-2875
29. Pasay City Sports Complex 831-4792
30. Pasay City Public Cemetery and Crematorium 833-0682
31. Pasay City General Hospital 833-6022 / 831-3285
32. Cuneta Astrodome 804-0776 / 831-4652
33. Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Pasay 551-1432
34. Senior Citizen Affairs 381-1579
35. Pasay City Police 831-7322
36. Pasay City Public Market and Mall

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37. Treasurer Office 551-1940/833-2854


38. Market Office 833-0988
39. Mall Office 556-6876
40. Pasay City Veterinary 834-1176
41. Traffic and Parking Management Office 572-32-41 / 556-4393
42. Bureau of Fire Protection-Pasay 844-2120 / 843-6523
Source: Pasay City website

c) The Plantilla (Manpower Staffing Pattern)

d) The Three-Year Budget Summary

Table 2.1.15 Summary of Budget for FY 2010, 2011 and 2012

Year Personal MOOE Capital Outlay Total


Services
2010 836,523,325.47 1,462,752,890.90 544,182,479.19 2,843,458,695.56
2011 924,992,863.00 3,850,941,728.58 71,417,197.17 4,927,351,788.75
2012 922,649,641.90 2,550,158,615.46 609,944,090.88 4,082,752,348.24
Source: City Budget Office

The City Council


With 14 councilors, headed by the Vice Mayor as presiding officer, the Pasay City Council sets
policies – on its own or upon recommendation of the LCE, upon the advice and study of the
departments.

Table 2.1.16 Number and Percentage Share of Legislation by Sector

No. Of Resolutions No. of Ordinances


Legislation by Sector 2010 2011 2012 2010 2011 2012

Administrative 34 51 22 17 55 70
Economic Dev’t. 2 5 2 1
Environmental Mgt. 4 2 2 5 4
Social Development 3 19 22 8 21 119
Educ., Culture & Arts 1 4 6 1 33 17
Health 1 6 7 3 42 180

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Protective Services 4 3 2 5 3
Infrastructure Dev’t. 23 36 22 21 32 24
Finance Management 4 22 23 6 15 15
Total 74 145 135 56 210 433
Source: Pasay City Secretariat

Table 2.1.16above shows a summary of all resolutions and ordinances issued by the Pasay City
Legislative Council for the past three years. In both resolutions and ordinances, there is a
significant increase from the base year 2010, to the succeeding year, 2011. However, there is a
slight decrease in the number of resolutions passed from 2011 to 2012, unlike in ordinances
passed, where the number doubled. Another significant figure in the table is the dominance of
resolutions and ordinances geared towards infrastructure development. This may be attributed
to the fact that most LGUs see improvement in infrastructure as a sign of growth and
development of their respective areas. On the other hand, resolutions and ordinances in
economic development are lagging, with only single digit tabulations for each of the three years
was observed.

However, it is important to note that the table above is a mere tabulation of the description of
the resolutions and ordinances passed. It does not reflect whether or not the Legislative arm of
the Local Government Unit is efficient, nor is it a gauge of their success/failure in achieving
the goals of the LGU. These items may or may not be developmental in nature. In fact, most
of the resolutions and ordinances passed are just identifying to which sector a certain portion
of budget will be allocated, commendation to icons in the society, or appointment or promotion
of the members of the Pasay City Government staff.

This, though, will be critical in analysing the percentage of resolutions and ordinances that are
developmental in nature, and is of use to the continued growth of the City. It will also be used,
along with other analyses, to see and compare whether or not the Legislative Council has indeed
played its role in attaining the objectives that were in the CDP and the ELA.

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The Barangays

There are 201 barangays, grouped under 20 Zones, and divided into 2 districts. When the
barangays were created 400 were submitted to the Ministry of Interior. The Minister Jose Rono
suggested to the then Mayor Pablo Cuneta that the number is too large. Mayor Cuneta cut it
down to 200. The number, it would seem, is still too large for management purposes; there are
very small barangays, and there are very large ones. Small barangays could be geographically
grouped into larger ones. An ordinance to this effect has been adopted by the Pasay City
Council (“Sangguniang Panglunsod”), but remains, to date, unimplemented because
COMELEC has no funds to conduct the required plebiscite. It stands to reason that the LGU
can advance this money (P15million).

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Table 2.1.17 Barangays in their Respective Zones and Districts


DISTRICT 1 DISTRICT 1 DISTRICT 1 DISTRICT 2 DISTRICT 2 DISTRICT 2

BRGY. ZONE BRGY. ZONE BRGY. ZONE BRGY. ZONE BRGY. ZONE BRGY. ZONE

1 1 70 9 192 20 41 6 108 12 163 18


2 1 71 9 193 20 42 6 109 12 164 18
3 1 72 9 194 20 43 6 110 12 165 18
4 2 73 10 195 20 44 6 111 12 166 17
5 2 74 10 196 20 45 6 112 12 167 18
6 2 75 10 197 20 46 6 113 14 168 18
7 2 76 10 198 20 47 6 114 14 169 17
8 2 77 10 199 20 48 6 115 14 170 17
9 2 78 10 200 20 49 6 116 14 171 17
10 4 79 10 201 20 50 7 117 14 172 17
11 4 80 10 51 8 118 14 173 17
12 4 81 10 52 7 119 14 174 17
13 4 82 10 53 7 120 12 175 18
14 1 83 10 54 8 121 12 176 18
15 1 84 10 55 7 122 12 177 18
16 1 85 9 56 7 123 12 178 19
17 1 86 9 57 8 124 12 179 19
18 2 87 9 58 7 125 12 180 19
19 2 88 9 59 7 126 12 181 19
20 2 89 9 60 7 127 13 182 19
21 2 90 9 61 8 128 13 184 19
22 2 91 9 62 8 129 13 185 19
23 2 92 9 63 8 130 13 186 19
24 4 145 16 64 8 131 13
25 4 146 16 65 8 132 13
26 4 147 16 66 8 133 13
27 4 148 16 67 8 134 13

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28 4 149 16 93 11 135 13
29 5 150 16 94 11 136 13
30 5 151 16 95 11 137 15
31 5 152 16 96 11 138 15
32 5 153 16 97 14 139 15
33 3 154 16 98 14 140 15
34 3 155 16 99 14 141 15
35 3 156 16 100 14 142 15
36 3 157 16 101 11 143 15
37 3 183 20 102 11 144 17
38 5 187 20 103 11 158 17
39 5 188 20 104 11 159 17
40 5 189 20 105 11 160 17
68 9 190 20 106 11 161 17
69 9 191 20 107 11 162 18
Source: Pasay LGU website

 LOCAL GOVERNMENT’S FINANCIAL AND FISCAL ADMINISTRATION

Fiscal Management
Income & Expenditures
A review of the tax collections of the city for the past five years shows that there is 50%
increase from 1999 to 2000 -- the period when the current Mayor assumed his post. In the
same period, there was a slight decrease in expenses. The data for expenses also show the
following: For MOE - no appreciable change from 1998; For Personnel - no change since
1998; Capital expense - no change since 1998. Accordingly, it is shown that the LGU since
1998 has shown restraint with respect to expenses while dramatically increasing tax collection.

Despite the increased tax take for 1999-2000, however, the LGU is still in the "red" for P166
Million. In fact, for the past 5 years, the LGU has consistently shown a deficit.
Based on the profile of income of the city, what is noticeable is the consistently low level of
collection for items described as "operations income". These consists of income from

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operations of properties owned by the city, particularly, the Astrodome. It must be pointed out,
however, that the sports stadium exhibited a loss from its very inception.

The dramatic increase in the tax collection can be traced to the vigorous campaign to collect
the proper realty tax and fees/permits from businesses within the city, particularly those
engaged in the entertainment and leisure industry.

This vigor, however, was not translated to taxing the operations of businesses that are less
glamorous but are no less ubiquitous; particularly, the hawkers and private markets around the
Libertad Market and elsewhere, the private terminals for jeepneys, buses and tricycles, the
rows of eateries in the environs of the Astrodome and the Department of Foreign Affairs.

1000

900

800

700
Capital Outlay
600 Personnel
MOE
500
Tax Revenue
400 Operations Income
Borrowings
300 273.204
228.759 Deficit
200 166.126
144.904

100
34.595

0
1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Income & Expenditure Record (In Million PHP), 1996–2000

Analysis:
Despite the vigorous revenue generation programs undertaken by the City, the income of Pasay
remains relatively low in the face of its liabilities and the fund requirements of its impending
projects. The non-cooperation by some institutional taxpayers to contribute their shares to the
City’s coffers is a major issue. Accordingly, there is real danger that the City’s programs would
not be implemented unless other sources of income can be identified and exploited.

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The 30% increase in tax income of the city from 1999 to 2000 has been dramatic; yet, it had
only reduced the deficit by 45% from P273 Million to P166 Million. This situation seriously
affects the ability of the city to use the increases to fund its development program.

At any rate, it is imperative for Pasay City to increase its income or evolve other funds
generation schemes to support its development program.

With respect to its expenses, MOE enjoys the largest claim at a steady P450 Million, more or
less, every year since 1997; or 65% of total expenses.

The outlay for personnel salaries is relatively high (at 35% of total expenses), however, as
compared to private sector average of only 11-20%. This indicates a bloated bureaucracy due
to the large number of casuals in the work force of the civil service. The expenses for salaries
are also relatively unchanged since 1998.

Expenses for capital outlay is far behind at around 12% of total. At one point -- in 1997 -- the
expenses for capital outlay was the highest in five years owing to the construction of the Cuneta
Astrodome. The data presented above also show that this construction was funded by borrowed
money, some parts of which is still being paid as of today. The fact that the sports stadium has
been operating in the red since its opening day indicate that this investment did not work well
for the city.

B. SOCIAL SERVICES
 EDUCATION

Educational Attainment

Table 2.1.18 shows the Percent Distribution of Household Population 5 years old and over by
Highest Grade Completed in 2007. There were 19.53 percent who had attended or completed
elementary education, 36.93 percent who had reached or completed secondary education, 15.91
percent who were college undergraduates, 15.37 percent who were academic degree holders
and 0.12 percent who were with post-baccalaureate courses. There were slightly more females
than males among those with academic degrees and post-baccalaureate courses. Those who
had no education at all comprised 3.36 percent.

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Table 2.1.18 Percent Distribution of Household Population 5 Years Old and Over by
Highest Grade Completed and Sex, 2007
Highest Grade Both Sexes Male Female
Completed HH Pop. Percent HH Pop. Percent HH Pop. Percent
5-Years to Total 5-Years to Total 5-Years to Total
Old and Old and Old and
Over Over Over
No grade completed 12,063 3.36 6,310 3.61 5,753 3.12
Pre-School 7,421 2.07 3,917 2.24 3,504 1.90
Elementary 70,051 19.53 34,284 19.64 35,767 19.42
High School 132,494 36.93 63,353 36.29 69,141 37.54
Post Secondary 12,077 3.37 5,975 3.42 6,102 3.31
College Under- 57,072 15.91 28,735 16.46 28,337 15.39
graduate
Academic 55,152 15.37 26,320 15.08 28,832 15.65
Degree Holder
Post Baccalaureate 446 0.12 206 0.12 240 0.13
Not Stated 11,983 3.34 5,485 3.14 6,498 3.53
TOTAL 358,759 100.00 174,585 100.00 184,174 100.00
Source: NSO

Number of Schools

As of 2010, there were 24 educational facilities in the City

Table 2.1.19 Educational Institutions, 2010


1. A. Mabini High School 13. Pasay City Academy
2. Airlink International Aviation School 14. Pasay City East High School
3. Asian Institute of Maritime Studies 15. Pasay City High School
4. Blessed Elena Academy 16. Pasay City South High School
5. Civil Aviation Training Center 17. PATS College of Aeronautics

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6. Epifanio de los Santos Elem School 18. Phil Pasay Chung Hua Academy
7. Jose Abad Santos High School 19. Philippine Law School
8. Juan Sumulong Elem School 20. Philippine School for the Deaf
9. Metropolitan Aviation School 21. Philippine State College of Aeronautics
10. Paaralang Elementaryang Bonifacio 22. Rizal City School
11. Padre Zamora Elem School 23. Southeastern College
12. PAL Center for Continuing Education 24. St. Mary's Academy
Source: CPDO-GIS, 2010

Other Educational Statistics

Table 2.1.20 presents the Performance Indicators of Elementary and Secondary Schools from
2008-2012. Both retention and literacy rates were high while cohort survival and completion
rates were low for the two levels.

During the period, the retention rate was on a fluctuating trend in Elementary while a slight
increase with a fluctuation during 2009-2010 in Secondary level. Literacy rates in both levels
showed constant increase.

On the other hand, the cohort survival and completion rates were fluctuating in Elementary
while constantly decreasing in Secondary level.

Table 2.1.20 Performance Indicators of Elementary and Secondary Schools, 2008-2012


2008- 2009- 2010- 2011- AVE
2009 2010 2011 2012
Elementary
Enrolment 35,264 35,319 34,970 35,115 35,167
1. Retention Rate 98.06 96.86 97.84 96.84 97.40
2. Cohort Survival Rate 63.89 58.36 63.41 59.39 61.26
3. Completion Rate 62.69 57.70 62.46 58.76 60.40
4. Literacy Rate 91.39 92.36 92.86 95.00 92.90

Secondary
Enrolment 21,805 21,284 21,192 20,399 21,170

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1. Retention Rate 93.19 92.51 93.22 93.60 93.13


2. Cohort Survival Rate 68.63 64.65 64.13 63.81 65.31
3. Completion Rate 63.88 61.72 59.78 59.74 61.28
4. Literacy Rate 92.11 93.03 93.63 94.85 93.41
Source: DepEd, Pasay City, Annual Reports 2009 and 2011

CULTURE, SPORTS, MANPOWER

Cultural and Recreational Attractions


a) Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP) Complex
b) Folk Arts Theater (Tanghalang Francisco Balagtas)
c) Philippine International Convention Center (PICC)
d) Philippine World Trade Center
e) Philippine Training Center
f) Sofitel Hotel (formerly Philippine Plaza Hotel)
g) Coconut Palace
h) SMX Convention Center
i) The Shrine of St. Therese of the Child Jesus
j) Chinese Temple
k) SM Mall Of Asia and SM MOA Skating Rink (the biggest mall in Asia and biggest
indoor skating rink in the Philippines
l) Resorts World Manila
m) Maxim and Marriot Hotel
n) Star City, which is the favorite recreational destination by people during the Christmas
season
o) Crocodile Farm

Historical and Cultural Heritage Areas


a) J.P. Heilbronn Residence – the house of the founder of the leading paper company &
president of the Philippine American Drug. Co.
b) The Residence of Lopa & Oppen families in Roberts Street.
c) Residence of Vicente Arias – a realtor & insurance magnate at #240 Roberts Street.

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d) Residence of Mr. Go Kim Pah, prominent businessman, founder of Equitable Banking


Corporation in Cuneta Avenue.
e) House of Mr. James C. Rockwell at 1155 F.B. Harrison Street.
f) The Residence of Mr. Julio and Juan Ledesma, sugar tycoons from Silay, Negros
occidental at #3336 Taft Avenue.
g) Ledesma’s neighbor Placido Mapa, finance wizard from Talisay
h) Residence of Tomas Mapua, 1st architect in the Philippines and founder of Mapua
Institute of Technology, at #2635 Taft Avenue.
i) Nayong Pilipino
j) 10. Manila Sanitarium, founded in1928
k) 11. San Juan de Dios Hospital in 1577
l) 12. Philippine School for the Deaf in 1923

Labor Force
Of the economically active population in Pasay City in 2011, a total of 115,281 are members
of the labor force. There are 69,174 males that are members of the labor force, which constitutes
60% of the total. On the other hand, there are only 46,107 female members of the labor force
or 40% of the total (Table 4-1 and Figures 4-1b and 4-1c). It is of note that while there are
more females that are economically active members of the population, there are more males
that are members of the labor force.

In 2005 and 2008, the members of the labor force are 107,855 and 109,734, respectively. Labor
force generally increased through the years, by 1,875 members from 2005 to 2008, and by
5,538 members from 2008 to 2011. Similarly, there are more male than female members of the
population in the years considered.

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Table 2.1.21 Members of the Labor Force, Pasay City, Various Years

Members of the Labor Force

Male
Number
Female
Total

Year

Table 2.1.22 Proportion of the Members of the Labor Force, Pasay City, Various Years

Proportion of the Members of the


Labor Force
Percentage

Male
Female
Total

Year

Labor Force Participation Rate


Labor Force Participation Rate (LFPR) is the proportion of the members of the labor force to
the economically active members of the population. LFPR for Pasay City is computed at 59%
in 2011. It is higher for males at 73% compared with only 46% for females.

LFPR is a little lower at 58% in 2005 and 2011. This is still higher for males at 73% and 75%
in 2005 and 2008, respectively, compared with that for females at 43% for both years in
consideration.

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Table 2.1.23 Labor Force Participation Rate, Pasay City, Various Years

Labor Force Participation


Rate
Percentage Male
Female
Total

Year

C. PROTECTIVE SERVICES

Police and Fire-Fighting Personnel and Facilities

Based on the inventory of personnel, the number of fire protection personnel is inadequate.
Using the population of 392,869 persons for 2010, the ratio of fire protection personnel to
population is 1:4,515. The nationally accepted firemen-population ratio is 1:2,000. There is
one Central Fire Station, four sub-stations and a PAF Crash and Rescue Unit in the City.

Police and Fire Fighting Personnel, 2012


Number of Personnel
Police Department Unavailable Data
Fire Department
BFP 52
F/A 35
Source: BFP, Pasay City Fire Station

Police and Fire Fighting Facilities, 2012


Police Fire
No. of Stations Unavailable Data 1. Pasay City Central Fire Station,
and Location Brgy. 66

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2. Malibay Fire Sub-Station,


Brgy. 167
3. Senate Fire Sub-Station,
Brgy.76
4. Kalayaan Fire Sub-Station,
Brgy. 201
5. Villamor Fire Sub Station
6. PAF Crash and Rescue Unit
Inventory of Unavailable Data BFP-owned fire truck - 3
Facilities LGU-owned fire truck - 7
Aerial ladder - 1
BFP-owned ambulance - 1
Source: BFP, Pasay City Fire Station

Fire Incidence

From 2008-2012, an average of 108 fire incidents per year occurred in the City. These were
mainly caused by electrical, open flame, gas leak and lightning.

Fire Incidents, 2008-2012


Year Number of Fire Incidents Origin/Cause
2008 100 1. Electrical
2009 122 2. Open flame
2010 109 3. Gas leak

2011 110 4. Lightning

2012 137
AVERAGE 108
Source: BFP, Pasay City Fire Station

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D. RECREATIONAL FACILITIES

Sports and Recreational Facilities

As of 2010, there were 11 sports and recreational facilities in the City. (Refer to Table 3-22
and Map 3-3).

Table 0-1 Sports and Recreational Facilities, 2012


1. Cultural Center of the Philippines
2. Cuneta Astrodome
3. D Velayo Sports Center
4. Design Center of the Philippines
5. Folk Arts Theater
6. Manila Film Center
7. Nayong Pilipino
8. Philippine Center for Int'l Trade and Exhibitions
9. Philippines International Convention Center
10. Sports Complex
11. Tahanang Pilipino
Source: GIS, 2010

E. ECONOMIC SERVICES

General
After four decades of rapid urbanization in Metropolitan Manila, Pasay City has transformed
into an important local corridor between major urban centers. Its southwestern portion provides
access between the city of Manila in the north with cities and municipalities like Parañaque,
Las Piñas as well as the nearby municipalities in Cavite in the south. Likewise, its southeastern
portion links Parañaque, Muntinlupa and Laguna with the cities of Manila, Makati,
Mandaluyong as well as Quezon City. In other words, Pasay City is a facilitator of trade among
its neighboring LGUs. The city also serves as an international gateway not just to Metro Manila
but the whole Philippines with the existence of both the domestic and international airports
within its jurisdiction. The popularity of the Baclaran Church in nearby Parañaque City has not
only created a religious devotion but has also intensified commercial activity that has

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overflowed into Pasay City. This has brought about benefits to Pasay City in the form of
employment and more livelihood opportunities, a more robust local economy, and a rise in
property values. These benefits, however, are not without its attendant urban problems of
vehicular traffic congestion, blight, breakdown of services, and an increase of urban poor
dependent on the thriving economic activities.

Complementing Pasay City’s strategic location is its relatively flat terrain, which has the
capacity to absorb a large population and intense commercial enterprises. Another feature that
could work to its advantage is its western coastline that could be expanded through reclamation.
In fact, a large portion of the city is already made up of reclaimed lands where prominent
landmarks and national government offices are now established.

Policy actions of neighboring LGUs are known to affect the city’s economy. The apparent rise
in business tax collections of the city government, for example, was the result of the campaign
by the Parañque City government against Baclaran vendors who reacted by merely crossing
the boundary into Pasay City. Likewise, the city has benefited from the transfer of local
investors who were discouraged by Makati City’s ordinance that increased the rate of local
taxes on business enterprises. On the other hand, the rising crime index that has discouraged
Pasay City’s legitimate investors was a direct result of criminal elements moving into the city
when Manila launched its intensive campaign against drugs and other criminal activities.

As a whole, Pasay City has the basic fundamentals that could sustain its economic machinery.
It has highly educated and skilled manpower as well as managers; adequate supply of electricity
and water; excellent access provided by light rail transit systems, excellent communication
facilities, road networks and airports; and some land for expansion.

The Political Economy of Pasay City.


As an international gateway and a transport corridor, Pasay City shares in the administrative
supervision of strategic roads such as Roxas Boulevard, Harrison Road and Taft Avenue on
the southwest and EDSA (C-4) which runs from east to west. These linkages facilitate
economic interdependence. The efficiency of the city could be adversely affected should
vehicular traffic in Pasay City be left unattended. Labor productivity among offices in the cities
of Manila and Makati shall somehow decrease because of the workers’ extended travel, which
shortens their working hours. This shall also affect the earnings of people driving public

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conveyances who shall be discouraged to ply their route in the area. Transportation costs of
students from the cities of Parañaque and Las Piñas as well as those from Cavite who study in
Manila shall likewise increase, as they shall be forced to take longer routes going to and from
their schools. Such unfavorable conditions have already occurred when the construction of
Metro Rail Transit facility in EDSA permanently diverted the traffic flow that forced the
motorists and travelers, particularly those going to the airports, to take alternative routes.

The City is host to the domestic and the international airports. As an international gateway,
Pasay City holds the visitors’ first and last impression that is crucial to the Philippines’ business
and industries, especially the tourism industry.

The city is like a corporate enterprise that needs to be sustained. It has to compete for
investment for it to generate tax revenues, create livelihood and provide employment to its
legitimate residents. With its strategically located reclaimed properties along its western
coastline, the city could be competitive with its progressive neighboring LGUs.

Labor Force and Employment

In 2000, Pasay City had an estimated labor force of 291,800 representing 80.4% of the
population. In spite of its highly urbanized character as evidenced by its numerous service
enterprises, Pasay City had only 84.5% of its total labor force gainfully employed. Most of
those employed worked for various enterprises, corporate firms and government agencies.
There was also a significant number of those working which were considered self-employed.

The Leading Industries of Pasay City

Pasay City’s rapid urbanization has seen the decline of traditional industries and their
replacement with more service-oriented types of livelihood and industries. The rising
population and the growing demand for their immediate needs have caused too much pressure
on land and the surrounding environment. The demand for space and the subsequent invasion
of creeks and rivers by informal settlers has eased out vegetable farming, fishing, livestock
raising and the culture of marine products.

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The recent trend towards a global-oriented economy had various impacts in the Philippines as
the system promoted consumerism that created a demand for service-oriented industries. In
Pasay City, such service industries took the form of financial services, medical services, retail
and general merchandising, recreation services, public terminals, commercial garages,
professional services, personal services, utility services, and light manufacturing. In 2000, a
total 8,461 enterprises were registered in the city.

Classification of Industries in Pasay City, 2000


Business Classification Number Percent to
Total
General Merchandising and Retail 4,792 56.6%
Professional Services 1,394 16.5%
Utility Services 762 9.0%
Financial Services 462 5.4%
Rest and Recreational Business Services 339 4.0%
Personal Services 258 3.0%
Allied Medical Services 209 2.5%
Manufacturing/Fabrication 168 2.1%
Public Terminals and Commercial Garage 41 0.5%
Private Learning Institutions 36 0.4%
Total 8,461 100.0%
Source : Pasay City Business Permits and License Division

General Merchandising and Retail


Of the numerous industries recorded in 2000, the general merchandising and retail sector had
the biggest share with a total of 4,792 enterprises. This sector was dominated by retail and
general merchandising with1,964 and sari-sari stores with 1,346. The others were
dealer/trading marketing, restaurants / fastfoods, food chains, bakeshops and those engaged in
export activities.

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Profile of General Merchandising and Retail in Pasay City, 2000


General Merchandising Number of Percent of Percent of
And Retail Sector Establishments Sector Total Industry
Total
General Merchandise & 1,964 41.0% 23.2%
Retail
Sari-sari Stores 1,346 28.0% 15.9%
Food Chain Outlets 522 10.9% 6.2%
Dealer/Trading and 458 9.6% 5.4%
Marketing
Export/Import 180 3.8% 2.1%
Restaurants/ Fastfoods 166 3.5% 2.0%
Bakeshops 156 3.2% 1.9%
Sector Total 4,792 100.0% 56.7%
Source: Pasay City Business Permits and License Division

The numbers presented above may even be more as inspections by the city government
often reveal that there are several micro-enterprises operating without business licenses.

F. Professional Services

Professional Services had the second biggest share in the type of industries in Pasay City with
1,394. This consisted of 385 private agencies engaged in travel, security and labor recruitment,
668 establishments in land development; dealership and leasing; 155 general contractors; and
186 repair shops.

G. Utility Services

The 762 enterprises engaged in providing utility services included 258 firms providing general
services; 184 forwarders and brokerage firms; and 231 that were either gasoline stations,
funeral parlors or warehouses. There were also 86 operating as non-stock and non-profit
institutions. Included in this category are the Manila Electric Company, the Maynilad
Waterworks, Inc., and the branch office of PLDT.

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H. Financial Services

Of the 462 establishments offering financial services in Pasay City in 2000, there were 78
banks, 29 money-changers, 105 pawnshops, 18 lending investors, and 232 insurance agencies
and holdings. Banks cater to savers and entrepreneurs in need of capital for their enterprises.
Micro entrepreneurs, on the other hand, are not afforded the same service and are forced to
resort to underground financing that charge as high as 20% for a 60-day period. Money-
changers cater to people and tourists who have foreign denominations while pawnshops lend
money to people who have valuable property but lack the cash.

I. Rest and Recreational Business Services


Businesses related to rest and recreation were also prevalent economic activities in Pasay City.
There were about 339 business services that were classified as rest and recreation in 2000. Of
this total, 168 were amusement centers and 122 were karaoke bars, nightclubs and discos. The
city had 20 high-end hotels and another 22 less luxurious lodging facilities. There were also
seven theaters in 2000.

J. Personal Services

Of the 258 enterprises under Personal Services, about 254 were beauty parlors operating mostly
on the easements of major and interior roads. The other four (4) enterprises were registered as
lodging houses.

K. Allied Medical Services

There were 203 drug stores and optical clinics registered in 2000. The others were six (6)
private hospitals, namely, the Manila Sanitarium and Hospital, San Juan de Dios Hospital,
Miraculous Medical Hospital, Pasay Doctors Polyclinic, Balbido’s Clinical Laboratory and
Pasay- Parañaque Chest Clinic.

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L. Manufacturing/ Fabrication

The 168 enterprises listed under the manufacturing/ fabrication category were as varied as the
retail and general merchandising. While 22 were generally classified as food manufacturers,
the rest were engaged in different crafts, such as metal and steel fabrication, spare parts, cutlery,
dress shops and tailoring shops.

M. Public Terminals and Commercial Garages

There were 15 bus terminals observed in the city, many of which are situated in the major
thoroughfares such as EDSA or circumferential Road 4. There were also nine (9) commercial
garages being used as terminals. It was learned that many of the bus companies have
committed violations against local government regulations, which included about 15 bus
companies that have not secured zoning clearances prior to operation and a majority which
have not been issued Mayor’s permits to operate.
In addition, it was estimated that there were about 2,500 tricycles providing short-distance
travel to residents along the city’s inner sections as well as in the secondary and tertiary roads.
Like the bigger public utility vehicles, the tricycle drivers were organized and had their own
terminals. The city government has allowed 15 terminals for the operation of tricycles and
pedicabs.
Aside from public land transportation terminals, the city is also host to two rail transit terminals
operated by Light Rail Transit and the Metro Rail Transit.

N. TOURISM

There are numerous recreational and cultural destinations that attract local visitors and foreign
tourists. Cultural attractions include the Nayong Pilipino at the airport area that showcases
miniature versions of real natural attractions in the Philippines, and the numerous venues for
shows at the Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP) Complex. The reclamation area is also
home to Star City, which is the favorite recreational destination by people during the Christmas
season.

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Estimated Land Use Distribution of Pasay City, 2001

Land Use Category Land Area Percent to Total


(hectares) (%)
Residential 1 17.06 0.95
Residential 2 and 3 550.13 30.48
Commercial 1, 2 and 3 66.10 3.66
Industrial 23.45 1.30
Institutional 179.13 9.92
Cultural 14.92 0.83
Tourism 7.51 0.42
Planned Unit Development (PUD) 298.54 16.54
Open Spaces (Road ROW) 136.48 7.56
Cemetery 4.26 0.24
Utilities and Transportation 507.52 28.12
TOTAL 1805.11 100.00
Note: Computed from digitized map, subject to ground survey/confirmation.

