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Metamaterial Radome Composed of

Negative Refractive Index Lens for


Mobile Base Station Antennas
negative refraction. Therefore, the metamaterial
Student: Ahmad Nur Firdaus Bin Hashim radome can obtain the pattern shaping function while
Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Yoshihide Yamada keeping the size.

Introduction Methodologies

In the mobile base station antenna, linear array In lens shaping, the fundamental lens shaping
antennas are employed for achieving the required method is employed by using lens shaping equations
gain. Typical radiation element is a dipole antenna in three different conditions which are refraction low
satisfying wide operational bandwidth. In addition, the on the lens inner surface condition, refraction on the
array elements are divided as sub-array to reduce the lens outer surface condition, and energy conservation
feeding cable. Recently, dual and triple frequency low condition. These differential equations are solved
band needs to be covered in the base station by MATLAB software. In order to ensure the accuracy
antenna. As a result, large spaces for many feeding of the program, a hyperbolic contour lens is designed.
cables are required even if the multi-frequency
antenna can be developed. In radome designing, a dipole antenna having length
of approximately one wavelength is used to produce
In recent years, a negative refractive index (NRI) the radiation pattern. There are several important
metamaterials have been widely investigated in parameters in radome designing such as, refractive
microwave, millimeter wave, and optical region. The index of the lens, maximum angle illuminating the
NRI lens has been increased in application to lens, peak direction of the radiation pattern, beam
subwavelength focusing, transformation sharpness of the feed pattern, and edge level of the
electromagnetic, and a concave lens. In addition, a aperture distribution.
lens antenna for wide angle beam scanning has been
proposed. In the design and measurement of this lens
antenna, the dielectric resonator-based metamaterial Experimental Prediction
structure in the cut-off background was employed.
The size of the lens antenna can miniaturized by In the base station application, radome diameter
obtaining the short focal length in the NRI lens. The should be expected to be small. In order to reduce the
lens shapes are designed by the lens shaping method radome diameter, effects of main parameters in
in the case of conventional dielectric material. radome designing are manipulated. In addition, other
parameters also being studied so that a thin and small
diameter radome can be achieved.

Project Objectives Reference

In the conventional base station antenna, linear array [1] T. Kenjo & S. Nagamori, Pemanent Magnet and
antenna is divided as sub-array. Each sub-array Brushless DC motor, Clarendon Press, Oxford, 2005.
consists of several radiation elements. For example,
16 array elements are composed of 4 sub-arrays
which have 4 radiation elements. The feeding cable
is connected to each sub-array. Therefore, the large
spaces for the feeding cable should be maintained for
the multi-frequency operational band.

Typical lens shape made by the natural dielectric


material is convex shape. If the lens effect is added to
the radome, the diameter of the base station antenna
becomes thick. On the other hand, the short focal
length can be designed in the NRI lens due to its