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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Background of Provisions
Related to DEF Cracking
Reference Material 1 p.113
Reference Material 2 p.115
Reference Material 4 p.129

Shunsuke HANEHARA
Iwate University

JCI-RILEM International Workshop, CONCRACK5, April 24-26, 2017, Japan 1


JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Mechanism of Delayed Ettringite


Formation

referred from Reference Material 1

JCI-RILEM International Workshop, CONCRACK5, April 24-26, 2017, Japan 2


JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Ettringite
One of the cementitious hydrates
formula: 3CaO・Al2O3・3CaSO4・32H2O
It is called and written as AFt

In early hydration stage of cement paste,


Interstitial phase (mainly C3A phase) is reacted
with water and gypsum.
Ettringite is formed as niddle-like crystal.

Important Role of Ettringite formation in early


stage,
Early hydration reactions to prevent flash
setting, improve strength development, and
reduce drying shrinkage.

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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016
Mechanism of DEF
・DEF(Delayed Ettringite Formation):
Generally, delayed ettringite formation (DEF) is recognized as
expansion deterioration of concrete due to internal sulfate attack
(ISA: Internal Sulfate Attack). “ISA” is defined as the
phenomena whereby ettringite, which is dissolved during steam
curing or heated at high temperature, is regenerated and causes
expansion, cracking and stiffness reduction in cement hardened
bodies.
Early Ettringite Formation

Ettringite Formation External Sufate Attack (ESA)


ex. Thaumasite Deterioration
Delayed Ettringite Formation

Internal Sufate Attack (ISA)


Narrow sense: DEF
JCI-RILEM International Workshop, CONCRACK5, April 24-26, 2017, Japan 4
JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Formation of Ettringite(AFt)

3CaO・Al2O3 3[CaSO4・2H2O]
(Aluminate phase) + (Gypsum or Calcium sulfate) + H2O

In a day
Decomposition of 3CaO・Al2O3・3CaSO4・32H2O
Ettringite formed (Ettringite: AFt)

×
at early age by
heat treatment at The reaction is irreversible
high temperature
3CaO・Al2O3・CaSO4・12H2O After 1 day
(Monosulfate hydrate :AFm)
(Ettrengite:AFt)
formed again:DEF
JCI-RILEM International Workshop, CONCRACK5, April 24-26, 2017, Japan 5
Role of C-S-H
JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Expantion by DEF

Heating at high temperature: Sulfate ion eluted from Ettringite


phase is adsorbed by C-S-H

After heating and placed in water: sulfate ion released into


pore solution
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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Occurring condition on DEF


JCI-RILEM International Workshop, CONCRACK5, April 24-26, 2017, Japan 7
JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Influence of temperature on expansion of DEF


3.0

2.5
90℃
2.0 80℃
Expansion(%)

70℃
1.5 60℃
55℃
1.0 50℃
20℃
0.5

0.0
0 50 100 150 200 250
Age(days)
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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Influence of sulfate added on DEF expansion

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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Influence of type of cement on DEF

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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Occurrence factors of DEF and cracking caused by DEF

・Water contact:
Water plays a fundamental role in the reaction progress of DEF
・High temperature:
When the maximum temperature reaches or exceeds 70°C at
early stage, DEF is more likely to occur.
・Sulfate and alumina content in cement:
The sulfate and aluminate content in cement directly contributes
to the reaction mechanism of ettringite generation.

・Alkali content in concrete: Ettringite is associated with


a high outbreak probability of DEF because solubility rises when
concrete includes high alkali content and is exposed to high
temperature.
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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Expansion mechanism of DEF expansion

・Crystal growth theory


・Swelling theory

☞ the detailed mechanisms remain to be elucidated.

