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Philippine State College of Aeronautics

Institute of Engineering and Technology

Chapter I
THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Using models or prototypes allow the students to enhance creative

thinking and help them become more aware of their own meta-cognitive

design strategies. It also allows the students to generate and evaluate ideas,

better visualize their ideas, and uncover differences between real behavior

and the conceptual model used to predict that behavior. (Lemons et. al, 2002).

This perception was the reason for instructors to involve students to

construct various prototype projects in their respective engineering subjects.

Hands-on engagement of students in the fabrication of prototype projects

helped the researchers to realize the significance of their involvement to gain

a deeper understanding to the processes or principles of a particular machine

that they want to study.

A wide range of multidisciplinary aeronautical-based design projects

led by students of aeronautical engineering has paved the way in transforming

perceived ideas into workable prototypes that is essential to both students

and instructors growth.

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Throughout the years, a vast number of successful prototype projects

later on became an imminent problem. This was after researchers have

observed that after concluding these prototype projects, no subsequent

actions has been implemented to properly organize and maintain the said

projects.

In effect, this has led to the abandonment of several projects into

whatever classrooms that can accommodate it. For several years, this

scenario had been evidently disregarded causing gradual deterioration of the

mentioned projects.

However, existing aeronautical designs are subject for assessment that

is necessary for low-risk design and evaluation effort. The occurrence of new

rapid aerodynamic prototype projects for aeronautical engineering students

are easy to be manufacture and versatile for different modifications that could

provide a means to reduce the cost of investment. The result of testing

demonstrative prototypes was not only more cost effective and time wise, but

only providing acceptable data fidelity as well. (Heisler and Ratliff, 2001).

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Background of the Study

The Philippine State College of Aeronautics is a leader institution

committed to the scientific advancement in aeronautical sciences, technology

and liberal arts and sciences. Undeniably, PhilSCA still stands firmly with its

vision in honing competitive professionals in the aviation industry.

Aeronautical engineering program covers engineering disciplines

applied in research and development e.g. observation of aerodynamic

characteristics of airfoils, construction of flight related prototypes, simulation of

aircraft systems and theoretical designing of aircraft. The researchers for one

believed that these disciplines can be further realized by relating a workable

prototype project and its particular design concepts.

However, the researchers had observed that due to improper handling

of the prototype projects of Aeronautical Engineering students, the said

projects little by little got deteriorated and losing its optimal design function.

Not to mention the amount of resources, shared ideas, time and efforts

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rendered by the students to complete and concretize these projects were all

gone to waste.

For this reason, the proponents conducted their study within the

Institute of Engineering and Technology that evaluated the current condition of

all concluded prototype projects. Hence, the researchers identified which

among the prototype projects could still be optimized and be used as a

teaching medium.

Statement of the Problem

This section of the research deals with the general and specific

problems on the optimization of prototype projects to enhance existing

practical teaching methods.

1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:

1.1 Gender

1.2 Year Section

1.3 Occupational Status

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2. What prototype projects of aeronautical engineering students have met the

standard that qualifies its optimization in terms of?

2.1 Design Precision

2.2 Ease of Utilization (user friendly)

2.3 Mode of Presentation

3. What level of effectiveness do the lecture method and the simulation

method via optimization of prototype projects reflect based on the

performance of the students on:

3.1 Written Examination

3.2 Oral Examination

4. Is there a significant difference between the lecture method and the

simulation method with utilization of prototype projects in the performance of

the students in terms of:

4.1 Student learning comprehension

4.2 Oral Recitation

Hypothesis

In this study, the null hypothesis was tested statistically at 5% level of

significance.

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Ho1: There is no significant difference on the performance of the students in

the lecture method and the simulation teaching method with the utilization of

prototype projects in terms of:

1.1 Student learning comprehension

1.2 Oral recitation

Significance of the Study

This section of the research discussed the importance of the study in

the Optimization of prototype projects of Aeronautical Engineering students of

Philippine State College of Aeronautics to enhance existing practical teaching

methods.

Being an aeronautical engineering student, a balance of theoretical and

practical approach of the subject was necessary to attain an effective learning

experience. Indeed, theoretical supplements were just several clicks and

searches away. However, when it comes to practical demonstration of the

subject, there was no readily available medium.

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That is why the researchers believe that through optimization of

existing prototype projects, the burden of practical teaching methods would be

diminished significantly. The following individuals and institutions were the

targets of this study:

1. Aeronautical Engineering Students. Through this study, the

optimization of the prototype projects could help the students to further

utilize their learnings by developing their area knowledge and harness

their engineering abilities. Also, optimization of the prototype projects

could avoid unnecessary investment of time, effort and resources of the

students.

2. Aeronautical Faculty Members. Through this study, instructors would

become more critical in engaging students in building prototype projects

as well as the importance of optimizing past prototype, considering it as

both part of the learning process. Moreover, this aimed their full

realization of their vital role in making sure that every projects should

meet the demand and competencies of the field.

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3. The Philippine State College of Aeronautics. Through this study, the

institution could re-evaluate the support they had extending to it

students and realign the current policies in order to maximize the

learning avenues of their students and channel appropriate funds

needed to achieve optimum student development.

4. The future researcher. Upon reading this study, the readers could gain

relevant information about Aeronautical Engineering as well as the

challenges it faces. This research could make them understand how

optimization of the prototype projects could help innovate and improve

the knowledge and skills of aeronautical engineering students.

Scope and Delimitation

This study focused on the optimization of prototype projects that had

been accomplished for the past years by Aeronautical Engineering Students

of Philippine State College of Aeronautics. This study sought to determine the

current condition of all concluded prototype projects. Furthermore, the

researchers wanted to know if integration of these prototype projects to the

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current practical teaching method of instructors would be more effective by

means of conducting a series of classroom teaching sessions using 2 different

teaching strategies namely the lecture method and simulation method with

utilization of prototype projects. The measure of which teaching method is

more effective would be based on the performance of the students to a set of

post-tests which involves written examination and oral examination.

This study was restricted only on the concluded prototype projects of

Aeronautical Engineering Students of Philippine State College of Aeronautics.

Also, the researchers evaluated the current condition of the prototype projects

based only on the criteria made by the researchers. Hence, the optimization

of the prototype projects is seen to be achieved only if these projects could be

utilized as an instructional tool. Moreover, class schedules was considered a

major constraint during the second quantitative phase of the study.

Mismatches of class schedules among the three (3) sections of 4 th year have

greatly affected the availability of the respondents to undergo one teaching

class session all at the same time.

Indeed, the researchers acknowledge the limitations of this study

because of some reasons such as time, resources and availability of students

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and instructors. The researchers also acknowledge that other contingencies

may arise upon conducting this research.

INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

1. Demographic Profile of
4th Year Aeronautical - Construction of
Engineering Students descriptive survey
and Aero-AT questionnaire
Instructors. - Validation of
Instrument
2.Standards that qualifies
the prototype projects Data Gathering: Optimization of
optimization in terms of: - Distribution of survey concluded prototype
questionnaires projects of
- Design Precision - Conduction of Aeronautical
- Ease of classroom teaching
Utilization Engineering
sessions
- Mode of students.
- Administration of post-
Presentation test questionnaire

3.Teaching method used - Statistical Treatment


in class teaching - Data Analysis and
sessions: Interpretation
- Lecture Method
- Simulation Method 10
Philippine State College of Aeronautics
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Figure 1
Research Paradigm

Conceptual Framework

Figure 1 depicts the systematical flow of the study as an input-process-

output paradigm. The first box shows the input of the study which involved

the demographic profile of the Aero AT Instructors and 4 th Year Aeronautical

Engineering students of PhilSCA, evaluation of prototype projects and the

teaching method used namely Lecture Method and Simulation Method.

In the second box, the processes undertaken was listed as

construction of survey questionnaires and post-test questionnaires, validation

of instruments, distribution of survey questionnaires, conduction of class

teaching sessions, statistical treatment, data analysis and interpretation of

findings. Descriptive and statistical analyses were the bases to formulate

conclusion if simulation method is an effective teaching method over the

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Philippine State College of Aeronautics
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lecture method and if the performance of the students showed a significant

difference based on teaching method used.

Lastly, the third box contains the target output of the study. It shows the

recommended optimization of all concluded prototype projects of Aeronautical

Engineering students that has passed the set standards.

Definition of Terms

Aeronautical engineering student. They study primarily with the

development and design of aircraft and is one of the respondent in this study.

Design precision. Purpose, planning, or intention that exists or is thought to

exist behind an action, fact, or material object to the quality, condition, or fact

of being exact and accurate.

Ease of utilization. The action of making practical and effective use of

something that is not difficult.

Instructors. A person who teaches a particular fields of study.

Integrate. The act of adding up something to the existing procedure to

develop or make it better and improve its use to the desire outcome.