In terms of land use classification, the distribution of land uses (ranked according to
intensity or severity of use) and the land use conflicts they generate are as follows:

a. Industrial. Industrial land uses can be found in areas designated by the HLURB
under its 1996 MZO as light industrial (I-1), medium industrial (I-2) and heavy
industrial (I-3). The existing I-1 and I-2 areas are largely found scattered all over
the ORA while virtual I-3 areas can be found in the southern section of the OSA;
the environmental pollution and the congestion generated by these sites create major
land use conflicts within their largely high density residential host sites;

b. Commercial. Commercial land uses can be found in areas designated by the


HLURB under its 1996 MZO as principally commercial or the central business
district (C-1), quasi-commercial/ industrial (C-2) and large shopping malls (C-3).
These are largely found in the ORA and in the western and southern sections of the
OSA; the environmental pollution and the very high vehicular and pedestrian

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traffic/ congestion generated by these sites create major land use conflicts with their
largely residential neighbors;

c. Residential. Residential land uses can be found in areas designated by the HLURB
under its 1996 MZO as low density (R-1), medium density (R-2), high density (R-
3), socialized housing zone (SHZ), townhouses (R-4) and condominiums (R-5).
Existing R-1 areas can still be found in small pockets all over the ORA. R-2, R-3
and qualified SHZ areas, all of which generally correspond to locations of Areas for
Priority Development (APDs) can be found all over the ORA and in the central,
eastern and southern sections of the OSA, the northeastern portion of the OVABA
and in the western, southwestern and southeastern portions of the AA (reference
Figure 3.3). Existing R-4 and R-5 areas can be found all over the ORA, in the
western and southern sections of the OSA and to a lesser extent, at the southwestern
and southeastern portions of the AA; the environmental pollution (particularly
generated domestic wastes) and the congestion generated by these sites, particularly
the appropriation of portions or entire road rights-of-way (ROWs) and waterway
easements create major land use conflicts; this is coupled with the need to provide
public infrastructure, amenities, facilities, utilities and services (IAFSU),
particularly recreational open spaces; another issue is the very high densities which
exceed allowable densities for designated residential land use classifications;
finally, the status of APDs must be well defined since most APDs in Pasay City are
located in densely populated residential areas;

d. Infrastructure, Transportation and Utilities (ITU). These land uses can be found
largely in the AA where runways 13-31 and 06-24 and the LRT Line 1 depot are
located and in portions of the ORA and OSA where off-street terminals of public
conveyances are situated; the EDSA-MRT which actually lies within the EDSA
ROW also fall under this classification; by virtue of the actual nature of their
function, i.e., open space not officially devoted to recreational use, all road rights-
of-way (ROWs) which include sidewalks and arcades (which are not open spaces)
must also fall within this classification; one key issue in ITU areas is the non-
coordination of the planning and implementation of GRP projects with the pertinent
LGU offices;

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e. Institutional. Institutional land uses can be found in areas designated by the HLURB
under its 1996 MZO as general institutional (GI) and special institutional (SI). The
smaller GI areas are largely found in the ORA while the larger GI areas can be
found in the CC-FCA portion of the NCRA. The SI areas can be found in the
OVABA and in some portions of the AA; the preponderance of large national
institutional sites in Pasay City, while generally a welcome development must

f. Open Spaces/ Parks and Recreational Spaces. Open spaces can be found in very
small pockets in the OSA while road ROWs in the entire city automatically fall
under this classification. Open recreational spaces can be found in the OVABA
(Villamor Golf Course) and in the AA (Nayong Pilipino) while an enclosed/ roofed
recreational space can be found in the ORA (Cuneta Astrodome) but all of these are
not for free nor are they for general public access; the lack of legitimate public
recreational open spaces for Pasay City’s very high daytime/ resident population is
the foremost planning issue to be resolved;

g. Cemeteries. These can be found only in southern and eastern parts of the OSA, i.e.,
the public cemetery along Aurora Blvd. (Tramo) and the Catholic cemetery at the
Dolores section of Arnaiz Ave. (Libertad); the congestion at the present cemeteries
and the need to further enhance its capacity coupled with the need to introduce other
burial concepts are the key issues to be considered;

h. Vacant, Underutilized, Transitional or Committed for Future Development as a


Planned Unit Development (PUD); these lands can be found in both the CBP-I(A)
and CC-FCA portions of the NCRA; the interim uses to which these lands must be
subjected is a key planning issue; whether Pasay City must introduce a system of
incentives and penalties for their interim use is anorher key issue to be resolved;

O. DIRECTION AND PATTERN OF GROWTH OF INDUSTRY

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B. PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE
 TRANSPORTATION

Main Road Network

The existing key roads within Pasay City's boundaries perform metropolitan linkage functions
and are in relatively good condition than the roads in the rest of the country. However, chronic
traffic congestion is usually experienced during peak periods particularly along the major
metropolitan radial and circumferential roads within Pasay City. A strong north-south intra-
metropolitan and intra-regional connection is provided by the eight-lane Roxas Boulevard/
Manila-Cavite Coastal Road (MCCR), i.e., otherwise referred to as the Radial Road 1 (R-1),
extending from the city of Manila's southernmost area to the Alabang-Zapote Road/ R-1
junction in Muntinlupa City. Epifanio De Los Santos Avenue (EDSA) also referred to as
Circumferential Road 4 (C-4) provides direct access from the eastern and northern portions of
the Metro Manila Area. A complete list of the major thoroughfares that are actually situated
within Pasay City's boundaries, i.e., radial roads, circumferential roads, collector roads and
local roads that provide local and inter-city/ intra-metropolitan access within the boundaries of
Pasay City together with their key physical characterizations are discussed below.

• Radial Road 1

Radial Road 1 (R-1) consists of the southernmost section of Roxas Boulevard that links
Pasay City to the city of Manila to the north and Parañaque City to the south. The
approximate road right-of-way (ROW) is 60 meters. The R-1 section found in Pasay
City is basically a private transportation corridor or a low-occupancy vehicle (LOV)
corridor frequented largely by private vehicles and taxis. Public buses from the south
via Coastal Road uses certain segment of Roxas Boulevard and turn left at EDSA or
Gil Puyat Avenue. This condition gives Roxas Boulevard its fast-moving, expansive
and highly vehicular character.

• Radial Road 2

Radial Road 2 (R-2) consists of the southernmost section of Taft Avenue, which links
Pasay City to the City of Manila to the north and Parañaque City to the south. The
approximate road ROW is 30 meters. The R-2 section found in Pasay City is a public

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transportation corridor or medium-occupancy vehicle (MOV) corridor frequented by


intra-metropolitan jeepneys and some mega-taxis. This condition gives Taft Avenue its
slow moving, constricted/ congested and highly pedestrian character. The Light Rail
Transit (LRT) train runs along this corridor within Pasay City.

• Radial Road 3

Radial Road 3 (R-3) is comprised of a section of the South Luzon Expressway (SLEX).
It links Pasay City to the city of Manila to the north and to Parañaque City to the south.
It has an approximate road ROW of 60 meters. The grade level R-3 section found in
Pasay City is basically a public transportation corridor or high occupancy vehicle
(HOV) corridor frequented by metropolitan and provincial buses and intra-metropolitan
jeepneys and mega-taxis. However, the number of private vehicles using the grade
level R-3 (SLEX) far outnumbers public utility vehicles. This condition coupled by the
heavy volume of vehicles gives the grade-level R-3 (SLEX) its slow moving,
constrictive/ congested but highly vehicular character. The above-grade level R-3
(Metro Manila Skyway or MMS) section also found in Pasay City is, in contrast,
basically a private transportation corridor or low occupancy vehicle (LOV) corridor,
i.e., frequented by private vehicles. This condition renders the above-grade level R-3
(Metro Manila Skyway or MMS) section in Pasay City its very fast-moving and highly
vehicular in character. The MMS has an estimated total 40 meters segregated road
ROW that will eventually connect the existing North Luzon Expressway (NLE) and
South Luzon Expressway (SLEX) through other elevated sections passing through the
city of Manila; the MMS is expected to reduce travel time from north to south of the
MMA by providing a more reliable and direct route. Pasay City is expected to become
more accessible with the completion of the other proposed elevated highway sections
within the MMA;

• Circumferential Road 3 (C-3)

Circumferential Road 3 (C-3) consists of the westernmost section of Sen. Gil Puyat
Avenue. This road, which links Pasay City to Makati City to the east, has a road ROW
(right of way) of about 40 meters. The C-3 section found in Pasay City is a public

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transportation or HOV corridor from the Makati City boundary up to the up to the
Boulevard 2000 Project area, i.e., frequented by metropolitan buses and intra-
metropolitan jeepneys and mega-taxis. This condition gives Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue its
slow moving, constricted/ congested and highly pedestrian character.

• Circumferential Road 4 (C-4)

Circumferential Road 4 (C-4), which has an approximate road ROW of 60 m, consists


of the westernmost section of (EDSA) This road links Pasay City to Makati City to the
east. The C-4 section found in Pasay City is the public transportation or HOV (high
occupancy vehicle) corridor from the Makati City boundary up to the C-4/ R-2 junction
(Pasay Rotunda). This section is frequented by metropolitan and provincial buses and
intra-metropolitan jeepneys and mega-taxis and is also a largely private transportation
or LOV corridor from the C-4/ R-2 junction (Pasay Rotunda) up to the vast reclaimed
areas west of R-1. This condition gives EDSA (section from the Makati City boundary
to the C-4/ R-2 junction) its slow moving, constrictive/ congested and highly pedestrian
character as compared to the fast-moving, expansive and highly vehicular character of
the EDSA section from the C-4/ R-2 junction up to the Boulevard 2000 Project area.
The Metro Rail Transit (MRT) runs along the segment of EDSA which is in Pasay with
the south terminal found at the intersection of Taft Avenue and EDSA.

• F.B. Harrison Avenue

F.B. Harrison Avenue is a major north-south collector road that links Pasay City to the
city of Manila to the north and to Parañaque City to the south (where it joins with
Quirino Avenue). It has a ROW of approximately 25 meters. The F.B. Harrison Avenue
section found in Pasay City is a public transportation or MOV (medium occupancy
vehicle) corridor and is frequented by intra-metropolitan jeepneys and mega-taxis. This
condition gives the F.B. Harrison Avenue section in Pasay City its relatively slow-
moving, constrictive/ congested and highly pedestrian character.

• Arnaiz Avenue (formerly Libertad)

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Arnaiz Avenue is a major west-east collector road that links Pasay City to Makati City
to the east. It has an approximate road ROW of 25 meters. The Arnaiz Avenue section
found in Pasay City serves as a public transportation road or MOV corridor, i.e.,
frequented by extra-city and intra-city jeepneys; this condition gives the Arnaiz Avenue
section in Pasay City its slow moving, constrictive/congested and highly pedestrian
character.

• Ninoy Aquino Avenue

The Ninoy Aquino Avenue is the last major north-south collector road, which links
Pasay City to Parañaque City to the south. It has an approximate road ROW of 40
meters. The Ninoy Aquino Avenue section found in Pasay City is basically a public
transportation or MOV corridor, i.e., frequented by extra-city jeepneys and mega-taxis.
This condition gives the Ninoy Aquino Avenue section in Pasay City its relatively slow-
moving, constrictive/ congested but highly vehicular character due to the heavy volume
of private vehicles.

• Andrews Avenue

Andrews Avenue is a major east-south local road functioning as a metropolitan linkage


between Pasay City and Makati City by way of crossing R-3 (SLEX). The approximate
road ROW is 40 meters. A section found in Pasay City is basically a private
transportation or LOV corridor, i.e., frequented by private vehicles and a limited
volume of extra-city jeepneys and mega-taxis. This condition gives the Andrews
Avenue its fast-moving, relatively expansive and highly vehicular character.

• Mexico Road (sometimes called Taft Avenue Extension)

Mexico Road is a major local road that links Pasay City to Paranaque City to the south
where it joins with Quirino Avenue. The approximate road ROW is 25 meters. Mexico
Road is a public transportation or MOV corridor, i.e., frequented by intra-metropolitan
jeepneys and mega-taxis, metropolitan and some provincial buses. This condition gives
Mexico Road its excruciatingly slow-moving, highly constrictive/ congested and

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extremely pedestrian character, which probably make it the most densely pedestrianized
road in the MMA during daytime;

• NAIA Road (formerly MIA Road)

The NAIA Road is a major local road, which links Pasay City to Parañaque City to the
west where it eventually joins with R-1. It has an approximate road ROW of 50 meters.
The NAIA Road section found in Pasay City is basically a private transportation or
LOV corridor, i.e., frequented by private vehicles but also by some intra-metropolitan
jeepneys, mega-taxis and metropolitan buses. This condition gives the NAIA Road
section in Pasay City its fast-moving, expansive and highly vehicular character.

• Domestic Road

The Domestic Road is a major local road that links Andrews Avenue to the north and
NAIA to the south. The approximate road ROW is 25 meters. The F.B. Harrison
Avenue section found in Pasay City is basically a public transportation or MOV
corridor, i.e., frequented by intra-metropolitan jeepneys and mega-taxis. This condition
gives the F.B. Harrison Avenue section in Pasay City its relatively slow-moving,
constrictive/ congested and highly pedestrian character.

• Aurora Boulevard (Tramo)

Aurora Boulevard is a major local road, which links C-4 (EDSA) to the north and
Andrews Avenue to the south. The approximate road right-of-way (ROW) is about 30
meters; Aurora Blvd. is a public transportation or MOV corridor, i.e., frequented by
intra-metropolitan jeepneys and some metropolitan and provincial buses; this condition
gives the Aurora Blvd. its relatively slow-moving, constrictive/ congested and highly
pedestrian character. Aurora Boulevard used to be a well-traveled route of airport bound
vehicles coming from EDSA. The completion of the MRT Line along EDSA has
resulted in the closure of the intersection at the corner of EDSA and Aurora Boulevard
and the subsequent prevention of the entry of left-turning vehicles coming from west
bound EDSA and into Aurora Boulevard.

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Inventory of Roads and Bridges

The Pasay City is served by a network of roads, mostly concreted, and provides internal
access within the city and to all its barangays. Several roads serve as important linkages
of the city to the rest of Metro Manila. The primary highways that run north to south
are Roxas Boulevard and Taft Avenue. The other major road that runs north to south
and carries heavy public transport traffic is F. B. Harrison. The major roads that run
west to east are Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue (formerly Buendia), Arnaiz Avenue (formerly
Libertad) and E. Delos Santos Avenue (EDSA).

Minor roads that are found within Pasay City cater to light public transport vehicles
such as jeepneys and tricycles. The table below lists the roads in the major areas Pasay
City.

Existing Roads in Pasay City


District Length (km.)
Concrete Asphalt Gravel Earth
San Roque District 19.795 0.000 0.000 0.725
San Rafael 36.204 1.358 0.000 0.727
San Isidro 3.182 0.330 0.000 0.000
Sta. Clara 2.647 0.000 0.000 0.000
CAA 22.124 0.000 0.000 0.000
Source: Pasay City

In terms of pavement type, the major roads in Pasay City are of concrete, asphalt and
gravel. A great portion of the roads is of asphalt and concrete types. Very minor portions
are gravel type roads.
The roads in Pasay City are administered by several agencies. Some are maintained by
the municipal government. Some portions of the road are under the National Capital
Region. Total road network of the city is 149.35 kms.

The waterway crossings within Pasay City are provided by bridges. These reinforced
concrete bridges have span length ranging from 25 meters to 50 meters. The short ones

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are along A. Jorge St. and Protacio St. The longest bridge is located along EDSA. The
following Table 6.2 and Figure 6.2 show the currently existing bridges that serve Pasay
City:

Inventory of City Bridges (as of June 30, 1998)

Location Length (m)

30 - concrete
1. Tramo Bridge
25 - concrete
2. D. Jorge
25 - concrete
3. Protacio
40 - concrete
4. Cementina
50 - concrete
5. Gil Puyat
50 - concrete
6. E D S A
20 - timber
7. Flores St.
50 - concrete
8. Bac III Drive
25 - concrete
9. C. Jose St.
25 - concrete
10. Apelo Cruz St.
Source: Pasay City

Public Transport

Existing Jeepney Routes

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ROUTE: TRAVERSED STREETS TERMINAL/WAITING AREA


1. MALIBAY – LIBERTAD CLEMENTE JOSE Corner De Guzman

C. Jose – left C. De Guzman – left at P.


Santos - left at Apelo Cruz – right at C. Jose
– right at EDSA – U-Turn at SLEX flyover
– left along EDSA southbound – right F.B.
Harrison – right Libertad – right Park Ave.
– right at EDSA and U turn for EDSA
northbound – finally right to C. Jose
2. LIBERTAD – M. REYES M. REYES COR. EDSA
M. Reyes cor EDSA- right EDSA – right
Taft Ave. – left Pasay Lions Rd. – right P.
Villanueva – left Galvez Ave. – right F.B.
Harrison – right Libertad – Cementina –
(MAKATI) right to Batangas – left
Balderrama – right Bavanggueno – left to
Jerry St.– right Capt. M. Reyes – back to
terminal.
3. LIBERTAD – CABRERA COLAYCO ST.
Colayco – left Libertad – right Tramo –right
Protacio St.- right to Tolentino St.- straight
to Cabrera St. –right to EDSA – right to P.
Zamora – left to Tramo cr. Protacio –
straight Tramo – left Libertad – right P.
Burgos – left Villareal -then back to
terminal.
4. LIBERTAD - M. DELA CRUZ M. DELA CRUZ ST.
M. dela Cruz – left to Libertad-Cementina
Dolores St –right P. Burgos St – left to
Villareal st. – right Colayco – left Libertad-
Cementina Dolores St. – right Tolentino

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Esguerra – right Tolentino – left Protacio –


left M. dela Cruz - back to terminal.
5. EVANGELISTA-LIBERTAD EVANGELISTA ST. COR. EDSA
Evangelista left to Arnaiz St.-right to P.
Burgos-left to Sen. Gil Puyat St. – left to
Harrison St.-left to Arnaiz St going back to
Evangelista
6. NICHOLS-V. CRUZ-EDSA-TRAMO GATE 1 NICHOLS (ANDREWS AVE.)
ALTERNATE ROUTE: NICHOLS- CAA-
AIRPORT
Nichols – Andrews Ave. – Airport Rd. –
right Roxas Blvd. – right P. Lovina Sr. –
right to Park Ave. – left Mexico Ave. –
straight to Taft Ave. U-Turn along Taft Ave.
– left EDSA – right Aurora Blvd. (Tramo) –
right Andrews Ave. – left Domestic Rd. –
left Mia Rd., right still along Mia Rd. – right
Domestic Rd. – right Andrews Ave. – left
Aurora Blvd. (Tramo) then EDSA.
7. PINAGBARILAN-LIBERTAD AURORA BLVD. COR.
Aurora- left to Don Carlos Revilla- right to PINAGBARILAN
EDSA – u-turn under SLEX flyover-EDSA
southbound – right to P. Zamora – straight
to P. Burgos - left to Villareal – left to
Colayco – right to Libertad - left Park Ave.
– right EDSA – u-turn to EDSA northbound
- right Don Carlos Revilla- back to terminal

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Existing Jeepney Routes (Continuation)


ROUTE: TRAVERSED STREETS TERMINAL/WAITING AREA
8. VILLAMOR G1 – G2 GATE 2
G2 right to Manlunas – right 4th st. – left 17th
st. – Airmen’s Vill. – left 14th st. – left 12th
st. – right 10th st. – left Manlunas
From Manlunas Jeep Terminal – right 3rd st.
– right 4th st. – left to Andrews Ave. – right
to Sales then South Super Highway.
9. DOMINGA – LIBERTAD DOMINGA
Dominga – left G. Puyat Ave. – right Edison
– right Morse st. – left Marconi – right
Cementina up to Libertad – left F.B.
Harrison – right Ignacio – left Park Ave. –
right P. Reyes then Pasay Lions Rd. – left
Taft Ave. – right to Arnaiz St. (Cementina)
– left Marconi – right Morse – left Edison –
left Gil Puyat Ave. – right Dominga.

10. LIBERTAD-WASHINGTON P. ZAMORA COR LIBERTAD


-Left Batangas–right Finlandia straight
ahead to Dela Rosa–right Washington then
Makati Sq. up to Mckinley–right Fernando –
right Antonio Arnaiz (Libertad-
Cementina)–left Primero de Marzo then
D.C. Laurel–left T. Inocencio–J.P. Rizal–
right to Cementina-Dolores (Libertad)
11. ALABANG – PASAY ALABANG
G2– South Super Highway – left EDSA – U-
Turn end of EDSA then right South Super
Highway (West Service Rd.) straight ahead
up to Alabang.
12. EVANGELISTA – TRAMO EVANGELISTA COR. EDSA

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Evangelista left to Arnaiz St.- right to P.


Burgos - cross Sen. Gil Puyat St. – to
Dominga up to Gutierrez – turn around back
to Gil Puyat – turn left at Gil Puyat – right at
tramo – left at arnaiz up to evangelista
*DIAN-LIBERTAD BETWEEN TRAMO AND AURORA
From Makati going west along Arnaiz Ave. STREETS
(Libertad) right at P. Burgos, left at G. Puyat
Ave., left at F.B. Harrison St., right at Arnaiz
Ave. (Libertad), cross Taft Ave., continue
along Arnaiz Ave. (Libertad) until it reaches
Makati

The tricycles operating in inner streets provide for the short distance transportation
needs of the people within the City.

The two existing light rail systems, namely, the Light Rail Transit (LRT) and the Metro
Rail Transit (MRT) traverse portions of Pasay City. The LRT runs on elevated railway
along Taft Avenue. While the MRT dashes along EDSA to its Southern Terminal at the
intersection of Taft Ave. and EDSA. Here, the light rail passengers either alight or
transfer to other lines that will bring them to other points of destination.

There are at least 15 terminals for provincial buses located in Pasay City. Most of these
bus lines service southern destinations in Region IV and Region V, The entry of
provincial buses is one of the major causes of traffic in the city.

The Ninoy Aquino International Airport is located within Pasay City and Parañaque
City. This serves as the primary international gateway to foreign destinations and the
main port of entry for those coming into the Philippines. The runway length is 2,720
meters and the width is 46 meters. The Manila Domestic Airport is also located within
Pasay City and serves destinations within the country.

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Pasay City is fortunate to have three (3) important metropolitan commuter systems
within its boundaries namely:

 The elevated Light Rail Transit (LRT) Line 1 system operates on top of R-1 (Taft
Avenue) with stations at C-3 (Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue), Arnaiz Avenue, C-4
(EDSA), and the south terminal at Mexico Road. The LRT Line 1 has its depot
along Andrews Avenue. The LRT Line 1 offers a north-south linkage through the
cities of Manila and Caloocan;

 The grade-level Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) system which operates on C-4 (EDSA)
with its west terminal near R-1 (Taft Avenue); the MRT offers a north-east-south
linkage through the cities of Makati, Mandaluyong and Quezon; and

 The grade-level Philippine National Railways (PNR) commuter rail system which
operates alongside R-3 (SLEX) and offers a north-south linkage through the cities
of Manila, Caloocan, Parañaque; Las Pinas and Muntinlupa.

Pasay City also has the distinction of hosting the only extra-metropolitan ferry terminal
within its boundaries, i.e., beside the Tanghalang Francisco Balagtas (formerly the Folk
Arts Theater). Ferries bound for points in Bataan or even Corregidor and back to Metro
Manila call on this terminal.

Pasay City has the sole distinction of having three (3) important components of the
national air transportation systems to operate within Pasay City. Each of these is briefly
discussed below.

• Manila International Airport System


The Manila International Airport System presently operates the International Passenger
Terminal (IPT) 1 (also referred to as the NAIA) and IPT 2 (Terminal 2). The
construction of IPT 3 (Terminal 3) along Andrews Avenue has already started and is
expected to be operational in 2003. The international airport system includes the use of
both runways and taxiways.

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• Manila Domestic Airport System

The Manila Domestic Airport System currently operates the Domestic Terminal and
other terminals operated by various carriers. The domestic airport system includes the
use of both runways and taxiways.

• General Aviation System

The general aviation system operates out of the hangars around the domestic airport,
i.e., along the Domestic Road and Andrews Avenue. The general aviation system also
includes the use of both runways and taxiways,

The operations of all the foregoing systems are strictly regulated by the Air
Transportation Office (ATO), which has its office along Andrews Avenue. If plans
materialize, even the future International Container Terminal (ICT) may operate from
the NAIA area. Pasay City is also host to the only Philippine Air Force (PAF) base
within the Metro Manila.

P. COMMUNICATION

Telephone Service
Fixed line telephone service providers in Pasay include PLDT, Bayan Tel and Globe Telecom.
Mobile phone services are provided by Smart Communications, Globe Telecom and their
subsidiaries.

Internet Services
Internet service is available and more than adequate for the purposes of the general paying
public. Dial-up and digital service lines (DSL) are provided by telephone companies—PLDT
and Bayantel. Mobile companies, Globe Telecom and Smart Communications which have
nationwide coverage, offer 2G, 3G and 4G mobile broadband internet service, while relative
new comer Wi-Tribe offers purely 4G wireless broadband service.

For those without computers and transients, internet access is available through internet shops
spread all over the City. The City has 277 establishments offering computer and internet rentals
and related services.

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Registered Cell Sites and Location, 2012

Company Location Barangay


Globe Telecom Inc. Cuneta Astrodome Derham 76
Globe Telecom Inc. Mu Yang Chan, 1751 Leveriza 15
Globe Telecom Inc. SM Mall of Asia Bay Blvd. 76
Globe Telecom Inc. Hotel Sofitel, CCP Complex, Roxas Blvd. 76
Globe Telecom Inc. Tengco St., Malibay 173
Globe Telecom Inc. 2515 Tolentino St. 124
Globe Telecom Inc. Sky Freight, Ninoy Aquino Ave. 197
Globe Telecom Inc. NAIA Terminal 2 183
Globe Telecom Inc. 2213 Robert St. Brgy 13 13
Globe Telecom Inc. Araneta Bldg., C. Jose St., Malibay 159
Globe Telecom Inc. Salem Investment Bldg. Domestic Rd. 191
Globe Telecom Inc. Airport Shopping Center, 2315 Aurora 190
Globe Telecom Inc. Ridaos Bldg. 1724 Munoz St. 43
Globe Telecom Inc. 2205 P. Burgos St., Cor. P. Villanueva 55
Globe Telecom Inc. 2246 Dimasalang St. 115
Globe Telecom Inc. Senate Bldg., Roxas Blvd 76
Globe Telecom Inc. EGI Mall, Taft Cor. Gil Puyat Avenues 38
Globe Telecom Inc. Hyatt Regency Hotel, Roxas Blvd. 76
Globe Telecom Inc. Star Park Bldg. PICC Complex, Roxas 76
Blvd.
Globe Telecom Inc. B17 L18 Kalayaan Village 201
Globe Telecom Inc. Andaya Bldg., 7th St., VAB 183
Globe Telecom Inc. 168 Galvez Rd., Brgy 18 70
Globe Telecom Inc. 117 B. Progreso St. Brgy 18 18
Globe Telecom Inc. Aragon Bldg., 100 B. Vizcarra St. 169
Globe Telecom Inc. 3001 Roxas Blvd. 1
Smart Communications Senate Bldg. Reclamation
Smart Communications 2602-A Taft Ave. cor. Protocio
Smart Communications Aurora Blvd.

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Smart Communications Salem Complex, Domestic Rd


Smart Communications SM Mall of Asia
Smart Communications PNB Bldg. Macapagal Blvd
Smart Communications SM Mall of Asia
Smart Communications Andrews Ave.
Smart Communications Star Cruises Bldg., Andrews Ave.
Digitel Mobile Phil. Inc. G/F One Ecom Ctr.
(Smart)
Digitel Mobile Phil. Inc. Cuneta Astrodome
(Smart)
Source: Business and Permits Licensing Office

Radio, Television, Publications


There are five radio stations located within the City of Pasay — four FM and one AM — with
broadcasting frequencies covering Metro Manila and its fringes. Broadcasts of other radio
stations operating elsewhere in Metro Manila, are captured in Pasay. There are no television
stations based in Pasay but broadcasts of local channels operating in the general manila area
are captured in Pasay.
There are 16 establishments engaged in publishing various print media within City of Pasay.

Radio Stations located within Pasay, 2012

Station Frequency Owner Barangay


FM Stations
DWSM-STAR FM 102.7 Mhz People's Broadcasting Services, 38
Inc.
DWRK-Easy Rock 96.3 Mhz Cebu Broadcasting Company 76
DZMB-Love Radio 90.7 Mhz Manila Broadcasting Company 76
DWYS-Yes FM 101.1 Mhz Pacific Broadcasting Systems 76
AM Stations
DZRH Aksyon 666 Khz Manila Broadcasting Company 76
Radio
Source: Kapisanan ng mga

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Broadcaster ng Pilipinas (KBP), Website : www.kbp.org.ph

Publishing Establishments, 2012


Business Name Barangay
Bookwise Publishing House, Inc. 26
Bookman, Inc. 201
Design Rendition Publishing Graphic Design 39
Diplomatic Post Publishing Corp. 171
Freeforum Malay Press (FMP) Inc. 13
Hope Publishing House (HPH) Inc. 10
Interview Magazine, Inc. 145
Manila Bulletin Publishing Corp. 40
Phil. Publishing House of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, 37
Inc.
PLL Publishing 191
Precious Publishing 183
Rex Bookstore, Inc. 1
St. Mary's Publishing Corp. 76
The Career Woman, Inc. 145
United Tourist Promotions 38
Weekend Review Publishing, Inc. 145
Source: Business and Permits Licensing Office

Q. SEWAGE AND DRAINAGE


Several creeks traverse the City of Pasay. The Tripa De Gallina Creek is the boundary of
Pasay City and Makati City. Likewise the Maricaban Creek that runs along the Villamor
Village and Malibay Estate also serve as boundary between Pasay City and Makati City.
These two watercourses have their confluence in a lagoon at Aurora Blvd and discharges
into Paranaque River and eventually to Manila Bay. In times of rain, these serve as the main
drainage discharges of the city. Due to siltation and clogging of the waterways, surface
runoff accumulate and cause flooding in low lying areas of the City.
Majority of the City is drained by the Libertad Pumping Station, Tripa de Gallina Pumping
Station, Buendia Outfall and Libertad Outfall. The Libertad Pumping Station has a capacity
of 42.0 m3/sec draining large percentage of the northwestern portion of Pasay City. The

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Tripa De Gallina Pumping Station has a capacity of 56 m3/sec and drains about 1,769
hectares of land that extend beyond the boundaries of the City. Part of the runoff from Tripa
De Gallina Creek flows into the Libertad Pumping Station via Buendia Outfall, Libertad
Outfall and EDSA Outfall. The rest of its waters are discharged into Paranaque River.

No city-wide sewerage system is in place in the City. Wastewater flows into the drainage
lines and into the river. Some of the wastewater infiltrate into the ground and pose a threat
to the groundwater quality. At present majority of the residents and commercial
establishments use individual septic tanks for treatment of waste water.