It is necessary to investigate
the influence of the behavior of water in the ettringite
crystal structure, temperature and relative humidity around
ettringite deposition locations,
the influence of coexistent materials such as C-S-H, and
the interaction between C-S-H and sulfate.
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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Stability of Sulfoaluminate hydrate

Effects図of1.3.2
temperature on SO42- concentration
エトリンガイトと水酸化カルシウム
Effects of temperature on SO42- concentration
図 1.3.3 モノサルフェートと水酸化カルシ
which が安定となる
enable ettringite and calcium hydroxide which enable mono-sulfate hydrate and
SO42-濃度に及ぼす温度の影響 ウムが安定となる SO42-濃度に及ぼす温度
to be stable (solid lines show stable ranges) calcium hydroxide to be stable (solid lines
(実線は両者が安定な範囲を示す) の影響(実線は両者が安定な範囲を示す)
show stable ranges)
Mono sulfate hydrate is stable and easily formed as the result
of ettringite decomposition under high temperature and high
alkali concentration
JCI-RILEM International Workshop, CONCRACK5, April 24-26, 2017, Japan 13
JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

☞ The occurrence of DEF is strongly


affected by temperature, but the alkali
content (meaning the equivalent alkali
content, Na2Oeq, which is also called
R2O), SO3 content, and C3A content also
affect the occurrence of DEF depending
on the conditions.

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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Examples of Deteriorated
Structures Due to DEF around
the World
(referred from Reference
materials 2)

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2.1 France
JCI Guidelines
LCPC forCentral
(Laboratoire ControldesofPonts
Cracking of Masscurrently
et Chaussées), Concrete 2016
known as IFSTTAR (French Institute of
Science and Technology for Transport, Development and Networks), has carried out extensive field surveys of
bridges deteriorated by DEF in France [1][2]. Table 1 lists examples of such deteriorated bridges, and a
number of these examples are described in greater detail later. For reference, Table 2 also shows the
Deteriorated Structures Due to DEF in France
compositions of CEM I and CEM II specified in EU standards.

Table 1 Summary of deteriorated bridges [1]


Bridges A B C D E F
Year built (year) 1955 1990 1980 1988 1982 1988-89
Placing time (month) 8 8-9 8-9 8-9 8 7-8
Main tower
Deteriorated member Cap beam Cap beam Pier Cap beam Pier foundation
foundation
Duration until deterioration
detected (year) 27 6 9 10 10 8
poor quality
submerged, shortage of submerged, rainfall, water
Environment of water rainfall
wet and dry drainage wet and dry absorption
tightness
Maximum temperature
80 79 80 80 69 75
(°C)
W/C (%) 50 45 47 54 49 48
Type of cement CEM I CEM I CEM I CEM II/A CEM I CEM II/A
Unit cement content (kg/m3) 430 400 400 380 350 385
SO3 content (%) 2.5 2.8 2.6 2.5 3.4 2.5
C3A content (%) 11.2 8.2 9.8 7.0 10.4 7.0

Data from LCPC (Laboratoire


Table Central
2 Classification des Ponts
of cement based et
onChaussées),
compositions currently
(EN197-1: known
2011) as IFSTTAR
(French Institute of Science and Technology for Transport, Development Compositionand Networks),
(weight %)
Type of cement Name Notation Main ingredient Possible
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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

(1)Cap Beam (bridge A)

•Size:1.5×8.2×2.7m
•Cracking state: Map and network cracking 0.1mm-several mm
•27years after construction and cast in August.
•at 70°C or higher during about 70 hours by FEM
•Water contact: directly exposed to rainfall and water dripping from the footpaths.
• Cement:CEM I、W/C:50%、content of cement:430kg/m3
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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016
(2) Main tower foundation (Bridge B)

•Size:11.9×3.0×6.5m
•Cracking state: Cracking 0.1mm-1mm on water level part
• 6 years after construction
• easy contaction to water
•CEM I 52.5N, the cement content 350 kg/m3, W/C: 0.45
•Remained at 70°C or higher during 6 days and cast in August and September

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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

(3)Pier Foundation (Bridge F)

•Size:3.2×3.9×4.0m (The total length of the bridge is 1,562 m.)


•Cracking state: Map and network cracking less than 0.6mm
•8years after construction
•Under ground
•Evaluated to reach at 75°C or higher cast in August 1988 (maxium temperature
30°C
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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Data provided by Dr. F. Toutlemonde /IFSTTAR ,


member of this committee member,

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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

2.2 Case in United Kingdom (Pier and wing wall)

ØWater comes from ground


• high cement content (>500 kg/m3)
•Cracking like network
• 8 to 25 years after construction
•Construction in Summer (Maximum temp 85~95℃)
JCI-RILEM International Workshop, CONCRACK5, April 24-26, 2017, Japan 21
JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016 Temperature rise of
12°C through 14°C
per cement content unit
of 100 kg/m3.
For concrete products,
a curing temperature of
70°C or under is
recommended.