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Lecture Method. This is a traditional teaching approach that does not involve

students’ perception and instructional mediums are not utilized as well.

Meta-cognitive design strategy. A higher-order thinking that enables

understanding, analysis, and control of one’s cognitive strategies through

thought, experience, and senses especially when engaged in learning.

Mode of presentation. A way or manner in which how you will show or

present something occurs or is experienced, expressed, or done.

Optimization. The action of making the best or most effective use of a

situation or resource. In this study, optimization refers to the use of the

prototype projects as instructional mediums.

Oral recitation. Is made by a student to demonstrate knowledge of a subject

or to provide information or how they remind the subject taught to them.

Performance. A measure of the students’ comprehension on a particular

topic.

Post-test. A test taken after a program, course, etc., and designed to

measure its value or effectiveness.

Practical teaching method. Comprises the principles and methods used by

teachers to enable student learning or concerned with the actual doing or use

of something rather than with theory and ideas. These strategies are

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determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of

the learner.

Prototype. It is an early sample, model, or release of a product built to test a

concept or process or to act as a thing to be replicated or learned from and

generally used to evaluate a new design to enhance precision by system

analysts and users.

Simulation Method. This is a student-centered teaching approach that

involves the students during the learning process and it is aided with

instructional medium such as prototype projects.

Student learning comprehension. The acquisition of knowledge or skills

through experience, study, or by being taught and how the student capable of

understanding something.

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Chapter II
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

The related literature and related studies relevant to the optimization of

prototype projects of aeronautical engineering students to enhance practical

teaching methods in Philippine State College of Aeronautics are hereby

presented.

Foreign Related Literature

A. Prototype Projects

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Wind Tunnel

Shresta, Rijal, and Sharma (2008) validated that wind tunnel is a

device in which a jet of air or any other suitable gas of uniform properties

across the cross section is produced. Wind tunnel prototypes would help to

eliminate the obstruction and minimize the problem that may be encountered

than installing a full-scale wind tunnel. Prototypes can be used as department

facility to do various amount of tests in the field of aerodynamics and can

impart a hands-on creative problem-solving that can incorporate required

components for future design projects.

The advent of rapid prototyping and manufacturing techniques reduce

the cost and time effort of a wind tunnel model, and can provide efficient data

to justify its use. As prototypes model can make level a full-scale wind tunnel

models as well in a short span of time. It can achieve test-to-test repeatability

levels. Technically, wind tunnel prototypes reduce fabrication costs by more

than 50% than traditional steel and aluminium full-scale model. (Heisler and

Ratliff, 2001)

Chuk & Thomson (1998) verified that most aerospace companies are

interested in reducing the time it takes to make wind tunnel prototypes. A

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study was done of rapid prototyping technologies and ability to make

components for wind tunnel models in a timely and cost effective manner. It

was capable for non-structurally loaded parts but can endure significant loads.

In latter parts of wind tunnel prototypes, Cortez & Jokar (2009)

developed a test section and prototype heat sinks for cost-efficient wind

tunnel prototypes. They designed and manufactured their own prototype heat

sinks. Heat sinks are made of highly conductive materials that can dissipate

heat from the surroundings. A test section was designed and built in order to

measure and collect temperature data at different locations on the prototype

wind tunnel. As well the data can be transferred to a computer through

computer chips.

Gas Turbine Engine

According to Frigieri (1974) in his book “The Prototype of a 100-Mw,

3000 rpm Gas Turbine Series for Power Generation” the 18 stage compressor

has been designed for a nominal pressure ratio of 9.6:1 at 3000 rpm. The

compressor, combustor and turbine are contained in a single casing with two

external supports. An extensive prototype test program has been set up.

Transient and steady state temperature, characteristics of the exhaust gases

are good and starting system mechanical and thermal characteristics. The

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computerize prototypes data acquisition can be used as stronghold data as

well.

As stated by Thryft (2016) in her article “Gas Turbine Blades Made

Faster with Metals 3D Printing”, 3D printing metals is directed at improving

end production for bigger parts and can be made faster. The length of time

and high expense has reduced the number of test for these components. The

goal is to maximize engine combustion process. The optimization of

combustion engine depends on complexity of internal cooling structures. 3D

Printing Gas turbine prototypes makes it easier to improve surface quality,

simpler parts are modest to made, and it can be made in a short period of

time.

Reciprocating Engine

According to Xu and Chang (2009) in their article “Prototype testing

and analysis of a novel internal combustion linear generator integrated power

system” that the novel four-stroke free-piston engine equipped with a linear

electric generator is proposed in this paper to achieve efficient energy

conversion from fuel to electricity. The feasibility and performance of the

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proposed design are verified. Detailed testing results from the continuous

running prototype are analysed in this paper for giving insight into the

performance and dynamic behaviours of the novel power system.

Tona, Peraltez, and Sciaretta (2012) stated that Rankine-cycle waste

heat recovery systems for automotive applications have been the focus of

intensive research in recent years, as they seem to offer considerable

potential for fuel consumption reduction. The proposed control strategy for

power production focuses more on ensuring continuity of operation than on

the pursuit of optimality. Avoiding start-stop procedures, which would greatly

reduce the global efficiency.

B. Practical Teaching Methods

Teaching Strategies Related To Students’ Characteristics

Lecturer’s preparation in learning process is more differentiated

teaching; there could be more divergent use of teaching strategies, especially

related to different characteristics of learners. Therefore, lecturers should

know their characteristics before conducting the learning process and


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determine the teaching strategies in order to create a teaching effectiveness

and good atmosphere in the classroom.

According to some characteristics of students, the writer recommend

some teaching strategies; creating more interactive and fun learning, carrying

out an effective way in-class group work and discussion rather than individual

project. In some other cases in term of tasks and assignment in group,

lecturer should give opportunity to students as a leader of group and be

responsible in creating the leadership role, lecturer also has to give more

attention to the individual progress of student by giving them the progress

evaluation and motivation.

Prototypes as Teaching Medium

The Communication, Rhetoric, and Digital Media (CRDM) Ph.D.

students who participated in this experimental critical making workshop said

they found the materials-based research approaches both stimulating and

generative. One participant found the often-difficult process of making to be a

valuable analog for instruction: “I really liked going through the act of making

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(with its failures) and then thinking about what that told me about teaching.”

Others noted that using the tools of critical making made them see the

technologies and methods of making in a new light, noting “It really made me

think about how to use making to encourage students to think differently.”

Model Building

Lemons, Carberry, Swan, Jarvin and Rogers (2010) validated that the

reports on using verbal protocol analysis, has built the potential learning to aid

engineering students in solving a design task. The analysis of 8 students in

varying engineering disciplines, the results found that physical construction of

a model during an open-ended design task helped students generate and

evaluate ideas, better visualize their ideas, and helped students uncover

differences between real behavior and the conceptual model used to predict

that behaviors.

Model building also enhanced creative thinking and helped students

become more aware of their own meta-cognitive design strategies. Also, when

the test students began sketching or building, the process was fairly similar in

length for most students.

Engineering Design Perspective

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According to Turner Jr., Kirby, Bober (2016) in their article “Engineering

Design for Engineering Design: Benefits, Models, and Examples from

Practice” that the students can learn more and be more engaged when

learning with an engineering design perspective. Students who are taught with

engineering design can become more self-motivated. The effectiveness of the

instruction increases when students are more involved in their learning and

engineering design places the student in the role of scientist/engineer. The

student is the scientist /engineer. It reminds us that we are doing a disservice

to our students if we do not mindfully incorporate engineering design into our

lessons.

Local Related Literature

A. Practical Teaching Methods

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Evelina A. Pangalangan demonstrated the intersection of art and

cognitive science in a complementary approach of mutual support in teaching.

Describes the technique of using Practical and Reporting in teaching social

work to expand and complement familiar didactic methods using creative

literature in the examination of poverty and showing the applications of the

approach across the entire social work curriculum (i.e., policy, practice,

behavior, etc.).

As stated by Amado C. Ramos of Pangasinan State University,

Bayambang Campus, Philippines. In his literature of “Methods and Teaching

Strategies Used by Teacher Education Faculty Members in one State

University in the Philippines”. Institutions of higher learning across the nation

are responding to political, economic, social and technological pressures to be

more responsive to students' needs and more concerned about how well

students are prepared to assume future societal roles.

This study aimed to determine the methods and teaching strategies

used by the PSU – CTE faculty members of Bayambang Campus,

Bayambang,

Pangasinan. Teachers should be encouraged to explore and view other

effective teaching strategies and find more ways to entice other students

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challenge themselves to create their own strategies to use in the field and to

become more global in perspective. The use computer technology can be an

effective teaching strategy, especially when students are given information

specific to their own situation rather than general information.