Maynilad, however, is undertaking the development of the Pasay Sewerage System—a


project which will be implemented in two stages. The first stage, from 2011 to 2014,
involves the construction of a conveyance system and sewage treatment plant (STP) located
in Maricaban.. It will have a capacity of 46 MLD and is estimated to serve a population of
254,000 in the northern portion of Pasay. The second stage will be implemented from 2017
to 2021. It will involve the construction of a conveyance system and another sewage
treatment plant (in Parañaque) to cover the central portion of Pasay, north of Manila. It will
increase capacity of the system to 88 MLD. At the completion of stage 2 the system is
estimated to serve a population of 485,000.

The construction of the STP and conveyance system in the first stage is being funded through
a $137.5 million loan acquired by Maynilad from the World Bank (WB.) The loan will be used
to partially fund the company’s sewage treatment projects in Metro Manila. Together with the
Manila Water Company, Maynilad is implementing a 25-year program to achieve 100 percent
wastewater collection and treatment in Metro Manila.

R. POWER

Electricity is distributed by Manila Electric Company (MERALCO) which covers the entire
Metro Manila in its franchise area. In 2012, a total of 979,381,489 kWh of electricity was used
to power the city. Commercial establishments accounted for 77% of the consumption,
residential users, about 18 %, industries, about 5% and street lights, less than one percent.

All barangays in the city are electrified. Among households, 94,953 were served in 2011 which
corresponds to 95.19 % electrification. Those not served include informal settlements which
could not be connected to the MERALCO grid due lack of consent from the land owners or

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due to their location on public easements such as river and waterway embankments which are
considered illegal and hazardous.

MERALCO’s sources of bulk power supply are the state-owned National Power Corporation
(NPC) and independent power producers (IPP). Primary transmission lines to Metro Manila
are operated and maintained by the National Grid Corporation of the Philippines (NGCP).
NGCP also operates substations in Metro Manila which supplies electricity to MERALCO’s
115-kV sub-transmission grid.

Distribution lines and facilities are regularly or periodically monitored and maintained by the
MERALCO to ensure continuous and reliable service.

Households Served and Un-served by Electricity, 2000 & 2011

Year Electrified Households % Electrification


2011 94,953 95.19%
Source: MERALCO

Number of Connections by Type of User and Annual Consumption


(kWh), 2012

Segment Customer Annual Consumption % Share


Count
Residential 77,682 174,519,582 17.82%
Commercial 8,779 755,503,193 77.14%
Industrial 49 46,620,591 4.76%
Streetlights 10 2,738,123 0.28%
Total 86,520 979,381,489 100.00%
Source: MERALCO

S. DRINKING WATER

Water in the City is primarily sourced through the piped water supply system operated and
maintained by Maynilad Water Services, Inc.—a distribution concessionaire of the Metropolitan
Water and Sewerage System (MWSS) which covers the western portion of Metro Manila.

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Raw water is sourced from the Angat-Ipo-La Mesa water system, an external source that begins
in Norzagaray, Bulacan and supplies the whole of Metro Manila. This is then filtered and treated
at the La Mesa Dam in Quezon City. All 201 barangays in Pasay City, consisting of
domestic/residential, commercial/industrial and institutional users are served by Maynilad.

Extraction of ground water through deep wells is no longer used as a means to supply local
water as this has been banned by the National Water Resources Board not only in Pasay but the
whole of Metro Manila including all towns of Rizal, and a few towns in Bulacan and Cavite.

T. SOLID WASTE DISPOSAL

Pasay City does not have its own disposal facility for solid waste. Garbage is disposed outside
the city in the Rodriguez (Montalban) Landfill in Rodriguez, Rizal. The City Government
contracts out the services for collection and disposal. Over 700sq. km of inhabited area is
covered by the solid waste collection service. To reduce waste conveyed to the sanitary landfill,
126 materials recovery facilities are spread all over the City to divert waste to recycling
facilities.

Location of Materials Recovery Facilities in Pasay City, 2011

No. Location No. Location No. Location


1 149 Villaruel St., 43 Esguerra St., Brgy 129 85 Rodriguez St., Brgy
Brgy. 24 133
2 16th de Agosto, Brgy 44 Espritue ST. Brgy 139 86 Rosario St., Brgy 59
131
3 2205 Aurora Blvd. 45 Espritue St., Brgy 143 87 Rosas St., Brgy 192
4 2215 FB Harrison, 46 Fernando St., Brgy 49 88 Rosauro P. Morales,
Brgy 13 Brgy 10
5 67 San Luis St. Brgy 47 Gamban St., Brgy 117 89 San Juan St., Brgy 8
11
6 Alas St. Brgy 57 48 Gil Puyat St., Brgy 48 90 San Luis St., Brgy 12
7 Alfonso St. Brgy 123 49 Gotamco St. Brgy 17 91 San Roque St., Brgy
142
8 Alvarez St. Brgy 51 50 Harrison St. Brgy 27 92 Sandejas St., Brgy 44

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9 Andrew Ave. Brgy. 51 Ibarra St., Brgy 86 93 Sandejas St., Brgy 47


184
10 Apelo Cruz St. Brgy 52 Ignacio St., Brgy 75 94 Santos St., Brgy 25
157
11 Arnaiz St. Brgy 67 53 Jose Rizal Elementary 95 Silva St., Brgy 122
School
12 B. Mayro St. Brgy 54 Junio St. Brgy 26 96 St. Augustine St., Brgy
177 178
13 Bautista St. Brgay 138 55 Kalayaan St., Brgy 201 97 St. Peter, Brgy 179
(MRF 1)
14 Brgy 148 56 Layug St. Brgy 2 98 Sandford St., Brgy 65
15 Brgy 152 57 Leveriza St., Brgy 14 99 Sto Nino St., Brgy 145
16 Brgy 164 58 Leveriza St., Brgy 15 100 Suerte st., Brgy 22
17 Brgy 172 59 Leveriza St., Brgy 29 101 Taft Ave., Brgy 33
18 Brgy 200 60 Leveriza St., Brgy 29 102 Tankian St., Brgy 3
19 Brgy 41 61 Loring St. Brgy 80 103 Taylo St., Brgy 55
20 Brgy 93 62 Luna St. Brgy 111 104 Tolentino St., Brgy 121
21 Brgy Hall, Brgy 186 63 Luna St. Brgy 40 105 Tramo St., Brgy 100
22 Cabrera St., Brgy 136 64 M. dela Cruz St., Brgy 106 Tramo St., Brgy 118
140
23 Court Mulawin, Brgy 65 M. dela Cruz St., Brgy 107 Tramo St., Brgy 156
182 141
24 Cuenca St. Brgy 68 66 M. dela Cruz St. Brgy 108 Tramo St., Brgy 42
132
25 Cuenca ST., Brgy 69 67 Magtibay St. Brgy 134 109 Tramo St., Brgy 43
26 Cuyegking St. Brgy 68 Mapagkalinga St. Brgy 110 Tramo St., Brgy 45
01 98
27 Dancel St., Brgy 39 69 Marzo St., Brgy 107 111 Tramo St., Brgy 46
28 David St. Brgy 23 70 Metropolitan Mall 112 Tramo St., Brgy 54
29 De Jorge, Brgy 130 71 Natividad, Brgy 63 113 Tramo St., Brgy 56
30 Decena st. Brgy 94 72 Navaro Compound, 114 Tramo St., Brgy 64
Brgy 58

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31 Decena St. Brgy 95 73 Ninoy Aquino Ave., 115 Ventanilla St., Brgy
Brgy 194 124
32 Dimasalang St. Brgy 74 Pasadena St. Brgy 70 116 Ventanilla St., Brgy
113 125
33 Brgy 114 75 Perla St., Brgy 9 117 Vergel St., Brgy 99
34 Brgy 115 76 Pilapil St. Brgy 83 118 Victor St., Brgy 62
35 Dolores St. Brgy 66 77 Progreso St. Brgy 18 119 Villlanueva St., Brgy
53
36 Domingo St. Brgy 81 78 Propetarios St. Brgy 30 120 Villlanueva St., Brgy
85
37 Don Carlos Village, 79 Protacio St., Brgy 101 121 Villlanueva St., Brgy
Brgy 187 89
38 Donada St. Brgy 36 80 Raymondo St. Brgy87 122 Villlanueva St., Brgy
91
39 Edang St., Brgy 151 81 Rd. 4, Brgy 193 123 Villaruel St., Brgy 28
40 Edsa malibay, Brgy 82 Remy St., Brgy 93 124 Virata St., Brgy 155
159
41 Electrical Road, brgy 83 Reyes St., Brgy 119 125 Zamor St. Brgy 96
191
42 Escano St., Brgy 175 84 Rodriguez Ext., Brgy 126 Zamor St. Brgy 97
144
Source: National Solid Waste Management Commission,
Website: http://emb.gov.ph/nswmc/Downloads.aspx

U. TRAFFIC MANAGEMENT

Road Traffic

Traffic from the adjacent city of Manila on the north side, Makati City on the eastside and
Parañaque City on the south side flow through some of the major roads traversing Pasay City
and contributes to vehicular congestion in the roads of Pasay City. The routes used by buses
are Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue (formerly Buendia), EDSA (C-4), Roxas Blvd., NAIA Road,
Domestic Road, Aurora Avenue, and Taft Avenue (between Vito Cruz and Buendia). The

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jeepneys use Taft Avenue, F.B. Harrison St., Buendia Avenue, (between Harrison and Pasay-
Makati boundary), EDSA, Andrews Avenue, Domestic, NAIA Road, Ninoy Aquino Avenue,
and the West Service Road of the South Luzon Expressway (SLEX).

From previous studies conducted along Boulevard 2000 and from data provided by the
Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH), the estimated vehicle volumes along the
R-1 section in Pasay City in 1995 reached 100,000 vehicles per day, i.e., the section of Roxas
Boulevard extending from President Quirino Avenue (C-2) in Manila to the EDSA (C-4)
junction. The traffic volume on stretches of C-4 (EDSA) from R-3 (SLEX) towards R-1 (Roxas
Boulevard) ranges from 75,000 to 140,000 vehicles per day.

The following are the major metropolitan traffic bottlenecks within the boundaries of
Pasay City:

 The intersections of R-1 (Roxas Boulevard) with C-4 (EDSA) and C-3 (Sen. Gil Puyat
Avenue) and sections of said roads leading to the intersections;

 The intersections of F.B. Harrison Avenue with C-4 and C-3 and sections of said roads
leading to the intersections;

 The entire section of F.B. Harrison Avenue in Pasay City;

 The intersections of R-2 (Taft Avenue) with C-4 and C-3 and sections of said roads
leading to the intersections;

 The entire Mexico Road (Taft Avenue Extension);


 The intersections of Andrews Avenue with Aurora Boulevard (Tramo) and
Domestic Road and sections of said roads leading to the intersections;

 The entire Domestic Road;

 Portions of NAIA Road between Domestic Road and Ninoy Aquino Avenue;

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 The intersections of Arnaiz Avenue (Libertad) with F.B. Harrison and R-2 and
sections of said roads leading to the intersections;

 The entire stretch of Cuneta Avenue; and

 The R-3 (SLEX) exit area at Villamor Airbase.

For internal mobility, tricycles are used in inner streets, secondary thoroughfares and
tertiary roads. There are around 2,500 tricycles operating in the city using 15
tricycle/pedicab terminals.

4. INDUSTRY PROFILE
Employment by Industry/Business
The consistently top four (4) industries in terms of employment of household members in Pasay
City for 2005, 2008 and 2011 are as follows: (a) community, social and personal services; (b)
wholesale and retail trade; (c) transportation, storage and communication; and (d) finance,
insurance, real estate, and business services.

Of the 101,148 persons employed in 2011, 21% are into finance, insurance, real estate and
business services. About 19% are into transportation, storage and communication, while 18%
are working on wholesale and retail trade, respectively. Some 13% are engaged in community,
social and personal services.

Employment in the city has been transformed from one that is predominantly into community,
social and personal services in 2005, into one that is relatively balanced among the top four (4)
industries in 2011, as earlier mentioned.

This trend can be traced from the data on employment by industry for 2005, 2008 and 2011.

In 2005, more than half of the employed persons are absorbed in community, social and
personal services. This is reduced to almost half (25%) in 2008, and further declined to only
13% in 2011.

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The proportion of workers employed in finance, insurance, real estate, and business services
increased from 10% in 2005 to 16% in 2008. This further increased to 21% in 2011, which
makes this industry the top source of employment in the city.

Those involved in transportation, storage and communication consistently increased from 12%
in 2005 to 17% in 2008 and 19% in 2011.

Employment in wholesale and retail trade showed an erratic trend. In 2005, 15% of the
employment in the city is absorbed in the sector. This increased to 25% in 2008, but declined
to 18% in 2011.

Figure 0-1. Number of Employed by Type of Industry, Pasay City, Various Years

Number of Establishments by Type


of Industry
2005
Number

2008
2011

Industry

Industries Thesis Topics


The Housing Industry Subdivision development
Community development Housing
component s and materials
The Retail sales industry Commercial development
The Health care Industry Pharmaceutical Facilities Hospital
Complex
The tourism industry Historic town renewal plans

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Current Standard of Operations

 Pasay City’s officers in the departments with line functions are professionals and career
employees. A review of the functions, staffing and qualifications of personnel of these
departments disclose that this is in compliance with the minimum requirements of the Local
Government Code and the Civil Service Commission. Moreover, the personnel are divided
along functions that can best be described as "traditional". There are no major departments
that address specific social and technical concerns affecting the quality of life or welfare of
the city and its inhabitants. For example, housing, traffic, environment and business
development would need specialized expertise for them to be planned for or managed.

The Zoning Ordinance


In addition to the above, the Institutional Capability Profile will address the institutional
mechanism for the planning and implementation of the main CLUP output, which is the
Proposed Land Use Plan of Pasay City. This mechanism is the Zoning Ordinance (ZO) and
its main implementing office in the City Administration is the City Planning & Development
Office (CPDO). In addressing this mechanism, it should be borne in mind that there is
institutional continuity in the ZO, that is, a current ZO is legally in effect (Ordinance No
2769, enacted by the City Council in 15 July 2003).

In this chapter of the SEP, what will characterize this particular institutional aspect of the
ZO is the process of review and amendment, as well as related concerns of the CPDO, as
follows:

A. Review of the ZO
Section 73 of ZO 2769 “Review of the Zoning Ordinance (ZO) – “This ZO may be reviewed
every 5 years or sooner, when the need arises, by the ZA (Zoning Administrator)/CPDC or
the City Mayor on their initiative or upon petition by a group of persons, association or any
local Barangay unit.” The review process will proceed as follows:

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a) The CPDC will initiate the review, by identifying a list of needed amendments to be
generated from consultations with the Departments of the City Government, the City
Council, the Barangays, the Private Sector, and other stakeholders.
b) A document detailing the Review Agenda will be reported out by the CPDO, with
the assistance of the Consultants.
c) This will be presented to the City Council (the incumbent, circa 2013) for approval
in principle.
d) The City Council will endorse the Amended ZO to the MMDA for its review, and
“no objection”.
e) Receiving the MMDA review, the Pasay City Council will enact the Amended ZO.

The outcome of the actual review, and subsequent amendment of the current ZO, shall be
the subject of the Institutional Sector in the Draft CLUP – the report that comes next to the
SEP.

a) Matters related to the Review of the ZO. To make the successor ZO more effective
and efficient in field implementation, there are concerns expressed by CPDO that
should be addressed. They are:

i. Merging of the 201 barangays in 20 Zones into a lesser number to effect


better manageability of this component of City Administration at the
grassroots level. An ordinance has already been enacted by the City Council
to this effect, but remains unimplemented due to the failure to hold the
requisite plebiscite by COMELEC which reports “lack of funds”. This issue
is highly political because the reduction of the number of barangays will have
an adverse impact on those barangay councils that will be merged. In turn,
the threat of losing powers and positions threatens the political life of the City
Council members and of the Local Chief Executive. By law and by practice
of local governance, the City may advance the funds to COMELEC for this
purpose.

ii. Boundary Disputes. There are two (2) kinds:

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 Dispute with Paranaque City – a) at the airport boundary; and, b)


within Pasay City and among some 20 barangays.

Due to lack of material time to gather documents and conduct KII (Key Informant Interview)
with critical officials knowledgeable with these related matters, the analysis of data shall be
addressed in the next report: the Draft CLUP. A documented consultation among parties
concerned would be ideal. TAM Planners Co. can moderate and document such
consultations based on the initiatives of CPDO.

SWOT (Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats) Analysis

The best approach to define Institutional Issues and Concerns, and develop insights into
priorities of the Pasay City Administration is to apply the SWOT Matrix, complemented by
a structured survey, to a) selected sample (10) of city hall departments; b) selected sample
(10) of the City Council members; and c) selected sample (10) of Barangay Chairpersons.

This will be done in the next report: the Draft CLUP.

State of Implementation of CLUP 2001-2010 Program Proposals

To gain insights into how the Pasay City Administration, in the last 10 years, acted upon the
proposals contained in the current CLUP (2003-2013), the Institutional Sector, in the Draft
CLUP, conduct an assessment of the state of implementation, during the last 10 years, of
key programs proposed therein, namely, programs in a) Institutional Sector, b)
Infrastructure, and, c) Roads and Transport. A scale 10 will be used to assess program
implementation. And reasons for a rating of less than “10” will be requested.

 Accomplishments and Shortfalls

Problem Identification in the Land Use Sector

While more than fifty percent (50.0%) of land in Pasay City was controlled by agencies of
the national government, i.e., the GRP and used for their operations, i.e., MIAA-NAIA, ATO
(now CAAP), LRTA, BCDA, PAF, PEA, MRT, DPWH, etc. and not by the local
government of Pasay City (Refer to Table 2-5), some of these landholdings have gradually
fallen under private sector control e.g parts of Villamor Air Base (VAB) by the BCDA to
Megaworld and portions of the PRA property at CBP-I(A) by the PRA to the SM Group of
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Companies. The continued operations of these national agencies while benefiting the MMA
and the public in general has created immense administrative and control problems for Pasay
City, particularly in respect to their individual development planning which materially rely
on the existing city infrastructure albeit possibly without the requisite prorated contribution
for the upkeep and upgrade of such infrastructure.

 Administrative/ Organizational, Technical/ Technological, Problems

General Issues to be addressed


Uncoordinated/ Unsupervised Developments and Uncontrolled Urban Growth
As with the rest of the MMA, developments in Pasay City have largely been driven by
decisions of individual landowners and these have basically been done in an uncoordinated
and loosely controlled manner which led to the congested and debilitating urban sprawl that
characterize most of the city. This was exacerbated by the inadequacy of guidance on the
part of local, metropolitan and national governments to direct the pattern and manner of
urban growth. Following are the identifiable sub-issues:

 Inefficient Land Use Pattern


Over the past 100 years, Pasay City has gradually experienced the unwanted effects of
uncontrolled urban sprawl and this has presently caused artificial land scarcity, i.e., the lack
of available sites for socialized housing, parks and other forms of recreational open spaces,
etc. Large tracts of privately-owned but under-utilized and idle properties remain present
particularly in the NCRA but these are mainly high value properties that may eventually
host high-density residential or mixed-use developments or very high intensity commercial
or utility uses.

The extent of the actual built-up areas in Pasay City is presently estimated at only about forty
percent (40.0%) of its total land area. Within this built-up area, the approximated floor area
ratio (FAR) is estimated to be between 1.0 and 1.5. This means that for every 100 square
meters of land on which a structure has been actually erected, about 100 to 150 square meters
(sqm) of usable space has actually been constructed. While such a medium level FAR should
somehow indicate the presence of open spaces in the actual built-up portions of Pasay City,
these however are largely non-existent.

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The major open spaces within the built-up sections of the city are basically the road ROWs
(which must however be classified as utility/ transportation areas rather than as open spaces
which are wilfully misconstrued by the general public as open recreational spaces). As these
ROWs are committed to uses other than recreational at present, no factual open recreational
space that could effectively address the needs of the city’s population does exist. The old
open recreational spaces have since become enclosed recreational-entertainment venues,
e.g., the Cuneta Astrodome. The actual built-up areas particularly at the ORA and OSA are
extremely congested and are almost entirely lacking in quality/ functional urban open
recreational spaces.

The future land use pattern must be determined by a framework planned for more efficient
and highly productive urban growth, redevelopment/ renewal (re-growth). While strong
demands for residential developments will always accompany both population increase and
further economic growth, Pasay City has to be able to attract more economically productive
activities. The CBP-I(A) at the NCRA is a good starting point but present opportunities
remain to be found in the other parts of Pasay City, particularly in the ORA.

 Land Use Conflicts


Area-specific urban land use issues applicable to Pasay City include encroachments in
environmentally-sensitive areas (particularly along and beside waterways), loss of public
access to the Manila Bay, loss of functional open spaces, presence of a large quantity of idle/
underutilized/ vacant/ transitional and long-term development-committed lands in addition
to vehicular/pedestrian traffic congestion, inadequate off-street parking facilities, road ROW
(particularly sidewalk) encroachments, etc.

Specific urban area management regulations (UAMR) should be crafted and judiciously but
expeditiously implemented. These must include regulations on building siting/ project
location, building height and bulk, heritage conservation, open space preservation and
creation if possible, urban redevelopment/ renewal, land readjustment (where possible),
designation of actual socialized housing (SH) areas, etc.

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 Future Demands
The future requirements of a large resident population and an equally large daytime transient
population at the present time plus the possible influx in the medium to long terms of a very
high number of daytime transients pose very serious challenges to the urban management of
Pasay City. Among others, these include increasing densities and the demand for residential
land. While it is evident that this demand cannot be met by the LGU of Pasay City alone, it
is a foregone conclusion that the spillover to the immediately adjacent MMA areas, i.e., City
of Manila, Makati City, Paranaque City, Las Pinas City, etc. and even to the Greater Manila
Area (GMA) provinces of Cavite, Laguna and Rizal will necessarily continue. This gives a
picture of how intense future land utilization in Pasay City would be and unless this demand
is properly managed, existing land will also continue to be indiscriminately utilized, i.e.,
leading to adverse urban development concerns such as worsening congestion,
air/water/land/noise pollution, non-availability of domestic water, pedestrian/vehicular
traffic congestion, encroachment on environmentally-sensitive land/ waterways/ easements
as well as the loss of existing and legitimate urban open recreational spaces.

New and future developments in Pasay City should therefore be very flexible in terms of
land use and building function. The actual built-up areas must not be allowed to stagnate and
should be regenerated whenever resources allow it. Both of these development thrusts must
always consider the conservation of existing open spaces and the creation of new ones, again
when resources will permit. The maintenance of accessible and functional urban amenities,
facilities, services and utilities as well as the creation of an improved urban environment
should be ensured in the light of the continuing and ever-intensifying process of
urbanization. All considerations of future growth must incorporate and embrace
environmental conservation as a hallmark feature.

Addressing the demands of the future must also factor in the increasing requirements on
public infrastructure. With the intensity of present land uses, the capacities of public
infrastructure have long crossed their maximum thresholds and are now in dire need of
upgrading. This is most evident in the OSA where medium to high-density residential areas
are served by inadequate roads/ access-ways and insufficient or non-existent domestic water
supply and other basic urban services/utilities. Future urban growth must take place only

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with matching infrastructure support and the government will definitely need the assistance
of the private sector in realizing this.

 Possible Boundary Disputes


Parts of the territorial boundaries of Pasay City may still have to be finally resolved. If there
still are unresolved disputes, then these have to be eventually settled in order to clarify the
administrative control over such areas.
Policy-Driven Urban Land Use Planning

For the medium term planning horizon, i.e., 2001 - 2010, a very strong policy
framework anchored on the attainment of environmental and socio-economic sustainability
objectives must guide the future growth of Pasay City. This in turn must be based on the
land characteristics discussed in this section. The policy framework to be adopted must also
be crafted to facilitate economic activities and to further ensure that positive benefits will
accrue to the community at large, particularly the bonafide residents of Pasay City.

Performance-Based Land Use Management


Emphasis must also be placed on the role of the LGU as the facilitator and regulator of all
land development activities within Pasay City, particularly for those areas under GRP
control. Equal emphasis must also be accorded the critical role that the private sector will
play in the urban development and redevelopment processes. Pasay City must therefore
provide a strong framework to guide actual future development/ redevelopment efforts while
simultaneously ensuring that the wider community objectives are realized.

A wide latitude must also be given to the free land market to operate in recognition of
inviolable individual property rights and in cognizance of the market-driven capital-
dependent economy. This must however be dovetailed with the local government’s duty to
ensure that all developments remain aligned with the established community objectives.

Specific Issues and Concerns


On the NAIA
The NAIA (with IPT 1 at Paranaque City not actually forming part the AA) is already
congested by present international airport operating standards. Both its runways cannot be

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lengthened to accommodate future generation commercial aircraft which may need longer
and broader runways. While there are already plans to widen Runway 13-31, its continued
operations together with Runway 06-24 in the long to very long terms will continue to pose
physical and environmental hazards as well as major development constraints unless the
appropriate remedies are found in the present time.

If NAIA operations are fully transferred to Clark within the next 15 - 25 years, portions of
the present airport complex may then be made available for high-density re-developments
similar to those planned for Fort Bonifacio or for the Boulevard 2000 Project. Since NAIA
is operated independently of Pasay City, the Pasay City LGU must be able to define its
available options in crafting the future long-term redevelopment of the NAIA should it
partly/ entirely become free for redevelopment.

The continued operations of the NAIA impose severe development restrictions on the AA,
particularly in view of the ATO height restrictions that must be satisfied. Should the ATO
restrictions be relaxed in the future due to changes in the operations within certain portions
of the AA, the same shall have the effect of possibly catalyzing new high value private-
sector led developments within the AA.

On the EDSA MRT


While the grade-level portion of the EDSA MRT at the Aurora Blvd.(Tramo) - EDSA
intersection already appears to be a permanent fixture, the fact that the grade-level MRT
tracks have the net effect of bisecting Pasay City into a northern and a southern half have to
be addressed because of the huge public nuisance and wastefulness in resources that it has
spawned. Here we have a situation wherein the interests of Pasay City may have been
deliberately sacrificed in favor of the MMA and the GRP.
A grade-separated access system is the best solution for this pressing problem and since both
the DOTC and the MRT developers have somehow reportedly committed in the past (c.
1989) to construct the necessary pedestrian and vehicular access-ways, i.e., particularly left-
turning ramps from EDSA to Aurora Blvd. (Tramo) and vice versa, then these entities must
make good on their promise. If not, they should all be made to answer for the inconveniences
caused to the general public and to Pasay City residents/ visitors in particular.

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SENATE OF THE PHILIPPINES
Permanent Seat of the Upper House of Philippine Legislature 151

While the resulting southern half of Pasay City (with NAIA and the domestic airport as the
anchor) is presently perceived to have the greater land development potential, the northern
half may actually be redeveloped better particularly if the mandatory ramps to and from
Aurora Blvd. (Tramo) are not constructed, if international airport operations are not
relocated to Clark within the next 2 decades and and if key urban renewal projects are
undertaken by Pasay City in time. This also means that property values at the northern half
will continue to appreciate faster mainly due to more lenient development restrictions, i.e.,
not hampered by airport operational restrictions.

On the Boulevard 2000 Project


The entire 1,500 hectares Boulevard 2000 Project, generally classified as a PUD, i.e., of
which the CC-FCA and CBP-I(A) portions of the 330 has. NCRA are part, is a high-density
cum high intensity development that will create a new development focus for the entire
MMA and even for the northern Calabarzon area. Upon partial and substantial development,
it will definitely alter travel patterns in the south MMA particularly in the Pasay City and
Paranaque City areas.

If the intended Boulevard 2000 developments gradually materialize over the next 10 - 50
years, Pasay City must be ready for its long-term effects (positive initially but which may
turn out to be negative in the end). Since the Boulevard 2000 Project seems to be planned,
implemented and which may possibly be operated relatively independent of Pasay City, the
Pasay City LGU must again be able to determine its available options in determining the
pace and quality of developments at the Boulevard 2000 Project areas within Pasay City.

On the rationalization of transportation and access systems within Pasay City

Pasay City has long been considered the gateway to both Calabarzon and the southern MMA
as it is host to both major international and domestic transportation systems and as it may
also play host to future major MMA transportation infrastructure such as the proposed
elevated expressway system linking Fort Bonifacio Global City with the coastal road R-1,
the proposed NCRA CBP-I(A) multi-modal beside the Redemptorist Channel, i.e., almost
in front of the Redemptorist Church (in Paranaque City), the proposed MRT (or LRT)

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extension line from the Baclaran area to Cavite Province and the proposed LRT Line 6 within
the Boulevard 2000 itself.

With the highly pedestrian character of the EDSA-Baclaran, Taft-Libertad and Taft-Gil
Puyat Ave. areas, the resultant and oftentimes chaotic on-road situation, particularly at the
ORA, OSA, AA and OVABA must be rationalized. A definite transportation plan must be
developed for Pasay City partially conditioned on the finalization of development plans for
the Boulevard 2000 Project area and for all of the areas controlled by the MIAA and the
BCDA.
If the transportation system in Pasay City is not improved, commercial land uses and
businesses will lose out to competition elsewhere in the MMA and eventually lead to land
under-utilization, possible non-utilization and urban decay, not to mention the widespread
rise of non-conforming land uses.

Need to rationalize housing and residential planning in Pasay City

As much of Pasay City’s available land area is devoted to national government (GRP) use,
transportation, mixed-uses, upscale high-density residential and medium to high intensity
commercial land uses, its available medium-cost and low-cost residential areas (R-2 and R-
3) have become highly dense and very much congested. Considering projected population
growth, the residents’ physical/ emotional/ psychological well-being and likewise
considering the overall environmental/ social/ economic concerns/ effects, there is definite
need to rationalize housing and residential planning in Pasay City. The help of the private
sector (locally and internationally) in redeveloping some of these residential areas into better
communities (starting at the micro scale) must be tapped whenever possible. The
rationalization of housing and residential areas will only be possible with the voluntary
participation of the residents/ beneficiaries/ end-users themselves through the spirit of
cooperativism and through the institutionalization of sweat equity arrangements.

