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CHAPTER 4 - SKIN AND BODY MEMBRANES ○ Lines all body cavities that open to the exterior

● Mucosa ​refers to the only location of the epithelial membranes

Body Membranes ○ Stratified squamous epithelium (mouth and esophagus)
● Covers surfaces ○ Simple columnar epithelium (rest of the digestive tract)
● Line body cavities ○ All are moist membranes that are continuously bathed in secretions
● Form protective (also lubricating sheets) around organs ○ Epithelium of mucosae is often adapted for absorption or secretion
2 major groups C. Serous membranes (serosa)
1. Epithelial membranes a. Peritoneum - serosa lining the abdominal cavity and covering its
a. Cutaneous membrane organs
b. Mucous membrane b. Pleurae - membranes surrounding the lungs
c. Serous membrane c. Pericardia - membranes surrounding the heart
2. Connective tissue membrane ● Composed of simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin layer of areolar
a. Synovial membranes connective tissue
Cutaneous membrane ● Line body cavities that areclosed to the exterior
● A.k.a skin or integumentary system ● Occurs in pairs
● Outer covering that we rely for protection ○ Parietal layer - lines a specific portion of the wall of the ventral body
CLASSIFICATION OF BODY MEMBRANE ○ Visceral layer - covers the outside of the organ(s) in that cavity
1. Epithelial Tissue ● Serous fluid - a scanny amount of of thin, clear fluid that separates the serous
● A.k.a ​covering ​and ​lining membranes layers; secreted by both membranes
● Cutaneous, Mucous, Merous ● Lubricating serous fluid allows the organs to slide easily across the cavity
○ Epithelial + underlying layer of connective tissue organs walls and one another without friction as they carry out their routine functions
○ Simple Organs ○ Important when the pumping heart and expanding lungs are involved
A. Cutaneous membrane
● Composed of 2 layers: epidermis (stratified squamous epithelium) and dermis
cutaneous Epidermis -stratified
(mostly dense [fibrous] connective tissue squamous epithelium)
● Exposed to air Dermis
● Dry membrane
B. Mucous membrane (mucosa) Mucuous (mucosa) Epithelium Resting on loose
● Composed of epithelium resting on a loose connective tissue membrane connective tissue
called ​lamina propria membrane
● Stratified squamous epithelium
Serous (serosa) Simple squamous Resting on a thin layer of
epithelium areolar connective tissue ● Capable of becoming hard and tough
● Dense connective tissue
2. Connective Tissue Membrane
★ burn/frictions of the layersmay cause them to separate, allowing interstitial
a. Synovial membranes
fluid to accumulate in the cavity between layers​ (blisters)
■ loose areolar connective tissues
a. Subcutaneous tissue hypodermis - adipose fat tissue
■ Contain no epithelial cells at all
● Anchor the skin to underlying organs
■ Line the fibrous capsules surrounding joints (provides smooth
● Provides a site for nutrient storage
surface and secrete a lubricating fluid
● Serves as a shock absorber and insulates the deeper tissues from
■ Also line small sacs of connective tissue ​(bursae)​ and the
extreme temperature changes occurring outside the body
tubelike ​(tendon sheaths)​ - cushion organs moving against
● Responsible for the curves that are part of a woman’s anatomy
each other
● Keratinocytes - most cells of the epidermis
○ Desmosomes - connects keratinocytes
● Appendages - sweat and oil glands, hair, and nails
● Keratin - which keratinocytes produce; fibrous protein that makes the
● Protective function
epidermis a tough protective layer in a process (keratinization)
● Insulates and cushions the deeper body organs
● Avascular - no blood supply of its own (can explain why a man can shave
● Protect the entire body from mechanical damage (bumps/cuts), chemical
damage (acids/bases), thermal damage (heat/cold), UV radiation (sunlight),
and microbes
5 layers (strata/stratum)
● Mini-excretory system
● Corneum
● Manufactures several proteins and synthesizes Vitamin D
● Lucidum
○ Modified cholesterol molecules in the skin are converted to V. D by
● Granulosum
● Spinosum
● Upper layer of the skin is hardened to help prevent water loss
● Basale
● Capillary network & sweat glands - regulates heat loss
Stratum Corneum
● Acid mantle- protects against bacterial invasion
● 20-30 cell layers thick; three-quarters of the epidermis
● cornified/horny cells - shinglelike dead cell remnants
● Its abundance in keratin provides a durable overcoat for the body
1. Epidermis
● Protects deeper cells from the hostile external environment and water loss
● Helps body resist biological, chemical, and physical assaults ● Composed of areolar and dense irregular connective tissue
Stratum Lucidum ● Thick on palms and soles, thin on eyelids
● Found only on thick and hairless skin (palms of the hand/soles of the feet) Papillary layer
Stratum Granulosum ● Superficial dermal region
● Cells are flattened, organelles are deteriorating; cytoplasm is full of granules ● Uneven and has peglike projections from its superior surface (dermal
Stratum Spinosum papillae) which indent the
● Contains thick bundles of intermediate filaments made of pre-keratin
Stratum Basale
● Deepest layer of the epidermis
● Lies closest to the dermis
● Connected to the dermis along a wavy border
● Contains most adequately nourished among the epithelial cells
● Constantly dividing
● A.k.a stratum germinativum
○ Melanin - yellow - brown - black; produced by ​melanocytes;​ found in
the stratum basale
○ Freckles and moles - melanin is concentrated
Epidermal dendritic cells
● Important “sentries” that alert and activate immune system cells to a threat
such as bacterial and viral invasion
Merkel cells
● located at the epidermal-dermal junction
● Associated with sensory nerve endings
● Serves as touch receptors(merkel’s discs)
Human herpesvirus
● Causes cold sores
● Eruption aftersunbathing

1. Papillary layer
2. Reticular layer