Foreign Related Studies

A. Prototype Projects

Wind Tunnel

McLaren (2011) conducted a study that scale-model wind tunnel

prototypes were performed to determine the aerodynamic loading on the

turbine airfoils, vibration response behavior, and wake velocity passing

through the test object. In order to accomplish this, prototypes are equipped

with force measurement and wireless telemetry system. Throughout the

investigation, high vibration was response on the turbine. Vibration mitigation

was developed to get rid of high vibration so it can conduct an accurate and

complete measurement of aerodynamic force and loading.

An experimental methodology was administered by Macias, Mendes,

Silva, and Oliveira (2011) to assess the performance of axial hydrokinetic


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turbines, based inside the wind tunnel prototypes. The objective of this project

is to reduce the scale mode in order to evaluate a real axial turbine running in

water flow conditions but can deliver same amount of data as full-scale model

does. The power efficient function of the tip speed ratio presented for a 1:23

model. The comparisons of the numerical data of both models were

evaluated. The results showed in three blade speed for reduced scale-model

and full-scale prototypes are 14 m/s and 15 m/s respectively.

Wind tunnel modelling and prototyping allows the determination of wind

effects on building and other structures. Information deduced from wind tunnel

testing has been successfully employed in development of design guidelines

and wind-resistant design of variety of structures, likewise low-rise buildings.

Endo (2011) validated the origins of discrepancies, careful studies of

reported wind tunnel set-ups and measurement techniques to obtained

accurate data analysis. The advance experimental tool being used to

prototypes are electronically-scanned and low-cost measurement system that

deliver wind-induced pressures accurately. It was found that these

experimental tools

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pressure data sets can be substantially reduced, while maintaining space-time

features.

Gas Turbine Engine

Mottley (2004) conducted a study about the TurbX engine implements

a constant volume, continuous combustion process in rotating turbo-

machinery. This innovation will have higher thermal efficiency than a typical

gas turbine engine. He determines experimentally that the air driven

performance features of the prototype TurbX engine. Although, air driven test

were limited to chamber pressure up to 345 kPA. Thus, results had drawn

various amount of test that with lower gap settings engine has negative torque

speed quality similar to gas turbine engine. It is recommended that TurbX

design should address the gap setting between rotor and two stator to reduce

losses of air-incidence angles.

As claimed by (2013) in his thesis about “Investigation of prototype

industrial Gas Turbine Combustor Using Alternative Gaseous fuels”, the aim

of the study was to find the effect of gaseous fuels on gas turbine engine. A

Bunsen type burner was used to measure the angle of conical flame from

which the laminar flame speed was corrected. The emission optimizes the

measurement

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showed that lowering the equivalent ratio in both the rich-pilot-lean (RPL) and

pilot minimized.

Reciprocating Engine

Sandoval (2002) validated that the model, which was based on a

combination of fundamental scaling laws and empirical results, includes

predictions of rubbing losses from its different parts. Modifications in oil

viscosity, piston ring tension and gas pressure contribution on piston

assembly, liner roughness, and valve train mechanism were made. This

agrees with the limited engine friction data used to modify the friction model.

The scale model predicts with acceptable accuracy to its major components.

Based on Schiller (2002) in his study that this work presents a novel

approach to arranging shape memory alloy (SMA) wires into a functional heat

engine. Significant contributions include the design itself, a preliminary

analytical model and the realization of a research prototype; thereby, laying a

foundation from which to base refinements and seek practical applications.

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B. Practical Teaching Methods

Effectiveness of Teaching Methods

The traditional passive view of learning involves situations where

material is delivered to students using a lecture-based format. In contrast, a

more modern view of learning is constructivism, where students are expected

to be active in the learning process by participating in discussion and/or

collaborative activities (Fosnot, 1989).

Overall, the results of recent studies concerning the effectiveness of

teaching methods favor constructivist, active learning methods. The findings

of a study by de Caprariis, Barman, & Magee (2001) suggest that lecture

leads to the ability to recall facts, but discussion produces higher level

comprehension.

Further, research on group-oriented discussion methods has shown

that team learning and student-led discussions not only produce favorable

student performance outcomes, but also foster greater participation, self

confidence and leadership ability (Perkins & Saris, 2001; Yoder &Hochevar,

2005).
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Hunt, Haidet, Coverdale, and Richards (2003) examined student

performance in team learning methods, finding positive learning outcomes as

compared to traditional lecture-based methods. In contrast to these findings, a

study by Barnes & Blevins (2003) suggests that active, discussion-based

methods are inferior to the traditional lecture-based method. A comparison of

lecture combined with discussion versus active, cooperative learning methods

by Morgan, Whorton, &Gunsalus (2000) demonstrated that the use of the

lecture combined with discussion resulted in superior retention of material

among students.

Building Model Exercise

Holmes and Mullen (2013) conducted a study with new building model

exercises. This activity aimed to improve students’ understanding of structural

engineering, construction principles and methods. It allowed students to

practically apply lecture material and construct a scaled model giving them an

opportunity to study and visualise a real structure and generate their own

ideas on how it should be assembled within a constructivist active learning

environment.

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As a result, lectures were found to be more interactive and students

more engaged in the discussions and provided a pathway to bridge the gap

between theory and the reality of their professions, which can aid them in their

graduate

careers. It is hoped that this type of active learning can be used in other

engineering programmes to improve student understanding and as an

opportunity to better apply lecture material to the real world.

Local Related Studies

A. Prototype Projects

Gas Turbine Engine Prototype

In partial completion to their course subject “Gas Turbine Engine”,

fourth (4th) year aeronautical engineering students of Section 1 of Philippine

State College of Aeronautics, Villamor Campus academic year 2016-2017

constructed a prototype model of a turbo jet engine.

The NYK21, a turbo-jet engine, was designed and constructed by 4-

1BAI. This is fairly simple, consisting of a single stage centrifugal-flow

compressor, a reverse annular combustion system, and a single-stage


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turbine. This engine is about 17 inches long and 8 inches in diameter. Its

impeller and turbine are powered by a torque-tuned motor Tamiya 4WD which

is mounted directly to the turbine.

3D printing was the chosen mode of fabrication because of its precision

in creating 3D models to a functional prototypes. It uses polylactic acid or

polylactide (PLA) which is a biodegradable and bioactive thermoplastic

aliphatic polyester.

Reciprocating Engine Prototype

In partial completion to their course subject “Reciprocating Engine”,

third (3rd) year aeronautical engineering students of Section 2 of Philippine

State College of Aeronautics, Villamor Campus academic year 2016-2017

constructed a prototype model of an in-line reciprocating engine.

Below is the detailed procedure undertaken to produce the

aforementioned prototype project.

a. Cut the flat bar, round bar (crankshaft and connecting rod), and square

bar (frame) to their desired length. (Use cutting disc or hacksaw)

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b. Cut the G.I. pipe (piston) to form a piston and cylinder bore and make a

hole to the side of the GI pipe (piston).

c. To form the frame, weld the tip of the flat bars using the welding

machine according to the desired design of the frame.

d. To form the crankshaft, weld the tip of the round bars according to the

design (Note: Steel bushing and rubber bushing should be inserted to

the round bars that will serve as crankpin journals before welding.)

e. Weld the round bar (connecting rod) to the bearing (piston bearing).

Attach the bearing to the piston by inserting the round bar (piston pin)

into the hole of the pipe on the side of it. Then, weld the round bar

(piston pin).

f. Measure the width of the washing machine motor to know the length of

flat bar to be cut.

g. Weld the flat bar to be used as brace for the motor.

h. Insert the pulley wheel to the crankshaft model.

i. Attach the connecting rod to the bushing in the crankshaft according to

the design of the prototype engine.

j. Attach the crankshaft with the piston to the frame by means of welding

the bushing at the tip of the crankshaft model.

k. Make a brace for the cylinder bore and then insert the piston model.

l. Attach the cylinder bore model to the frame to form a v-look engine

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m. To make the valve, cut a sheet metal that would cover the top of the

cylinder bore.

n. Drill a hole that would fit the syringe

o. Install the spring to the syringe.

p. Using sandpaper, polish the rusty part.

q. Paint the model with red oxide primer. Let it dry

r. Paint it with the spray paint (black). (second coating)

s. Install the motor.

B. Practical Teaching Methods

Dr. Rovelina Bucao-Jacolbia form Polytechnic University of the

Philippines conducted a study titled “New strategies in teaching and learning:

the Polytechnic University of the Philippines college of education experience”

The presentation of “cases” or scenarios based on actual practice

which students can discuss to explore possibilities, probabilities and/or

solutions. Case studies are used to develop student’s ability to solve problems

using new and existing knowledge, skills, and concepts. Demonstrations are

practical presentations of processes/procedures/skills which are designed to

illustrate theoretical principles. Demonstrations require careful sequencing,

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oral, and visual explanations, appropriate illustrations and opportunities for

students to pose questions and clarify problems. This approach’s major

characteristics is that by the end of a course students produce a thesis,

computer program, design plans, model, portfolio, written report, oral report,

either individually or in small teams.

