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Presentado por:
• Ing. Edwin Pozo S.

23 de julio del 2018 - Riobamba

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The options visible in the “Analysis Systems” are ready-made
left-hand column show all stencils that include all the
the products (systems) individual systems (applications)
you have licenses for. needed for common analyses (for
TIP: If this list appears example Geometry + Mesh + Solver
empty, you have a + Post-Processor)
problem with your

“Component Systems” are the

individual building-blocks for each
stage of the analysis
“Design Exploration”
provides tools for
optimising designs and
understanding the
parametric response.
. . . File Location on Disk
. . . Use of Archive / Restore
. . . Working With Parameters
. . . Working With Units
. . . License Preferences
A. Basic Analysis Procedure
A finite element analysis is used to determine the response of a system based on
some type of loading.
 It is important to remember that a finite element solution is an approximation:
 CAD geometry is an idealization of the physical model.
 The mesh is a combination of discrete “elements” representing the geometry.
 The accuracy of answers is determined by various factors, one of which is the mesh

CAD Model Finite Element Mesh

D. Toolbars
 The “Standard” toolbar is shown below (details will
be covered later):


A. Activate the Mechanical Wizard.

B. Object Generator.
C. Solve.
D. Populate the message windows with the LMB RMB
appropriate error message for any tree objects that
are not properly defined.
E. Create slice planes, annotations, charts and tables.
F. Add comments and figures to the tree.
G. Activate optional Worksheet view.
H. Activate selection information window.
Box Lasso
… Scoping Loads & Supports
… Geometry
Solid bodies are geometrically and spatially 3D or 2D:
 3D solids are meshed by default with higher-order tetrahedral or hexahedral solid elements with
quadratic shape functions.

 Each node in a 3D element has three translational degrees of freedom (DOF) for structural or one
temperature DOF for thermal.

3D Solids 3D Element Hex Element Tet Element

… Geometry
• 2D solids are meshed by default with higher order trianglular or quadrilateral solid elements with quadratic
shape functions.
– The “2D” switch must be set on the Project page prior to importing geometry.
• Each node in a 2D element has two translational degrees of freedom (UX and UY) for structural or one
temperature DOF for thermal.
• 2D solids are used to represent three types of 3D geometry, “Axisymmetric”, “Plane stress” and “Plane strain”.

Plane strain cross section

2D Solids
Axisymmetric cross 2D Solids
Plane stress cross section section
… Geometry
 Surface bodies are geometrically 2D but spatially 3D:
 Surface bodies represent structures which are thin in one dimension (through the thickness).
Thickness is not modeled but supplied as an input value.
 Surface bodies are meshed with shell elements having six DOF (UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ).
 Line bodies are geometrically 1D but spatially 3D:
 Line bodies represent structures which are thin in two dimensions. The cross-section is not modeled,
it is mapped on to the line body.
 Line bodies are modeled with beam elements having six DOF (UX, UY, UZ, ROTX, ROTY, ROTZ).

Line Body
Surface Body
Meshing in Mechanical

A. Global Meshing Controls

… Global Meshing Controls

Curvature = 20 Curvature = 75
… Global Meshing Controls

Element A Element B

Kept Dropped
B. Local Meshing Controls
Meshing Methods
• Meshing Methods available for 3D bodies
– Automatic
– Tetrahedrons
• Patch Conforming
• Patch Independent
– MultiZone
• Mainly hexahedral elements
– Hex dominant
– Sweep

• Meshing Methods available for 2D bodies

– Automatic Method (Quad Dominant)
– Triangles
Triangle (Tri) Quadrilateral (Quad)
– Uniform Quad/Tri
– Uniform Quad
Patch Conforming

Patch Independent
MultiZone Mesh


Surface Body Methods:
• Quadrilateral Dominant (default): attempts to mesh with as
many quad elements as possible, fills in with triangles.

• Triangles: all triangular shapes are used.

• MultiZone Quad/Tri: Depending on settings, quad or tri shapes

are created using a patch independent algorithm.

