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Chapter Four Notes

Define the word fluid.

Any substance that flows; includes liquids and gases

How do you distinguish between a fluid and a non-fluid?

A fluid flows and takes the shape of its container. A non-fluid needs no container to
keep its shape and does not flow.

How do you demonstrate that finely ground solids are not fluids?

Each fragment contains billions of even smaller particles that are tightly packed
together. Thus, each tiny fragment is also like a miniature solid in itself.

You can demonstrate this when you pour a grainy kind of solid, like power or sugar.
The solids form a pile, and do not flow apart from each other.

Use the Particle Theory to explain why liquids and gases are fluid, but
solids are not.

Liquids are fluid because the particles they are made of have enough energy to pull
away from each other and slide around each other, while at the same time vibrating
close together in small clusters. Liquid particles can slip past each other. Unlike the
particles in solids, they do not form rigid clumps. As a result, the particles of a liquid,
cannot hold their shape; instead they fill a container and take the shape of that

Gases are fluid because gas particles have no difficulty moving past each other,
therefore allowing them to flow very easily. The gas particles are so far apart from
each theat there is an enormous amount of empty space between them.

Solids are not fluid because their particles are so tightly packed together. Even when
they can slide past each other as tiny fragments, each fragment is composed of
billions of smaller particles that are still packed together. Solids do not flow.

Describe how to measure viscosity.

You measure viscosity by measuring the amount of time it takes for a certain amount
of the fluid to flow past a specific point. Using a ramp, you can pour the liquid down
and wait until it reaches the specified point on the ramp.

Explain how to determine the flow rate of a liquid.

You can determine the flow rate of a liquid by dividing the distance travelled by the
time recorded for each substance.

Ex.: Distance travelled: 10 cm / Time: 10 seconds


Name some industries in which measuring and controlling viscosity are


The paint industry, furniture industry, antique industry, salad dressing industry, the
medicine industry, the maple syrup industry, the candy/chocolate industry, food
industry in general.

Name some jobs where workers regulate the viscosity of substances

Chefs, mechanics, artists, technicians.

Summarize the main factors that affect viscosity of liquids and gases.

Main factors that affect gas viscosity include size/shape/bulkiness of gas particles,
temperature, strength of attraction of particles.

Main factors that affect liquid viscosity also include strength of attraction of particles,

Use the particle theory to explain how each factor affects viscosity.

Temperature causes particles to either move faster or slower. If the temperature

cools, the particles have less energy to move around. If the temperature warms, the
particles have more energy to move out of thew ay and make room for other
particles to pass.

The size/shape of the particles can cause viscosity to increase or decrease. If the
particles become larger and bulkier, viscosity increases.

The strength of the attraction of particles is an important factor as well. Certain types
of particles attract and hold on to each other more tightly than other types. It is very
hard for these particles to flow past each other, so they do very slowly.

Please refer to the Particle Theory, specifically.

Explain why the effect of temperature on the viscosity of gases differs from
the effect of temperature on the viscosity of liquids.

The effect of temperature differs for gases to liquids because while an increase in
temperature can reduce the viscosity in liquids, the opposite is true for gases. Gas
particles do not depend on an increase in energy (a rise in temperature) to move
farther apart, as is the case for liquids. The particle theory suggests that gas particles
are already very far apart. Extra energy increases with internal friction of gas particle
because the particles speed up and collide with each other more frequently. Cooler
temperatures in gases keep internal friction and therefore viscosity low.
Chapter 4.1:

The states of matter and the particle theory.

Gas, liquid, solid.- States of matter

Particle theory:

All matter is made up of very small particles

All particles in a pure substance are the same. Different substances have different

There is space between particles.

Particles are always moving. As particles gain energy, they move faster
The particles in a substance are attracted to one another. Strength of the attractive
force depends on the type of particle.

Changes of state.


Gas to solid: Deposition

Liquid to gas: Vaporization

Gas to liquid: Condensation

Solid to gas: Sublimation

Solid/ Liquid

Solid to liquid: Melting (fusion)

Liquid to solid: Solidification

Check your understanding.

To flow means to move in a smooth, uninteruppted manner.