Chapter III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presented the methodology of the study. The research

method and design, respondents of the study, research tools and

instruments, validation of instruments, and treatment of data were included

in this chapter.

Research Method

The researchers used descriptive-quantitative research method.

Quantitative research encompasses objective measurements and the

statistical, mathematical, or numerical analysis of data collected through

polls, questionnaires, and surveys, or by manipulating pre-existing statistical

data using computational techniques (Earl, 2010). It focuses on gathering

numerical data and generalizing it across groups of people or to explain a

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particular phenomenon. Descriptive research is used to obtain information

concerning the current status of the phenomena and to describe "what

exists" with respect to variables or conditions in a situation (Martyn, 2008).

The researchers decided to utilized this method because of the actual

involvement of respondents on the prototype projects, its relevance in the

identification of the prototype projects to be used as a medium of instruction,

and its importance in the interpretation and

analyses of the students’ performance, which became the bases in

determining the level of effectiveness and significant difference of the

teaching methods involved in this study.

Research Design

Research Design is a blueprint for conducting a study with maximum

control over factors that may interfere with the validity of the findings (Burns

& Grove, 2009). It is also described as a plan that describes how, when and

where data are to be collected and analyzed (Parahoo, 2006).

The researchers used 2 types of descriptive-research design namely

descriptive-survey design and descriptive-normative design that

corresponds to the first and second phase of their study respectively.

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Descriptive-survey design is concerned not only with the

characteristics of individuals but with the characteristics of the whole sample

thereof. It provides information useful to the solutions of local issues or

problems. It employs applications of scientific method by critically analyzing

and examining the source materials, by analyzing and interpreting data, and

by arriving at generalization and prediction. Meanwhile, descriptive-

normative ascertain the

normal or typical condition for practice, or to compare local test results with

a state or national norm.

Respondents of the Study

The researchers utilized 2 sampling techniques that will identify the

respondents to the first and second phase of their study.

Purposive sampling technique is used to identify the first set of

respondents among the instructors of the Aero-AT Department. It was used

to select a batch sample based on experience or knowledge of the group to

be sampled.

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On the other hand, simple random sampling technique was used to

determine the last set of respondents among the 4 th year aeronautical

engineering students.

Out of 115 students that comprises the total population of the 4 th Year

Aeronautical Engineering students, thirty-six (36) and twenty-two (22)

respondents were randomly selected for the first and second teaching

session respectively from which two (2) out of the three (3) sections of 4 th

Year

Aeronautical Engineering participated. The 4 th Year Aeronautical

Engineering students were chosen as the last set of respondents because

of their future involvement in the optimization of the prototype projects being

subjected in this study.

Research Tools and Instrument

In the first quantitative phase of this study, the researchers utilize a

locally structured survey questionnaires administered to the professors and

instructors who has a relevant experience to the prototype projects to

identify if the prototype projects are still under standard condition.

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The survey questionnaire adopted the Likert four-point scale questions

that will determine the current condition of the prototype projects in

accordance to the criteria created by the researchers. Furthermore, the

survey questionnaire also determined the respondent’s personal perception

regarding what prototype projects would be subjected in the optimization

process and be utilized as an instructional medium to enhance existing

practical teaching methods.

In the second quantitative phase of the study, the researchers

conducted a series of classroom teaching sessions using two different

practical teaching methods namely the lecture method and the simulation

method with the aid of prototype projects. A post-test was administered to

determine the performance of the students through written examination and

oral recitation. Examinations were administered after the learning process.

Validation of Instrument

The constructed survey questionnaires, as well as the written and oral

examinations are validated by individuals who are knowledgeable and

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authorities on this field. Expert validation ensured appropriateness and

accuracy of the instrument in relation to the statement of the problem.

The survey and post-test questionnaires were validated by experts in

the field of Engineering and Academe, including the Vice President for

Academic Affairs, Administrative Officers, and a Master’s Degree holder.

The content validation of the questionnaire was very significant to make

sure that it covers all the information needed in evaluating the concluded

prototype projects of Aeronautical Engineering students.

To verify the effectiveness and reliability of the locally structured

survey questionnaires, the researchers conducted an item discrimination

and reliability test using Cronbach Alpha command of the SPSS 16.0 for

Windows software.

Cronbach’s Alpha is an Index of Reliability that reflects how the

constructed instrument would elicit reliable response even if items were

placed with similar question. Furthermore, this also verified the internal

consistency due to low number of respondents. Reliability test was

performed after conducting the survey that involved eight (8) respondents.

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This was then subsequently imported in the SPSS software for the

Cronbach’s Alpha determination.

Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient of all the twelve (12) items evaluated got

a coefficient range of 0.891 to 0.971 which is indicative of very high

reliability of the instrument and very high internal consistency of the items.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The lists of the statistical tools and techniques used and applied to

analyse the data and get the appropriate results of this research study were

as follows:

1. Frequency Distribution

Frequency Distribution is used to tally, summarize, and tabulate the

gathered data from the questionnaire. This designated the number of

responses to a specific question or item in the questionnaire.

2. Percentage

The Percentage was used to calculate the fraction of the sample that

has the same factors. The formula for percentage is:

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n
%P= x 100
N

Where:

P = Percentage

n = number of responses satisfying a certain category

N = total number of respondents

3. Weighted Mean

The weighted mean was used to compute the rating’s average score

of the participants. This utilized the obtained quantitative opinions of the

Aero-AT Instructors if the prototype projects are still under standard

condition. The

researchers utilized the SPSS 16.0 to calculate the weighted mean of the

Likert ratings and post test scores.

To manually compute for the weighted mean, the formula is:


Σfx
X̄ =
N
Where:
XX = weighted mean

Σfx = sum of the product of frequency and score


N = number of respondents

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The gathered values will be elucidated using the Likert Scale. This is

the concept that explains the boundary of numeral that is arbitrarily

presented.

Table No. 1
LIKERT TYPE FOUR POINT SCALE

Unit Equivalent Elucidation / Scaled Responses

Weight Weighted Points Elucidation


4 3.51 – 4.00 Strongly Attain To a Great Extent
3 2.51 – 3.50 Moderately To a Moderate
Attain
Extent
2 1.51 – 2.50 Satisfactorily To a Slight Extent
Attain
1 1.00 – 1.50 Poorly Attain To No Extent at all

Table no. 1 showed the criteria to compute the evaluation of scores in

a range in which 3.51 – 4.00 provided the impression that a particular

prototype project has strongly attained the standard condition of prototype,

the qualification to be optimized and be integrated to existing practical

teaching methods as an instructional medium at a very great extent; whilst

2.51 – 3.50 elaborated the impression that a particular prototype project has

moderately attained the standard condition of prototype, the qualification to

be optimized and be integrated to existing practical teaching methods as an


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instructional medium at a moderate extent; likewise, the 1.51 – 2.50 gave

the impression that a particular prototype project has satisfactorily attained

the standard condition of prototype, the qualification to be optimized and be

integrated to existing practical teaching methods as an instructional medium

but with a condition to undergo modification or repair to regain its optimal

function; lastly,

the 1.00 – 1.50 stated the impression that a particular prototype project has

poorly attained the standard condition of prototype, therefore does not

qualified to be optimized and be integrated to existing practical teaching

methods as an instructional medium.

4. Shapiro-Wilk Normality Test

The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to test the normal distribution of the

sample. This test exhibits high power, leading to good results even with a

small number of observations or sample sizes (<50 samples).

The test rejects the hypothesis of normality when the p-value is less

than or equal to 0.05. Failing the normality test allows you to state with

95% confidence the data does not fit the normal distribution. Passing the

normality test only allows you to state no significant departure from

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normality was found. The researchers used the SPSS 16.0 to calculate the

normality of the sample.

5. Mann-Whitney U Test

Based on the findings generated by the normality test, a non-

parametric test must be used. Thus, the inferential statistics tool suggested

by the system was the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U Test or Mann-Whitney U

Test. This tool is used to determine the significant difference between the

lecture method and the simulation method with the aid of the prototype

project at 5% level of significance. The Mann-Whitney U test is often

considered the nonparametric alternative to the independent t-test when the

dependent variable is continuous, but not normally distributed. The

performance of the students are the data subjected on this statistical

treatment. The researchers used the SPSS 16.0 to calculate the sample

ranks and U and p values.

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The level of effectiveness of the teaching methods are measured

through the mean of the performance of the students and are interpreted in a

manner described below.