Note, each method contains a unique set of options in the details

allowing additional configuration.
Entity Element Size # of Elem. Division Sphere of Influence
Bodies x x
Faces x x
Edges x x x
Vertices x
C. Meshing Troubleshooting
…Mesh Quality Criteria
Users can use display style option in details of mesh. This option able to
display mesh in color by quality metrics
…Mesh Quality Criteria
Example of mesh metric : Element Quality :

This metric is based on the ratio of the volume to the edge length for a
given element

0 1
Bad Perfect

Note : more information on other mesh metrics are in appendix

Other Mesh Quality Criteria
Aspect Ratio : Lengthening of element

1 5-10 20 ∞
Perfect Bad
Other Mesh Quality Criteria

Jacobian Ratio :

1 10 30 ∞
Perfect Bad
Other Mesh Quality Criteria

Warping Ratio :

0 0.1 1 ∞ 0 0.2 0.4 ∞

Perfect Bad Perfect Bad
Other Mesh Quality Criteria

Parallel Deviation :

0 170
Perfect Bad
Other Mesh Quality Criteria

Maximum Corner Deviation :

60 165 90 180
Perfect Bad Perfect Bad
Other Mesh Quality Criteria


 max
 min

0 0.75 1
Perfect Bad
Other Mesh Quality Criteria

Orthogonal Quality :

0 1
Bad Perfect
L. Results and Postprocessing
 Numerous structural results are available:
 Directional and total deformation.
 Components, principal, or invariants of stresses and strains.
 Contact output.
 Reaction forces.
 More . . . .

 In Mechanical, results may be requested before or after solving.

 If you solve a model then request results afterwards, click on the “Solve” button, and the
results will be retrieved (the results file is re-read).
 You can also right click the Solution branch or a new result item and “Evaluate All Results”.
 A new solution is not required.
. . . Results and Postprocessing
 Contour and vector plots are usually shown on the deformed geometry.
Use the Context Toolbar to change settings.
Results can be scoped to various geometry and FE entities as well as named selections.
(note these controls are covered in a later chapter).
. . . Results and Postprocessing
 The deformation of the model can be plotted:
 Total deformation is a scalar quantity:

U total  U x2  U y2  U z2

 The x, y, and z components of deformation can be

requested under “Directional”, in global or local coordinates.
 Vector plots of deformation are available (see below).
. . . Results and Postprocessing
 Stresses and strains:
 Stresses and (elastic) strains have six components
(x, y, z, xy, yz, xz) while thermal strains have three components (x, y, z)
 For stresses and strains, components can be requested under “Normal” (x, y, z) and “Shear” (xy,
yz, xz). For thermal strains, (x, y, z) components are under “Thermal.”
 Principal stresses are always arranged such that s1 > s2 > s3
 Intensity is defined as the largest of the absolute values
 s1 - s2, s2 - s3 or s3 - s1
. . . Results and Postprocessing
 Stress Tool:
Calculates safety factors based on several material
failure theories (4):
 Ductile Theories:
 Maximum Equivalent Stress
 Maximum Shear Stress
 Brittle Theories:
 Mohr-Coulomb Stress
 Maximum Tensile Stress
 Safety factor, safety margin and stress ratio can be plotted.
 User specified failure criteria can be entered.
. . . Results and Postprocessing
 In addition to the standard result items one can insert “user defined” results.
These results can include mathematical expressions and can be combinations of
multiple result items.
 Define in 2 ways:
 Select “User Defined Result” from the solution context menu

 OR - From the Solution Worksheet highlight result > RMB > Create User Defined Result.
. . . Results and Postprocessing
Detailsallow an expression using various basic math
operations as well as square root, absolute value,
exponent, etc..
User defined results can be labeled with a user
 Result legend contains identifier and expression.
. . . Results and Postprocessing
Reaction forces at constraints or contacts can be
obtained using a “Reaction Probe”.
Probes can be inserted manually (like other results) or
constraints/contacts can be drag and dropped onto
the Solution branch as a shortcut.

Drag and Drop

. . . Results and Postprocessing
After a static structural solve, you have to check results. A check consists of verify the
static equilibrium:
Fapplied = Freaction
Reaction probes have to be used to calculate static equilibrium.
example : : Acceleration : Fy=m*a => Fy=6.08 N Freaction :

Drag and Drop

M. Linear vs Non Linear solve
In a linear analysis, the matrix equation [K]{x}={F} is solved in one iteration. That means the
model stiffness does not change during solve : [K] is constant.