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Permanent Seat of the Upper House of Philippine Legislature 153

No formal open recreational spaces in Pasay City

Considering the very large residential daytime population and the equally large transient
daytime population of Pasay City, there may be need to consider formal open recreational
space planning for the recreation and health of these two types of beneficiaries. This program
must be integrated with re-planning efforts to achieve the land use rationalization of existing
high to very high-density residential (or R-2 and R-3) areas.

Need to reinforce Pasay City’s role/ image as a high - level urban center
Considering the location of facilities catering to higher order urban functions within Pasay
City, i.e., the PICC, the World Trade Center, the DTI-PTTC Complex, the Philippine Senate,
the GSIS, PNB, NAIA, existing and proposed commercial and business centers,
metropolitan hospitals and the like, there may be definite need to reinforce Pasay City’s role
as a high-level urban center with the planning for the upgrade of existing facilities and for
similar new facilities and their support infrastructure.

Need to reinforce Pasay City’s image as a tourism and entertainment center


Considering the location of facilities catering to tourism-related activities within Pasay City,
e.g., the Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP), the old Folk Arts Theater (FAT), the Film
Center, three (3)-star to five (5)-star hotels, fine dining and entertainment establishments,
upscale gaming places and the like, there may be definite need to reinforce Pasay City’s role
as a tourism and entertainment center with the planning for the upgrade of existing facilities
and for similar new facilities and their support infrastructure.

On Non-conforming Land Uses

High-rise developments such as residential condominiums, i.e., which carries an R-5 land
use classification, should not be allowed for construction in medium to high density
residential areas (R-2 and R-3) and particularly not in designated APD areas because of their
infrastructure demands, i.e., facilities, services and utilities, which when satisfied
automatically deprives other residents of access to the same.

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Permanent Seat of the Upper House of Philippine Legislature 154

On the need to stop further reclamation at the City Waters Area (CWA)

Since the NCRA portions of the Boulevard 2000 Project will probably take all of 30 – 50
years to fill up because of the huge development costs involved and since these will introduce
a minimum of 700,000 transients to the daytime population of Pasay City and possibly
another 60,000 to 90,000 vehicles on the roads of Pasay City, all considerations for the
further reclamation off the NCRA, i.e., in the CWA, should be resisted. This may eventually
help in making flooding of parts of Pasay City more manageable.

On Planning for APD Areas

A general program for the redevelopment of areas currently designated as APDs, i.e.,
generally characterized as those with very high to very, very high residential populations,
should be put forward and integrated with parallel plans and programs for the rationalization
of planning for housing and high density residential areas.

ECAs/ ECPs

Proclamation No. 2146 (issued 1981) as an amplification of Presidential decree No. 1586
has identified the Boulevard 2000 Project in general and the NCRA in Pasay City in
particular as a major reclamation project which is classified as Environmentally Critical
Projects (ECP). If the Nayong Pilipino is classified as a national park, it shall also fall under
the separate category of Environmentally Critical Areas (ECA). Both ECPs and ECAs are
therefore protected areas subject to stringent development guidelines.

 Development Controls

At present, there are two (2) zoning ordinances that are being observed in Pasay City. The
first is the official 1981 zoning ordinance passed by the Metropolitan Manila Commission
(MMC) Office of the Governor, the MMC Ordinance No. 81-01, i.e., which is the official
zoning ordinance for Pasay City recognized by HLURB (reference Figure 3.4). The second
is the 1997 Pasay City Council Zoning Ordinance (1997 PCC-ZO) but which is not officially
recognized by HLURB, particularly for review, comparison and updating purposes.

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Zoning Under the 1981 MMC Zoning Ordinance

Zoning of Pasay City under the 1981 MMC Comprehensive Zoning Ordinance (1981 MMC-
CZO) herein ranked according to intensity or severity of use, is as follows:

a. Industrial Zone. Industrial zones are areas designated by the MMC under its 1981
MMC-CZO as light industrial zone (I-1) and medium industrial zone (I-2). The
existing industrial area under the 1981 MMC-CZO is an I-2 zone, which can be
found in the southern section of the OSA, i.e., portion of the Malibay area
between Tripa de Gallina and Maricaban Creek.

b. Commercial Zones. Commercial zones are areas designated by the MMC under
its 1981 MMC-CZO as minor commercial zone (C-1), major commercial zone
(C-2) and metropolitan commercial zone (C-3). Under the 1981 MMC-CZO,
there are only C-2 and C-3-designated zones for Pasay City. C-2 zones are largely
found in the ORA and OSA, i.e., along both sides of F.B. Harrison St., both sides
of Taft Ave./ R-1, both sides of Sen. Gil Puyat Ave./ C-3, both sides of Arnaiz
Ave. and both sides of EDSA/ C-4. C-3 zones are largely found in the western
and eastern portions of the ORA, i.e., the east side of Roxas Blvd./ R-1, the site
of the Libertad market, the areas bounded by Sen. Gil Puyat Ave./ C-3/ Leveriza
St., Taft Ave./ R-1/ Arnaiz Ave. and the area bounded by Roxas Blvd./ R-1/
Arnaiz Ave. and F.B. Harrison.

c. Residential Zones. Residential zones are areas designated by the MMC under its
1981 MMC-CZO as low-density zone (R-1), medium density zone (R-2) and the
high-density zone (R-3). Under the MMC under its 1981 MMC-CZO, only R-2
zones have been designated for Pasay City. Qualified socialized housing zone
(SHZ) areas generally correspond to locations of Areas for Priority Development
(APDs) as designated by the then Human Settlements Regulatory Commission
(HSRC) and of Bagong Lipunan Integrated Sites and Services (BLISS) site

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designated by the then Ministry of Human Settlements (MHS) which can both
can be found in the northernmost portion of the AA bordering the OSA.
It is interesting to note that as of 1981, there was only one (1) small area in Pasay
City classified by the HSRC as an APD compared to the massive area presently
classified as such (reference Figure 3.3).

d. Utilities Zone. Under the 1981 MMC-CZO, this zone can be found only in the
AA which embraces areas presently occupied or controlled by the MIAA,
BCDA, PAF, ATO, LRTA and other GRP offices/ agencies.
e. Institutional Zone. Institutional zones are areas designated by the MMC under its
1981 MMC-CZO as pre-existing institutional sites within the ORA and OSA.
f. Parks and Recreation Zones. Under the 1981 MMC-CZO, no zoning for parks
and recreation zones were supplied.
g. Cemetery Zones. Under the 1981 MMC-CZO, these refer to two (2) pre-existing
cemetery sites at the OSA.
h. Cultural Zone. Under the 1981 MMC-CZO, this refers solely to the Nayong
Pilipino at the AA. It is interesting to note that the MMC zoning map shows a
much larger area occupied by the Nayong Pilipino.
i. Planned Unit Development ( PUD). Under the 1981 MMC-CZO, these lands can
be found in both the CBP-I(A) and CC-FCA portions of the NCRA, i.e., the
reclamation area.
Estimated Zone Classification Distribution at Pasay City, 1981

Land Use Category Land Area Percent to


(Hectares) Total (%)
Residential 2 403.87 22.37
Commercial 2 93.35 5.17
Commercial 3 46.11 2.55
Industrial 2 12.79 0.71
Institutional 3.41 0.19
Cultural 43.09 2.39
Planned Unit Development 363.81 20.15
(PUD)

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MHS Bagong Lipunan 11.61 0.64


Integrated Sites And Services
(BLISS)

Estimated Zone Classification Distribution at Pasay City, 1981

Land Use Category Land Area Percent to Total


(Hectares) (%)
HSRC Area For Priority 8.45 0.47
Development (APD)
Cemetery 4.39 0.24
Utilities And Transportation 814.23 45.11
TOTAL 1805.11 100.00
Note: Computed from digitized map, subject to ground survey/confirmation.

Zoning Under the 1997 Pasay City Council Zoning Ordinance


Zoning under the 1997 Pasay City Council Zoning Ordinance (1997 PCC-ZO) herein
ranked according to intensity or severity of use, is as follows:

a. Industrial Zones. Industrial zones are areas designated by the HLURB under its
1996 MZO as light industrial (I-1), medium industrial (I-2) and heavy industrial
(I-3). As with the 2001 land use map, the existing industrial areas under the 1997
PCC-ZO, actually I-3 zones, can be found in the southern section of the OSA.

b. Commercial Zones. Commercial zones are areas designated by the HLURB


under its 1996 MZO as principally commercial or the central business district (C-
1), quasi-commercial/ industrial (C-2) and large shopping malls (C-3). Under the
1997 PCC-ZO, these are largely found in the ORA, in the central, western and
southern portions of the OSA and in the northeastern/ western/ southwestern and
southern parts of the AA. Except for the commercial zones in the ORA, all others
follow the alignment of major roads.

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c. Residential Zones. Residential zones are areas designated by the HLURB under
its 1996 MZO as low density (R-1), medium density (R-2), high density (R-3),
socialized housing zone (SHZ), townhouses (R-4) and condominiums (R-5).
Under the 1997 PCC-ZO, R-1 areas are designated at the southern part of the
OSA, in the northwestern portion of the OVABA and at the southeastern part of
the AA. R-2, R-3 and qualified SHZ areas, all of which generally correspond to
locations of Areas for Priority Development (APDs) can be found all over the
ORA and in almost the entire OSA, the northeastern portion of the OVABA and
in the western and southwestern portions of the AA. No SHZ, R-4 and R-5 zones
have been designated.

d. Infrastructure, Transportation and Utilities Zone. Under the 1997 PCC-ZO, this
zone can be found only in the AA. Existing land transportation terminals found
in ORA and OSA have not yet been zoned as such.

e. Institutional Zone. Institutional zones are areas designated by the HLURB under
its 1996 MZO as general institutional (GI) and special institutional (SI). Under
the 1997, PCC-ZO, the smaller institutional zones are largely found in the ORA
while the larger ones can be found in the OVABA and in some portions of the
AA.

f. Open Spaces/ Parks and Recreational Zones. Under the 1997 PCC- ZO, open
spaces can be found in very small pockets in the ORA (Cuneta Astrodome) and
in the OVABA. Road ROWs in the entire city while generally regarded as
automatically falling under this classification are not zoned as such. Existing
recreational open spaces such as those in the OVABA (Villamor Golf Course)
and in the AA (Nayong Pilipino) have been zoned as a PUD and as a Cultural
zone respectively.

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g. Cemetery Zones. Under the 1997 PCC-ZO, these can be found only in southern
and eastern parts of the OSA, i.e., along Aurora Blvd. (Tramo) and Arnaiz Ave.
(Libertad).

h. Cultural Zone. Under the 1997 PCC-ZO, this can be found only in the northern
part of the CC-FCA portion of the NCRA. The Nayong Pilipino at the AA is also
classified as such.

i. Planned Unit Development ( PUD). Under the 1997 PCC-ZO, these lands can be
found in both the CBP-I(A) and CC-FCA portions of the NCRA and in the
OVABA.

Estimated Zone Classification Distribution at Pasay City, 1997

Land Use Category Land Area Percent to Total


(hectares) (%)
Residential 1 89.08 4.93
Residential 2 and 3 600.61 33.27
Commercial 1 10.18 0.56
Commercial 2 99.74 5.53
Commercial 3 93.77 5.19
Industrial 2 19.46 1.08
Institutional 46.81 2.59
Cultural 102.29 5.67
Planned Unit Development (PUD) 275.48 15.26
Parks & Recreation 2.19 0.12
Cemetery 2.36 0.13
Utilities and Transportation 463.16 25.66
TOTAL 1,805.11 100.00
Note: Computed from digitized map, subject to ground survey/confirmation.

Other Applicable Development Restrictions

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Aside from the zoning ordinance, other equally important development controls are also in
force in Pasay City by virtue of standing HLURB guidelines, ATO development restrictions
and restrictions imposed by PD 1096 (National Building Code), its Implementing Rules and
Regulations (IRR) and its various Referral Codes and related restrictions. In the case of
building/ structure heights, HLURB and ATO restrictions come into play (reference
composite height map in Figure 3.6). In the case of FAR, HLURB and even self-imposed
developer restrictions, e.g., PEA and Boulevard 2000 at FAR 6, etc. come into play.

 Players and Leaders in the Industry


TRADE AND INDUSTRY

The Leading Industries of Pasay City


Pasay City’s rapid urbanization has seen the decline of traditional industries and their
replacement with more service-oriented types of livelihood and industries. The rising
population and the growing demand for their immediate needs have caused too much
pressure on land and the surrounding environment. The demand for space and the subsequent
invasion of creeks and rivers by informal settlers has eased out vegetable farming, fishing,
livestock raising and the culture of marine products.

The recent trend towards a global-oriented economy had various impacts in the Philippines
as the system promoted consumerism that created a demand for service-oriented industries.
In Pasay City, such service industries took the form of financial services, medical services,
retail and general merchandising, recreation services, public terminals, commercial garages,
professional services, personal services, utility services, and light manufacturing. In 2000, a
total 8,461 enterprises were registered in the city.

Classification of Industries in Pasay City, 2000


Business Classification Number Percent to
Total
General Merchandising and Retail 4,792 56.6%
Professional Services 1,394 16.5%
Utility Services 762 9.0%
Financial Services 462 5.4%

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Rest and Recreational Business Services 339 4.0%


Personal Services 258 3.0%
Allied Medical Services 209 2.5%
Manufacturing/Fabrication 168 2.1%
Public Terminals and Commercial Garage 41 0.5%
Private Learning Institutions 36 0.4%
Total 8,461 100.0%
Source : Pasay City Business Permits and License Division

Key Players in the Local Economy


There are several key players or groups that drive and sustain the city’s economic activities.
Some of them are identified and their roles in development are discussed below:

Private Investors
Private investments are the lifeblood of the city’s economy. It was learned that private
investors have four concerns in their operations. The first concern is the lack of parking
space and spaces for pedestrians as sidewalks have been taken over by vendors. Another
concern is the inefficient solid waste management system that would support business
operations. Businesses and legitimate residents of Pasay City area also worried about the
increasing number of illegal dwellers that have taken over many public and private
properties. These informal settlers have contributed to urban blight in places, which could
otherwise have been good locations for commercial uses. The illegal dwellers have also
contributed to the rising costs of water and electricity consumption of business enterprises
and legitimate residents who have been forced to subsidize their consumption from illegal
connections. Lastly, residents and business owners have voiced concern over the city’s lack
of will to enforce land-use and development plans.

As in many urban centers in the Philippines, the city government is not aware why certain
businesses in their jurisdiction close shops despite the large number of consumers. They
locate somewhere else where they could afford the lease of commercial space. Should
numerous investors decide to relocate their business operations, such could adversely affect
the city government’s income and result in the loss of jobs among some of its residents.

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While it is not mandated for the city government to control the lease rates imposed by owners
of business structures, having such information could somehow ease the burden of local
investors in looking for modest business locations within their means. The city government
could be ahead of its neighbors if it could provide information on the prevailing lease rates
and business maps within its jurisdiction as an added service to prospective investors.

The Chambers of Commerce


Pasay City has two chambers of commerce and industry. The older one is the Chinese
Chamber of Commerce whose membership is exclusive to Chinese businessmen. The other
one is the more recently organized Pasay City Chamber of Commerce, which had an initial
membership of 100 businessmen. As organizations of the city’s employers, the two are
considered very influential in the city’s economic and political sustainability.

The Public Market


The public market is an important facilitator of trade and a great provider of employment.
Pasay City has a public market operated by the city government and another owned by a
private enterprise. The government public market is a 13,378.47 square meter two-story
structure that provides livelihood to some 1,500 stall holders. The privately-owned public
market has a floor space of about 500 square meters.

Although the market vendors belong to the lowest layer of commodity distribution, their
capacity to influence market prices cannot be ignored. The market vendors in the Pasay City
Public Market are organized and have formed themselves into an association of about 500
members.

 Opportunities for Improvement

"A SCENIC premier city thriving with business and economic opportunities, guided by
dynamic and efficient local leadership and home to self-reliant, healthy and morally upright
People"

Development thrust:
The vision for Pasay City indicates the following development thrusts:

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 Maximize Tourism Potentials


 Enhance the City's Image
 Promote Multi-Sectoral Partnership
 Upgrade Infrastructure and Utility System
 Support Business and Commercial Activities
 Promote Welfare of City Residents
 Raise the Level of LGU Services
 Increase the LGU Revenue

2.1.2 PRIMARY DATA


INTERVIEWS AND CONSULTATIONS
 Interview with Arch. Andrew Reyes
General Services and Management Bureau of the Senate of the Philippines

He stated that there is really a need for the Senate to be relocated in a permanent edifice due
to the high rate of leasing fee in the current location of the Upper House. And it was also
given attention by the senators themselves but until the present time, a case study of the
situation is yet to be undertaken.

In relation to the needed data to be gathered from the Senate of the Philippines, the
proponents sought the approval of access for the provision of the factors relevant to the
study which are the following:

 Population or the occupants of the Senate Building including its ancillary


buildings. For the acknowledgement of the essentials in relation of the people to the
structure; e.g. How dense the building is at present and if there’s a need for additional
requirements in spaces.

 The latest master plan of the space occupied by the Senate in the GSIS
Building. To be oriented with the present rooms and other included spaces.
 The flow or circulation of activities inside the building. In order to determine the
space and planning techniques that must be considered and used in the said proposal.

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 Historical and other related literature of the study.


 The financial aspects of the leasing of the Building.
 Recommendations. Or the site and relocation of the edifice. As for other amenities
that may be added in the coming future. Other government agencies that may be asked for
other documents in order for this research to be a feasible one.

Written Response of the Requested Documents:


1. Senate population consists of the Senate secretariat and Senate Proper (Senators
Employees)
- Senate Proper: 500 employees
- Senate Secretariat: 1,300 employees
*Additional office space are needed in our present state
2. Please see attached file.
3. *Refer to plans; Offices at the 2nd floor for Public media, Public sessions and
Hearings.
3rd and 4th floor offices should be in tandem for easy operation and circulation.
5th and 6th floors are for the Senators offices and Offices of the Senate Officers.

4. History - please refer to http://www.senate.gov.ph


5. Financial aspects- classified
6. Recommendations - Senate should have its own compound
- Not to be relocated near Philippine Congress
“Hope these information will help with your academic requirements.
Thank you.”

 Assistance from Mrs. Marilou Herrera of the Legislative Archive


 Legal Consultations with Atty. George Tubig of the Department of
Justice
Observations:
The Senate of the Philippines although has been a part of almost everyday news, we become
familiarized with the senators. But little do we know about the other offices and officials of

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the Upper House. The following are the gathered organizational structure of the Senate and
other list that composes the whole senate body who will be the end-user of this study.

SECRETARIAT AND SENATE PROPER MANPOWER COMPLEMENT


DIVISION NUMBER OF
EMPLOYEES
Administrative and Financial Services (AFS) 259
External Affairs and Relations (EAR) 34
Legislation (LEGIS) 264
Office of the Secretary (OSEC) 227
Office of the Sergeant-At-Arms (OSAA) 142
SUBTOTAL 926
Senate Proper 828
TOTAL EMPLOYEES 1,754

*Casual/Contractual Employees: 228

17th Congress Committee Chairmanship (as of August 23, 2016)

COMMITTEE (40) CHAIRPERSON


1 Accountability of Public Officers & Sen. Richard J. Gordon
Investigations (Blue Ribbon)
2 Accounts Sen. Panfilo M. Lacson
3 Agrarian Reform Sen. Alan Peter “Compañero” S.
Cayetano
4 Agriculture and Food Sen. Francis “Kiko” Pangilinan
5 Banks, Financial Institutions and Sen. Francis "Chiz" G. Escudero
Currencies
6 Civil Service, Government Reorganization Sen. Antonio “Sonny” F. Trillanes IV
and Professional Regulation
7 Climate Change Sen. Loren B. Legarda
8 Constitutional Amendments and Revision Sen. Franklin M. Drilon
of Codes
9 Cooperatives Sen. Juan Miguel “Migz” F. Zubiri
10 Cultural Communities Sen. Maria Lourdes Nancy S. Binay
11 Economic Affairs Sen. Win Gatchalian
12 Education, Arts and Culture Sen. Paolo Benigno “Bam” Aquino
IV

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13 Electoral Reforms and People’s Sen. Leila M. de Lima


Participation
14 Energy Sen. Win Gatchalian
15 Environment and Natural Resources Sen. Cynthia A. Villar
16 Ethics and Privileges Sen. Vicente C. Sotto III
17 Finance Sen. Loren B. Legarda
18 Foreign Relations Sen. Alan Peter “Compañero” S.
Cayetano
19 Games and Amusement Sen. Panfilo M. Lacson
20 Government Corporations and Public Sen. Richard J. Gordon
Enterprises
21 Health and Demography Sen. Risa Hontiveros
22 Justice and Human Rights Sen. Leila M. de Lima
23 Labor, Employment and Human Resources Sen. Joel Villanueva
Development
24 Local Government Sen. Sonny Angara
25 National Defense and Security Sen. Gregorio B. Honasan II
26 Peace, Unification and Reconciliation Sen. Gregorio B. Honasan II
27 Public Information and Mass Media Sen. Grace Poe
28 Public Order and Dangerous Drugs Sen. Panfilo M. Lacson
29 Public Services Sen. Grace Poe
30 Public Works Sen. Emmanuel “Manny” D.
Pacquiao
31 Rules Sen. Vicente C. Sotto III
32 Science and Technology Sen. Paolo Benigno “Bam” Aquino
IV
33 Social Justice, Welfare and Rural Sen. Cynthia A. Villar
Development
34 Sports Sen. Emmanuel “Manny” D.
Pacquiao
35 Tourism Sen. Maria Lourdes Nancy S. Binay
36 Trade, Commerce and Entrepreneurship Sen. Juan Miguel “Migz” F. Zubiri
37 Urban Planning, Housing and Resettlement Sen. Joseph Victor G. Ejercito
38 Ways and Means Sen. Sonny Angara
39 Women, Children, Family Relations and Sen. Risa Hontiveros
Gender Equality
40 Youth Sen. Joel Villanueva

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Organization of the Senate

By virtue of these provisions of the Constitution, the Senate adopts its own rules,
otherwise known as the “Rules of the Senate.” The Rules of the Senate provide the following
officers: a President, a President Pro Tempore, a Secretary and a Sergeant-at-Arms.

Following this set of officers, the Senate as an institution can then be grouped into the
Senate Proper and the Secretariat. The former belongs exclusively to the members of the
Senate as well as its committees, while the latter renders support services to the members of
the Senate.

The Senate Proper

A. The Officers of the Senate

1. The Senate President

2. The Senate President Pro Tempore

3. The Majority Leader

4. The Minority Leader

B. The Senate Committees

At the core of Congress’ lawmaking, investigative and oversight functions lies the
committee system. This is so because much of the business of Congress, it has been well
said, is done in the committee. Specific problems, whether local or national in scope, are
initially brought to the forum of congressional committees where they are subjected to rigid
and thorough discussions.

Congressional hearings and investigations on matters dealing with every field of


legislative concern have frequently been conducted by congressional committees.

The present committee structure of the Senate is composed of 36 standing committees


and five ad hoc and oversight committees. These standing committees with their respective
jurisdictions are as follows:
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 Committee on Accountability of Public Officers and Investigations


 Committee on Accounts
 Committee on Agrarian Reform
 Committee on Agriculture and Food
 Committee on Banks, Financial Institutions and Currencies
 Committee on Civil Service and Government Reorganization
 Committee on Constitutional Amendments, Revision of Codes and Laws
 Committee on Cooperatives
 Committee on Cultural Communities
 Committee on Economic Affairs
 Committee on Education, Arts and Culture
 Committee on Energy
 Committee on Environment and Natural Resources
 Committee on Ethics and Privileges
 Committee on Finance
 Committee on Foreign Relations
 Committee on Games, Amusement and Sports
 Committee on Government Corporations and Public Enterprises
 Committee on Health and Demography
 Committee on Justice and Human Rights
 Committee on Labor, Employment and Human Resources Development
 Committee on Local Government
 Committee on National Defense and Security
 Committee on Peace, Unification and Reconciliation
 Committee on Public Information and Mass Media
 Committee on Public Order and Illegal Drugs
 Committee on Public Services
 Committee on Public Works
 Committee on Rules
 Committee on Science and Technology
 Committee on Social Justice, Welfare and Rural Development

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 Committee on Tourism
 Committee on Trade and Commerce
 Committee on Urban Planning, Housing and Resettlement
 Committee on Ways and Means
 Committee on Youth, Women and Family Relations

The Secretariat

The process of legislation, to begin with, has not been merely confined to the enactment
of laws or the passage of legislative proposals or resolutions. Though the latter is considered
as its primary function, Congress has likewise performed other equally important functions,
such as those flowing from its investigative and oversight powers.

The Senate Secretariat performs all kinds of support services needed by the senators.
The nature and form of such services range from legislative to administrative, financial and
security services required not only by the senators themselves but also by their office staff
and employees.

A. The Senate Secretary

The Senate Secretary, who is elected by the members of the Senate, is the head of the
Secretariat. He assists the Senate President in extending adequate and timely legislative
and administrative support to the offices of Senators. He exercises supervision and control
over all the offices of the service units and officers and employees of the Senate
Secretariat. He formulates plans, policies and programs aimed at professionalizing the
institution.

1. The Deputy Secretary for Legislation

2. Deputy Secretary for External Affairs

3. The Deputy Secretary for Administration and Financial Services

4. The Senate Legal Counsel

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B. The Senate Sergeant-at-Arms

The Sergeant-at-Arms is also assisted by an Assistant Sergeant-at-Arms.

2.1.3 TABLES AND GRAPHS

Administrative and Financial


Services (AFS)

15% External Affairs and


2% Relations (EAR)
47% 15% Legislation (LEGIS)

13% Office of the Secretary


8% (OSEC)
Office of the Sergeant-At-
Arms (OSAA)
Senate Proper

SENATE MANPOWER PERCENTAGE

Area Distribution (in Hectares) of Pasay City

Brgy Are Percent Brg Are Percent Brg Area Percent Brg Are Percent
. a to Total y. a to Total y. to Total y. a to Total
(%) (%) (%) (%)
1 1.48 0.08 51 2.26 0.13 10 1.09 0.06 151 2.9 0.16
Geo 4.37 0.24 52 2.37 0.13 10
1 1.11 0.06 152 4.1
4 0.23
3
-2 1.84 0.10 53 1.01 0.06 10
2 1.42 0.08 153 1.6
0 0.09
4 2.89 0.16 54 1.94 0.11 10
3 2.51 0.14 154 0.9
4 0.05
5 1.53 0.08 55 2.25 0.12 10
4 0.91 0.05 155 1.5
4 0.08
6 1.47 0.08 56 1.01 0.06 10
5 1.13 0.06 156 2.2
2 0.12
7 2.58 0.14 57 0.91 0.05 10
6 2.24 0.12 157 1.9
3 0.11
8 1.94 0.11 58 4.31 0.24 10
7 2.82 0.16 158 1.9
3 0.11
9 1.43 0.08 59 3.79 0.21 10
8 0.90 0.05 159 2.9
3 0.16
10 2.99 0.17 60 3.55 0.20 11
9 1.78 0.10 160 1.6
5 0.09
11 1.82 0.10 61 0.40 0.02 11
0 1.50 0.08 161 5.4
9 0.30
12 1.89 0.10 62 0.49 0.03 11
1 1.41 0.08 162 3.1
6 0.17
13 13.9 0.77 63 2.18 0.12 11
2 2.84 0.16 163 2.2
0 0.12
14 2.48
5 0.14 64 1.15 0.06 11
3 2.38 0.13 164 1.3
3 0.08
15 3.61 0.20 65 4.45 0.25 11
4 2.12 0.12 165 7.1
7 0.40
16 1.30 0.07 66 2.81 0.16 11
5 2.35 0.13 166 2.1
3 0.12
17 1.69 0.09 67 1.83 0.10 11
6 1.38 0.08 167 1.3
2 0.08
7 8
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18 4.61 0.26 68 1.56 0.09 11 2.26 0.12 168 2.1 0.12


19 1.10 0.06 69 1.24 0.07 11
8 2.64 0.15 169 3.0
6 0.17
20 2.25 0.12 70 6.12 0.34 12
9 2.88 0.16 170 1.4
7 0.08
21 1.78 0.10 71 1.02 0.06 12
0 2.02 0.11 171 3.0
6 0.17
22 0.56 0.03 72 1.47 0.08 12
1 0.99 0.05 172 3.6
5 0.20
23 4.14 0.23 73 6.06 0.34 12
2 0.91 0.05 173 1.4
5 0.08
24 2.44 0.14 74 3.30 0.18 12
3 2.64 0.15 174 2.4
1 0.14
25 2.16 0.12 75 9.34 0.52 12
4 2.37 0.13 175 1.5
4 0.08
26 1.86 0.10 76 50.4 2.79 12
5 1.22 0.07 176 2.2
2 0.12
27 1.90 0.11 77 4.22
5 0.23 12
6 2.90 0.16 177 4.4
5 0.25
28 3.82 0.21 78 3.33 0.18 12
7 2.26 0.13 178 3.5
8 0.20
29 1.88 0.10 79 4.20 0.23 12
8 1.21 0.07 179 7.0
8 0.39
30 1.18 0.07 80 2.64 0.15 13
9 2.82 0.16 180 46.
5 2.56
31 2.80 0.16 81 1.62 0.09 13
0 2.28 0.13 181 2.3
20 0.13
32 2.97 0.16 82 0.71 0.04 13
1 2.73 0.15 182 9.6
4 0.54
33 5.88 0.33 83 2.11 0.12 13
2 2.82 0.16 183 543
9 30.13
34 2.93 0.16 84 1.31 0.07 13
3 1.23 0.07 184 8.6
.89 0.48
35 3.56 0.20 85 3.88 0.22 13
4 4.04 0.22 185 18.
3 1.01
36 4.43 0.25 86 1.56 0.09 13
5 3.05 0.17 186 2.8
31 0.16
37 4.56 0.25 87 1.22 0.07 13
6 2.52 0.14 187 16.
8 0.92
38 8.40 0.47 88 3.19 0.18 13
7 1.29 0.07 188 8.7
62 0.49
39 5.53 0.31 89 1.24 0.07 13
8 1.33 0.07 189 2.6
9 0.15
40 5.53 0.31 90 2.00 0.11 14
9 1.10 0.06 190 60.
7 3.37
41 4.20 0.23 91 1.73 0.10 14
0 1.69 0.09 191 45.
81 2.53
42 2.66 0.15 92 2.28 0.13 14
1 1.11 0.06 192 18.
60 1.04
43 1.69 0.09 93 2.79 0.15 14
2 5.88 0.33 193 13.
81 0.78
44 5.94 0.33 94 2.91 0.16 14
3 7.02 0.39 194 4.8
99 0.27
45 2.73 0.15 95 2.51 0.14 14
4 6.65 0.37 195 3.8
7 0.21
46 3.90 0.22 96 2.26 0.13 14
5 3.33 0.18 196 2.8
5 0.16
48 1.80 0.10 98 4.39 0.24 14
6 9.83 0.54 198 18.
3 1.00
49 4.02 0.22 99 1.88 0.10 14
8 1.19 0.07 199 5.2
09 0.29
50 0.95 0.05 100 3.38 0.19 15
9 1.89 0.10 200 4.8
5 0.27
0 201 33.7
1 1.87
Area of Barangays 1 to 201 1,399.50 5 77.53
Reclamation 213.66 11.84
Cultural Center of the Philippines Complex 191.95 10.63
TOTAL AREA 1,805.11 100.00

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The 2013 PRA plan for reclamation along the Manila Bay coastline

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The approximated city/ municipal waters of local government units along the Manila Bay
coastline (superimposed on the 2013 PRA plan for reclamation along the Manila Bay)

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The approximated reclamation potential for Pasay City waters

Figure hows the approximated city/ municipal waters of local government units (LGUs) along the
Manila Bay coastline. Note the potential multiple conflicts at the westernmost

Figure 0-2 Average ridership per hour at LRT/MRT Stations within Pasay City, 2011

6000

ED S A LIBERTAD GIL PUYAT


5000

4000
Passenger

3000

2000

1000

0
12-1
11 -12
10 - 11

9 - 10
9 - 10

10 - 11
4-5

5-6

7-8

8-9

2-3

3-4

5-6

6-7

8-9
6-7

1-2

4-5

7-8

Time

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2.2 CASE STUDIES


The following case studies illustrates varying situations in which certain circumstances
occur and how these were undertaken. From which will be specific recommendationsto be
picked as a relevant support too te study. Particularly in the field of institutional
procurement.