Table No. 2
Grading System

Percentage Remarks
96.00 - 100.00 Excellent
94.00 - 95.99 Superior
91.00 - 93.99 Very Good
89.00 - 90.99 Good
86.00 - 88.99 Very Satisfactory
83.00 - 85.99 High Average
80.00 - 82.99 Average
77.00 - 79.99 Fair
75.00 - 76.99 Pass
70.00 - 74.99 Conditional
0.00 - 69.99 Failing

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In this research the following equation will determine the score

percentage of the student in a 15 item examination.

y = 0.5(x) + 50

Where:

y= the equivalent percentage

x= score of the student

Through this equation, the researchers will see the comparison of

student’s performance based on the teaching method that will be utilized in

a particular class discussion.

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Chapter IV
PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presented the quantitative analysis and interpretation of

the results of the locally structured survey questionnaire and the post-test as

the response of the students on the simulation and lecture teaching strategy.

The survey questionnaire determined the prototype projects for optimization

and its utilization on the learning process, whereas the post-test stands as the

response of the students towards the use of these prototype projects during

the learning process.

1. Profile of the Respondents

1.1. Gender

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Table 3
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION
OF GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS
First Teaching Session
Lecture Class Simulation Class Total
Gender
F P (%) F P (%)
Male 14 77.8 10 55.6 24
Female 4 22.2 8 44.4 12
Total 18 100 18 100 36
F refers to frequency
P refers to percentage

Table 3 revealed that from the total of 36 respondents, 24 or 66.7%

were male and the remainder is female. The graph showed the increase on

the population of the female (44.4%) on the simulation class compared to the

predominantly male (22.2% female) in the lecture class.

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100
90
80
70
60
Female
50 Male
40
30
20
10
0
Lecture Class Simulation Class

Figure 2. Gender distribution of respondents by Class.

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Table 4
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION
OF GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS
Second Teaching Session
Lecture Class Simulation Class
BSAeE BSAeE Total
Gender
F P (%) F P (%)
Male 9 81.8 6 54.5 15
Female 2 18.2 5 45.5 7
Total 11 100 11 100 22
F refers to frequency
P refers to percentage

Table 4 revealed that from the total of 22 respondents, 15 or 68.2%

were male and the remaining 7 or 31.8% is female. The graph shows the

change of population from predominant male respondents in the lecture class

to almost half dominant female (45.5%) in the Simulation class.

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100
90
80
70
60 Female
50 Male
40
30
20
10
0
Lecture Class Simulation Class

Figure 3. Gender distribution of respondents by Class

1.2 Year Section

Table 5

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FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE
RESPONDENTS BASED ON YEAR SECTION (FIRST TEACHING
SESSION)
Lecture Class Simulation Class
BSAeE 4-1 BSAeE 4-3 BSAeE 4-1 BSAeE 4-3 Total
F P (%) F P (%) F P (%) F P (%)
9 25.0 9 25.0 4 11.1 14 38.9 36
F refers to frequency
P refers to percentage

LC BSAeE 4-1 LC BSAeE 4-3 SC BSAeE 4-1 SC BSAeE 4-3

Figure 4. Distribution of respondents according to year section.

The number of respondents per class was determined based on the

relative percentage on the target population using simple random sampling.

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The respondents were divided into two class. For the Lecture Class, the

BSAeE 4-1 and BSAeE 4-3 accounted for 25%. Meanwhile, BSAeE 4-3

comprised 38.9% of the respondents while BSAeE 4-1 made up the remaining

11.1% of the sample population for the Simulation Class.

Table 6
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF
THERESPONDENTS BASED ON YEAR SECTION (SECOND TEACHING
SESSION)

Lecture Class Simulation Class


BSAeE 4-1 BSAeE 4-3 BSAeE 4-1 BSAeE 4-3 Total
F P (%) F P (%) F P (%) F P (%)
8 36.4 3 13.6 2 9.1 9 40.9 22
F refers to frequency
P refers to percentage

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LC BSAeE 4-1 LC BSAeE 4-3 SC BSAeE 4-1 SC BSAeE 4-3

Figure 5. Distribution of respondents according to year section.

The number of respondents per class was determined based on the

relative percentage on the target population using simple random sampling.

The respondents were divided into two class. For the Lecture Class, the

BSAeE 4-1 and BSAeE 4-3 accounted for 36.4% and 13.6% respectively.

Meanwhile, BSAeE 4-3 comprised 40.9% of the respondents while BSAeE 4-

1 made up the remaining 9.1% of the sample population for the Simulation

Class.

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1.3 Occupational Status

Table 7
FREQUENCY AND PERCENTAGE DISTRIBUTION OF THE
RESPONDENTS BASED ON THE OCCUPATIONAL STATUS
Occupational Status F P (%)
Job-order Faculty Member 7 87.5
Full time Faculty Member 1 12.5
Total 8 100
F refers to frequency
P refers to percentage

Job-order
Fulltime

Figure 6 Distribution of respondents according to occupational status.

The number of respondents was determined based on the relative

percentage of the target population using purposive sampling. For purposes

of clustering, respondents were grouped into two categories, the Job-order

Faculty Member which comprises 87.5% of the respondents and the Full time

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Faculty member which made up the remaining 12.5% of the sample

population.

2. The standards that qualifies the prototype projects optimization.

Table 8
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Design Precision
Prototype 1: V-Type Reciprocating Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
DESIGN PRECISION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION

a. When prototypes are


performed, appropriate and 2.50 0.926 Satisfactorily Attain
logical feedback is given.

b. The speed of response to


actions performed is 2.38 0.916 Satisfactorily Attain
appropriate.
c. The design is aesthetically
pleasing and brings precise 2.38 0.744 Satisfactorily Attain
feedback.

d. It is designed to minimize
2.38 0.518 Satisfactorily Attain
user error.
TOTAL AVERAGE 2.41 0.793 Satisfactorily Attain
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.8 showed a total average mean value of 2.41 for Design

Precision with adjectival description of Satisfactorily Attain. Appropriate and

logical feedback of the prototype got the highest item mean score of 2.50 with

adjectival description of Satisfactorily Attain.

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Table 9
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Ease of Utilization
Prototype 1: V-Type Reciprocating Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
EASE OF UTILIZATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. The operations, actions and
2.38 1.302 Satisfactorily Attain
responses are consistent
b. The design is
2.63 1.061 Moderately Attain
comprehensible
c. The design is helpful for both
3.00 0.756 Moderately Attain
the starters and expert
d. Objects, buttons, actions,
and options are clearly 1.75 1.035 Satisfactorily Attain
visible and working
TOTAL AVERAGE 2.44 1.056 Satisfactorily Attain
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.9 showed a total average mean value of 2.44 for Ease of

Utilization with adjectival description of Satisfactorily Attain. Its design

accessibility for beginners as well with experts got the highest item mean

score of 3.00 with adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

Prototype No. 1 got the lowest item mean out of the ten prototypes in

terms of Ease of Utilization. The serviceability options accumulated a mean

score of 1.75 with adjectival description of Satisfactorily Attain.

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Table 10
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Mode of Presentation
Prototype 1: V-Type Reciprocating Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
MODE OF PRESENTATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. I feel well-informed about the

tools, functions, capabilities,


2.50 0.926 Satisfactorily Attain
and usefulness of the
prototype after the
presentation.
b. Figures and demonstrations
2.88 0.641 Moderately Attain
are helpful.

c. It is easier to engage more


knowledge when conducting
3.00 0.756 Moderately Attain
lecture teaching method
using prototypes.

d. I gained more knowledge


about prototypes when it
2.88 0.991 Moderately Attain
comes with on-hand models.
(laboratory activities)

TOTAL AVERAGE 2.82 0.839 Moderately Attain


Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.10 showed a total average mean value of 2.82 for Mode of

Presentation with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Effectiveness as

teaching aid during lecture got the highest item mean score of 3.00 with

adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

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Prototype No. 1 got the lowest item mean out of the ten prototypes in

terms of Mode of Presentation. Its usefulness and tool functions accumulated

a mean score of 2.50 with adjectival description of Satisfactorily Attain.