A non linear solve allow stiffness changes and uses an iterative process to solve the problem.
In a static structural analysis, ANSYS runs a non linear solve automatically when the model
contains :

- Non linear material laws : Plasticity, Creep, Gasket, Viscoelasticity …

- Non linear contact : Frictionless, Rough, Frictional
- Large deflection turned « ON» F F KT
- Compression only support K
- Joints
- Bolt pretension u u
- Compression only or tension only Spring LINEAR NON LINEAR
A. Basics of Free Vibration
The free vibration analysis procedure is very similar to performing a linear static
analysis, so not all steps will be covered in detail.
Theschematic setup for modal (free vibration) is shown here. Later a prestressed
modal setup will be covered.
B. Theory and Assumptions
The linear equation of motion for free, un-damped vibration is

M u K u  0

Assume harmonic motion:

u   i sinit   i 
u  i2  i sini t  i 
ሷ In the governing equation gives an eigenvalue equation:
Substituting {𝒖} and {𝒖}

 K   M     0
… Theory and Assumptions
Asshown on previous slide, for vibration analysis, the natural circular frequencies i
and mode shapes i are calculated from:

 K    M    0
Assumptions for modal analysis:
 [K] and [M] are constant:
 Linear elastic material behavior is assumed
 Small deflection theory is used, and no nonlinearities included
 [C] is not present, so damping is not included
 {F} is not present, so no excitation of the structure is assumed
 The structure can be constrained or unconstrained
 Mode shapes {} are relative values, not absolute
C. Geometry
 Modal analysis can employ any type of geometry:
 Solid bodies, surface bodies and line bodies.
• The Point Mass feature can be used:
A point mass adds mass without additional flexibility to the structure thus
reducing the natural frequency (K/M)^0.5.
 Material properties: Young’s Modulus, Poisson’s Ratio, and Density are
 Structural and thermal loads are not available in free vibration:
• If no supports (or partial) are present, rigid-body modes will occur at or near 0
• The choice of boundary conditions will affect the mode shapes and
frequencies of the part. Carefully consider how the model is constrained.
G. Vibration with Pre-Stress
While many prestressed modal examples appear in musical instruments (guitar strings,
drum heads, etc.), there are numerous engineering applications where the inclusion of
prestress effects are critical.

Note: while prestressing in tension will cause frequencies to increase, compressive states
can decrease natural frequencies.
. . . Vibration with Pre-Stress
Setup a pre-stressed modal analysis in the schematic by linking a static
structural system to a modal system at the solution level.

• Notice in the modal branch, the structural analysis

result becomes an initial condition.
. . . Vibration with Pre-Stress
 Thestress state of a structure under influences the modal
solution by modifying the stiffness of the structure.

K xo   F   o   S 
A linear static analysis A stress stiffness matrix is
is performed calculated from the
structural analysis

K  S    i
M i   0
The original free vibration equation is
modified to include the [S] term
A. Basics of Steady-State Heat

Later Transfer
The schematic setup for a steady-state (static) thermal analysis is shown here.
in this chapter we will shown the procedure for setting up a coupled thermal structural analysis.
. . . Basics of Steady-State Heat
For a steady-state (static) thermal analysis in Mechanical, the temperatures {T} are
solved for in the matrix below:

K T T   QT 
 Assumptions:
 No transient effects are considered in a steady-state analysis
 [K] can be constant or a function of temperature
 {Q} can be constant or a function of temperature
 Fixed temperatures represent constraints {T} on the system (like fixed displacements on
is important to remember these assumptions related to performing thermal
analyses in Mechanical.
B. Geometry
 In thermal analyses all body types are supported:
 Solid, surface, and line bodies.
 Line bodies cross-section and orientation is defined within DesignModeler or SpaceClaim.
 A “Thermal Mass” feature is available for use in transient analysis (not covered in this course).

 Shell and line body assumptions:

 Shells: temperatures may vary over the surface (no through-thickness temperature
 Line bodies: temperature may vary along the length of the beam (no variation across the
cross section).
… Basics of Linear Buckling
 For a linear buckling analysis, the eigenvalue problem below is solved to get the buckling
load multiplier li and buckling modes yi:

K   li S y i   0
 [K] and [S] are constant:
 Linear elastic material behavior is assumed
 Small deflection theory is used, and no nonlinearities included

 It is important to remember these assumptions related to performing linear buckling

analyses in Mechanical.