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Guidance is a process of dynamic interpersonal relationships designed to influence the

attitudes and subsequent behavior of a person. (Good)
Guidance is assistance made available by personally qualified and adequately trained
personnel to an individual of any age to help him manage his own life activities, make his
own decisions and carry his own burdens. (Crow and Crow)
Guidance is a educational service designed to help students make more effective use of
the schools training programme. (Educational point of view)

Elements of guidance:

- It focuses our attention on the individual and not the problem.

- Guidance leads to the discovery of abilities of an individual.
- Guidance is based upon the assets and limitation of an individual.
- Guidance helps the individual to plan wisely for the present and the future.
- Guidance assists the individual to become adjusted to the environment.
- Guidance assists to achieve success and happiness.
- It focuses to improve student’s capacity related to Educational, Social, Moral,
Emotional, Vocational, health, Leisure activities.

Nature of guidance:

It is assistance made available by competent counselors to an individual of any age to

help him direct his own life, develop his own point of view, make his own decisions,
carry his own burdens. (Crow and Crow)
The aspect of educational programme which is concerned specially with helping the
pupil to become adjusted to his present situation and to plan his future in line with his
interests, abilities and social needs. (Hamrin and Erikson view)
Guidance involves personal help given by someone: it is designed to assist a person to
decide where he wants to go, what he want to do, or how she can best accomplish his
purpose: it assists him to solve the problem that arise in the life. (Jones)

Characteristics of guidance:

- It is a process as, it help every individual to help himself to recognize and use his
inner resources to set a goal, to make a plan and to work out his own problems of
- It is a continuous process: Guidance has to be provided throughout life cycle of
the individuals.
- Choice and problem points are the distinctive concern
- Guidance is service meant for all: it is a regular service, which is required at every
stage for every for every student, it is a positive programme geared to meet the
need s of all students.
- It is both generalized and specialized service

Principles of guidance

The sum total of effort and influence of all those who assists and individual through
association, counsel dissemination of fact common employment of appropriate
special technique and control f environment to reach his optimum personal, social,
vocational, culture and spiritual development.
- Guidance service which are aimed at bringing about desirable adjustment in any
particular area of experience must be taken into account the all round
development of the individual
- Individual differ in native capacity, abilities and interest. Individual difference
must be recognized and consider in any effort aimed at providing help or guidance
to a particular individual.
- Existing social, Economic and political unrest is giving rise to many
maladjustment factor that require the corporation of experience.
- Individual face problem throughout their lives. Life is dynamic. World is fast
changing. Individual require help for the solution o0f the problem.
- Curriculum material and teaching procedure should be based on guidance point of
- Guidance touches every phase of an individual life pattern
- Parents and teacher have guided pointed responsibility
- Specific guidance problems on any age level should be referred to person who are
trained to deal with particular area of adjustment.
- Organized guidance programme should be flexible according to individual and
community needs.
- Guidance is slow process. And individual can not make decision and adjustment
in a day or month or so.
- Guidance is developing the insight of an individual. The counsellor should help
the individual in such a way that he gain his own insight, accept responsibility,
develop the feeling of self confidence and ultimately makes his own decision.
- Impress all the students that their service of the guidance worker are available to
- Counsellor must be aware of the difference between symptom and cause.
- Personality of an individual is a complex and integrated whole.
- Guidance is a based on a right code of ethics. Establish and follow a rigid code
o0f ethics by every worker who has access to the confidence of the students.
- Guidance service must be an integral part of the school organization.
- Guidance is an organized service, Guidance is not an incidental activities of the
- Guidance is both a specialized and a generalize service, guidance require the help
of the specially trained staff for its proper functioning
- Guidance is universal and meant for all.
- Guidance service should supplement and complement instructional work.
Need for the guidance

Guidance based upon the facts that, human being need help. Every one needs assistance
at some time in his life some will need it constantly the need for guidance is universal as
it is not confined to a few individual or a few countries-
a) Complex nature of society: Changes have taken place in the entire structure of our
economic, social and political system. The process of Consumption, production,
distribution, exchange etc.
b) Individual differences: No two human beings have ever been found to be alike.
The requirements of various occupations also differ, this make increasingly
necessary to have a definite provision for certain form of guidance.
c) Welfare state and the individual: every individual must be help in every way and
in every direction.
d) Changed industrial and education pattern of the country: Attempts are being made
to change the educational system of our country. The problems of selection of
subject and vocation are formidable problems.
e) Changed economic pattern of the country: The country is in the era of economy,
Planning. We require- Scientists, Bankers etc. to meet the growing demands of a
progressive country.
f) Conservation of human energy: Well planned guidance is required to conserve the
human energy. Improvements of vocational efficiency are the aims of education.
Guidance is required for better family life like right attitude toward home and
understanding of relation of fundamental emotional ways.