Table 11
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Design Precision
Prototype 2: In-Line Reciprocating Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
DESIGN PRECISION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION

a. When prototypes are


performed, appropriate and
2.88 0.991 Moderately Attain
logical feedback is given.

b. The speed of response to


actions performed is 2.75 1.035 Moderately Attain
appropriate.
c. The design is aesthetically
pleasing and brings precise 2.88 0.641 Moderately Attain
feedback.

d. It is designed to minimize
2.75 0.707 Moderately Attain
user error.
TOTAL AVERAGE 2.82 0.861 Moderately Attain
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.11 showed a total average mean value of 2.82 for Design

Precision with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Appropriate and

logical feedback as well as the aesthetics of the prototype got the highest item

mean score of 2.88 with adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

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Table 12
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Ease of Utilization
Prototype 2: In-line Reciprocating Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
EASE OF UTILIZATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. The operations, actions and
2.63 1.061 Moderately Attain
responses are consistent
b. The design is
3.25 0.707 Moderately Attain
comprehensible
c. The design is helpful for both
3.38 0.518 Moderately Attain
the starters and expert
d. Objects, buttons, actions,
and options are clearly 2.50 0.756 Satisfactorily Attain
visible and working
TOTAL AVERAGE 2.94 0.785 Moderately Attain
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.12 showed a total average mean value of 2.94 for Ease of

Utilization with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Its design

accessibility for beginners as well with experts the highest item mean score of

3.38 with adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

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Table 13
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Mode of Presentation
Prototype 2: In-line Reciprocating Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
MODE OF PRESENTATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. I feel well-informed about the

tools, functions, capabilities,


3.25 0.707 Moderately Attain
and usefulness of the
prototype after the
presentation.
b. Figures and demonstrations
2.88 0.835 Moderately Attain
are helpful.

c. It is easier to engage more


knowledge when conducting
3.00 0.926 Moderately Attain
lecture teaching method
using prototypes.

d. I gained more knowledge


about prototypes when it
3.00 0.926 Moderately Attain
comes with on-hand models.
(laboratory activities)

TOTAL AVERAGE 3.03 0.853 Moderately Attain


Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.13 showed a total average mean value of 3.03 for Mode of

Presentation with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. The appreciation

of prototypes usefulness got the highest item mean score of 3.25 with

adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

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Table 14
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Design Precision
Prototype 3: Opposed Reciprocating Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
DESIGN PRECISION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION

a. When prototypes are


performed, appropriate and
1.88 0.835 Satisfactorily Attain
logical feedback is given.

b. The speed of response to


actions performed is 1.75 0.886 Satisfactorily Attain
appropriate.
c. The design is aesthetically
pleasing and brings precise 2.25 0.707 Satisfactorily Attain
feedback.

d. It is designed to minimize
2.25 0.463 Satisfactorily Attain
user error.
TOTAL AVERAGE 2.03 0.741 Satisfactorily Attain
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.14 showed a total average mean value of 2.03 for Design

Precision with adjectival description of Satisfactorily Attain. Its aesthetics as

well as the design to minimize user error got the highest item mean score of

2.25 with adjectival description of Satisfactorily Attain. However, Prototype No.

3 got the lowest item mean out of the ten prototypes in terms of Design

Precision. Its speed of response garnered a mean score of 1.75 with

adjectival description of Satisfactorily Attain. Hence, this prototype also got the

lowest total average mean score of all the three standards.

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Table 15
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Ease of Utilization
Prototype 3: Opposed Reciprocating Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
EASE OF UTILIZATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. The operations, actions and
1.88 1.126 Satisfactorily Attain
responses are consistent
b. The design is
2.63 0.916 Moderately Attain
comprehensible
c. The design is helpful for both
2.63 0.744 Moderately Attain
the starters and expert
d. Objects, buttons, actions,
and options are clearly 2.00 1.069 Satisfactorily Attain
visible and working
TOTAL AVERAGE 2.29 0.975 Satisfactorily Attain
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.15 showed a total average mean value of 2.29 for Ease of

Utilization with adjectival description of Satisfactorily Attain. The design

comprehensibility as well as its design accessibility for beginners as well with

experts got the highest item mean score of 2.63 with adjectival description of

Moderately Attain.

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Table 16
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Mode of Presentation
Prototype 3: Opposed Reciprocating Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
MODE OF PRESENTATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. I feel well-informed about the

tools, functions, capabilities,


2.63 0.744 Moderately Attain
and usefulness of the
prototype after the
presentation.
b. Figures and demonstrations
2.63 0.744 Moderately Attain
are helpful.

c. It is easier to engage more


knowledge when conducting
2.75 0.707 Moderately Attain
lecture teaching method
using prototypes.

d. I gained more knowledge


about prototypes when it
2.63 1.061 Moderately Attain
comes with on-hand models.
(laboratory activities)

TOTAL AVERAGE 2.66 0.827 Moderately Attain


Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.16 showed a total average mean value of 2.66 for Mode of

Presentation with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Its effectiveness

as teaching aid during lecture got the highest item mean score of 2.75 with

adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

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Prototype No. 3 got the lowest total average mean out of the ten

prototypes in terms of Mode of Presentation. Appreciation of prototypes

usefulness accumulated a mean score of 2.66 with adjectival description of

Satisfactorily Attain.

Table 17
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Design Precision
Prototype 4: Turbojet Type of a Gas Turbine Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
DESIGN PRECISION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION

a. When prototypes are


performed, appropriate and
2.88 0.991 Moderately Attain
logical feedback is given.

b. The speed of response to


actions performed is 3.00 1.069 Moderately Attain
appropriate.
c. The design is aesthetically
pleasing and brings precise 3.38 0.916 Moderately Attain
feedback.

d. It is designed to minimize
3.13 0.641 Moderately Attain
user error.
TOTAL AVERAGE 3.10 0.918 Moderately Attain
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.17 showed a total average mean value of 3.10 for Design

Precision with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. The design

aesthetics of the prototype got the highest item mean out of the ten prototypes

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in terms of Design Precision with a mean score of 3.38 with adjectival

description of Moderately Attain.

Table 18
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Ease of Utilization
Prototype 4: Turbojet type of a Gas Turbine Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
EASE OF UTILIZATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. The operations, actions and
3.00 1.069 Moderately Attain
responses are consistent
b. The design is
3.38 0.518 Moderately Attain
comprehensible
c. The design is helpful for both
3.50 0.535 Moderately Attain
the starters and expert
d. Objects, buttons, actions,
and options are clearly 3.00 0.535 Moderately Attain
visible and working
TOTAL AVERAGE 3.22 0.704 Moderately Attain
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.18 showed a total average mean value of 3.22 for Ease of

Utilization with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Its design

accessibility for beginners as well with experts got the highest item mean

score of 3.50 with adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

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Table 19
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Mode of Presentation
Prototype 4: Turbojet type of a Gas Turbine Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
MODE OF PRESENTATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. I feel well-informed about the

tools, functions, capabilities,


3.50 0.535 Moderately Attain
and usefulness of the
prototype after the
presentation.
b. Figures and demonstrations
3.38 0.518 Moderately Attain
are helpful.

c. It is easier to engage more


knowledge when conducting
3.63 0.518 Strongly Attain
lecture teaching method
using prototypes.

d. I gained more knowledge


about prototypes when it
3.63 0.744 Strongly Attain
comes with on-hand models.
(laboratory activities)

TOTAL AVERAGE 3.54 0.587 Strongly Attain


Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.18 showed a total average mean value of 3.54 for Mode of

Presentation with adjectival description of Strongly Attain. Its effectiveness as

teaching aid during lecture and laboratory activities got the highest item mean

score of 3.63 with adjectival description of Strongly Attain which is also the

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highest item mean out of the ten prototypes in terms of Mode of Presentation.

Hence, it got the highest total average mean of all three standards.

Table 20
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Design Precision
Prototype 5: Radial Reciprocating Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
DESIGN PRECISION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION

a. When prototypes are


performed, appropriate and
2.13 1.246 Satisfactorily Attain
logical feedback is given.

b. The speed of response to


actions performed is 2.00 1.195 Satisfactorily Attain
appropriate.
c. The design is aesthetically
pleasing and brings precise 2.38 0.916 Satisfactorily Attain
feedback.

d. It is designed to minimize
2.25 0.886 Satisfactorily Attain
user error.
TOTAL AVERAGE 2.19 1.073 Satisfactorily Attain
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.20 showed a total average mean value of 2.19 for Design

Precision with adjectival description of Satisfactorily Attain. The aesthetics of

the prototype got the highest item mean score of 2.38 with adjectival

description of Satisfactorily Attain.

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Table 21
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Ease of Utilization
Prototype 5: Radial Reciprocating Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
EASE OF UTILIZATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. The operations, actions and
2.00 1.195 Satisfactorily Attain
responses are consistent
b. The design is
2.50 0.756 Satisfactorily Attain
comprehensible
c. The design is helpful for both
2.63 0.744 Moderately Attain
the starters and expert
d. Objects, buttons, actions,
and options are clearly 2.00 1.069 Satisfactorily Attain
visible and working
TOTAL AVERAGE 2.28 0.961 Satisfactorily Attain
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.21 showed a total average mean value of 2.28 for Ease of

Utilization with adjectival description of Satisfactorily Attain. The prototype’s

design accessibility for beginners as well with experts got the highest item

mean score of 2.63 with adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

Prototype No. 5 got the lowest total average mean out of the ten

prototypes in terms of Ease of Utilization.