Aggregate
AFt: Ettringite

SEM image of concrete core from concrete structure (magnification 400)


Countermeasure for prevention of DEF expansion by BCA
(control of maximum temp.)
Temp. of fresh concrete (℃) 10 15 20 25 30

Maximum content of cement (kg/m3) 500 470


JCI-RILEM International Workshop, CONCRACK5, April 24-26, 2017, Japan 440 400 360 22
JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

2.4 Case in USA (high way pier)

•Mixture of ASR and DEF detrioration


•Cracking was observed 10 years after
•Cement ASTM Type III high early strength cement
•Maximum temp: 80℃
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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

コアの反射電⼦像

AFt
Aggregate
AFt

60μm 90μm
DEF
DEF and ASR

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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

2.6 Sri lanka (Cap beam)

ØLimitation of maximum temperature of concrete in Sri Lanka


・lower than 70℃ for ordinary Portland cement
・lower than 75℃ for flyash cement (more than 20%)
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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Limit Values of Concrete


Temperature for Verification
of DEF Cracking
(referred from Reference Material 4)

JCI-RILEM International Workshop, CONCRACK5, April 24-26, 2017, Japan 26


JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

In this presentation, the limit value of the maximum temperature of


concrete without DEF cracking is studied, and the possibility of
increasing the limit value of the maximum temperature is also studied
to summarize the grounds for the concept specified in the Guidelines.

Although there are no clear reports on the occurrence of DEF


cracking in mass concrete in Japan, DEF cracking might occur
anytime in view of the current situation in other countries.

Therefore, we collected as much data both in Japan and from abroad


and proposed a limit value for the maximum temperature of concrete
for the prevention of DEF cracks. The limit value proposed will
require study based on the accumulation of sufficient data in the
future, and we would aim to further increase the reliability of the
value in the years ahead.

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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Occurring condition on DEF


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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016
From the papers to find the limitation of maximum
temperature on DEF cracking
Influence of the maximum temperature of concretereferences[1]-[10]
reference[1] 5.0
SO3: 3.91~29.9kg/m3
4.5 R2O: 0.90~6.91kg/m3
4.0 C3A: 2~11.2%
セメントの種類;早強,普通,中庸熱,
3.5
Expansion(%)

低熱,高炉B,低熱高炉,フライアッシュB,
C3A:8%

Expansion(%)
TypeⅠ,TypeⅢ,CEMⅠ,CEMⅡ
3.0

膨張量 (%)
C4AF:7%
C3A/C4AF:1.1 2.5
R2O:3.63kg/m3 2.0
SO3:11.8kg/m3 1.5
1.0
0.5
Age (days)
0.0
Fig. Influence of maximum temperature
20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
on expansion by DEF
最高温度 (℃)
Maximum temperature of concrete (℃)

DEF expansion may generate at over 70℃, Higher temperature


than 70 ℃, expansion becomes earlier and larger.
29
JCI-RILEM International Workshop, CONCRACK5, April 24-26, 2017, Japan 29
JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016
Specification to prevent DEF
In France, in order to prevent cracking due to DEF, the maximum
concrete temperature of 65°C is recommended in accordance with
the importance of structure and exposure conditions, which is in
the case of important structure in long-lasting contact with water.

ACI 301 committee reported that the long term durability of only
certain concretes can be affected by deleterious chemical reactions
if the concrete temperatures exceed 70°C (it seems to be DEF
while DEF is rare).

It is noted in the JSCE standard that the potential of DEF becomes


high if the concrete temperature exceeds 90°C and as for precast
concrete products for civil engineering, maximum temperature of
steam curing is limited less than 65°C to take account of making
thermal cracks in concrete .
JCI-RILEM International Workshop, CONCRACK5, April 24-26, 2017, Japan 30
JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016
Standard and code in the world concerning to maximum temperature
of concrete for preventing DEF cracking.

Maximum temperature for preventing DEF cracking is specified under 65℃ or 70℃.