Types of guidance

Guidance is the continuous process and it deal with the all aspects of life.
1. W.M Procters view:
- Educational guidance
- Vocational guidance
- Guidance in social and civic activities
- Guidance in health ad physical activities
- Guidance in the worthy use of leasure time
- Guidance in chracre building activities
2. John M Brewer in his famous book education and guidance describe the type of
guidance as
- Educational guidance
- Vocational guidance
- Guidance for home relationship
- Guidance forr citizenship
- Guidance for leisure and recreation
- Guidance un personal well being
- Guidance in right doing
- Guidance I thoughtfulness and cooperation
- Guidance in wholesome and cultural activities
3. Peterson Etals view
- Educational guidance
- Vocational guidance
- Personal guidance like Social, emotional; and leisure time guidance
- Health guidance
- Economic guidance
4. Nursing educator view
- Group guidance
- Counselling
- Guidance in clinical area

1. Educational guidance
It is a process concern with bringing about between and individual pupil with his
distinctive characteristics on the one hand, and differing groups of opportunities
and requirement in the other and favorable setting for the individual development
of the education.
a) Harmony between the unique potentiality of the pupil and the
opportunities, which are available to him, it deals with the help needed by
individual for his educational development with a view to make himself
useful in the society.
b) It is concern with the students, successing his educational carrier. It relates
to his student adjustment to the school and to the preparation and carrying
out suitable educational plan I keeping with his educational needs, abilities
and carrier interest. It includes the adjustive phase which involves for the
students a liking for the understanding and suitable adaptation and its
purposes. it provide suitable information about courses curriculum,
requirement foe education and entrance to institution that offer advance
preparation to the students. It gives information to student that is helpful in
making the desirable choice of courses and desirable educational
c) It is concerns with assistance given to pupils in their choices and
adjustment with relation to school, curriculum, and course and school life.
d) It is an aid to the individual in choosing the appropriate programme and in
making progress in it.
e) It is a process of aiding the individual to place wisely his educational
programme and to put himself in the position to carry forwards
successfully that programme long lines that society consider wholesome
both for itself and for him.

Objectives of the educational guidance

- The physical, emotional, social, mental and spiritual development of the

individual that is it include all round personalities development of the individual.
To help the individual in his educational pursuit so that he is able to make right
choice keeping in view his mental abilities and capacities
- Provision of health
- Command of fundamental process
- Worthy home membership
- Vocation
- Civic education and responsibilities
- Worthy use of leisure
- Ethical character
- Development of self realization
- Develop of human relationship
- Economic efficiency
- Develop work and study habits that enable him to achieve satisfactory success in
his study
- Gain some experience in learning areas outside the particular field of his special
interest and talent
- Understand the purpose and the function of the school in relation to his needs.
- Plan a programme of the study
- Gain insight into learning areas
- Adjustment to the curriculum and the life of the school.

Principles of educational guidance

- Standardized test has to be made keeping in view of prognostic of success

- Selection of a curriculum decided in the light of test results, degree of
achievement of the precious school level and pupil and parent interest
- Follow the pupils achievement in each term and counsellor has to help the
students when the need arises
- A pupil should not be required to repeat more than once with the same teacher any
course which he fails and personality difference between the teacher and the pupil
interfere with learning progress

2. Vocational guidance

The term vocational applies to al gainful occupation

Definition: - It is a process of assisting the individual to choose an occupation and to
prepare for it enters upon and progress in it. Hence it is a long continuous process.

Meaning: - It offers information and assistance which lead to the choice of an

occupation and training which precedes it; it is required by the person in order to
select a suitable profession of vocation for himself.

Aims: - The student will be assist to –

- Acquire the knowledge and characteristics, function, duties, responsibilities,
rewards of the group of the occupation that lie with in the range of intelligent
- Discover his own potentialities, abilities, skills and to fit them into the general
requirement of the occupation under consideration.
- To think critically about various type of occupation and to learn a technique for
analyzing information about vocations
- To evaluate his own capacities and interest with regards to their greatest worth to
him and to society.
- It helps the individual to develop an attitude towards work that will dignifies what
ever type of occupation he may wish to enter, the choice is based on personally
achieved satisfaction and the service that can be offered.
- Provides information related to Admission requirement, Length of training, cost
of the attending institution of higher learning, adjustment during the job.
- Alerting the pupil to the long range training needed to become proficient in most
lines of endeavor.
- Helping the learner to learn the realization of the success purchase at the price of
efforts and the satisfaction of the job derived from the doing his work consciously
and competently

3. Personal guidance:-

Definition: The assistance offered to the individual to solve his, emotional, social, ethical
and moral as well as health problems.