Case Study 1: Changing the Concept of Government Buildings


There is a saying among fans of some architecture schools that form should serve function
and the design of a building should be aligned with the building’s purpose. This often comes
to fruition as a gray, excessively utilitarian design: square, blocky, and supposedly designed
with no frills in order to provide maximum efficiency. For decades, this was the driving
architectural consideration for government buildings, which is why they frequently err on
the side of monolithic. Their function is to get people in and out without any fuss; therefore,
the design should be the same.

A counter-argument to that would insist that the function of a government building isn’t just
to process papers but to serve the people, and to make them feel like a part of the democratic
system we have set up. One could even make the case that the dim and un-imaginative school
of government buildings is antithetical to that purpose. Indeed, the dull and purely
functionary gloom many of them evoke actually alienates people from their own
government.
Today, let’s take a look at an example of a government building that has eschewed the more
stoic school of architecture so we can see how making a smart real estate choice can have a
positive impact on the people inside (and even outside) for decades to come.

Case Study 2: Smart Government Buildings: Kane County, IL


The Fox River burbles up from marshlands in southern Wisconsin and picks up steam as it
rolls south to merge with the Illinois on its way to the Mississippi, and thence the world. In
Illinois, it runs through some heavy industrial area, and it was heavily polluted for a while.

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It is cleaner now, though, and as those river towns moved away from industry, they began
to take care of the river and tend its banks. Even in towns the river is met with beauty.
At one point, in the town of Geneva in Kane County, it rolls past a cluster of buildings tucked
into a woodsy seclusion along its banks. The buildings are old, built from brick, and boast
towers, making them reminiscent of another era. These are the government buildings for
Kane County, a county of a half-million people west of Chicago, where the expanding exurbs
begin intruding into the Illinois farmland. Someone driving by could be forgiven for not
recognizing that these were official government buildings. They certainly don’t evoke a
bureaucratic feeling. That’s because they weren’t always government buildings. In fact, they
used to be a seminary.

When Kane County was expanding during the last century, it kept running out of room for
its official buildings. It built several new courthouses, including some real beauties, but a
booming population needed more room. Despite coming of age in the height of the “form
serves function” phenomenon, Kane County rejected that ethos and went to look for land.
The Sacred Heart Seminary, a turn-of-the-century institution, was selling, and so they bought
it. In doing so, they provided an important lesson for expanding governments looking to find
more room for less money.

Consider Unusual Buildings


This is cheaper than buying land and putting new offices in them, and most of the time, the
end result is far nicer than another storefront DMV. A cluster of buildings like this was in
the community, but not intrusive. The infrastructure was already there, and while it has been
continually updated throughout the years, it provided an established zone of operations.

Community Integration
Not only is the building not an intrusion, but it’s even a pleasure to visit. If you were to walk
around the grounds, you might even see people picnicking and enjoying the relaxed vibe of
the area. Once inside, even mundane tasks like standing in line feel less painful. There is no
need for a government building to feel like its ultimate goal is to exact punishment on its
users. By making the space welcoming, it becomes an integrated space within the local
community, rather than merely the site of a dreaded administrative task

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Flexible Use of Space


Because Kane County Government Complex is actually composed of several established
buildings, the offices are assigned to different buildings throughout the area based on
function. This allows for shorter lines in each building and substantially less confusion for
visitors.

Needless to say, not every county or city has the option of an old seminary on a picturesque
river. Luckily, you don’t need it. You just need to expand the idea of what a government
building could be. Limiting your real estate options to traditional office spaces can make you
miss real opportunities to not just find less expensive property, but to help redefine the
government experience for your citizens.

Architectural trends come and go. Style goes in and out. But what doesn’t change is the need
for government buildings to be responsive and adaptive to the public. By expanding your
real estate search to non-traditional venues, you have a great chance to fulfill your function,
regardless of the form.

Case Study 3: Washington State Legislative Building: Olympia, Washington

In the early 1920s, the State of Washington built a magnificent new legislative building to
serve as a practical and aesthetic civic focal point for the state capitol campus. The building
– reminiscent of the U.S. Capitol – was designed in a mixture of Roman, Greek and neo-
Classical styles. Following a magnitude 6.8 earthquake in 2001, the brick and stone structure
was in danger of collapsing.

To extend the life of the building for another 50 years, the state undertook a renovation to
update and reinforce the structure, and to install new heating, cooling, plumbing and fire
protection systems. A key challenge faced by the architects – SRG Partnership and Einhorn
Yaffee Prescott – was to accomplish the structural and safety upgrades in a way that
preserved the historic elegance of the popular building.

Among the many design challenges inherent with the upgrade was a code requirement to
provide fire-rated barriers in all stairwells. In many similar applications, heavy steel doors

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with small wired-glass windows are used to provide the necessary fire protection. While
practical for helping stop or slow the spread of flames and smoke, such installations create
an industrial or institutional feel. These products would not have met the project’s goal to
retain the character and styling of the classic building, especially since a number of the
stairwells are in very visible locations.

To provide light and a sense of openness in the stairwells, while meeting the requirements
for fire safety, the architects selected Fireframes® Heat Barrier Series glass doorframes and
sidelights, with fire-resistant glass. Fireframes – available from Technical Glass Products
(TGP) – are fire-rated for two hours, offer a narrow steel profile and can accommodate large
individual panes of fire-resistant glass. In addition to their practicality, the bronze-clad
Fireframes used in the legislative building are a natural extension of other furnishings and
fixtures in the building and complement its historic architecture.

Fireframes can be finished to match virtually any desired color scheme. The durability of
the frames also ensures low maintenance. Interlocking door profiles provide a tight seal
against flames and smoke. Fireframes can be manufactured in a range of sizes and shapes –
the legislative building installation includes both rectangular and arched doorways. “Fire-
resistant framing and glass doesn’t have to look bulky and unappealing,” says Jerry Razwick,
president of TGP. “Products like Fireframes allow architects great
design flexibility, bringing visibility and natural light into spaces that were once required to
be protected behind thick walls and doors.”

For their overall approach to rehabilitating the legislative building and preserving its historic
character, the architect team was presented a 2006 National Honor Award by the American
Institute of Architects (AIA). The selection jury commented that the project was “an
ingenious approach to accommodate new systems.”

Case Study 4: Richmond Federal Courthouse: Richmond, VA


Project Description:
The New Richmond Federal Courthouse involves the construction of a 336,961 square foot
building with seven stories of offices and courtrooms as well as a six-story glass atrium. The
building will accommodate 64 inside parking spaces. The proposed courthouse will provide

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housing for the U.S. District Court, U.S. Bankruptcy Court, U.S. Magistrate Court, U.S.
Trustees Office and other tenants.

Green Features:
The new Richmond Federal Courthouse falls under the category of LEED-NC (new
construction) Silver Level. The project has goals for recycling, intelligent land use,
minimizing construction waste, environmentally preferable building materials, and design
features that will result in an excellent quality indoor environment for users of the building.

Case Study 5: Chesterfield Community Development Customer Service Center:


Chesterfield County, Virginia

Project Description:
The new Chesterfield Community Development Customer Service Center is a three storey
steel-framed structure containing approximately 90,000 square feet of space for the County’s
Community Development functions. The new building is sited adjacent to the existing
County Utilities building, and connected by an open breezeway. The exterior materials shall
generally match the Utilities building, utilizing brick, architectural precast concrete, EIFS
(synthetic stucco) and metal roofing. Near the first floor entrance the building will include a
Customer Service Center which will offer ‘one stop shop’ express customer service by cross
trained, multi-disciplined County staff. The functions housed in the facility consist of:
• Building Inspection
• Fire and Life Safety/ Fire Marshal
• Transportation
• Environmental Engineering
• Planning
• Community Development Block Grant
• Community Development Suite
• Data Center

Green Features:
• Bicycle racks and showering and changing facilities for employees who wish to use
alternative transportation to commute to work.

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• “Ultra cool” roof coating will reduce heat absorption by the metal roofing. This will reduce
heat gain inside the building as well as reduce the heat island effect of the building on the
surrounding environment.
• Full cut-off “Dark Skies” compliant light fixtures will be installed to reduce light pollution
in the area of the building.
• Native and drought resistant plants have been specified so that no irrigation system is
necessary.
• Waterless urinals, infra-red sensor sinks, and low flow plumbing fixtures will be installed
resulting in a reduction of water usage by approximately 36%.
• In addition to not using CFC refrigerants in the HVAC equipment, this project will
eliminate the Chesterfield Community Development
Customer Service Center Government LEEDd Registered use of HCFC’s and Halon
products to further protect the ozone and the environment.
• A permanent measurement and verification system will track water and energy usage in
the facility.
• Interior air quality management during construction in addition to only using low emitting
(low VOC) materials will keep potential toxins out of the building.
• A three component track-off system will minimize the amount of dirt and contaminants
that are tracked into the building by visitors and staff.

Case Study 6: Green Roof and Water Management in Philippines Government Office
Building

The two main stakeholders in the project are LafargeHolcim Philippines and Laguna Lake
Development Authority (LLDA):
 A world leader in building materials, LafargeHolcim employs 63,000 people in 61
countries, and posted sales of €12.8 billion in 2014. LafargeHolcim has an
established presence in the Philippines through a nationwide manufacturing
network composed of five cement plants, one grinding station, cement terminal,
and aggregates quarries that are strategically located throughout Luzon, Visayas
and Mindanao, and operated by over 1300 skilled professionals.
 LLDA is a governmental agency in the Philippines. Its mission is to ensure the
development and balanced growth of the Laguna Lake area while providing
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environmental management, control, and preservation of the quality of human life


and ecological systems.

Rapid urbanization in the Philippines has given rise to many challenges as increasing
infrastructure developments contribute to reduced open spaces and increased energy
consumption.

Both the public and private construction sectors are responding by


reshaping the cityscape and designing building structures that are as environmentally
responsive as they are beautiful and compact. Now, buildings should not only be sturdy and
spacious, they should also be efficient in energy consumption and adaptive to the changing
environment.

To address this need, some companies are installing artificial turf. However, LafargeHolcim
Philippines (LafargeHolcim) has partnered with SIKA Ag – a manufacturer of specialty
chemicals for construction and industry – to develop an innovative green roof solution.

LafargeHolcim supported LLDA’s mission to protect the Laguna Lake area and be an
exemplary environmental steward by providing innovative technology products for the
LLDA’s new building.

Case Study 7: Governance and Urban Development: Metro Manila


Metropolitan Manila has become an experimental laboratory of various governance systems
for the last twenty years. This is mainly the result of the country’s transformation from an
overly centralized administration during the Marcos regime to a more decentralized
management structure and system from the Aquino government in 1986 to the present.

This paper explains the evolution of the metropolitan organizations that have been
established to oversee the development of Metro Manila, provides a survey of their
responsibilities, authorities, organizational structure, financing, institutional relationships as
well as briefly assess their strengths and weaknesses. It then discusses the major
management challenges in Metro Manila at present and how they are being addressed under
the current set-up.

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Under the present decentralized framework, governance of Metro Manila becomes more
challenging as cities and municipalities that compose it have political legitimacy and
significant powers and authorities relative to the Metropolitan organization. However, the
paper has emphasized that with proper allocation of powers, authorities and financing, the
metropolitan body can take on a more important role in terms of actual delivery of metro
wide services. While the present metropolitan body appears to have taken on more
responsibilities in the delivery of services transcending local boundaries, still a large part of
these metro-wide services still remain with the national government agencies. This is
primarily explained by the fact that while the national government has continuously provided
subsidies to the metropolitan body, it still allocates a sizeable portion of the budget for metro-
wide services to the national government agencies. These agencies, being line departments,
are inherently concerned with their own sectoral priorities rather than serving the needs of
the metropolis per se. Consequently, the metropolitan body is left with the very difficult task
of having to orchestrate the sectoral programs of various national government agencies,
including metro-wide services. This situation not only makes government effort almost
intractable but also increases costs in terms of both manpower and financial costs.

The advantage of metropolitan governance under a decentralized framework is that it allows


the local government units within the metropolis to respond directly to the priority needs of
their respective constituents by seeking creative means to deliver urban services. This is
attested to by the innovative programs and projects some cities in Metro Manila have
implemented which have been included in this paper under the discussion of
models of good city governance.

Case Study 8: Municipality of Puerto Princesa Philippines


Palawan, the island on which Puerto Princesa is located, is known as the ‘Last Frontier’ due
to its vast forests and rich marine life. These natural assets attracted a lot of migrants from
other areas of the Philippines, searching for work and economic prosperity. The increased
population and exploitation of natural resources led to wide spread environmental damage.
Illegal logging, slash and burn farming, charcoal making and uncontrolled gathering of forest
products, reduced forest covers from 75% in 1976, to 50% in 1992. Erosion was rampant,
soil fertility was low, and agricultural productivity dropped dramatically. The marine

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environment suffered similarly, with illegal fishing methods (dynamite and cyanide fishing),
unabated mangrove cutting, unregulated sand and gravel extraction and the proliferation of
squatter settlements in coastal areas.

In 1992, the Municipality of Puerto Princesa, largely at the instigation of the newly elected
mayor, Mr. Edward S. Hagedorn, began a program of environmental reform. At this time,
the Earth Summit in Rio had recently concluded, and the city was unfamiliar with Local
Agenda 21.

LOCAL AGENDA 21 – PUERTO PRINCESA


Local Agenda 21 has been described by Municipality of Puerto Princesa officials as
providing an international context and framework for projects that Local Government units
in the Philippines were already initiating. These programs were not based on written
directives, using only guiding principles emanating from their sets of values and common
sense. The international framework which is developing around Local Agenda 21 is proving
to be of value to the existing programs in Puerto Princesa, providing a formal structure and
context to what they have already undertaken, and a framework with which to plan actions
for the
future.

2.2.1 SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS

With respect to the present condition of the Philippine Senate. With


considerations in their activities, work flow, and building circulation as well as the
commissions and organizations to be found in its building. The said project
encompasses the following:

 Relocation of the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the Philippines to a


permanent house.
 Provide facilities for the various services of the upper house of the congress.
 Beautification of landscape design to promote the cleanliness and to give the people
another satisfaction of the project.

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 Construction of a disaster proof facility.


 Acquirement of enough knowledge about the capacity of the main building.
 Application of green strategies and environmental response to the design.
 Promoting Filipino inspired designs.
 Provision of health, maintenance, and sanitation measures.

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

Being an architectural study, this will limit the ideals and concepts
within the circle of the only concerned field and the following:

 The proponents have minimal knowledge for the programs but not the one who will
implement it.
 The further study on how will be the flow of budgeting and financing inside the
structure after the construction.
 The further study on how new organization will be created inside the structure.

2.2.2 CASE STUDIES

After gathering all the data’s and information of each case study, we will give you an idea about,
what are the similarities and all their differences, advantages in terms of facilities, design,
function and so on and so forth, in addition of their failure that can be use as a stepping stone to
a healthier, improve and a better study .

CASE STUDY 1: CHANGING THE CONCEPT OF THE GOVERNMENT


BUILDINGS
It states that the usual government building concept must be changed. Form shall not just
serve its function, but also the people. The concept should be more approachable and
appealing to the people; for a government building shall not just serve people by giving them
papers and documents, but also by making them feel like they are a part of a free-slow
system.

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CASE STUDY 2: SMART GOVERNMENT BUILDINGS


A government building shall be able to adapt to changes and trends. We can also consider
what is newer, cheaper, more flexible, and more attractive without compromising the
function of the building.

CASE STUDY 3: WASHINGTON STATE LEGISLATIVE BUILDING


In constructing a government building, we should also prioritize its lifespan. The building
shall be able to withstand any kind of disaster for it to survive as long as is needs to be. It
shall have its own protection system for the people to feel safer inside the structure.

CASE STUDY 4: RICHMOND FEDERAL COURTHOUSE


The project must aim to reduce waste and contribute less to environmental problems. The
project must become easy to construct and very sustainable.

CASE STUDY 5: CHESTERFIELD COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT


The building must be friendly not just to the people that it serves, but also to its employees.
Aside from that, green features must be applied for passive cooling and to reduce energy
consumption and other types of wastes. Adding green features to the building can also make
people feel like they are inside a place which makes things go better.

CASE STUDY 6: GREEN ROOF AND WATER MANAGEMENT IN PHILIPPINES


GOVERNMENT OFFICE BUILDING
Due to rapid urbanization, problems in increasing infrastructure developments, reduction of
open spaces, and increased energy consumption, the building must be able to adapt to the
given circumstances. Providing innovative technology products for water management must
also be considered for the construction of new government buildings. It is also a way to show
that new buildings are being created for the common good of people and the environment.

CASE STUDY 7: GOVERNANCE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT


The building, as an institution, must be able to serve the people, not just able, but it must
serve the people in the best way that they can. It must not just concentrate on the inside
which is the institution alone. The building shall be very much approachable to every person
who tries to enter it. They shall be treated with pleasure and pleasantness.

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CASE STUDY 8: MUNICIPALITY OF PUERTO PRINCESA PHILIPPINES


The building, as an institution, shall be able to prevent further environmental problems for
the coming years after its construction process. Having good drainage systems and waste
disposal managements shall be one of the priorities for the design.

2.2.3 SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS

RESEARCH TOPIC
The initial idea of the study was a complex for both the Upper and Lower Houses of the
Philippine Legislature. But after the gathering of data and conducting interviews and other
legal consultations regarding the feasibility of the project, it was trim down to the relocation
of the Senate of the Philippines into a new and more structurally capable building that will
provide all the necessary considerations with the occupants. This year is the centennial year
of the formal establishment of the House of Senate and this study will be a high time for this.
Leasing a part of the GSIS Building, the rooms and planning is compromised to the existing
plan of their tenure whilst spending high rates of the leasing fee which is estimated in an
interview to be almost a hundred million a year. That which is sufficient to contribute in
constructing a new and improved edifice. With also the consideration of an expansion and
additional offices and other facilities in case of change in the Philippine Constitution.

RECOMMENDATION
Since the site is located at the reclamation area in Pasay City, certain factors must be taken
care of with utmost attention. With the help of case studies and other research methods that
will still be conducted in the next chapters, a new, permanent and more efficient building

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for the House of Senate will be feasible. Uplifting the integrity and level of institutional
architecture of both local and national degree of the Philppines.

APPLICATION
Strategies taken/Application to the Study:
To be able to create a Permanent Seat for the Upper House of Philippine Legislature, some
guidelines from the article were stated and can be apply to the proposed “SENATE OF
THE PHILIPPINES”. Some considerations are the following:
o Proper site planning
o Create connections at nearby developments
o Security of a 24/7 patrol inside the Complex
o A well maintained and clean Surroundings
o Well studied Access Roads
o Advance Technology for disaster resilient structure
o Harmonizing the structure to the environment.
o Number of Occupants
These considerations will help in the research development since it will be located at a
recommended site and surrounded by Government buildings as well as it will help in further
enrichment of the welfare of both officials and the citizens of the country as a whole.

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CHAPTER 3: ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

3.1 SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS

3.1.1 IDENTIFICATION/ASSESSMENT OF NEEDS

From being a preliminary idea up to the gathering of supporting data, the scope of
the study is now polished based on facts, theories, statistics, and other related
methodologies of research. A stronger vision on the architectural side of the proposal and
this is where the identification of the actual needs of the project will be established.

o A need for a new and improved facility that will serve as the home and
headquarters of the Senate of the Philippines and its offices permanently in order
to be more economically rational and uplift the building image of the government
for a more progressive country.
o A need for properly planned and space cautious levels of the edifice itself and
avoid misfit use of occupancy as for the required areas together with the utmost
concern for safety and security of the occupants.
o A building that is both architecturally and structurally significant in displaying
Filipino identity.
o Supporting facilities and improvements like the session hall and a plan for future
expansion whether federalism would be implemented in the country.
o A need for a well-lighted and if possible fully ventilated facility that can be a
pioneer among government facilities in using kinetic and innovative architectural
designs.
o A need for a responsive provision of a sensitive and sustainable complex that can
adapt and take the most advantage of the building site conditions.

Architecture will be a major decoder in terms of addressing effective results for the
proposal. With consideration of the occupants and their activities, the site locale and the
legal basis of the project. And with the support of the national government and concerning
agencies. Utilization of bold, experimental and innovative architectural endeavors shall be
obtained efficiently.

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3.1.2 RESTATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

With the length of the study coming his far, having the interviews and consultations
conducted, data gathered, the proponents can now visualize the extent of the proposal and
the core problem to be addressed. Consequently giving the problem restatement a higher
level of understanding.

 By the year 2014, it was recorded that the government allocates almost five billion
pesos for the budget of rentals of different agencies. Of which includes the Senate
of the Philippines that has been leasing its offices and equipment under the lessor in
the identity of the Government Service and Insurance System in Pasay City for the
past eighteen years with the enormous amount of about one hundred and ten million
pesos and above annually. Therefore, suffering from no legal ownership of their
own building and facilities.

 With these continuous rate, it is directly observed that these records are highly
impractical for both the government and the people. Therefore, this must be solved
in a span of time. The government, being one of the major institutions of the country
needs offices and necessary equipment in order to function properly, but renting is
only a short term solution for this purpose with no longer term gains and does not
help in budget allocation efficiency and conserving scarce resources.

 From these billions of pesos spent for rentals, other national issues and problems
can already be addressed; such as in health care, education, and other relevant
dilemmas our country’s been experiencing since then.

To fight the illogicality, the government should have endeavored the opportunity of
owning structures and infrastructures and equipment that is central to their respective
operations.

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3.1.3 RECOMMENDATIONS

The Senate of the Philippines, a permanent seat for the Upper House of Philippine
Legislature is a research study regarding the shifting of the temporary residence of Senate
into a permanent one. This proposed project is a complex of main building and adjacent
amenities consisting of the existing organization structure of the Senate and its offices.

This proposed project will be a long term solution and help for the Philippine Government
and the public. It will be a pioneer among institutional facilities in procuring its own
building and equipment. Raising awareness of economic reasoning on spending the
financial resources of the country. Help in conserving the limited budget and proper setting
of priorities. Which may develop in eventual economic development and progressive use
of the national budget.

In terms of architecture, it will be a symbol for national identity of the upper house of the
Philippine bicameral. A new and improved complex facility that will serve the needed
appropriate spaces and area requirements with elevated level of security and structural
integrity with respect to the site location. It will be located near the existing setting of the
Senate in Pasay City. A forerunner of kinetic architecture design and other inclusion of
innovative solutions.

As per every planning comes with recommendations making the following:

Consider the need of the existing structure and translate it into the proposed project.
In planning, programming system of the kind of building. The circulation of
activities inside and outside the building itself.
Alternative building materials, way of construction, and building techniques that
will be used with consideration to the site
The utilization of available resources and proper orientation of the building and road
connections to the public transportation.
Backup plans for expansion and other future anticipated necessities.

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3.2 SITE

3.2.1 BACKGROUND

The proposed project development “Senate of the Philippines” (permanent seat of


the upper house of Philippine Legislature) will be strategically situated in Roxas
Boulevard, Pasay City, Metro Manila with the given lot size of seventy-four
thousand nine hundred ninety-five (74,995) square meters. Average mid-rise
developments like the Manila Film Center, GSIS Complex and others existing
adjacent to the site and a major road network which is the Jose W. Diokno
Boulevard is present for the accessibility of the public to the site. The northwestern
part of the site is along the major road.

3.2.2 SITE SELECTION CRITERIA

CRITERIA GUIDELINES TO BE CONSIDERED

REGIONAL Climate (temperature,


storm, rainfall, etc.)
Soils (Stability,
fertility, depth)
Water Supply and Quality
Economy (rising, stable,
declining)
Transportation (highways
And transit)
Energy (availability and
Relative cost)
Landscape Character
Cultural opportunities
Health care facilities
Major detractions (list

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and describe)
Exceptional features
(list and describe)

COMMUNITY Travel (time-distance to


Work, shopping, etc.)
Travel experience
(pleasant or unpleasant)
Community Ambiance
School
Shopping
Churches
Cultural opportunities
(library, auditorium)
Public Services (fire,
Police, etc.)
Safety and Security
Medical facilities
Governance
Taxes
Major detractions (list
and describe)
Exceptional features
(list and describe)

NEIGHBORHOOD Landscape character


Lifestyle
Compatibility of
Proposed uses
Traffic ways (access,

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hazards, attractiveness)
Schools
Convenience (schools,
Service, etc.)
Parks, recreation and
Open space
Exposure (sun, wind,
Storms, planning)
Freedom from noise, fumes
Etc.
Utilities (availability
And cost)
Major detractions (list
and describe)
Exceptional features
(list and describe)
PROPERTY Size and Shape
(suitability)
Aspect from approaches
Safe entrance and egress
On-Site “feel”
Permanent trees and cover
Need for clearing
Ground forms of gradients
Soils (quality and depth)
Relative cost of
Earthwork and foundation
Site Drainage
Adjacent structures (or
lack of)
Neighbors
Relationship to

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Circulation patterns
Relative cost of land and
Development
Major detractions (list
and describe)
Exceptional features
(list and describe)
BUILDING SITE Topographic “fit” of
Programmed user
Gradient of Approaches
Safe distance and
entrance drive
Orientation to sun, wind,
And breeze
Views
Privacy
Freedom form noise and
glare
Visual impact of
neighboring uses
Visual impact upon
neighboring uses
Proximity to utility
leads

Note: By substituting numbers for symbols, the arithmetic sum for each column would
give a general indication of its relative overall rating. It is to be realized, however, that in
some cases a single severe constraint or superlative feature might well overwhelm the
statistics and become the deciding factor.

And remember that this is SITE analysis. Some municipality, city, provincial or even
regional data may help but they should NEVER be the focus of this part, much less it’s
only character.

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3.2.3 SITE SELECTION and JUSTIFICATION

Site 1- BARANGAY 76, ZONE 10, PASAY CITY, METRO MANILA

Diosdado Macapagal Boulevard and Jose W. Diokno


Boulevard.

Site 2- BARANGAY BAGONG PAG-ASA OF DILIMAN, QUEZON CITY,


METRO MANILA

Figure 2. SITE SELECTION CRITERIA

CRITERIA SITE 1 SITE 2


I. REGIONAL

Climate (temperature, storms, ^ ^


rainfall, etc.)
Soils (stability, fertility, depth) ^ ^
Water supply and quality > ^
Economy (rising, stable, > ^
declining)
Transportation (highways, transit) > ^
Energy (availability and relative > >
cost)
Landscape character ^ ^
Cultural opportunities > #
Employment opportunities > ^
Health care facilities ^ ^

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Major detractions (list and


describe)
Exceptional features (list and
describe)
II. COMMUNITY

Travel (time-distance to work, > #


shopping etc.)
Travel experience (pleasant or > #
unpleasant)
Community ambience > #
Schools ^ ^
Shopping > ^
Churches ^ ^
Cultural opportunities (library, > ^
auditorium)
Public services (fire, police, etc.) > ^
Safety and security > ^
Medical facilities ^ ^
Governance > ^
Taxes ^ ^
Major detraction (list and
describe)
Exceptional features (list and
describe)
III. NEIGHBORHOOD

Landscape character > #


Lifestyle ^ #
Compatibility of proposed uses > #
Traffic ways (access, hazard, > #
attractiveness)
Schools ^ ^
Convenience (schools, service, ^ ^
etc.)

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Parks, recreation and open space > #


Exposure (sun, wind, storms, > ^
planning)
Freedom from noise, fumes, etc. > #
Utilities (availability and cost) ^ ^
Major detraction (list and
describe)
Exceptional features (list and
describe)
PROPERTY
Size and shape (suitability) ^ >
Aspect from approaches > ^
Safe entrance and egress > ^
On-site “feel” > ^
Permanent tress and cover ^ ^
Need for clearing # #
Ground forms and gradients ^ ^
Soils (quality and depth) ^ >
Relative cost of earthwork and ^ ^
foundation
Site drainage ^ ^
Adjacent structures (or lack of) > ^
Neighbors > ^
Relationship to circulation ^ ^
patterns
Relative cost of land and ^ ^
development
Major detraction (list and
describe)
Exceptional features (list and
describe)
BUILDING SITE
Topographic “fit” of programmed ^ ^
user

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Gradient of approaches ^ ^
Safe distance at entrance drive > ^
Orientation to the sun, wind, and # ^
breeze
Views > #
Privacy > #
Freedom from noise and glare ^ ^
Visual impact of neighboring ^ #
uses
Visual impact upon neighboring ^ #
uses
Proximity to utility leads ^ ^

LEGEND:
* - Severe Limitation
# - Moderate Constraint
^ - Condition Good
> - Condition Excellent

With the aid of the site selection criteria, the suitable site for the project was identified and
was enabled to distinguish the site’s strength and weaknesses. Base on the result of the site
selection criteria, the site that is suitable for our project is the one situated in Barangay 76,
Zone 10, Pasay City, Metro Manila.