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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Influences of chemical compound(SO3) on DEF Cracking

The larger the amount of alkali sulfate added, the larger the expansion amount.
It suggests that the promotion of decomposition of ettringite by alkali and the
increase in the amount of initial ettringite produced by SO3 have a large effect on
DEF expansion.
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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Stability of Sulfoaluminate hydrate

Effects図of1.3.2
temperature on SO42- concentration
エトリンガイトと水酸化カルシウム
Effects of temperature on SO42- concentration
図 1.3.3 モノサルフェートと水酸化カルシ
which が安定となる
enable ettringite and calcium hydroxide which enable mono-sulfate hydrate and
SO42-濃度に及ぼす温度の影響 ウムが安定となる SO42-濃度に及ぼす温度
to be stable (solid lines show stable ranges) calcium hydroxide to be stable (solid lines
(実線は両者が安定な範囲を示す) の影響(実線は両者が安定な範囲を示す)
show stable ranges)
Mono sulfate hydrate is stable and easily formed as
the result of ettringite decomposition under high
JCI-RILEM International Workshop, CONCRACK5, April 24-26, 2017, Japan
temperature and high alkali concentration 33
JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Influence of chemical composition of cement on DEF cracking

less than More than HPC WPC OPC


0.1% 0.1% BFS C FA C
1年間の膨張量 1年間の膨張量 MPC
expansion
が0.1%未満 expansion
が0.1%以上
one year one year Reference[1]-[9]
In the case of more than 3kg/m3 of
R2O or more than 9kg/m3 of SO3 in concrete (m3),
some concrete may expand and the other may not expand, In the case of less than
3kg/m3 of R2O and less than 9kg/m3 of concrete, all of concrete may not expand.
Concrete with MPC, BFS C and FAC may not expand.
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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016
Influence of DEFIndex, SO3 and Al2O3

Expansion (mm/m)
(SO3)2/Al2O3(activ)

(SO3)2/Al2O3(activ)
Reference[14] Reference[2]

DEFindex≧1.1 Some Risk of DEF cracking (SO3)2/Al2O3(activ)≧2 Some Risk of DEF cracking

Type of cement (Japan) R2O(%) SO3(%) DEF Index (SO3)2/Al2O3


HPC 0.75 3.5 0.99 2.55
OPC 0.75 3.0 0.75 1.73
DEFindex and (SO3)2/Al2O3(activ) are proposed overseas as the risk index for DEF
cracking. In this table, limit value of cement specified in JIS standard is used and both
value are calculated. HPC may have potential of risk of cracking.
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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Influence of types of cement on DEF cracking


OPC
HPC
WPC Mineral and Chemical composition of cement
MPC
FA C Type of C3A C4AF C3A/ R2O SO3
BFS C
Expansion(%)

cement (%) (%) C4AF (kg/m3) (kg/m3)


OPC 8 8 1 3.67 8.76
HPC 8 7 1.1 3.63 11.8
WPC 12 1 12 3.63 11.8

MPC 5 8 0.63 3.63 8.76


Age(days) Reference[2]

DEF expansions of mortar prepared with HPC, WPC and OPC with
much amount of C3A to form AFt at early hydration stage are
observed. Mortar prepared with MPC which has less content of C3A
and FA C and BFS C may not expand.
36
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JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016
Influence of blastfurnace slag and fly ash on preventing
DEF cracking
Blank
Expansion(%)

Packed
Wet air
In water
Packed
Packed
Age (days) In water

Blank
Expansion(%)
Expansion(%)

Reference[13]

Addition of 40% BFS or 20% Fly ash are


effective to prevent DEF cracking.
Blastfurnace slag blended cement with
gypsum of high SO3/Al2O3 molar ratio is also
effective to prevent DEF expansion.
2016/11 37
JCI-RILEM International Workshop, CONCRACK5, April 24-26, 2017, Japan
Age (days) 37
Reference[12]
Proposal
JCI Guidelines of maximum
for Control of Cracking oftemperature of concrete
Mass Concrete 2016 to
prevent DEF cracking.
More than 80℃ of maximum temperature Less than 70℃ of maximum temperature
8
膨張量<0.1% 8.0
less than 0.1% 70℃(0.1%以下)
7 膨張量≧0.1%
More than 0.1% 70℃(0.1%以上)
7.0 65℃(0.1%以下)
6 65℃(0.1%以上) (0.80%)
6.0 Type of cement:
セメントの種類;普通,TypeⅢ,
R2O量 (kg/m3)