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Table 22
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Mode of Presentation
Prototype 5: Radial Reciprocating Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
MODE OF PRESENTATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. I feel well-informed about the

tools, functions, capabilities,


2.63 0.744 Moderately Attain
and usefulness of the
prototype after the
presentation.
b. Figures and demonstrations
2.63 0.744 Moderately Attain
are helpful.

c. It is easier to engage more


knowledge when conducting
2.75 0.886 Moderately Attain
lecture teaching method
using prototypes.

d. I gained more knowledge


about prototypes when it
2.63 0.916 Moderately Attain
comes with on-hand models.
(laboratory activities)

TOTAL AVERAGE 2.66 0.826 Moderately Attain


Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No. 22 showed a total average mean value of 2.66 for Mode of

Presentation with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Effectiveness as

teaching aid during lecture got the highest item mean score of 2.75 with

adjectival description of Moderately Attain

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Like Prototype No.3, Prototype No. 5 also got the lowest total average

mean out of the ten prototypes in terms of Mode of Presentation. Appreciation

of its usefulness accumulated a mean score of 2.66 with adjectival description

of Satisfactorily Attain.

Table 23
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Design Precision
Prototype 6: Radial Reciprocating Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
DESIGN PRECISION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION

a. When prototypes are


performed, appropriate and
2.50 1.069 Satisfactorily Attain
logical feedback is given.

b. The speed of response to


actions performed is 2.25 1.035 Satisfactorily Attain
appropriate.
c. The design is aesthetically
pleasing and brings precise 2.75 0.707 Moderately Attain
feedback.

d. It is designed to minimize
2.75 0.463 Moderately Attain
user error.

TOTAL AVERAGE 2.56 0.856 Moderately Attain


Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

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Table No.23 showed a total average mean value of 2.56 for Design

Precision with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Its design to

minimize user error and the aesthetics of the prototype got the highest item

mean score of 2.75 with adjectival description of Satisfactorily Attain.

Table 24
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Ease of Utilization
Prototype 6: Radial Reciprocating Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
EASE OF UTILIZATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. The operations, actions and
2.75 1.165 Moderately Attain
responses are consistent
b. The design is
2.75 0.707 Moderately Attain
comprehensible
c. The design is helpful for both
2.63 0.744 Moderately Attain
the starters and expert
d. Objects, buttons, actions,
and options are clearly 2.50 1.069 Satisfactorily Attain
visible and working
TOTAL AVERAGE 2.66 0.942 Moderately Attain
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.24 showed a total average mean value of 2.66 for Ease of

Utilization with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Its consistency as

well as its design comprehensibility got the highest item mean score of 2.75

with adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

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Table 25
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Mode of Presentation
Prototype 6: Radial Reciprocating Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
MODE OF PRESENTATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. I feel well-informed about the

tools, functions, capabilities,


2.50 0.756 Satisfactorily Attain
and usefulness of the
prototype after the
presentation.
b. Figures and demonstrations
2.88 0.641 Moderately Attain
are helpful.

c. It is easier to engage more


knowledge when conducting
2.75 0.707 Moderately Attain
lecture teaching method
using prototypes.

d. I gained more knowledge


about prototypes when it
2.88 0.641 Moderately Attain
comes with on-hand models.
(laboratory activities)

TOTAL AVERAGE 2.75 0.688 Moderately Attain


Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.25 showed a total average mean value of 2.75 for Mode of

Presentation with an adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Prototypes’

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helpful demonstrations as well as effectiveness as teaching aid during

laboratory activities got the highest item mean score of 2.88 with adjectival

description of Moderately Attain.

Like Prototype No.1, Prototype No. 6 got the lowest item mean out of

the ten prototypes in terms of Mode of Presentation. Appreciation of

prototypes usefulness accumulated a mean score of 2.50 with adjectival

description of Satisfactorily Attain.

Table 26
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Design Precision
Prototype 7: Radial Reciprocating Engine
STD. ADJECTIVAL
DESIGN PRECISION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION

a. When prototypes are


performed, appropriate and
3.00 0.756 Moderately Attain
logical feedback is given.

b. The speed of response to


actions performed is 2.63 0.744 Moderately Attain
appropriate.
c. The design is aesthetically
pleasing and brings precise 2.50 0.926 Satisfactorily Attain
feedback.

d. It is designed to minimize
2.88 0.835 Moderately Attain
user error.
TOTAL AVERAGE 2.75 0.819 Moderately Attain
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

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Table No.26 showed a total average mean value of 2.75 for Design

Precision with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Appropriate and

logical

feedback of the prototype got the highest item mean score of 3.00 with

adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

Table 27
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Ease of Utilization
Prototype 7: Radial Reciprocating Engine
STD. ADJECTIVAL
EASE OF UTILIZATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. The operations, actions and
3.00 1.069 Moderately Attain
responses are consistent
b. The design is
2.50 0.926 Satisfactorily Attain
comprehensible
c. The design is helpful for both
2.50 0.926 Satisfactorily Attain
the starters and expert
d. Objects, buttons, actions,
and options are clearly 2.63 0.916 Moderately Attain
visible and working
TOTAL AVERAGE 2.66 0.961 Moderately Attain
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.24 showed a total average mean value of 2.66 for Ease of

Utilization with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. The consistency of

this prototype got the highest item mean score of 3.00 with adjectival

description of Moderately Attain.

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Table 28
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Mode of Presentation
Prototype 7: Radial Reciprocating Engine
STD. ADJECTIVAL
MODE OF PRESENTATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. I feel well-informed about the

tools, functions, capabilities,


2.63 0.744 Moderately Attain
and usefulness of the
prototype after the
presentation.
b. Figures and demonstrations
2.75 0.886 Moderately Attain
are helpful.

c. It is easier to engage more


knowledge when conducting
2.88 0.835 Moderately Attain
lecture teaching method
using prototypes.

d. I gained more knowledge


about prototypes when it
2.88 0.991 Moderately Attain
comes with on-hand models.
(laboratory activities)

TOTAL AVERAGE 2.79 0.869 Moderately Attain


Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

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Table No. 28 showed a total average mean value of 2.79 for Mode of

Presentation with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Its effectiveness

as teaching aid during lecture and laboratory activities got the highest item

mean score of 2.88 with adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

Table 29
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Design Precision
Prototype 8: Turbojet type of a Gas Turbine Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
DESIGN PRECISION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION

a. When prototypes are


performed, appropriate and
3.00 1.069 Moderately Attain
logical feedback is given.

b. The speed of response to


actions performed is 2.88 0.991 Moderately Attain
appropriate.
c. The design is aesthetically
pleasing and brings precise 3.25 0.707 Moderately Attain
feedback.

d. It is designed to minimize
3.13 0.835 Moderately Attain
user error.

TOTAL AVERAGE 3.07 0.911 Moderately Attain


Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

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Table No.29 showed a total average mean value of 3.07 for Design

Precision with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Its design to

minimize user error got the highest item mean score of 3.13 with adjectival

description of Moderately Attain.

Table 30
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Ease of Utilization
Prototype 8: Turbojet type of a Gas Turbine Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
EASE OF UTILIZATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. The operations, actions and
3.38 1.061 Moderately Attain
responses are consistent
b. The design is
3.50 1.069 Moderately Attain
comprehensible
c. The design is helpful for both
3.63 0.744 Strongly Attain
the starters and expert
d. Objects, buttons, actions,
and options are clearly 3.00 1.309 Moderately Attain
visible and working
TOTAL AVERAGE 3.38 1.065 Moderately Attain
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.30 showed a total average mean value of 3.38 for Ease of

Utilization with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Its design

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accessibility for beginners as well with experts got the highest item mean

score of 3.63 with adjectival description of Strongly Attain. Prototype No. 8 got

the highest total average mean out of the ten prototypes in terms of Ease of

Utilization.

Table 31
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Mode of Presentation
Prototype 8: Turbojet type of a Gas Turbine Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
MODE OF PRESENTATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. I feel well-informed about the

tools, functions, capabilities,


3.50 0.756 Moderately Attain
and usefulness of the
prototype after the
presentation.
b. Figures and demonstrations
3.50 0.756 Moderately Attain
are helpful.

c. It is easier to engage more


knowledge when conducting
3.50 0.756 Moderately Attain
lecture teaching method
using prototypes.

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d. I gained more knowledge


about prototypes when it
3.50 0.756 Moderately Attain
comes with on-hand models.
(laboratory activities)

TOTAL AVERAGE 3.50 0.756 Moderately Attain


Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.31 showed a total average mean value of 3.50 for Mode of

Presentation with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Appreciation of

prototypes usefulness, helpful demonstration and effectiveness as teaching

aid during lecture and laboratory activities all got the same mean score of

3.00 with adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

Table 32
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Design Precision
Prototype 9: Turboprop type of a Gas Turbine Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
DESIGN PRECISION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION

a. When prototypes are


performed, appropriate and
2.50 1.195 Satisfactorily Attain
logical feedback is given.

b. The speed of response to


actions performed is 2.75 1.035 Moderately Attain
appropriate.
c. The design is aesthetically
pleasing and brings precise 2.88 1.126 Moderately Attain
feedback.