3.2.4 SITE ANALYSIS

MACRO SITE ANALYSIS


Geographical Location
The city of Pasay is located in the western coast of Metro Manila or the National Capital Region
(NCR). It is bounded in the north by the city of Manila, in the northeast by the city of Makati and
the municipality of Taguig, in the west by the city of Paranaque, and in the west by the Manila Bay.
The city is located approximately at latitude 14º32' and longitude 121º00'. In terms of area, Pasay is
the third smallest political subdivision among the cities and municipalities of NCR.

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The city has a total area of 1,805.11 hectares. The city proper or Barangays 1 to 201 occupies
around 1,399.50 hectares or 77.53 percent the total area. The Cultural Center Complex occupies
around 191.95 hectares (10.63%) while the rest of the reclamation area covers an area of 213.66
hectares (11.84 %).

Climate
The climate of Pasay is classified as Type 1 under the Corona classification used by Philippine
Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) depending on
rainfall pattern. It is characterized by two pronounced seasons: rainy season from May to October
and dry season from January to April, when rainfall drops to 10-30-mm/ month. In general, Metro
Manila is directly influenced by an average of 6 tropical cyclones per year.

Pasay has an average normal annual temperature of 27.5 C. The warmest months are April, May
and June while the coldest months are December, January and February with the minimum
temperature of 25-26C.

Soil Type
Pasay consists of two terrain units, an eastern undulating section and a western alluvial portion,
which extends up to Manila Bay. The undulating to gently sloping terrain is underlain by a gently
dipping sequence of pyroclastic rocks essentially made up of tuffs, tuffaceous sandstones and
conglomerates belonging to the Guadalupe formation. This formation is represented by massive to
thickly bedded lithic tuff and tuffaceous sandstone.

Contour / Slope
The western part of Pasay City is level to nearly level while its southeastern part is gently sloping to
gently undulating. It is characterized by coastal plains along the Manila Bay in the west and sloping
areas extending in the south-east direction. Surface elevations range from 2 meters above the mean
sea level on the coastal plains and 24 meters on the southeast part of the city.

Transportation
Public transport service in Pasay is composed of diverse modes that include mass rail transport,
buses, jeepneys, UV/GT express, tricycles, and pedicabs. These public transport systems enrich the
mobility choices of the people in Pasay. Oftentimes, cutthroat competition exists between modes,
e.g. jeepneys compete with buses, UV express compete with jeepneys, GT express compete with
buses, and tricycles with pedicabs.

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Road Networks
Of the 72.2 kilometers of national road in Pasay City, 12.9 kilometers or 18% have concrete surfaces
while 59.8 kilometers or 82% are asphalted. In terms of condition, out of the 29.6 kilometers that
has been assessed in 2011, about 33% was good, 63% was fair, and only 4% was either poor or bad.

Pasay has about 59 kilometers of city roads that cater to light vehicles. The bulk of the city roads
are within San Rafael and San Jose District which has 24% and 29% of the city roads, respectively.
With average width of the 5.3 meters, city roads are deemed narrow and enough to accommodate
heavy traffic. Also, since almost 39% of the roads have widths not greater than 4 meters, most of the
city road network cannot accommodate two-way traffic.

Orientation and Adjacent Developments


Located at the Northern part of the site selected is the Philtranco/Jam – Macapagal/CCP Bus Depot
while Manila Bay Home Depot is located near the North-eastern portion. At the southern part is
where the GSIS Complex is occupying. Situated at the South-eastern portion is the Damon Building.
And at the North-western part runs the Jose W. Diokno Boulevard.

Water Supply
Water in the City is primarily sourced through the piped water supply system operated and
maintained by Maynilad Water Services, Inc.—a distribution concessionaire of the Metropolitan
Water and Sewerage System (MWSS) which covers the western portion of Metro Manila.

Raw water is sourced from the Angat-Ipo-La Mesa water system, an external source that begins in
Norzagaray, Bulacan and supplies the whole of Metro Manila. This is then filtered and treated at the
La Mesa Dam in Quezon City. All 201 barangays in Pasay City, consisting of domestic/residential,
commercial/industrial and institutional users are served by Maynilad.

Extraction of ground water through deep wells is no longer used as a means to supply local water as
this has been banned by the National Water Resources Board not only in Pasay but the whole of
Metro Manila including all towns of Rizal, and a few towns in Bulacan and Cavite.

Power Supply
Electricity is distributed by Manila Electric Company (MERALCO) which covers the entire Metro
Manila in its franchise area. In 2012, a total of 979,381,489 kWh of electricity was used to power
the city. Commercial establishments accounted for 77% of the consumption, residential users, about
18 %, industries, about 5% and street lights, less than one percent.

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All barangays in the city are electrified. Among households, 94,953 were served in 2011 which
corresponds to 95.19 % electrification. Those not served include informal settlements which could
not be connected to the MERALCO grid due lack of consent from the land owners or due to their
location on public easements such as river and waterway embankments which are considered illegal
and hazardous.

Drainage / Sewerage
Several creeks traverse the City of Pasay. The Tripa De Gallina Creek is the boundary of Pasay City
and Makati City. Likewise the Maricaban Creek that runs along the Villamor Village and Malibay
Estate also serve as boundary between Pasay City and Makati City. These two watercourses have
their confluence in a lagoon at Aurora Blvd and discharges into Paranaque River and eventually to
Manila Bay. In times of rain, these serve as the main drainage discharges of the city. Due to siltation
and clogging of the waterways, surface runoff accumulate and cause flooding in low lying areas of
the City.

Majority of the City is drained by the Libertad Pumping Station, Tripa de Gallina Pumping Station,
Buendia Outfall and Libertad Outfall. The Libertad Pumping Station has a capacity of 42.0 m3/sec
draining large percentage of the northwestern portion of Pasay City. The Tripa De Gallina Pumping
Station has a capacity of 56 m3/sec and drains about 1,769 hectares of land that extend beyond the
boundaries of the City. Part of the runoff from Tripa De Gallina Creek flows into the Libertad
Pumping Station via Buendia Outfall, Libertad Outfall and EDSA Outfall. The rest of its waters are
discharged into Paranaque River.

No city-wide sewerage system is in place in the City. Wastewater flows into the drainage lines and
into the river. Some of the wastewater infiltrate into the ground and pose a threat to the groundwater
quality. At present majority of the residents and commercial establishments use individual septic
tanks for treatment of waste water.

MICRO SITE ANALYSIS

Landscape
Planted around and within the site were small non-fruit bearing trees and there are present huge
trees to be concerned of. A wide field is also present which some parts are covered with grass
making the site’s natural landscape. The existing natural landscape of the site may not be a

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hindrance in planning because there is enough space for the structures but in need of clearing
unwanted weeds.
For the future beautification of the site, man-made landscapes will be added such as roof garden,
walkways and green walls.

Parking & Terminal


Parking spaces are part of the site planning and must be near the major road to avoid spending much
for the driveway. Parking spaces must also be adjacent to the terminal so that all the vehicles are
situated on a specific area. Parking spaces will be computed by following the standards of the
National Building Code of the Philippines to provide sufficient space. A terminal is a must in
planning for the sake of commuters and to avoid creating heavy traffic along the major road.

Road Network / Access


Minor road networks must be provided within the site for accessibility of employees and visitors.
Sidewalks must follow the standard width and must have ramps to assure safety for the employees,
visitors and especially the differently abled.

Utilities
Utility rooms must be hidden from the public because only the staffs are authorized to have access
on these amenities. The number of fire exits must follow the standards of the National Building Code
of the Philippines.

Adjacent Developments & Interrelationship


Base on the adjacent developments surrounding the site, noise is not a problem. Other
developments near the site were institutions and commercial buildings that may not be a hindrance
to the function of the project development.

Cultural Context
Instead of the present eyesore condition of the side most road going to the site existing as a parking
space for taxi cabs and jeepneys, making a part of it as a proper loading and unloading zone for
public vehicles would be better.

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DIFFERENT VIEWS OF THE SITE & VEGETATION CONDITION

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VIEWS OF ROAD NETWORKS

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ORIENTATION IN RELATION TO SOLAR AND WIND PATHS

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3.2.5 SWOT ANALYSIS

Strength

lat grass land.

The site is located far from the house of representatives which is the lower house.

Weakness
Manila Bay.

Opportunity

Threats
Government Corruption.

he site maybe a traffic congested area during the peak hours for future
developments.

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3.2.6. BASELINE STUDIES

1. MAPS

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2. EXISTING STANDARDS
Quality Standards

Being in the national level of government, the Senate of the Philippines planning
considerations must comply with the standards of general institutional
classification building type.

3.2.7 FACTORS and ISSUES RELEVANT TO THE SITE

 INITIAL PERSONAL RECONNAISSANCE

The proponents’ on-hand experience within the existing building of the Senate and
the site observation are two major factors in this study. Having the site inspected
and determined all the legal and necessary documents regarding it, the proponents
will be able to determine the potential of construction that will be done.

The site will be feasible because:


- It is near to the existing location of Senate and one city apart from the Lower
House for attainment of security for both houses.
- The land use and zoning of the site is appropriate for the project which is
institutional
- There is an available means of public transportation passing by the site
- The lot to be acquired is also a property of the government.
- The other existing structures surrounding the site are either cultural or institutional
which makes the proposed project fit.

COLLATION OF EXISTING DATA


The slope percentage of the site is moderately flat its geological soil is a type of novaliches
clay with a combine of adobe which is an advantage because of the good condition of soil
based on engineering reports.
Climate records like rainfalls, wind direction and temperature is fair enough it has an average
condition when it comes to weather.
The site is bounded by two major roads which are Diosdado Macapagal Boulevard and J.W.
Diokno Boulevard. Among the two, the latter is narrower but has the most number of public

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routes as compare to the other. But traffic and noise pollution are not observed in the area
because of the zoning of the surrounding developments.

SUMMARY DESCRIPTIONS OF THE OFF-SITE CONTEXT AND ITS


CHANGES

GEOGRAPHIC LOCATION:
It is located at Barangay 76, Zone 10 in the Central Business Park-1A, Pasay City in Metro
Manila. The site has 66, 664. 02 square meters of lot area. The Owner of the site is the
DEVELOPMENT BANK OF THE PHILIPPINES. The site is bounded along Diosdado
Macapagal Blvd. and J.W. Diokno Blvd. for easy transportation.

In terms of area, Pasay City is the third smallest political subdivision in the National Capital
Region.

DATA ON THE SITE AND ITS IMMEDIATE CONTEXT

A. PHYSICAL DATA

1. GEOLOGY

Pasay consists of two terrain units, an eastern undulating section and a western alluvial portion,
which extends into the Manila Bay. The undulating to gently sloping terrain is underlain by a gently
dipping sequence of pyroclastic rocks essentially made up of tuffs, tuffaceous sandstones and
conglomerates belonging to the Guadalupe formation. This formation is represented by massive to
thickly bedded lithic tuff and tuffaceous sandstone.
Based on the Geologic Map of Pasay, the two major geologic formations are:
 Quarternary Alluvial (QA1) which is comprised of detrital deposits mostly silt, sand and gravel;
and
 Guadalupe formation (GF) of which the upper member (Diliman Tuff) is thin to medium bedded,
fine-grained, vitric tuffs and welded volcanic breccias with subordinate amounts of tuffaceous, fine
to medium grained sandstone.

Members of the Pleistocene Guadalupe Formation underlie almost half of the terrain where Pasay
lies. These are mainly Alat Conglomerate and Diliman Tuff. Early Pleistocene to late Pleistocene
conglomerate, silty mudstone and tuffaceous sandstone comprise the lower member while late

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Pleistocene well-bedded tuff units make up the upper member. The constituents of the Diliman
Tuff were most likely derived from a volcano on the central lobe of Laguna de Bay to the south
based on its aerial distribution pattern and lithological similarity with those in the northern vicinity
of the central lobe of Laguna de Bay. On the other hand, Quartenary alluvial deposits of the
Marikina Alluvial plain and Pasig River Delta plain cover western areas of the city. The presence
of the marine sediments suggest that the quartenary alluvium was probably deposited after uplift of
the Guadalupe formation.

2. SOIL

Active tidal flats, with an almost flat relief, have an elevation that ranges from 0 to 1.5 meters,
sometimes reaching up to 3 meters above the mean sea level. This land system has very poor
drainage characteristics. Waterlogged areas may pose a corrosion problem to underground
uncoated steel pipes or structural reinforcement. Poor drainage is also a problem in sewage disposal
in areas which are not served by public sewer facilities. It is further characterized by slow
permeability, high compressibility, and possible flooding during seasonal high water table. Soil
texture or the different sizes of particles in the soil mass are clay, silty clay, and sandly clay loam.
The parent materials of this land classification are tidal mudflats with muck and peat locally, alluvial
sediments.
Former Tidal Flats (Coastal Landscape)
The former tidal flats consist of areas more inland and slightly higher than the active tidal flats.
They occupy the almost flat plains, backswamps and depression of the coastal landscape formed
from marine and flovio-marine deposits. Slightly lower then the alluvial plain, its elevation ranges
from 2 to 5 meters. It has slow to moderate permeability and a soil texture of clay to silty clay loam.
Moreover, it is poorly drained, prone to moderate seasonal flooding, highly compressible, and
corrosive to uncoated steel. Its parent materials are alluvial sediments, former tidal mudflats
underlain with peaty and mucky materials.

3. WATER

Surface Waters
Pasay City is bounded in the west by Manila Bay. It is traversed by two minor rivers that feed the
Paranaque River namely the Estero de Tripa de Gallina and Maricaban Creek. The city lies within
the Manila Bay Watershed area. The bay has a catchment area of about 17,000 square kilometers
that is made up of about eight river basins, nearest of which to the city is the Parañaque-Las Piñas
river basin. This river basin is subsequently made up of three major rivers, the Parañaque, Las Piñas

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and Zapote Rivers. These river systems essentially serve about 1,500 hectares of low-lying areas
along the Manila Bay and functions as the principal drainage channel of the area. The geomorphic
setting of these low-lying areas and the hydraulic action of the Manila Bay basin and the South
China Sea make the area vulnerable to flooding, a condition aggravated by the inadequate capacity
and poor maintenance of the drainage facilities.
Groundwater
Pasay is situated on a delta which has produced locally-confined aquifers. Groundwater utilization,
however, has resulted in significant draw-down causing much land subsidence and saline water
intrusion particularly in the coastal areas. The groundwater basin contains several connected and
interrelated aquifers, composed of tuffaceous sandstone and conglomerates belonging to the
Guadalupe Formation. These facets of Guadalupe Formation in the southeastern part of the city
have thickness of approximately 1,300 to 1,200 meters.
Recharge to the aquifers comes from rainfall and inflow from the extension of these aquifers.
However, these are already over exploited due to uncontrolled pumping and excessive underwater
withdrawal, a practice done principally by high-density residential, commercial and industrial
establishments. This situation leads to a partial depletion of the aquifers resulting in the lowering of
water levels and high pumping costs.
Almost 2000 wells have been drilled in the aquifers of the Guadalupe Formation for the commercial
and residential users. Some of these wells go as deep as 300 meters. In 1990, total pumpage reached
339.6 million cubic meters.

Water Quality
Available data from government agencies such as the DENR-EMB have indicated that the near-the-
shore waters of Manila Bay, together with the major rivers in Metro Manila, are considered
biologically dead. The water quality in Manila Bay has progressively deteriorated due to domestic,
industrial and agricultural wastes being dumped uncontrollably in the waterways. This present state
is likewise being attributed to inadequate drainage facilities and the discharge of untreated domestic
and industrial wastewater due to inadequate wastewater collection, treatment and disposal facilities.

Based on the sampling conducted by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources
(DENR) in each month of the year 2000, water quality as per dissolved oxygen, Biological Oxygen
Demand (BOD) and the total suspended solid level in various stations of the Paranaque-Zapote
River are shown in the following tables. Two stations were located within Pasay City, Tramo and
MIA Road.

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Annual Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) in the Parañaque-Zapote River System, 2000


Ja Fe Ma Ap Ma Ju Jul Au Se Oc No De Annua
Station Location n b r r y n y g p t v c l

Tramo, Pasay 0.2


Tramo City NS 1 NS 0.0 0 0.1 0.9 1.3 1.2 0 NS 0 0.4

MIA Rd., Pasay 0.0


MIA Road City NS 6 NS 3.8 0 0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0 NS 0.0 0.5

0.5 12. 13.


La Huerta Parañaque City NS 1 NS 0 0 4.0 4 0.0 2.8 0 NS 0 3.6

4.8
Parañaque Parañaque City NS 9 NS 3.6 0 1.0 9.5 4.0 5.4 0 NS 4.2 3.6

Zapote Las Piñas City NS 0.1 NS 0.0 0 0.8 9.4 1.2 1.6 0 NS 0 1.5

12. 11.
Quirino Parañaque City NS NS NS 0 0 2.0 4 0.0 0.6 0 NS 0.0 3.3

Monthly 1.1
Ave. NA 5 NA 5.2 0 1.3 7.4 1.1 2.1 0 NA 0.7 2.1

Standard,
mg/L 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5

Annual BOD (mg/L) in the Parañaque-Zapote River System, 2000


Fe Ma Ap Ma Ju Jul Au No De
2.1.1.1.1 Annu
Parañaque Location Jan b r r y n y g Sep Oct v c
al
Tramo, Pasay
Tramo City NS 10 NS 15 32 17 26 23 6 23 NS 17 19

MIA Rd., Pasay


MIA Road City NS 17 NS 15 38 12 17 32 10 23 NS 13 20

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La Huerta Parañaque City NS 16 NS 11 39 16 13 32 4 27 NS 20 20

Parañaque Parañaque City NS 7 NS 22 29 17 26 33 13 14 NS 10 19

Zapote Las Piñas City NS 30 NS 32 39 5 12 16 8 21 NS 33 22

Quirino Parañaque City NS NS NS 3 23 14 12 33 2 23 NS 15 16

Monthly
Ave. NA 16 NA 16 33 14 18 28 7 22 NA 18 19

Standard,
mg/L 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10

Annual Total Suspended Solid Levels in the Parañaque-Zapote River System, 2000
Parañaqu Ja Fe Ma Ap Ma Ju Jul Au No De Annu
e Location n b r r y n y g Sep Oct v c al

Tramo, Pasay N
Tramo City S 20 NS 20 10 10 20 30 40 40 NS 30 24

MIA Rd., Pasay N


MIA Road City S 20 NS 80 30 20 30 30 40 40 NS 20 34

N
La Huerta Parañaque City S 30 NS 100 30 10 30 20 30 40 NS 40 37

N
Parañaque Parañaque City S 20 NS 70 30 20 20 30 30 30 NS 20 30

N
Zapote Las Piñas City S 30 NS 60 20 10 70 30 30 30 NS 40 36

N
Quirino Parañaque City S NS NS 50 10 20 50 40 40 30 NS 20 33

Monthly N
Ave. A 21 NA 63 22 15 37 30 35 35 NA 28 32

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The sampling results show that dissolved oxygen levels in the two Pasay stations are way below the
standards while the BOD concentrations are way above standard.

4. TOPOGRAPHY

The western part of Pasay City is level to nearly level while its southeastern part is gently sloping
to gently undulating. It is characterized by coastal plains along the Manila Bay in the west and
sloping areas extending in the south-east direction. Surface elevations range from 2 meters above
the mean sea level on the coastal plains and 24 meters on the southeast part of the city.

5. ATMOSPHERIC CHARACTERISTICS

From the nearest PAGASA station at Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA), climatological
data from 1950-1995 were obtained. Tables 2.6 and 2.7 show some of the significant data.

Climate
The climate of Pasay is classified as Type 1 under the Corona classification used by Philippine
Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) depending on
rainfall pattern. It is characterized by two pronounced seasons: rainy season from May to October
and dry season from January to April, when rainfall drops to 10-30-mm/ month. In general, Metro
Manila is directly influenced by an average of 2 to 3 tropical cyclones per year.

Rainfall
The PAGASA station recorded an annual rainfall amount of 1,149.2 mm with a total of 113 rainy
days between the years 1961-1995. The rainy months of May – October indicated monthly rainy
days of 7- 20 with the month of July recording the highest at 20. The highest amount of rainfall
for the period 1949-1995 was 427.4 mm recorded on February 1,1962.

Temperature
Pasay has an average normal annual temperature of 27.5 C. The warmest months are April, May
and June while the coldest months are December, January and February with the minimum
temperature of 25-26C. The highest temperature was recorded on May 18,1969 at 38.1C while
the lowest was recorded at 14.6C on February 1, 1962.

Relative Humidity
Relative humidity or the percentages of water vapor in the air ranges, in monthly values, from 66%
to 81% with an annual average of 75%. These values indicate that Pasay is relatively humid.

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Wind Speed and Direction


The annual prevailing wind direction in the area is towards the east. The average annual wind speed
is 3.0 meters per second (mps). High wind speed occurs in March to April while low wind speed
happens in September to November. The highest wind speed of 56 mps was recorded on November
14, 1977, going in a western direction.

6. AIR QUALITY

Pasay City is already experiencing a deterioration of its air quality. This may be attributed to the
congestion of people, improperly maintained vehicles servicing them, and the significant percentage
of pollutive firms with inadequate air pollution control devices and facilities operating within the
area.

The National Ambient Air Quality and Noise Standards are prescribed in Table 2.8 and Table 2.9
respectively.

National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Source Specific Pollutants

METHOD OF
AVERA
*POLLUTANTS CONCENTR pp ANALYSIS/
GING
(a) ATION (c) m MEASUREMENT
TIME
ug/Ncm (b)
(min)
1.Ammonia 200 0.2 30 Nesselcrization/Indo
8 Phenol
2.Carbon Disulfide 30 0.0 30 Tischer Method
1
3.Chlorine and 100 0.0 5 Methyl Orange
Chlorine 3
compounds
expressed as Cl2
4.Formal dehyde 50 0.0 30 Chromotrophic acid
4 method or MBTH-
Colorimetric method
5.Hydrogen Chloride 200 0.1 30 Volhard Titration with
3 Iodine solution

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Permanent Seat of the Upper House of Philippine Legislature 233

METHOD OF
AVERA
*POLLUTANTS CONCENTR pp ANALYSIS/
GING
(a) ATION (c) m MEASUREMENT
TIME
ug/Ncm (b)
(min)
6.Hydrogen Sulfide 100 0.0 30 Methylene Blue
7
7.Lead 20 30 AASb
8.Nitrogen Oxide 375 0.2 30 Griess-Saltzmans
260 0.1 60
4
9.Phenol 100 0.0 30 4-Amineantipyrine
3
10.Sulfur Dioxide 470 0.1 30 Colorimetric-
340 8 60 Pararosaniline
0.1
3
11.Suspended
particulate
Matter – TSP 300 60 Gravimetric
PM – 10 200 60 -do-

DENR Standards for Noise in General Areas, dB(A)


MORNING/EVE
AREA DAYTIME NIGHTTIME
NING
Schools/hospitals 50 45 40
Residential 60 50 45
Commercial 65 60 55
Light Industrial 70 65 60
Heavy Industrial 75 70 60

7. GEOLOGIC AND OTHER NATURAL HAZARDS

No traced earthquake fault line traverses the city of Pasay. However, the city is not spared from
other related geologic hazards such as tsunamis, ground shaking, and liquefaction.

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Tsunamis are giant sea waves generated by under the sea earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Not
all submarine earthquakes, however, can cause the occurrence of tsunamis. Tsunamis can only
occur when the earthquake is shallow-seated and strong enough (M 7.0) to displace parts of the
seabed and disturb the water over it (PHIVOLCS). The coastal area of Pasay City is among the
most hit by tsunamis and have a high potential for future tsunamis.
Typhoons and their associated hazards, such as strong winds, storm surges, and floods, are among
the most recurrent and damaging calamities our country is prone to. Some 20 typhoons pass the
Philippine Area of Responsibility (PAR) every year. These are most frequent during the months of
May to December with peak occurrences in the month of November. Of the total 325 typhoons
recorded to have crossed the PAR from 1948 to 1978, about 20 passed through Metro Manila. One
of these, Typhoon Yoling, was the most severe, registering a maximum wind speed of 200 kph and
bringing 24-hour rainfall on the Metropolis. Residential areas, infrastructure, power systems, and
other utility installations experienced heavy damages, some of which took months to restore.

8. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

Water Management

To address the countrywide water crisis which adversely affects the health and well being of the
population, food production and industrialization process, the National Water Crisis Act of 1995
was enacted. Some of the issues related to the water crises are: water supply, water distribution,
financing aspects, privatization of state-run water facilities, the protection and conservation of
watersheds, and pilferage of water, including the serious matter of graft and corruption in all the
water agencies.

Air Quality Management

The Clean Air Act of 1999 recognizes that the responsibility of cleaning the habitat and environment
is primarily area-based, thus, a local government concern. In terms of air quality management, it
stipulates that:
LGUs shall share the responsibility in the management and maintenance of air quality within their
territorial jurisdiction. LGUs shall implement air quality standards set by the Pollution Adjudication
Board (PAB) in areas within their jurisdiction. Provided, however, that in cases where the board has
not been duly constituted and has not promulgated its standards, the standards set forth in this Act
shall apply. The Department of Environment and Natural Resources shall provide the LGUs with
technical assistance, training and a continuing capability-building program to prepare them to

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undertake full administration of the air quality management and regulation within their territorial
jurisdiction.

The LGU, for one, is responsible for attaining and maintaining the ambient air quality standards
within their respective airsheds. The designation of airsheds shall be on the basis of, but not limited
to, areas with similar climate, meteorology and topology which affect the interchange and diffusion
of pollutants in the atmosphere, or areas which share common interest or face similar development
programs, prospects or problems. The DENR bases such ambient air quality standards on World
Health Organization (WHO) standards, but shall not be limited to nor be less stringent than such
standards. The initial lists and values of the hazardous air pollutants are provided in the DENR
mandate.

Land Management
All the barangays of the city have Cadastral Maps which are being used for taxation and other legal
purposes. On the other hand, prior to this undertaking, a Zoning Ordinance in 1981 was being used
to guide developments and land uses in the city.

Solid Waste Management (SWM)


At present, the city of Pasay disposes of its solid waste in the San Mateo Sanitary Landfill and the
Payatas dumpsite. As per a JICA study on Solid Waste Management for Metro Manila involving
government agencies such as DECS, DENR and MMDA, Pasay City along with Taguig, Pateros
and the city of Makati shall be accommodated in the proposed Transfer Station within Fort
Bonifacio and then dumped in an inland landfill site to be later specified. (Figure 2.5 refers)

All barangays are covered by solid waste collection, which is handled by the local government and
private contractors. Solid wastes are collected daily on main thoroughfares and every other day in
the rest of the city. However, the collection systems accommodate urgent requests by residents.

Existing Solid Waste Disposal Methods


Method Populat Responsible Equipment Financing/ Remarks
ion Agency/Entity Facilities Operating
Served Costs
1. Push cart Resident Barangay Push Cart Not
collection s of each Officials recommend
ed since

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Baranga collectors
y tend to
throw their
garbage
anywhere
2. Collection Whole Private sector/  Trucks (10  Presentation
by trucks, city Solid Waste wheeler s
Transfer Contractors: dump truck)  Diesoline
and  Excellent  Open-Top Expenses
Transport Trucking Compactors  Salaries of
Services,  Pay loaders the
 Greenline Onyx,  Shovels personnel
 Leg Hauling, and  Sacks
 RM Maintenance
Services
3. Experimen 51 SWM Garbage Diesoline A project
tal Waste Families Compactors Compactors Expenses adopted by
Segregatio Office of the Maintenanc the
n Mayor e of the Maryville
facilities Association
Source: Solid Waste Management Office

Drainage and Flood Control System


The Tripa de Gallina and Libertad pumping stations (PS), the Buendia and Libertad Outfalls or
Channels are currently servicing the drainage requirement of the city. The Tripa de Gallina PS has
a drainage area of over 1,700 hectares. Part of the storm runoff from the Estero de Tripa de Gallina
enters the Libertad PS via the Buendia and Libertad Outfalls. The rest are discharged into the
Parañaque River. The Estero, however, shows a fluctuation in profile due to the deposit of sediment
and garbage, and insufficient improvement of the Buendia Channel. This condition is caused largely
by poor sewerage and improper solid waste disposal. A considerable volume of wastes accumulates
in the retention pond of the reclamation area. In areas along esteros and creeks occupied by a number
of squatter shanties, wastes are directly discharged into the waterway. At present, the local
government employs flood control measures such as annual clearing of all waterways and
sedimentation (desilting of riverbeds) accompanied by a proper garbage and waste disposal system.

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The adjoining upstream areas of the Libertad Reclamation Area is being drained through the
Libertad, Buendia, and EDSA outfalls. Their existing discharge capacities are much smaller than
their design capacities due to siltation. Garbage inflow at the inlets of these outfalls aggravates the
problem.

Disaster Management

The warning system for both typhoons and floods in Metro Manila are operated by the Philippine
Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA). It monitors the
meteorological and hydrological conditions and issues periodic reports. This report contains a
warning if the conditions entail risks to the population. The warning system for typhoons works
separately from the warning system for floods.

9. LAND SUITABILITY ASSESSMENT

In coming up with an effective land utilization system, the physical and environmental attributes of
Pasay City must be considered. Areas of physical constraint for further developments in the city
should be delineated. Maps indicating the city's relevant physical and environmental attributes are
generated and translated into degrees of concern. References used for this purpose include materials
from the local government, BSWM, and PHIVOLCS.

Some of the environmental concerns such as flooding, drainage, river preservation, liquefaction
hazard, and industrial zones were reflected in maps and discussed briefly. These are subsequently
used to delineate the areas of various degrees of development suitability.

