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The YalongYL-335A is a FMS (Flexible Manufacturing System) is to give insight of

the automatic production trainer liner for installation, materials feed,
processing, assembly, transmission and distribution where each unit adopts
pneumatic drive, frequency converter drive and stepper motor position control

There are five PLCs installed in the system; all can be controlled individually and
one PLC, the main PLC can control the four PLCs

The systems involved in Yalong 335-A are named as:-


The supply unit is to supply materials for other units in the system for the
mechanical arm to catch and transfer to the other units.


The task is to supply the workpiece (small white cylinders) thus there are two
optical sensors that are sensing the workpieces in the workpiece box and
magnetic switches attached on the cylinders. The optical sensors see the
workpiece and resultantly the cylinders push or retract.

Working Concept

if there is no workpiece then the cylinder should be in the retracting position

if the sensor see the workpiece then it should push the workpiece forward.

The proximity sensor used in FMS is more specifically called optical proximity
switch as it works using reflected light. It works as follows :
The light emitter always emits light ,if there is nothing in front of proximity
switch in a certain distance,then no light is reflected to the light receiver,and
proximity switch always is normal and does not act, however if something is in
front of the proximity switch in a certain distance,then the light receiver will
receive the reflected light to make the proximiuty switch act and change output


The purpose of this unit is to catch the work piece transferred from the supply
unit, punch it and return it for the mechanical arm to transfer to the further
The processing unit consists of pneumatic finger that moves forward and
backward installed with a paw to grip and release the workpiece and a
processing (punching) mechanism.
When the system is in idle condition, the status is that the cylinder is extended,
supply pneumatic paw is open.

When the transmission unit transfer the material to this unit, material
detection sensor detects workpiece, PLC control program drive pneumatic
finger tightens the workpiece, the supply unit takes the workpiece inside,
punching cylinder shaft extends to punch workpiece, upward retract, supply
unit extends again, pneumatic finger loosen, workpiece is done and sends
signals to the system, to prepare for next workpiece punching processing


The assembly unit will assemble the cylinder and caps with the help of a
pneumatic finger.

When the transmission unit transfers the work piece to this unit, the task is to
detect the workpiece and pneumatic finger extends down, gets hold of the cap,
extends upward, move forward and place it on the workpiece without faltering
or dropping. Thereby it is ensured that when the pneumatic finger is placing the
cap on workpiece, the next cap is ready and in its place to be picked by the


The distribution unit is the final unit in YL-335A trainer and its purpose is to
distribute the work piece into different slots depending upon the color.
When transmission unit transfers workpiece to the belt of distribution unit
and it is detected by optical sensors, the belt moves and on their way the
workpieces are transferred into lots depending upon colors. In our case
there is just one sensor and detects the white workpiece. When workpiece
is on the belt and is detected by the optical sensor, signals are sent to the
PLC, motor drives transfer belt to transfer workpiece on the belt, if the
workpiece is white, it is pushed into slot 1 and if it is black then it is pushed
into slot 2. Automatic production line is then over.


Inductive sensors use currents induced by magnetic fields to detect nearby

metal objects.

The inductive sensor uses a coil (an inductor) to generate a high

frequency magnetic field as shown in Figure 1 below. If there is a metal
object near the changing magnetic field, current will flow in the object

(An inductor, also called a coil, choke , or reactor, is a passive two-

terminal electrical component that stores energy in a magnetic field
when electric current flows through it. An inductor typically consists of
an insulated wire wound into a coil around a core).

This resulting current flow sets up a new magnetic field that opposes
the original magnetic field.

The net effect is that it changes the inductance of the coil in the
inductive sensor.

By measuring the inductance the senor can determine when a metal have
been brought nearby.


Magnetic Switch

To keep the cylinder stable and reliable, the cylinder throttle valves are
The cylinder throttle valves are for cylinder speed regulation.

The magnetic switches are attached on both cylinders and are adjustable.
Magnetic switch is an electrical switch that switches when a magnetic field
affects it.

The two throttle valves can be adjusted for pulling and retracting the
cylinder both respectively. When you regulate throttle valve A, you can
adjust cylinder speed, when you regulate throttle valve B, you can adjust
cylinder retract speed.

When the cylinder piston shaft moves, the corresponding magnetic switch
will action and send signals. The LED on magnetic switch is used to display
signal status, a big help for debugging. When the magnetic switch acts;
output signal is “1”, LED is on; when does not act, output signals “0”, LED is
Photoelectric sensor /Optical Sensor

A photoelectric sensor emits a light beam (visible or infrared) from its light-
emitting element. A reflective-type photoelectric sensor is used to detect
the light beam reflected from the target
Both the light emitting and light receiving elements are contained in a single
housing. The sensor receives the light reflected from the target.


Servos and Steppers are the names of two different device types used to
control motors. From a distance, both device types can appear similar, as
they both allow a user to control speed, position, and torque.

Steppers are an Open Loop system, meaning that they simply move
incremental pulses. When trying to accelerate too quickly, or if exceeding
the torque, there is a chance at missing steps, which could result in incorrect
positions. Without an encoder in the stepper system, there is no way to
know and correct for the off position

Servos are closed-loop systems, meaning they use an encoder, or resolver,

to provide feedback of the actual position vs the commanded position, the
servo then adjusts the current to control the motor position


Pneumatic actuation refers to a valve being tripped through the use of

compressed air (gas). At a particular point in an industrial or manufacturing
process, compressed air is released, causing a valve to open or close.