Nature and purposes pf personal guidance:

It will deal with all problem of life. It is concerned with social and civic activities, health
and physical activities, worthy use of leisure time and character building activities. It has
a major concern for the individual and social problem
To help the individual in his physical, social, emotional, moral, spiritual development and
adjustment personal guidance has to be organized –
a) Pre-primary stage: The child should be helped in achieving emotional
control and developing desirable social relationship.
b) Elementary stage : To develop self discipline and through it they can
achieve happiness.
c) Junior high school stage: To help preadolescent to become adjusted in
their new environment.
To develop a feeling of belongingness and leadership. They must learn to
function in a group with the team spirit.
d) High school stage: efforts should be made to offer personal guidance for
It should enable young ones to develop interest I healthy recreation and
they should be helped in organizing wholesome recreational activities for
It will be provide moral and social development also, so that it may be
able to develop a sense of social responsibility and community service
e) College and university stage: To enable them to have a satisfactory
personal and social adjustment in their new environment. Personal
guidance may be provided to solve economic problems. For ethical moral
and spiritual social development personal guidance is essential.
4. Recreational guidance:
The individual needs assistance in choosing recreation, which are suite to his
personal characteristics.

5. Group guidance :
The assist each individual in the group to solve his problems and to make necessary
To improve students attitude and behavior
To orient the newly arrived pupil to the programme of the school. To give training
for the students in different aspects of leadership. Counsellor may save time for the
group approach and is able to pay more attention to more difficult and complex
aspects of the situations faced by an individual student. It gives opportunities
to the students to express their anxieties and relieve the pent up feeling. To convey
information to the student in less time than individual Counselling;
the teacher can utilize his time in finding solution to more difficult and complex
aspect to the situation faced by an individual student. It makes the normal students
more enlightened as he learns to manage his own affair in a better way. It prepares the
way for individual counseling. It multiplies contact with the students. In-group
guidance the problems related to adjustment personality, occupational, economic
were solved. It helps the student to achieve self direction, self knowledge and self
realization, satisfactory development or adjustment to the life situations.

Principals of group guidance

It should be regarded as supplement to Counseling, not as a substitute for it. It
encourages certain member of the group to seek individual counseling help. Group
should be homogenous in various aspects. Appropriate object to the student should be

Techniques of group guidance:

a) talks:- class talks are one of the effective means of providing educational and
vocational information and of developing in them right attitudes to education,
learning, experience, social and personal relation. It stimulate the students to give
a serious thought in planning in vocational and educational planning.
b) Carrier conference:- It supplement the information given to the group to explain
the vocation in which they work and answer about their jobs.
c) Audio visual aids: it provide a realistic representation and to show the actual
operation and process involved, to give more intelligent understanding ;it makes
learning vivid and attractive.
d) Visits: it provides concrete experience for learning. It is based on actual and direct
experiences. Immediately after the visit, a group conference should be held to
discuss that place or occupation.
e) Group activities :- Vocational like textile-weaving, costuming
Recreational like art club, music group
Educational like school publications, school forum
f) Occupational information though group subject;- It is the simple way to imparting
information, teacher should acquaint the students with the occupational
possibilities of their subjects, they should encourage and assist student to prepare
such list through their own efforts.
g) Group reports:- students are divided in groups which have certain specific
problem to tackle and later reports are presented in larger groups so that all the
members will be aware of problems and its solutions.
h) Lectures:- By expert on certain problems.
i) Dramatics:- Certain interested topics should be selected with theme and
dramatized and the students can be given guidance in an interesting way, how to
solve different problems.
j) Question box: it gives the shy and retiring pupil an opportunity to propose
question i.e., bothering him without revealing that is his question. So if the
question could be proposed in a silent way, the same could be discussed in a
group and valuable guidance to the students.
k) Case conference:- here the problem face by the majority of the group is started
concreatly by way of a case. Thye group is guide for immediate solution of the
probles by mean of social thinking.

Kinds of groups for group guidance

a) Regular subjects groups

b) Special groups organized for the consideration of special topics
c) Tutorials groups
d) Advice under a special or specific advisor
e) Carrier or educational group
f) Group with common interest
g) Group with common adjustment problem

Advantage of group guidance:-

- Economical and efficient
- Aids the normal students to give him information and the direction that he neds
and wants
- Help in having more contact with students
- Provide an opportunity to discuss common problem
- Provide an admirable opportunity to observe each student, how he behaves and
react in group situations.
- Help in the development of wholesome personality of individual students
- Bring awareness of unrecognized needs an problems of students.