Flood Hazard Areas

Besides natural factors, other aspects that tend to aggravate flooding problems in Metro Manila
include the following:

 Infrastructure development leading to the creation of more impervious areas, resulting to higher
peak run-offs that usually cause standing floods;
 Inadequate or non-existent drainage system;
 Improper solid waste disposal that leads to the clogging of drainage systems, further lowering their
water retaining capacity;

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 Heavy siltation of rivers due to previous floods, indiscriminate dumping of garbage, encroachment
of squatters and slum dwellers, and limited maintenance works; and
 Institutional problems and financial constraints which delay implementation of proper flood control
measures.
River and Coastal Preservation
 Rivers and streams – These critical areas consist of easements of about 3 to 20 meters from both
sides throughout the entire length of any river or stream. Areas within this range are subject to
easement of public use in the interest of recreation, fishing, float age, etc.

 Coastal Zone – This includes areas one kilometer from the coastline of the Manila Bay, which is
city waters, and 200 meters from the coastline inland.

 Areas of no significance - Areas outside the range mentioned above are non-environmentally-
critical areas.

Liquefaction Hazard
Liquefaction is associated with the phenomenon of quick-condition failure which is generally
obtained when pore water in a liquefied layer rises into overlying near-surface sediments that results
in a condition resembling quicksand. Areas that are prone to liquefaction are those underlain by
water-saturated, thick fine to coarse sand layers such as those along the Pasig River Delta Plain,
lake shore areas of Laguna de Bay and the shorelines of Manila Bay. Figure 2.8 shows the city’s
Liquefaction Hazard Map with potential zones classified into high, moderate and low based mainly
on the presence of clay layers which help inhibit liquefaction.

Industrial and Airport Zones


The attribute features of this map are based on the constraints on acceptable noise and air pollution
levels for developments around existing industrial establishments. These noise and air pollution
levels conform with the DENR Guidelines (Figure 2.9).

 Development restriction guidelines for various noise zones are:


- from 45 to 55 dBA. Section of contiguous areas which are primarily used for residential
purposes.
- from 55 to 65 dBA. Primarily for commercial area
- from 60 to 70 dBA. Reserved as a light industrial area
- from 65 to 75 dBA. Primarily reserved as a heavy industrial area.

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 Development restriction guidelines for various source-specific air pollutants, such as emission of
dust, dirt or fly ash based on DENR standards.

DEVELOPMENT GUIDELINES FOR RECLAIMED LOTS IN PASAY


DESCRIPTION SCOPE
1. Design Approach The building massing, plan configuration, and allocation of open
space shall to those adjacent parcels to compose a unified
image of Reclaimed Lots in Pasay
2. Orientation Building frontage must face the major road or its immediate
access
3. Building Height The Maximum height allowed is 60.00 meters. Multiple storey
building, towers, radar and similar structure shall subject to a
clearance from Air Transportation Office (ATO)
4. Building Entrance/Exit There shall be at least one entrance and at least one for exit
5. Lot Occupancy/Open Maximum building occupancy shall be 60% of the lot, and the
Space Requirements remaining shall be allotted to open space and on-grade parking.
In no case shall a part of a building b less than the prescribed
yard requirement
6. Yard Requirements The following minimum yard or setback requirement shall be
observed. Front 5 meters Rear 3 meters Right 3 meters Left 3
meters
7. Lot Entrance/Exit There shall be at least one entrance and at least one exit
8. Shoreline Easement Easement shall be at a minimum of 3 meters from shoreline
9. Parking Space Parking space requirement shall conform to the requirement of
the National Building Code (PD 1096) and all other existing laws
and regulations. Off-street parking is strictly prohibited.
10. Landscaping and All open areas shall be landscaped, paved appropriately to
Street Furniture harmonize with the existing environment, enhance appearance,
and preserve the land value.

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11. Signs and Sign Design and installation of all signage shall be subject to
Structures approved Guidelines for Signs and Sign Structures in Reclaimed
Lots in Pasay
12. Shoreline Slope The shorelines shall be adequately protected from soil erosion
Protection
13. Building Separation A minimum of 6.00 meters building to building set back shall be
provided

3.3 BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS

3.3.1 ACTIVITY FLOW DIAGRAM

The proposed PERMANENT SEAT FOR THE UPPER HOUSE OF PHILIPPINE


LEGISLATURE is composed of the following spaces.

SENATE BUILDING LANDSCAPE AND


WALKWAYS
PRIVATE AND
PUBLIC
PARKINGS

ASSEMBLY
AREA

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ACTIVITY FLOW OF THE USERS OF THE MAJOR SPACES / OFFICIALS,


PERSONNEL OR STAFF, AND VISITORS OF SENATE

 ENTERING THE BUILDING

 TIME IN TO WORK/ LOG IN FOR VISITORS

 WORKING/INFORMATION FOR VISITORS

 WORKING/ GALLERY TOUR FOR VISITORS

 LUNCH BREAK

 WORKING/EXPLORING FOR VISITORS

 CHECKING FOR WORKS/OTHER ACTIVITIES

 TIME OUT OF WORK/LOG OUT FOR VISITORS

 LEAVING THE BUILDING

ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF SENATE

By virtue of these provisions of the Constitution, the Senate adopts its own rules,
otherwise known as the “Rules of the Senate.” The Rules of the Senate provide the
following officers: a President, a President Pro Tempore, a Secretary and a Sergeant-at-
Arms.

Following this set of officers, the Senate as an institution can then be grouped into
the Senate Proper and the Secretariat. The former belongs exclusively to the members of
the Senate as well as its committees, while the latter renders support services to the
members of the Senate.

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________________________________________

The Senate Proper

A. The Officers of the Senate

THE SENATE PROPER


SENATE PRESIDENT

SENATE PRESIDENT
PRO-TEMPORE

MAJORITY LEADER

MINORITY LEADER

B. The Senate Committees

The present committee structure of the Senate is composed of 36 standing


committees and five ad hoc and oversight committees. These standing committees with
their respective jurisdictions are as follows:

1. Committee on Accountability of Public Officers and Investigations


2. Committee on Accounts
3. Committee on Agrarian Reform
4. Committee on Agriculture and Food
5. Committee on Banks, Financial Institutions and Currencies
6. Committee on Civil Service and Government Reorganization
7. Committee on Constitutional Amendments, Revision of Codes and Laws
8. Committee on Cooperatives
9. Committee on Cultural Communities
10. Committee on Economic Affairs

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SENATE OF THE PHILIPPINES
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11. Committee on Education, Arts and Culture


12. Committee on Energy
13. Committee on Environment and Natural Resources
14. Committee on Ethics and Privileges
15. Committee on Finance
16. Committee on Foreign Relations
17. Committee on Games, Amusement and Sports
18. Committee on Government Corporations and Public Enterprises
19. Committee on Health and Demography
20. Committee on Justice and Human Rights
21. Committee on Labor, Employment and Human Resources Development
22. Committee on Local Government
23. Committee on National Defense and Security
24. Committee on Peace, Unification and Reconciliation
25. Committee on Public Information and Mass Media
26. Committee on Public Order and Illegal Drugs
27. Committee on Public Services
28. Committee on Public Works
29. Committee on Rules
30. Committee on Science and Technology
31. Committee on Social Justice, Welfare and Rural Development
32. Committee on Tourism
33. Committee on Trade and Commerce
34. Committee on Urban Planning, Housing and Resettlement
35. Committee on Ways and Means
36. Committee on Youth, Women and Family Relations
37. Jurisdiction: All matters relating to the youth, women and family relations.

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________________________

The Secretariat

________________________________________

A. The Senate Secretary

Offices Under the Office of the Secretary

- Policy Studies Group


- Legislative Budget Research and Monitoring Office (LBRMO)
- Management Operating and Audit Bureau,
- EDP-MIS Bureau and the Public Information and Media Relations Office.

The delivery of legislative support services is directly the responsibility not only of the
Senate Secretary but also of the Deputy Secretary for Legislation.

1. The Deputy Secretary for Legislation

2. Deputy Secretary for External Affairs

3. The Deputy Secretary for Administration and Financial Services

4. The Senate Legal Counsel

B. The Senate Sergeant-at-Arms

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SENATE OF THE PHILIPPINES
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3.3.2 ENVIRONMENT-BEHAVIOR STUDIES

BUSY SCHEDULE
OF THE SENATORS

THE
COMMUNICATION A PUBLIC
BETWEEN INSTITUTION BUT
DEPARTMENTS OR
THEIR
CONNECTIONS
SENATE OF STILL APPLIES
HIGH SECURITY

THE
PHILIPPINES
VISITORS ARE
ALLOWED UP TO
THE POSITIVE
SPECIFIC LEVELS
ATTITUDE OF
WITH GUIDANCE
STAFF
OF OSAA
SECURITY

As one of the highest independent branch of the government and a public institution, it can
be directly observed in the Senate the highest possible measures of security among its staff and the
visitors including the general public and the senators themselves.

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SENATE OF THE PHILIPPINES
Permanent Seat of the Upper House of Philippine Legislature 246

3.3.3 INTERRELATIONSHIP ANALYSIS

• MATRIX DIAGRAM (SITE)

SENATE BUILDING LANDSCAPE AND ASSEMBLY AREA PUBLIC PRIVATE


GARDENS PARKINGS PARKINGS

GENERAL --
PUBLIC

STAFF AND
EMPLOYEES

SENATORS

SECURITY
PERSONNEL

STUDENTS --

LEGENDS: - ACCESSIBLE -LIMITED ACCESS -- NOT ACCESSIBLE

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• MATRIX DIAGRAM (GROUND FLOOR)

LOBBY OFFICES MEDICAL AND UTILITIES OSAA


DENTAL CLINICS HEADQUARTERS

GENERAL -- --
PUBLIC

STAFF AND
EMPLOYEES

SENATORS

SECURITY
PERSONNEL
AND
MAINTENANCE

STUDENTS --

LEGENDS: - ACCESSIBLE -LIMITED ACCESS -- NOT ACCESSIBLE

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• MATRIX DIAGRAM (SECOND FLOOR ONWARDS)

OFFICES LIBRARY ARCHIVES MUSEUM SESSION HALL LOUNGE

GENERAL
PUBLIC

STAFF AND
EMPLOYEES

SENATORS

SECURITY
PERSONNEL
AND
MAINTENANCE

STUDENTS

LEGENDS: - ACCESSIBLE -LIMITED ACCESS -- NOT ACCESSIBLE

The proposed project is composed of the following spaces.

GROUND FLOOR LAYOUT

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SECOND FLOOR LAYOUT

THIRD FLOOR LAYOUT

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FOURTH FLOOR LAYOUT

FIFTH FLOOR LAYOUT

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SIXTH FLOOR LAYOUT

ROOF DECK LAYOUT

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3.4 VIABILITY STUDIES

3.4.1 TECHNICAL VIABILITY AND ENVIRONMENT IMPACT


ASSESSMENT
 Energy Harvesting Flooring

Designed for use in in high foot-traffic areas, the tiles convert the kinetic energy from
footsteps of pedestrians into renewable electricity, which can be stored in a lithium polymer
battery or used to power low-wattage, off-grid applications like lighting, displays, speakers,
alarms, signs, and advertising.

Each time someone steps on the tile, a central light illuminates, "connecting" the person to
the part they play in producing the 2.1 watts of electricity per hour the tiles can generate.

The tiles are made from nearly 100-percent recycled materials (mostly rubber) and some
marine grade stainless steel. They can be retrofitted to existing structures and are waterproof
as well as designed to withstand outdoor conditions.

 Sliding/Spinning Walls

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Animated facade made up of sliding or spinning walls that transform it from an extremely
private and protected building into a building that invites. A massive approximately 15-foot-
tall wall clad in stone opens to reveal the interior of the building, converting from a
continuous volume into an array of panels that rotate around their central axes to reveal the
second, glass layer of the envelope. They also provide an abundance of natural light and
facilitate natural ventilation. Thanks to a concealed motorized system, the building will
fluctuate from acting as a glass pavilion to becoming a solid volume.

 Dynamic Façade

Dynamic facades change over time, rather than being static. Façade elements can be
programmed to respond to climatic factors, to improve energy efficiency, to reduce solar
heat gain, or for aesthetic reasons as an art installation or to act as a live signage, etc. Sensors
monitor surrounding heat and light levels, and facade panels open partially or fully
accordingly.

 Green Roof Construction

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In an urban city, the expression of architecture itself is expected to be green and eco-friendly
to the environment that will display high class design and at the same time provide comfort
to the user. With the current situation of modernization, every day we are losing our natural
green spaces by constructing new structures and thus creating a concrete jungle. This
massively affects our air, climate and environment making the city gray, covered in concrete
and pollution rather than healthy green surrounding.

So in order to return the lost beauty that once gone, green will be a primary design in this
proposal by the ideas of green roofs, green walls, street trees and parks. Green roof is already
known to us but only a few were successful in implementing it. Green roofs offer many
benefits to architecture such as energy savings, rain water harvesting, air quality
improvements, and reducing of urban heat island effect.

 Armax Acoustic Ceiling Tile

Armax Acoustic Ceiling tile is composed of non-combustible, fine and uniform glass wool
rigid board, available in various patterns of white vinyl face. Armax is easily installed with
T-Bar suspended ceiling system for both commercial and residential buildings. Armax
performs an excellent acoustic as well as thermal insulation performance (recommended 25
mm thickness) no sagging and cleanable are the outstanding benefits of Armax which
maintain good appearance and performance overtime.

TECHNOLOGY

Kinetic Architecture is the design used in the proposed “Senate of the Philippines”
Permanent Seat for the Upper House of Philippine Legislature which incorporates to its

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environment and movements. Green Architecture is also a must in design consideration to


promote sustainability.
O BASE ISOLATION

Base isolation system consists of isolation units with or without isolation


components, where:

1. Isolation units are the basic elements of a base isolation system which are intended
to provide the aforementioned decoupling effect to a building or non-building
structure.
2. Isolation components are the connections between isolation units and their parts
having no decoupling effect of their own.
Base isolation is one of the most powerful tools of earthquake engineering pertaining
to the passive structural vibration control technologies. It is meant to enable a building
or non-building structure to survive a potentially devastating seismic impact through a
proper initial design or subsequent modifications. In some cases, application of base
isolation can raise both a structure's seismic performance and
its seismic sustainability considerably. Contrary to popular belief base isolation does
not make a building earthquake proof.

Rubber base isolators


Weak buildings may give way in the event of an earthquake at Phivolcs Intensity
Level V (Very Strong). This is because a building’s rigidity works against its favor
when the ground moves violently in all directions: the building bears the entire
impact of forces shaking it in all directions, causing it to tear apart and fall. Even if a
building may be structurally sound enough to withstand damage, strong earthquakes

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can dislodge fixtures and heavy furniture that may injure or trap anyone inside during
the event.
In other countries, houses and other establishments are constructed with rubber base
isolators to serve as a buffer between the ground and the building itself. In a way,
base isolators work like automobile shock absorbers because they absorb the impact
from outside while protecting the structure from the brunt of the force.

O FIREPROOFING SYSTEM

Steel Fireproofing: Spray

Fire resistance can be sprayed on the steel to provide heat resistance. The substances
being applied can also be used over wood, fabric, steel and other building materials.
When spraying the substances, once key element is to provide the required thickness
to meet building code requirements. Sprays are divided into 'Wet Spray' or 'Dry Spray'
materials, describing how the material is mixed and applied.

Intumescent Coatings

Also known as intumescent paint, this is a method used to protect and provide fire
resistance to structural steel members. One of the key benefits is that it will expand as
much as 100 times the original thickness of the material, providing superior fire
resistivity, creating a buffer type are between the fire and the steel members. It is a
great solution when aesthetics come into place and steel is exposed to the general
public. The product is applied just like paint, which every layer will add up to the
overall thickness of the product.

This fireproofing material can be applied over structural wood as well.

Rigid Board Fireproofing

Rigid board fireproofing can be very easy and fast to install. One of the key benefits is
that it could be installed as you go up installing the steel deck and beams. Not only will

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provide the right fireproofing requirements, but it will also provide great thermal and
acoustic control.

It can be mechanically fastened and can prevent pests and termite attacks. It is normally
available in different thickness to meet UL requirements. This type of fireproofing
board can also withstand moisture and humidity without loosing its fire stopping
characteristics.

Flexible Blanket Systems

Flexible blanket can be used as fireproofing material, making it easy to install and to
maintain a toxic-free environment in case of fire. Although a very practical and
convenient method, there are only a limited numbers of manufacturers. This
application can meet almost all safety standards and codes providing a cost-effective
and reliable system to prevent fire from spreading into structural members.

There are some alternatives that fall into this category and can be classified as
removable and reusable fireproofing blankets. Some of these blankets can be used in
specific areas on which access could be important and needs to be maintained
throughout the product life-span.

Autoclaved Aerated Concrete

These concrete blocks will enhance and provide longer fire resistivity when needed,
especially around steel columns.

Autoclaved aerated concrete can produce fireproofing characteristics when they are
installed between the flanges and tied to the web of rolled sections.

When you need to have longer fire resistance requirements, then it would be great to
pour concrete between the flanges of the steel components using shear connections
attached to the steel web. The concrete being placed needs to be retained at the bottom
of the connection area.

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COST
PROJECT COST
 Declaration of the Real Property
Owner: Development Bank of the Philippines
Zoning: Institutional - Area 74, 997 sq. m.
Land Area to be Acquired - 66, 664. 02 sq. m

 Land Acquisition Value


Since the project site location of the project is owned by the government, land acquisition
value will not matter in the development but according to the current members of the Senate
of the Philippines, they are willing to buy land for their permanent seat.

 Building Cost
The total development will be consisting of four structures which consist of Senate of the
Philippines main building, maintenance and general service building, fire station and
security headquarters.

 Estimated Building Cost of Structure

Structure / Facility Total Floor Area Construction Cost Total Construction


(sq. m.) Cost
Senate Main 48, 607 sq. m. 45,000 2, 187, 315, 000
Building Php.

Total Estimated Cost 2, 187, 315, 000


Php.
Note: This computation is just a preliminary estimate of the proponents.

 Land Development
Computation for land development was based on “Guidelines for Site Development Cost”
by WILLIAM Pena.

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Site Preparation
Estimate 1% to 3% of building cost
Estimated Building Cost x 3% 2, 187, 315, 000 Php. x .03
Total Site Preparation Cost 65, 619, 450 Php.

Sidewalks, Parking & Roadways


Estimate 1% to 7% of building cost
Estimated Building Cost x 7% 2, 187, 315, 000 Php.x .07
Total Sidewalks and Parking Cost 153, 112, 050 Php.

On-site Utilities
Estimate 1% to 3% of building cost
Estimated Building Cost x 3% 2, 187, 315, 000 Php. x .03
Total On-site Utilities Cost 65, 619, 450 Php.

Storm Drainage
Estimate .5% to 2.5% of building cost
Estimated Building Cost x 2.5% 2, 187, 315, 000 Php. x .025
Total Storm Drainage Cost 54, 682, 875 Php.

Landscape
Estimate 1% to 2% of building cost
Estimated Building Cost x 2% 2, 187, 315, 000 Php. x .02
Total Landscape Cost 43, 746, 300 Php.

Outdoor Lighting
Estimate pedestrian lighting 1% of building cost
Estimated Building Cost x 1% 2, 187, 315, 000 Php. x .01
Total Outdoor Lighting Cost 21, 873, 150 Php

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Total Land Development Cost


DEVELOPMENT COST
Site Preparation 65, 619, 450 Php.
Sidewalks, Parking & Roadways 153, 112, 050 Php.
On-site Utilities 65, 619, 450 Php.
Storm Drainage 54, 682, 875 Php.
Landscape 43, 746, 300 Php.
Outdoor Lighting 21, 873, 150 Php
Total Land Development Cost 404, 653, 275 Php.

Furnishing and Equipment


The approximate estimate is 50% of the total building construction cost.
Estimated Building Cost x 50% 2, 187, 315, 000 Php. x .5
Total Furnishing and Equipment Cost 1, 093, 657, 500 Php.

Total Estimated Project Construction Cost


Land Acquisition (Not Included)
Estimated Building Cost 2, 187, 315, 000 Php.
Estimated Land Development Cost 404, 653, 275 Php.
Estimated Furnishing and Equipment 1, 093, 657, 500 Php.

Total Estimated Project Construction 3, 685, 625, 775 Php


Cost
Note: This computation is just a preliminary estimate of the proponents.

TIME FRAME AND PHASING OF CONSTRUCTION

Building / Development Construction Phase Duration Time


Senate Main Building Structural 12 months
Exterior Finish 10 months
Interior Finish 9 months
Total Time Construction 2 years and 7 months

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SITE CONDITIONS

Location
The city of Pasay is located in the western coast of Metro Manila or the National Capital Region
(NCR). It is bounded in the north by the city of Manila, in the northeast by the city of Makati and
the municipality of Taguig, in the west by the city of Paranaque, and in the west by the Manila Bay.
The city is located approximately at latitude 14º32' and longitude 121º00'. In terms of area, Pasay is
the third smallest political subdivision among the cities and municipalities of NCR.

The city has a total area of 1,805.11 hectares. The city proper or Barangays 1 to 201 occupies around
1,399.50 hectares or 77.53 percent the total area. The Cultural Center Complex occupies around
191.95 hectares (10.63%) while the rest of the reclamation area covers an area of 213.66 hectares
(11.84 %).

Land Area and Configuration

Climate
The climate of Pasay is classified as Type 1 under the Corona classification used by Philippine
Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) depending on
rainfall pattern. It is characterized by two pronounced seasons: rainy season from May to October
and dry season from January to April, when rainfall drops to 10-30-mm/ month. In general, Metro
Manila is directly influenced by an average of 6 tropical cyclones per year.

Pasay has an average normal annual temperature of 27.5 C. The warmest months are April, May
and June while the coldest months are December, January and February with the minimum
temperature of 25-26C.

Soil Type
Pasay consists of two terrain units, an eastern undulating section and a western alluvial portion,
which extends up to Manila Bay. The undulating to gently sloping terrain is underlain by a gently
dipping sequence of pyroclastic rocks essentially made up of tuffs, tuffaceous sandstones and
conglomerates belonging to the Guadalupe formation. This formation is represented by massive to
thickly bedded lithic tuff and tuffaceous sandstone.

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Contour / Slope
The western part of Pasay City is level to nearly level while its southeastern part is gently sloping to
gently undulating. It is characterized by coastal plains along the Manila Bay in the west and sloping
areas extending in the south-east direction. Surface elevations range from 2 meters above the mean
sea level on the coastal plains and 24 meters on the southeast part of the city.

Transportation
Public transport service in Pasay is composed of diverse modes that include mass rail transport,
buses, jeepneys, UV/GT express, tricycles, and pedicabs. These public transport systems enrich the
mobility choices of the people in Pasay. Oftentimes, cutthroat competition exists between modes,
e.g. jeepneys compete with buses, UV express compete with jeepneys, GT express compete with
buses, and tricycles with pedicabs.

Road Networks
Of the 72.2 kilometers of national road in Pasay City, 12.9 kilometers or 18% have concrete surfaces
while 59.8 kilometers or 82% are asphalted. In terms of condition, out of the 29.6 kilometers that
has been assessed in 2011, about 33% was good, 63% was fair, and only 4% was either poor or bad.

Pasay has about 59 kilometers of city roads that cater to light vehicles. The bulk of the city roads
are within San Rafael and San Jose District which has 24% and 29% of the city roads, respectively.
With average width of the 5.3 meters, city roads are deemed narrow and enough to accommodate
heavy traffic. Also, since almost 39% of the roads have widths not greater than 4 meters, most of the
city road network cannot accommodate two-way traffic.

Orientation and Adjacent Developments


Located at the Northern part of the site selected is the Philtranco/Jam – Macapagal/CCP Bus Depot
while Manila Bay Home Depot is located near the North-eastern portion. At the southern part is
where the GSIS Complex is occupying. Situated at the South-eastern portion is the Damon Building.
And at the North-western part runs the Jose W. Diokno Boulevard.

Water Supply
Water in the City is primarily sourced through the piped water supply system operated and
maintained by Maynilad Water Services, Inc.—a distribution concessionaire of the Metropolitan
Water and Sewerage System (MWSS) which covers the western portion of Metro Manila.

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Raw water is sourced from the Angat-Ipo-La Mesa water system, an external source that begins in
Norzagaray, Bulacan and supplies the whole of Metro Manila. This is then filtered and treated at the
La Mesa Dam in Quezon City. All 201 barangays in Pasay City, consisting of domestic/residential,
commercial/industrial and institutional users are served by Maynilad.

Extraction of ground water through deep wells is no longer used as a means to supply local water as
this has been banned by the National Water Resources Board not only in Pasay but the whole of
Metro Manila including all towns of Rizal, and a few towns in Bulacan and Cavite.

Power Supply
Electricity is distributed by Manila Electric Company (MERALCO) which covers the entire Metro
Manila in its franchise area. In 2012, a total of 979,381,489 kWh of electricity was used to power
the city. Commercial establishments accounted for 77% of the consumption, residential users, about
18 %, industries, about 5% and street lights, less than one percent.

All barangays in the city are electrified. Among households, 94,953 were served in 2011 which
corresponds to 95.19 % electrification. Those not served include informal settlements which could
not be connected to the MERALCO grid due lack of consent from the land owners or due to their
location on public easements such as river and waterway embankments which are considered illegal
and hazardous.

Drainage / Sewerage
Several creeks traverse the City of Pasay. The Tripa De Gallina Creek is the boundary of Pasay City
and Makati City. Likewise the Maricaban Creek that runs along the Villamor Village and Malibay
Estate also serve as boundary between Pasay City and Makati City. These two watercourses have
their confluence in a lagoon at Aurora Blvd and discharges into Paranaque River and eventually to
Manila Bay. In times of rain, these serve as the main drainage discharges of the city. Due to siltation
and clogging of the waterways, surface runoff accumulate and cause flooding in low lying areas of
the City.

Majority of the City is drained by the Libertad Pumping Station, Tripa de Gallina Pumping Station,
Buendia Outfall and Libertad Outfall. The Libertad Pumping Station has a capacity of 42.0 m3/sec
draining large percentage of the northwestern portion of Pasay City. The Tripa De Gallina Pumping
Station has a capacity of 56 m3/sec and drains about 1,769 hectares of land that extend beyond the
boundaries of the City. Part of the runoff from Tripa De Gallina Creek flows into the Libertad

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Pumping Station via Buendia Outfall, Libertad Outfall and EDSA Outfall. The rest of its waters are
discharged into Paranaque River.

No city-wide sewerage system is in place in the City. Wastewater flows into the drainage lines and
into the river. Some of the wastewater infiltrate into the ground and pose a threat to the groundwater
quality. At present majority of the residents and commercial establishments use individual septic
tanks for treatment of waste water.

Landscape
Planted around and within the site were small non-fruit bearing trees and there are present huge
trees to be concerned of. A wide field is also present which some parts are covered with grass
making the site’s natural landscape. The existing natural landscape of the site may not be a
hindrance in planning because there is enough space for the structures but in need of clearing
unwanted weeds.
For the future beautification of the site, man-made landscapes will be added such as roof garden,
walkways and green walls.

3.4.2 LEGAL VIABILITY

National Building Code Philippines


RULE VII – CLASSIFICATION AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF ALL BUILDINGS
BY USE OR OCCUPANCY
SECTION 701. Occupancy Classified
General USE Character of Occupancy of Building/Structure:
IV. Group D – Institutional (Government and Health Services)
Division D-1
(Institutional, where personal liberties of in-mates are restrained, or quarters of those rendering
public assistance and maintaining peace and order)

Zoning Classification:
GI (General Institutional) - a community to national level of institutional use or occupancy,
characterized mainly as a low-rise, medium rise or high-rise building/ structure for medical,
government service administrative and related activities, e.g., hospitals and related health care
facilities, government offices, military, police and correctional buildings and the like.

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SECTION 704. Location on Property


1. General
a. No building shall be constructed unless it adjoins or has direct access to a public space, yard or
street on at least one of its sides.
b. For the purpose of this Section, the center line of an adjoining street or alley shall be considered
an adjacent property line.
c. Eaves over required windows shall not be less than 750 millimeters from the side and rear
property lines.
2. Fire Resistive of Walls
Exterior walls shall have fire resistance and opening protection in accordance with the requirements
set forth by the Secretary. Projections beyond the exterior wall shall not exceed beyond a point one-
third the distance from an assumed vertical plane located where the fire-resistive protection of
openings is first required to the location on property whichever is the least restrictive. Distance shall
be measured at right angles from the property line. When openings in exterior walls are required to
be protected due to distance from property line, the sum of the areas of such openings in any storey
shall not exceed50% of the total area of the wall in that storey.

3. Building Footprint and Firewall Requirements


a. The following rules shall be observed in the determination of the Allowable Maximum Building
Footprint (AMBF) for buildings and related habitable structures. If the stated rules are compared
with (1) Rule VIII Table VIII.1. - Reference Table on Percentage of Site Occupancy and Maximum
Allowable Construction Area (MACA); (2) Rule VIII Tables VIII.2. And VIII.3. (Setbacks, yards
and courts); or (3) with the applicable stipulations under this Rule and with the applicable
stipulations of the Fire Code, the more stringent but applicable regulation out of the aforementioned
rules should be observed;
b. If without a firewall, the footprint of a proposed building/structure shall be measured horizontally
from the property line to the outermost faces of the exterior walls of the building/structure; Provided,
that the distance measured from the property line shall conform with the applicable stipulations of
this Rule and Rule VIII; The resultant area established at grade level upon which the proposed
building/structure may stand shall be the AMBF.

SECTION 705. Allowable Floor Areas


1. General. The Allowable Maximum Total Gross Floor Area (TGFA) of any proposed
building/structure shall only be as allowed under this Rule.
2. TGFA Limitation. In Table VII.1. hereafter, the percentages (%) indicated in the third (3rd)
through eighth (8th) columns, but excluding the multiplier numbers 3, 5, 12, 18, and 30 (which

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represent the number of storeys/floors), are the percentages of the Total Lot Area (TLA) that may
be used to initially determine the Allowable Maximum TGFA for a proposed building/structure.
3. Crosscheck of TGFA with Allowable Maximum Volume Building (AMVB). The Allowable
Maximum TGFA once established must be thoroughly crosschecked with the AMVB to find out if
the AMVB is not exceeded. If exceeded, the necessary adjustments on the Maximum Allowable
TGFA must be made since the AMVB must always prevail Allowable Maximum Total Gross
Floor Area (TGFA) *by Type/Location of Lot
Institutional (Without Sprinkler System & Firewalls) BHL x 60% of TLA

SECTION 706. Allowable Floor Area Increases


The floor areas hereinabove provided may be increased in certain specific instances and under
appropriate conditions, based on the existence of public space, streets or yards extending along and
adjoining two or more sides of the building or structure subject to the approval of the Building
Official.