TypeⅠ,CEMⅠ
5 HPC, NPC, TypeI, (0.20%)
5.0

R2O量 (kg/m3)
TypeIII,CEMI
(0.80%)
4 4.0 【%】 expansion
( )は膨張量 (0.66%)
3 3.0
2 2.0
セメント種類:
Type of cement:
1 早強・普通・Type I・III・CEM I・IR
HPC, NPC, TypeI, TypeIII,CEMI 1.0
最高温度:80℃~90℃
Max Temp: 80-90℃
0 0.0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0
SO3 量 (kg/m3) Reference[1]-[9] SO3量 (kg/m3) Reference[1]-[9]

In case of concrete prepared with more than 3kg/m3 of R2O or more than 9kg/m3of
SO3may expand by DEF⇒Limitation of maximum temperature must be less than 70℃
In case of concrete prepared with more than 4kg/m3 of R2O and more than 17kg/m3of
SO3may expand by DEF⇒Limitation of maximum temperature must be less than 65℃
(in case of less than 3kg/m3 of R2O and less than 9kg/m3of SO3, Limitation of
maximum temperature may be less than 80℃)
JCI-RILEM International Workshop, CONCRACK5, April 24-26, 2017, Japan 38
JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016
Proposal of maximum temperature of concrete to
prevent DEF cracking (II)
65-80℃ of maximum temperature 80-90℃ of maximum temperature
8 8
less than 0.1%
膨張量<0.1% 65℃以上~80℃以下 less than 0.1%
膨張量<0.1%
80℃超~90℃以下
7 More than 0.1% 7 膨張量≧0.1%
More than 0.1%
膨張量≧0.1%
6 6

R2O量 (kg/m3)
R2O量 (kg/m3)

5 5

4 4

3 3

2 2

1 1
Reference[1]-[10] Reference[1]-[10]
0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
SO3量 (kg/m )
3
SO3量 (kg/m )
3

In case of less than 3kg/m3 of R2O and less than 9kg/m3of SO3 and less than 80℃ of
maximum temperature, all of concrete may not expand. In case of less than 3kg/m3 of
R2O and less than 9kg/m3of SO3 and 80-90℃ of maximum temperature, some
concrete may expand.
⇒It is difficult to raise the limitation of maximum temperature to 90℃.
39
JCI-RILEM International Workshop, CONCRACK5, April 24-26, 2017, Japan 39
JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016
Proposal of limitation of maximum temperature
of concrete at early age to prevent DEF cracking
(1)In case of using HPC and OPC
Ø Concrete prepared with more than 4kg/m3 of R2O and more than
17kg/m3of SO3may expand by DEF⇒less than 65℃
Ø Concrete prepared with more than 3kg/m3 of R2O or more than
9kg/m3of SO3may expand by DEF⇒less than 70℃
Ø In case of less than 3kg/m3 of R2O and less than 9kg/m3of
SO3⇒less than 80℃

(2)In case of using MPC and LPC


Ø Maximum temperature of concrete ⇒ less than 80℃
(3)In case of using BFS cement of more than 40% slag or FA
cement of more than 20% fly ash
Ø Maximum temperature of concrete ⇒ less than 80℃
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Influence
JCI Guidelines of SO3-Rof2Cracking
for Control O-C3Aofon Expansion
Mass by
Concrete 2016 DEF (HPC)
8 35
less than 0.1%
膨張量<0.1% HPC , Type III, CEM IR
早強・Type III・CEM IR less than 0.1%
膨張量<0.1% HPC , Type III, CEM IR
早強・Type III・CEM IR
7 More膨張量≧0.1%
than 0.1% 30 More than 0.1%
膨張量≧0.1%

6
25
R2O (kg/m3)

SO3 (kg/m3)
5
20
4
15
3
2 10

1 5

0 0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 5 10 15
SO3 (kg/m3) C3A (%)

8
less than 0.1% HPC , Type III, CEM IR
In the range of 2% - 12% C3A, Concrete
膨張量<0.1% 早強・Type III・CEM IR
7 More than 0.1%
膨張量≧0.1% with 2% of C3A cement may be expanded
6 more than 0.1%.
Since Concrete expands even below 8% of
R2O (kg/m3)

5
4 C3A in cement, which is the threshold
3
value in France, it is difficult to propose
2
C3A content threshold at this stage.
1
0
0 5 10 15
JCI-RILEM International Workshop, CONCRACK5, April 24-26, 2017, Japan
C3A (%) 41
JCI Guidelines for Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2016

Thank you very much


for your kind attention.

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