Fluids: smoke, nail polish, honey, shampoo, perfume, blood, sap, hairspray, sugar,
air, molten lava, natural gas. Non-fluids: thread, ash, paper, snow, balloon, pencil,
gravel, thumbtacks.

You could test if a substance is fluid determining if the substance exhibits the
following characteristics: a fluid will flow, a fluid will take the shape of its container
and will form a flat surface, gases will spread in all directions to kill its container.

The substances with an indefinite shape but a definite volume is a liquid and a gas.

The freezing temperature in the freezer causes the particles in the water to contract
and solidify, effectively changing state to a solid.

Chapter 4.2:

Low viscosity= water, gravy. High viscosity= molasses, honey

The relationship between viscosity and and its flow rate is that flow rate is a measure
of how fast a fluid runs a certain distance in a certain time frame. Its viscosity will
affect if it runs slowly or fast, therefore affecting its flow rate.

You can test the viscosity of a liquid by using its flow rate to determine how fast the
fluid flows, or by pouring it down a ramp to a specified point to determine its flow

A) Temperature can affect the behaviour of particles in a substance. Temperature

can lower or higher the viscosity of a substance. B) The particle theory dictates that
when the kinetic energy of the particles increase, the particles begin to vibrate, or
move faster. This causes the substance to become thinner. Conversely, when the
temperature is cold, the particles in a fluid will move closer together, causing it to
thicken. This will decrease the flow rate, therefore increasing the viscosity.

Paving is almost always done in the summer months because the particles in the
asphalt to move faster, causing the already sticky substance to become thinner, and
easier to apply.

Chapter 4.3:

Resistance to flow: the condition in which particles in a substance can move

around but cannot easily pass each other

Internal friction: the motion-resisting force between the surfaces of the particles
making up a substance

What factors affect the viscosity of gases?

The size and shape (bulkiness) of the particles. (Viscosity increases with size of

Temperature. (Cool temperatures keep gases viscosity low. Warm temperatures keep
gases viscosity high.)

Name 3 factors that affect the internal friction of a fluid.

Size/shape of particles.


Strength of attraction in particles.

List 2 ways to a) increase and b) decrease the viscosity of a liquid.

To increase:

Cool the liquid

Increase cohesion (add a stickening agent/substance)

To decrease:

Warm the liquid

Decrease cohesion (add a thinning agent/substance)

Keeping in mind the factors that can affect viscosity, design a container for
an imaginary liquid that is half as viscous as water and that must be used
in small quantities during emergency surgery.

Suggested Design Concept:

Material: Stainless steel

Shape: Irrelevant (rectangular?)

Features: Insulator to maintain temperature (cool or warm)

Chapter 5 Notes
Buoyancy: the tendancy to rise or float in a fluid

Density: the amount of mass in a certain unit of volume of a substance (density

equals mass divided by v

Mass: the amount of matter in a substance; often measured with a balance

Volume: the measurement of the amount of space occupied by a stubstance;

measured in litres or cubic units such as cubic centimeters (cm )3

Floating: remaining suspended in a fluid; for example, not falling in air or sinking in

Capacity: the largest amount that can be held by a container (usually measured in
litres or millilitres)

Displace/displacement: to move something out of the way (e.g., a solid object can
displace water out of a container)

Archimedes’ Principle: a scientific principle stating that the buoyant force acting
on a submerged object equals the weight (force of gravity) of the fluid displaced by
the object

With reference to the Particle Theory, explain why solids can support
objects more easily than liquids can?

Solids can support objects more easily than liquids can because the particles in a
solid are so tightly packed together, they cannot be pushed apart. Particles in a
liquid, however, have less attraction and move apart easily, allowing substances to
pass through.

What is the formula for calculating density? (Be sure to include all the
possible metric units with the formula pieces!!!)

The formula for calculating density is:

Density (D)= Mass (m)/ Volume (V)

Or D= m/v

Density can be presented in the following:

g/cm (grams/cubic centimeter)- density of solids


g/L (grams/litre) – density of liquids/gases

g/mL (grams/millilitre)- density of liquids/gases

1cm = 1mL
Name the piece of equipment used to measure:



Equipment for mass: balances/scales

Equipment for volume: measuring cup, graduated cylinder

How do you measure the volume of a) a liquid? B) a solid? C) a gas?