SECTION 707. Maximum Height of Buildings


1. The maximum height and number of storeys of proposed building shall be dependent upon the
character of use or occupancy and the type of construction, considering end-user population density,
light and ventilation, width of RROW/streets particularly of its roadway/carriageway component,
building bulk, off-street cum off-site parking requirements, etc. and in relation to land use plan and
zoning regulations, e.g., geological, hydrological, meteorological, topographical, prevailing traffic
conditions, the availability and capacity of public utility/service systems, etc.

2. Determination of Building Height:


a. BUILDING HEIGHT LIMIT (BHL) - the maximum height to be allowed for buildings/structures
based on their proposed use or occupancy; the BHL is generally determined after the application of
other development controls (DC) and certain other parameters, i.e., considerations of site conditions,
view, etc. (Table VII.2. of this Rule). The BHL shall be generally measured from the established
grade line to the topmost portion of the proposed building/structure. If applicable, the BHL may be
subject to clearance requirements of the Air Transportation Office (ATO) or of the concerned
military/security authorities. (Refer to Guidelines on Development Controls at the end this Rule)
BHL excludes the height of permitted/allowed projections above the roof of the building/structure,
e.g., signage, mast, antenna, telecom tower, beacons and the like.
b. The Building Height Limit (BHL) of any proposed building/structure shall only be as allowed
under this Rule or under the duly approved city/municipal (local) zoning ordinance, whichever is
more restrictive.

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Building Height Limit (BHL) by Type of Use or Occupancy


Institutional

Meters above highest grade: 15 meters (or must follow the duly approved BHL in the major zone it
is part of)
Floor-Lot Area Ratio (FLAR)
Type of Use or Occupancy: Institutional
FLAR Designation/Rights: 2.50

RULE VIII - LIGHT AND VENTILATION


SECTION 801. General Requirements of Light and Ventilation
2. All buildings shall face a street or public alley or a private street which has been duly approved.
(Refer to Guidelines on Streets/RROW and Sidewalks at the end of this Rule)
3. No building shall be enlarged so that the dimensions of the required court or yard would be less
than that provided for buildings under this Rule, or to create an additional room, unless such
additional room conforms to the requirements of this Rule.
4. No building shall be enlarged so that the dimensions of the required court or yard would be less
than what is prescribed for such building lot.

SECTION 802. Measurement of Site Occupancy


1. The measurement of site occupancy or lot occupancy shall be taken at the ground level and shall
be exclusive of courts, yards, and light wells.
2. Courts, yards, and light wells shall be measured clear of all projections from the walls enclosing
such wells or yards with the exception of roof leaders, wall copings, sills, or steel fire escapes not
exceeding 1.20 meters in width.

SECTION 803. Percentage of Site Occupancy


1. The measurement of the percentage (%) of site occupancy (or lot occupancy) shall be taken at
the ground level and shall be exclusive of courts, yards and light wells. Courts, yards, and light
wells shall be measured clear of all projections from the walls enclosing such wells or yards with
the exception of roof leaders, wall copings, sills, or steel fire escapes not exceeding 1.20 meters in
width.
2. In case of proposed additional construction on a lot on which another building/structure already
stands, the Percentage of Site Occupancy (PSO) arising out of such existing buildings/structures
must be included in the computation of the PSO for the Total Lot Area (TLA). In case of discrepancy
between the specified Maximum Allowable PSO and the other light and ventilation provisions under

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this Rule, the resulting lesser building/structure footprint or Gross floor area at the ground floor (or
at grade level) must prevail.

3. Maximum site occupancy shall be governed by use, type of construction, and height of the
building and the use, area, nature and location of the site; and subject to the provisions of the local
zoning requirements and in accordance with the following types of open spaces:
a. Public open spaces – streets, alleys, easements of sea/lakeshores, rivers, creeks, esteros, railroad
tracks, parks/plazas, playgrounds, and the like.
b. Total Open Spaces within Lot (TOSL) – courts, yards, gardens, light wells, uncovered driveways,
access roads and parking spaces consisting of two (2) types:
i. Paved or tiled (hardscaped areas); sub-classification of open space shall fall under Maximum
Allowable Impervious Surface Areas (ISA) within the Total Lot Area (TLA); and
ii. Unpaved areas within the lot that are with exposed soil and planted (softscaped), i.e., the Unpaved
Surface Areas (USA); this sub-classification is the true open space.

G. DESIGN OF PUBLIC BUILDINGS/STRUCTURES


1. General
a. Public buildings/structures are permanent edifices owned by the government, whether
national or local, its agencies, including government-owned and/or controlled corporations.
b. Design of public buildings/structures shall conform to the applicable provisions of the
preceding rules and regulations. Aside from being logically functional and structurally
sound, should promote, enhance and express the aesthetic presentability, customs and
traditions, socio-economic values environmental quality and cultural heritage of the region
concerned towards evolving a distinct Filipino Architecture.
c. The architectural character of public buildings/structures must fully express the nature of
their function, use or occupancy and should reflect their identity as public
buildings/structures compatible with their total macro and microenvironment.
d. Public buildings/structures should be designed for permanence but with maximized
flexibility to allow for future adjustments in their uses/occupancies.
e. Use of indigenous and/or locally manufactured/produced materials such as marble, stone,
adobe, clay tiles, wood, coco wood, kapis shells, should be maximized unless their
production or usage are banned or regulated by the government to promote the efforts to
conserve natural resources.
f. Use of natural light and ventilation by means of proper orientation, cross ventilation,
convection, sun control devices and the like should be maximized.

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g. Choice of finishes should aim to minimize maintenance costs.


h. The architectural plan and design must basically reflect the functional manner or spatial
utilization and/or the evolving Filipino, Asian or International usage of spaces that need to
be projected if required or used, more than just attention to pure forms/images.
i. Only the use of good to high quality materials, labor, technologies and construction
methods within the approved budget, must be specified by its planners and designers to
ensure permanence, long continued use and low maintenance cost of public buildings or
structures.
j. Plans and designs of all public buildings must fully comply with all of the planning and
design requirements under the Code and this IRR including the Fire Code of the
Philippines (PD No. 1185) and the Accessibility Law (BP Blg. 344).
k. Strictly consider proper landscaping analysis and design not only for aesthetics but more
so for the prevention of erosion of its site and immediate vicinity, and for ecological
balance.
l. These requirements are not intended to limit the creativity of the designer nor preclude the
use of advanced or innovative technology particularly in instances wherein mandated
compliance under this Guideline shall present a major difficulty in or hamper the proper
execution of the plan, design or architectural concept.

% of Total Lot Area (TLA) INSTITUTIONAL


Maximum Allowable 50 e
PSO c,d
Maximum Allowable 20
ISA c (Paved Open
Spaces)
Minimum USA c 30
(Unpaved Open
Spaces)
TOSL d (USA+ISA) 50

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3.4.3 FINANCIAL VIABILITY

MALACAÑANG

DIFFERENT AGENCIES DEVELOPMENT BUDGET


(INCLUDING THE SENATE) THEN COORDINATING COUNCIL -
BACK TO MALACANANG FOR DEPARTMENT OF BUDGET AND
SIGNATURE MANAGEMENT

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
FORWARD TO SENATE- CONGRESS, DELIBERATION
HEARING AND HEARING IN PLENARY FOR
APPROVAL

DIAGRAM SHOWING THE PROCESS OF BUDGET DELIBERATION OF THE


NATIONAL GOVERNMENT

Sources of Funds

Every year from the Department of Budget and Management, the national government allocates
specific amount for the rentals of the different government bodies which includes the Senate.
Since the proposed project is an institutiona l type, majority if not all of the percentage of funds
that will be used for the project cost may come from this. From the land acquisition up to the
needed equipment will be government supplied.

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3.4.4 DESIGN PROPOSAL

The Senate of the Philippines, the Upper House of the Philippine Legislature
was inaugurated exactly a century ago from this present year. Since then, it has moved its
home many times. Along its legislative functions today is also its problem of high leasing
expenditures and inadequate spaces because of the non-existence of an edifice that will
house it permanently. And the need to address such issues must be immediately heard
architecturally.

This proposed project will be a long term solution and help for the Philippine Government
and the public. It will be a pioneer among institutional facilities in procuring its own
building and equipment. Raising awareness of economic reasoning on spending the
financial resources of the country. Help in conserving the limited budget and proper
setting of priorities. Which may develop in eventual economic development and
progressive use of the national budget.

This proposal will carry out an opportunity for architecture to collaborate with
sustainability in guiding institutions towards development. Being bold in taking risk of
investing in the trend of kinetic technology of the modern world and striving for massive
visual change while uplifting the identity of Filipino architecture. Be responsible in
introducing and integrating experimental and pioneering ideas in building design. With
consideration of the past, present and the future aspects necessary for the site that will
have a direct impact towards the national level of government and our country as a whole.

In this study, it will be architecture achieving its goal as a profession with both
social, economic and architectural aspects— that it may play a vital role in constantly
adapting to the changes. As well as in being a part in bringing out the most of every
professions together in delivering efficient services towards the common good.

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3.4.5 DEVELOPMENTAL CONTROL AND COMPUTATIONS

Computation of the following based on NBC RULE 7&8

Total Lot Area (TLA)

= 66, 664. 02 sq. m

Allowable Maximum Building Footprint (AMBF)

AMBF 1:

= TLA x PSO

=66, 664.02 sq. m. x 40%

= 26, 665.608 sq. m

AMBF 2:

Setbacks:

Front: 8 meters

Side: 5 meters

Rear: 5 meters

Percentage of Site Occupancy (PSO)

= AMBF 1 x 100%

TLA

= 26, 665.608 sq. m x 100%

66, 664.02 sqm.

= 40%

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Impervious Surface Area (ISA)

= TLA x 20%

= 66, 664.02 sqm. x .20

= 13, 332.804 sq. m

Maximum Allowable Construction Area (MACA)

= PSO + ISA (20% of TLA)

= 26, 665.608 sq. m + 13, 332.804 sq. m

= 39, 998.412 sq. m

Minimum Unpaved Surface Area (USA)

= TLA x 30%

= 66, 664.02 sq. m. x .30

= 19, 999.206 sq. m

Open Space within Lot (TOSL)

= USA + ISA

= 19, 999.206 + 13, 332.804

= 33, 332.01 sq. m

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CHAPTER 4: PROGRAMMING

The Senate of the Philippines is the Upper House of Philippine Legislative Branch.
In celebration of its centennial anniversary of establishment, it is a high time that it will
be housed in a permanent edifice just like the Lower House of Congress in Batasan
Pambansa in Quezon City. By this part of the study, the necessary areas and spaces of the
senate as a whole will be determined. Following the standards for institutional buildings
and incorporating smart solutions, with the participation of the involve government
bodies. Becoming independent from the stigma that government offices are confined to
be traditional and conventional in terms of planning and design.

4.1 BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS

The architectural program of the study will be based on the circulation pattern and flow
of activities of every day work in the senate house. With distinction of public and private
offices and the security of the facility as a whole. These are preliminary diagrams and ideas
that are subjected to change when needed. Therefore they will be analyzed thoroughly for the
intended planning and space programming to be used. With respect to the operational means
of each departments and the standard requirements for the occupants’ convenience and good
flow of traffic inside and outside the structure.

Enumerating some objectives of the study will help us summarize the possible schemes and
strategically approach into different activities within the community/site.

 To fight illogicality and be more economic and practical.


 To design a structure that will explore alternative approaches towards innovations of
vertical architecture.

 To optimized green architecture being the new building standard within the city and the
region in general eventually.
 To help with the promotion of public trust towards the government especially the national
level.
 To uplift Filipino character in designing institutional buildings.

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ACTIVITY FLOW OF THE USERS OF THE MAJOR SPACES

OFFICIALS, PERSONNEL OR STAFF, AND VISITORS OF SENATE

Office Days: Monday-Thursday

ACTIVITY FLOW OF THE USERS OF THE MAJOR SPACES / OFFICIALS, PERSONNEL OR


STAFF, AND VISITORS OF SENATE

 ENTERING THE BUILDING

 TIME IN TO WORK/ LOG IN FOR VISITORS

 WORKING/INFORMATION FOR VISITORS

 WORKING/ GALLERY TOUR FOR VISITORS

 LUNCH BREAK

 WORKING/EXPLORING FOR VISITORS

 CHECKING FOR WORKS/OTHER ACTIVITIES

 TIME OUT OF WORK/LOG OUT FOR VISITORS

 LEAVING THE BUILDING

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4.2 INTERRELATIONSHIP ANALYSIS

Diagram for the Site

OPEN SPACE FOR OUTDOOR ACTIVITIES

PRIVATE
LANDSCAPE
PARKINGS
SENATE BUILDING

ASSEMBLY AREA

PUBLIC PUBLIC
PARKINGS PARKINGS

LANDSCAPE

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ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE SENATE OF THE PHILIPPINES

SENATE OF THE PHILIPPINES

SENATE PROPER
SENATE SECRETARIAT

SENATE PRESIDENT
 POLICY STUDIES
 LBRMO
 MPOAB
 EDP MIS
 PIMRO SENATE PRO-TEMPORE

• MGSB COMM
EXTERNAL AFFAIRS • FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT BUREAU ITTEES
• COA SENATE MAJORITY LEADER
• CASH
• BUDGET
ADMINISTRATIVE AND • ACCOUNTING
• HRS
FINANCIAL SERVICES

SENATE MINORITY LEADER

• TECHNICAL AFFAIRS
LEGISLATION
• PLENARY AFFAIRS BUREAU
• REFERENCE BUREAU
• SENATE PUBLICATIONS
• COMMITTEE AFFAIRS

LEGAL COUNSEL

OSAA

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• MATRIX DIAGRAM (SITE)

SENATE LANDSCAPE ASSEMBLY PUBLIC PRIVATE


BUILDING AND AREA PARKINGS PARKINGS
GARDENS

GENERAL --
PUBLIC

STAFF AND
EMPLOYEES

SENATORS

SECURITY
PERSONNEL

STUDENTS --

LEGENDS: - ACCESSIBLE -LIMITED ACCESS -- NOT ACCESSIBLE

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• MATRIX DIAGRAM (GROUND FLOOR)

LOBBY OFFICES MEDICAL AND UTILITIES OSAA HEADQUARTERS


DENTAL
CLINICS

GENERAL -- --
PUBLIC

STAFF AND
EMPLOYEES

SENATORS

SECURITY
PERSONNEL
AND
MAINTENANCE

STUDENTS --

LEGENDS: - ACCESSIBLE -LIMITED ACCESS -- NOT ACCESSIBLE

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• MATRIX DIAGRAM (SECOND FLOOR ONWARDS)

OFFICES LIBRARY ARCHIVES MUSEUM SESSION HALL LOUNGE

GENERAL
PUBLIC

STAFF AND
EMPLOYEES

SENATORS

SECURITY
PERSONNEL
AND
MAINTENANCE

STUDENTS

LEGENDS: - ACCESSIBLE -LIMITED ACCESS -- NOT ACCESSIBLE

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The proposed project is composed of the following spaces.

GROUND FLOOR LAYOUT

SECOND FLOOR LAYOUT

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THIRD FLOOR LAYOUT

FOURTH FLOOR LAYOUT

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FIFTH FLOOR LAYOUT

SIXTH FLOOR LAYOUT

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ROOF DECK LAYOUT

4.3 – 4.4 QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS

 OSAA – Office of Sergeant-At-Arms


 PPS – Property & Procurement Service
 LBRMO – Legislative Budget Research & Monitoring Office
 PRIB – Public Relations and Information Bureau
 HRMS – Human Resource Management Service
 PBAC – Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee
 COA – Commission on Audit
 SEMCO – Senate Employee’s Multipurpose Cooperative
 PLLO – Presidential Legislative Liaison Office
 MPOAB – Management Planning and Operations Audit Bureau
 EDP – MIS – Electronic Data Processing and Management Information System Bureau
 BROOM – Blue Ribbon Oversight Office Management
 OSP – Office of the Senate President
 OSEC – Office of the Senate Secretary
 OIRP – Office of the International Relations and Protocol
 AHU – Air Handling Unit

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 Office of the Senate – 828 persons


 Office of the Secretariat – 926 persons
 Contractual Employees – 226 persons

SENATE OF THE PHILIPPINES

Space Function User/s Space factor Total Approx. Area


per person (sq. m.)

 GROUND FLOOR
Main Lobby Staff & Visitors 1.2 936 sq. m.
Waiting Areas Staff & Visitors
OSAA Post Security Personnel 2 24 sq. m.
Elevator Lobby Staff & Visitors 1.2 24 sq. m.
OSAA Post Security Personnel 1.2 24 sq. m.
OSAA Office Security Personnel 2 450 sq. m.
OSAA Male Security Personnel 2 112.50 sq. m.
Locker Room
OSAA Female Security Personnel 2 112.50 sq. m.
Locker Room
OSAA Male CR Security Personnel 2 112.50 sq. m.
OSAA Female Security Personnel 2 112.50 sq. m.
CR
OSAA Com Security Personnel 2 150 sq. m.
Center
PNP Liaison Security Personnel 2 225 sq. m.
Office

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Holding Room Security Personnel 1.4 45 sq. m.


& Visitors

PPS Storage Staff 1 225 sq. m.


Room
Post Office Staff 1.2 80 sq. m.
Audio & Staff 1.4 150 sq. m.
Telecom
Power House Staff 210 sq. m.
Electrical Room Staff 115 sq. m.
Storage Room Staff 225 sq. m.
Public Comfort Staff & Visitors 180 sq. m.
Rooms
AHU Staff 225 sq. m.
Utility Room Staff 80 sq. m.
Private Parking Senators & VIPs 1, 120 sq. m.
Space
Medical & Staff & Visitors 200 sq. m.
Dental Clinic
Maintenance & Staff 1.2 360 sq. m.
General Services
Bureau
R M MS Staff 1.2 185 sq. m.
AHU Staff 160 sq. m

Total Floor Area 7, 881. 01 sq. m.


 SECOND FLOOR
Accounting Staff 1.5 420 sq. m.
Office
Commission on Staff 2 168 sq. m.
Audit

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Budget Office Staff 1.2 168 sq. m.


Cash Office Staff 1.2 210 sq. m.
Dep. Sec. Office Staff 1.2 105 sq. m.
Exec. Dir. Office Staff 105 sq. m.
Property & Staff 1.4 420sq. m.
Procurement
Service
Human Staff 1.4 360 sq. m.
Resource
management
Service
PBAC Staff 1.4 200 sq. m.
Bank Staff 1.4 150 sq. m.
SEMCO Staff 1.2 150 sq. m.
Legal Counsel Staff 1.2 300 sq. m.
Office
PLLO Staff 1.2 225 sq. m.
PIMRO Staff 1.4 225 sq. m.
BROOM Staff 1.4 225 sq. m.
MPOAB Staff 1.2 225 sq. m.
EDP – M I S Staff 1.4 300 sq. m.
Bureau
Dep. Sec. for Staff 150 sq. m.
External Affairs
Exec. Dir. For Staff 150 sq. m.
External Affairs
External Affairs Staff 2 490 sq. m.
LBRMO Staff 1.2 569 sq. m.
Public Comfort Staff & Visitors 180 sq. m.
Rooms
AHU Staff 385 sq. m.

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Utility room Staff 115 sq. m.


EE Room Staff 155 sq. m.

Storage Room Staff 80 sq. m

Total Floor Area 7, 668. 61 sq. m.


 THIRD FLOOR
Library Staff & Visitors 1.4 756 sq. m.
Archives Staff & Visitors 1.4 560 sq. m.
Museum Staff & Visitors 280 sq. m.
Publication Staff 1.4 360 sq. m.
Bureau
Reference Staff 1.4 200 sq. m.
Bureau Office
Printing & Staff 1.4 300 sq. m.
Reproduction
Parliament Senators & Staff 1.2 300 sq. m.
Counseling
Office
Committee Senators & Staff 1000 sq. m.
Rooms (4)
Committee Senators & Staff 300 sq. m.
Room
Dep. Sec. for Staff 150 sq. m.
Legislation
Exec. Dir. For Staff 150 sq. m.
Legislation
Legislative Staff 560 sq. m.
Office

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Lounge Staff & Visitors 490 sq. m.


Public Comfort Staff & Visitors 180 sq. m.
Rooms
AHU Staff 385 sq. m.
Utility room Staff 115 sq. m.
EE Room Staff 155 sq. m.

Total Floor Area 7, 668. 61 sq. m.


 FOURTH FLOOR
Session Hall Senators, Staff, 1.4 1, 150 sq. m.
Visitors, & media
Ante - Room media 140 sq. m.
Bill Drafting Staff 1.4 360 sq. m.
Committee Staff 1.4 sq. m.
Affairs Office
Journal Office Staff 1.4 300 sq. m.
PRIB Staff 1.4 300 sq. m.
Committee Staff 1.4 500 sq. m.
Rooms (2)
Media Room Media & staff 1.4 225 sq. m.
Debate Staff 1.4 225 sq. m.
Reporters’
Room
Committee Staff & Visitors 300 sq. m.
Room
Technical Staff & Trainees 1.4 300 sq. m.
Affairs

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Executive Staff & Visitors 1.4 sq. m.


Lounge
Bills & Index Staff 1.4 560 sq. m.
Office
Public Comfort Staff & Visitors 180 sq. m.
Rooms
AHU Staff 385 sq. m.
Utility room Staff 115 sq. m.
EE Room Staff 155 sq. m.

Total Floor Area 7, 668. 61 sq. m.


 FIFTH FLOOR
9 Senator Senators & Staff 1, 800 sq. m.
Offices
3 Senator Senators & Staff 640.02 sq. m.
Offices
Majority Floor Senators, Staff & 1.5 336 sq. m.
Leader Office Visitors
Senators’ Ext. Senators’ Staff 1.4 1000 sq. m.
Offices (4)
OIRP Staff 420 sq. m.
Office of the Senators & Staff 1.2 378 sq. m.
Senate President
OSP Ceremonial Senators 1.4 115.50 sq. m.
Hall
OSP Conference Senators 1.4 115.50 sq. m.
Room
Office of the Staff 1.2 231 sq. m.
Senate Secretary
Senate Pro- Senators & Staff 1.2 280 sq. m.
Tempore Office

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Minority Floor Senators & Staff 280 sq. m.


Office
Senators’ Senators 308 sq. m.
Lounge
Public Comfort Staff & Visitors 180 sq. m.
Rooms
AHU Staff 385 sq. m.
Utility room Staff 115 sq. m.
EE Room Staff 155 sq. m.

Total Floor Area 7, 668. 61 sq. m.


 SIXTH FLOOR
9 Senator Senators & Staff sq. m.
Offices
3 Senator Senators & Staff 1.5 sq. m.
Offices
Multipurpose Senators & Staff 1.5 1054 sq. m.
Areas
Senators’ Senator & Staff 1.5 308 sq. m.
Lounge
Public Comfort Staff & Visitors 1 180 sq. m.
Rooms
AHU Staff 385 sq. m.
Utility room Staff 80 sq. m.
Command Room Security Personnel 35 sq. m.
EE Room Staff 155 sq. m.
Building Security Personnel 160 sq. m.
Automation
System Room

Total Floor Area 7, 668. 61 sq. m.

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 ROOF DECK PLAN


Café Staff & Visitors 1.2 162. 50 sq. m.
Garden Staff & Visitors 1.4 165 sq. m.
Public Comfort Staff & Visitors 97.50 sq. m.
Rooms
Elevator Staff 40 sq. m.
Machine Room
Helipad
Utility Room Staff 35 sq. m.

Total Floor Area 2, 383.38 sq. m

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CHAPTER 5: SYNTHESIS

5.1 DESIGN PHILOSOPHY

“You never change things by fighting the existing reality. To change something, build a new model
that makes the existing model obsolete.”

 FULLER, RICHARD BUCKMINSTER

“A Building has straight geometrical lines. Even when these lines are free, it must
always be evident that they have been studied & that they did not spring up
simultaneously.”
 BREUER, MARCEL LAJOS
(May 21, 1902 – July 1, 1981)

“Movement can be an inspiring idea for architecture.”


 SARAH BONNEMAISON AND CHRISTINE MACY, ARCHITECTS

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5.2 DESIGN GOALS AND OBJECTIVES

Being the one of the highest independent branch of the Philippine Government, the
design of the Senate of the Philippines’ main headquarters upholds innovation of traditional
government building design here in our country. To be secluded from the main stream of
international and modernist character and have its own distinction. Through the
experimental integration of fine geometric lines and kinetic architecture, it will be a pioneer
among public institutional edifices. Creating a direct impact towards the local environment
and securing long term benefits economically. With structural correctness and providing
the necessary spaces in terms of function, utility, efficiency, and aesthetic formations that
will adapt with the changing climate and sustainable means of self-maintenance.

 To provide a permanent home for the Upper Chamber of Legislative Body,


together with other ancillary buildings, parking, landscapes, and other design
elements.
 To design a structure that will explore alternative approaches towards
modernizations of public architecture and promoting Filipino designs.

 To optimized kinetic architecture as an innovative tool in developing new and


unconventional ideas in building procurement. Allowing building parts to
adapt and be sensible to its surrounding without disturbing the general
function and aesthetic value of it.
 To provide utmost security and safety of the building and for the occupants.
 To create a design that will revolutionize the circulation and flow of activity
inside the Senate Building.

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5.3 DESIGN CONCEPTS

For the design concept of the study is building an iconic aesthetic and functional design for
government buildings. Being public offices, they are subjected to everyday occurrence and
heavy foot traffic.

The following are the specific design concept and their application.

 The Sarimanok Panolong – a sense of nationalistic spirit by paying architectural


attention towards Filipino intricacy.
 Okir - is the term for geometric and flowing designs (often based on an elaborate
leaf and vine pattern) and folk motifs

 Torogan - The Torogan or Bahay Lakan in Tagalog) is a type of house indigenous


to Luzon Areas Visayas and Lanao, Mindanao, Philippines. A torogan is elevated
above the ground by its columns cut from trees of huge girth. Its walls are covered
with plywood sticks and the roof thatched with dried coconut leaves. There is no
interior partition, so it appears as a huge hall.
 The Sampaguita Flower - On the side of the coat of arms are garlands of
sampaguita with six sampaguita buds on each side representing the 12 regions of
the country. The sampaguita flower also symbolizes honor and dignity,
characteristics, which likewise epitomize the Senate as an institution. It will be
turned into modern kinetic windows allowing movements based on the
environmental condition of the surroundings.

In this proposal, it will be defining the two terms of kinetic architecture. First the building
itself, in applying moving façade and walls with response to the prevailing climate of the
surrounding. And second, the contextual definition, by revolutionizing the movement
inside the senate building through proper circulation and flow of the activities particularly
among the busiest areas.

Following the neat and geometric linear walls imposing monumental and massive
character. Using white roofs as prescribed in tropical areas like our country. And

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minimizing energy consumption and building maintenance in the long run. Meeting
sustainability, maintainability, and the level of achievability of the project. A break from
the modern minimalist and trying to impose experimental Filipino design among public
institutions. Challenging past practices, architecture today finds itself to revisit its
traditional kinetic aesthetics with new technological innovations. Through the use of
sensors, actual controlled motions can be designed, integrated, and implemented in, on, or
across buildings.

APPLICATION OF DESIGN CONCEPT:


 The detailed brackets inspired by the regional character of Filipino intricacies
as seen on the building façade.
 The integration of kinetic windows of the buildings.
 The moving walls intended for the provision of high security measures.
 Outlines of landscapes and walkways.

5.4 DESIGN INSPIRATION

Representing the law making body of the Philippines, the concept of Senate of the
Philippines is inspired by the massive monumental character of public buildings bent
in contrast by fusing with modern Filipino designs while being visually well through
green concepts applied in both exteriors and interiors of the building and the site as a
whole. Allowing parts of the façade to move without reducing the building’s overall
structural integrity.

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5.5 DESIGN PARAMETERS

o Kinetic Architecture
Kinetic Architecture lies in creating spaces and objects that can physically reconfigure
themselves to meet changing needs, whereby an adaptable architecture is formed. And
sustainability through the applications of a kinetic system in architecture.

o Innovative Design
A design that which will express elegant simplicity in merging of beauty with utility,
vision with truth, and inner meaning with value.

o Resilient Design
Design and construct a building that can handle severe storms, flooding, and other
impacts that are expected to result from climate change and other factors.

o Green Design
Considering energy conservation, the use of energy consuming facilities and the well-
studied application of technology to have the capability of the building to sustain itself
and a design that minimize harmful effects on human health and the environment.

o Aesthetic Design and Landmark Quality


Considering modern design concepts best translate remarkable problems. Going
modern was equated to impressive aesthetics like providing landscape elements to
serve as buffer, heat and odor and noise diffuser, shading devices and generally for
aesthetic purposes.

o Anthropometrics
The length, width, height and dimensions in totality were carefully observed in
planning the study.

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o Vertical and Horizontal Circulation


Considering the work flow and behavioral analysis of the occupants or employees and
the total design of the buildings in the complex. Control of but allowing free flow
movement of user within the structures.

o Site Consideration
Considering the relatedness of space in terms of noise production and isolation of noise
propagation area, adequate parking space and well-designed traffic flow. Also the
maintenance of physical aspect of the site while developing into a highly quality
environment and a structure can that adopt to severe changes.

o Function and Efficiency


The efficiency in terms of function and use to achieve proper zoning of structures.

o Safety and Security


Adequate fire protection as provided by fire code of the Philippines. Strategic location
of fire hydrants, extinguisher, hose and others within and outside the building premises.
Providing enclosure for valuable facilities against human intrusion and high technology
monitoring system to prevent accidents or hazardous situation.

o Service and Utilities


Providing utility system for the primary operational needs in the whole design problem.
Fire exit shall be provided with accordance to the fire code of the Philippines. Thus all
exists must be accessible to all users. Provision of automatic and sensitive fire alarm
such as sprinklers and other fire protective devices.

o Compliance to Code and Standards.

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CHAPTER 6: TRANSLATION

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