Volume of a liquid: Measuring cup, graduated cylinder

Volume of a solid: With a measuring tool (ruler), you can use a mathematic forumla
for regular shapes. Displacement for irregular shapes.

Voume of a gas: Measure the volume of the container it holds.

Explain why swimmers float better in salt water than in fresh water?

Swimmers float better in salt water because the density of salt water is greater than
that of fresh water. This means that the particles of salt water are packed together
more tightly and can therefore support more weight per volume than fresh water.

What piece of scientific equipment is used to measure liquid density?

The piece of scientific equipment used to measure liquid density is called a


Chapter 6 Notes
Chapter 6.1:

Define pressure.

The force acting perpendicular to a certain surface area

What unit is used to measure pressure? B) what is another way to express

this unit?

The unit used to measure pressure is called a pascal. It can also be Newtons per
square meter (N/m )2

B) a kilopascal is equal to 1000 Pa.

Explain why fluid pressure varies with depth in a) liquids and b) gases.
Refer to the example in class. The higher you go in the atmosphere, the lower the air
pressure. If you were an airplane high in the sky, the air pressure would be less (air is
a fluid, therefore its fluid pressure would be less as well.) If you were a submarine in
the ocean, you would experience high air pressure (or fluid pressure) because there
is more weight from the atomosphere on top of you.

Also refer to diagram drawn in class.

Why do you think airplane cabins are pressurized? If an airplane door were
to happen at a high altitude, in which direction would the air move- into or
out of the airplane? Why?

Airplane cabins are pressurized because it is very difficult to breath at high altitudes.
Pressurizing a cabin can help to make breathing easier, and can make the cabin
warmer than it actually would be at such a high altitude.

If the airplane door opened, the air would move out of the airplane because the
pressure inside of the plane is greater than the pressure outside of the plane. It’s like
releasing air from a balloon, essentially.

Chapter 6. 2

In which direction is pressure exerted in a fluid at rest?

Pressure exerted in a fluid at rest is directed perpendicular to the walls of the


Pipelines are used to transport liquids such as natural gas. Why are these
pipelines made wth few bends and kept free of dirt and rust?

Friction is caused when there is rough surfaces (dirt/rust) and there are too many
bends. This can affect fluid pressure.

What are the names of the two blood pressure readings? What does each
reading indicate?

The two blood pressure readings are “systole” and “diastole”. The systole reading
indicates the maximum pressure and the diastole reading indicates minimum

Doctors remove all the air from a needle before inserting the tip of the
needle into a patient’s blood vessel. Why do you think an air bubble in the
bloodstream would be dangerous?

An air bubble can prevent blood flow from the heart to different organs/places of the
body. This also prevents proper oxygen distribution to parts of the body.

Chapter 6.3:

Why do the sides of a juice box bucle when you suck the juice out through a
If the inside of a closed container experiences a lower air pressure than the air
pressure pushing on the outside, the walls of the container will buckle and cave in. In
other words, the lower air pressure inside the container does not balance the higher
air pressure outside the container. This results in an unbalanced force, the force of
atmospheric pressure, which pushes on the walls towards the inside of the container.
You may have noticed this imbalance when drinking juice from a juice box. The straw
makes such a tight seal that as you draw the juice up the straw and reduce the air
pressure inside the juice box, the box buckles inward. The air pressure outside the
juice box pushes the walls of the box together.

Name 2 devices used to measure the pressure of a gas.

Mercury barometers and aneroid barometers.

On what property of gases is a pneumatic system based? B) how do this

property help pneumatics do their work?

The property is compression.

Compressors, devices that compress air, are needed for pneumatics devices to
operate. Air pressure builds up in these devices. As the pressure in the device is
released, the compressed air decompresses. In other words, the particles start to
move apart suddenly, creating a strong, steady force that can perform powerful

Which do you think would produce more fizz when opened: a bottle with a
twist off cap or one that has a bottle cap? Explain your answer.

A bottle cap would produce more fizz when opened because the bottle cap is secured
before the pressure is released. The strength of the bottle and cap prevents a loss of
pressure. If you open a bottle of pop quickly, however, the pressure in side the bottle
is released suddenly and the carbon dioxide escapes rapidly from the solution,
forming fizz. The more quickly you open the bottle, the more fizz is produced.