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d. It is designed to minimize
2.88 0.835 Moderately Attain
user error.
TOTAL AVERAGE 2.75 1.056 Moderately Attain
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.32 showed a total average mean value of 2.75 for Design

Precision with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Its design to

minimize user error and the aesthetics of the prototype got the highest item

mean score of 2.88 with adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

Table 33
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Ease of Utilization
Prototype 9: Turboprop type of a Gas Turbine Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
EASE OF UTILIZATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. The operations, actions and
2.88 1.126 Moderately Attain
responses are consistent
b. The design is
3.25 0.886 Moderately Attain
comprehensible
c. The design is helpful for both
3.38 0.744 Moderately Attain
the starters and expert
d. Objects, buttons, actions,
and options are clearly 2.50 1.309 Satisfactorily Attain
visible and working
TOTAL AVERAGE 3.00 1.039 Moderately Attain

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Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.33 showed a total average mean value of 3.00 for Ease of

Utilization with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Prototype’s design

accessibility for beginners as well with experts got the highest item mean

score of 3.38 with adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

Table 34
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Mode of Presentation
Prototype 9: Turboprop type of a Gas Turbine Engine Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
MODE OF PRESENTATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. I feel well-informed about the

tools, functions, capabilities,


3.25 0.707 Moderately Attain
and usefulness of the
prototype after the
presentation.
b. Figures and demonstrations
3.38 0.744 Moderately Attain
are helpful.

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c. It is easier to engage more
knowledge when conducting
3.38 0.916 Moderately Attain
lecture teaching method
using prototypes.

d. I gained more knowledge


about prototypes when it
3.50 0.756 Moderately Attain
comes with on-hand models.
(laboratory activities)

TOTAL AVERAGE 3.38 0.785 Moderately Attain


Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.34 showed a total average mean value of 3.38 for Mode of

Presentation with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Its effectiveness

as teaching aid during lecture got the highest item mean score of 3.50 with

adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

Table 35
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Design Precision
Prototype 10: Wind Tunnel Scale Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
DESIGN PRECISION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION

a. When prototypes are


performed, appropriate and
2.50 1.069 Satisfactorily Attain
logical feedback is given.

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b. The speed of response to
actions performed is 2.38 0.916 Satisfactorily Attain
appropriate.
c. The design is aesthetically
pleasing and brings precise 3.25 0.463 Moderately Attain
feedback.

d. It is designed to minimize
3.38 0.744 Moderately Attain
user error.
TOTAL AVERAGE 2.88 0.829 Moderately Attain
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.35 showed a total average mean value of 2.88 for Design

Precision with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. Its design to

minimize user error got the highest item mean score of 3.38 with adjectival

description of Moderately Attain. As well with prototype 4, Prototype No. 10

got the highest item mean out of the ten prototypes in terms of Design

Precision garnering a mean score of 3.38 with adjectival description of

Moderately Attain.

Table 36
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Ease of Utilization
Prototype 10: Wind Tunnel Scale Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
EASE OF UTILIZATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION
a. The operations, actions and
2.63 0.916 Moderately Attain
responses are consistent

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b. The design is
3.50 0.535 Moderately Attain
comprehensible
c. The design is helpful for both
3.75 0.463 Strongly Attain
the starters and expert
d. Objects, buttons, actions,
and options are clearly 3.13 0.835 Moderately Attain
visible and working
TOTAL AVERAGE 3.25 0.714 Moderately Attain
Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.36 showed a total average mean value of 3.25 for Ease of

Utilization with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. The prototype’s

design accessibility for beginners as well with experts got the highest item

mean out of the ten prototypes in terms of Ease of Utilization with a mean

score of 3.75 with adjectival description of Strongly Attain.

Table 37
Summary Tables on Standards that Qualifies Prototype
Optimization in terms of Mode of Presentation
Prototype 10: Wind Tunnel Scale Model
STD. ADJECTIVAL
MODE OF PRESENTATION MEAN
DEVIATION DESCRIPTION

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a. I feel well-informed about the

tools, functions, capabilities,


3.50 0.535 Moderately Attain
and usefulness of the
prototype after the
presentation.
b. Figures and demonstrations
3.50 0.535 Moderately Attain
are helpful.

c. It is easier to engage more


knowledge when conducting
3.38 0.744 Moderately Attain
lecture teaching method
using prototypes.

d. I gained more knowledge


about prototypes when it
3.38 0.744 Moderately Attain
comes with on-hand models.
(laboratory activities)

TOTAL AVERAGE 3.44 0.648 Moderately Attain


Legend: 1.00-1.50 Poorly Attain; 1.51- 2.50 Satisfactorily Attain;
2.51-3.50 Moderately Attain; 3.51-4.00 Strongly Attain

Table No.37 showed a total average mean value of 3.44 for Mode of

Presentation with adjectival description of Moderately Attain. The appreciation

of prototypes usefulness as well as its helpful demonstrations got the highest

item mean score of 3.50 with adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

3. Level of Effectiveness of Lecture Method and Simulation Method based on

the performance of the students.

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3.1 Written Examination

Table 38
Summary Table of Written Examination Scores

Legend: 96.00-100.00 Excellent; 94.00-95.99 Superior; 91.00-93.99 Very Good; 89.00-90.99 Good; 86.00-88.99
Very Satisfactory; 83.00-85.99 High Average; 80.00-82.99 Average; 77.00-79.99 Fair; 75.00-76.99 Pass; 70-74.99
Conditional; 0.00-69.99 Failing

Table 38 depicted the written examination scores and its equivalent

percentage of all the students during the first teaching session. Results

showed that the highest and lowest score attained by Lecture class was 13

and 7 points respectively with a mean percentage of 86.06%. On the other

hand, the highest

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and lowest scores attained by Simulation Class was 15 and 1 point

respectively with a mean percentage of 82.39%.

Table 39
Summary Table of Written Examination Scores

Legend: 96.00-100.00 Excellent; 94.00-95.99 Superior; 91.00-93.99 Very Good; 89.00-90.99 Good; 86.00-88.99
Very Satisfactory; 83.00-85.99 High Average; 80.00-82.99 Average; 77.00-79.99 Fair; 75.00-76.99 Pass; 70-74.99
Conditional; 0.00-69.99 Failing

Table 39 depicted the written examination scores and its equivalent

percentage of all the students during the second teaching session. Results

showed that the highest and lowest score attained by Lecture class was 9 and

5points respectively with a mean percentage of 88.18%. On the other hand,

the highest and lowest score attained by the Simulation Class was 10 and 9

points respectively with a mean percentage of 99.55%

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3.2 Oral Examination

Table 40
Summary Table of Oral Examination Scores

Legend: 96.00-100.00 Excellent; 94.00-95.99 Superior; 91.00-93.99 Very Good; 89.00-90.99 Good; 86.00-
88.99 Very Satisfactory; 83.00-85.99 High Average; 80.00-82.99 Average; 77.00-79.99 Fair; 75.00-76.99
Pass; 70-74.99 Conditional; 0.00-69.99 Failing

Table 40 depicted the oral examination scores and its equivalent

percentage of all the students during the first teaching session. Results

showed that 10 out of 15 questions were answered correctly by the students

under the Lecture Class with a percentage of 83.33%. On the other hand, 14

out of 15 questions were answered correctly by the students under the

Simulation Class with a percentage of 96.67%.

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Table 41
Summary Table of Oral Examination Scores

Legend: 96.00-100.00 Excellent; 94.00-95.99 Superior; 91.00-93.99 Very Good; 89.00-90.99


Good; 86.00-88.99 Very Satisfactory; 83.00-85.99 High Average; 80.00-82.99 Average; 77.00-
79.99 Fair; 75.00-76.99 Pass; 70-74.99 Conditional; 0.00-69.99 Failing

Table 41 depicted the oral examination scores and its equivalent

percentage of all the students during the second teaching session. Results

showed that 8 out of 15 questions were answered correctly by the students

under the Lecture Class with a percentage of 76.67%. On the other hand, 13

out of 15 questions were answered correctly by the students under the

Simulation Class with a percentage of 93.33%.

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4. Inferential Statistics on the Assessment of Student’s Performance based on

the Teaching Method used.

4.1 Student learning comprehension

Table 42
Summary Table for Shapiro-Wilk Test for data normal distribution
on student’s performance based on the teaching method used

Shapiro-Wilk Statistical
Teaching Method Normality
Statistic df Sig. Treatment
Lecture Method
.824 18 .003 Skewed
First Session Mann-Whitney U
Simulation Method Test
.937 18 .254 Normal
First Session
Lecture Method
.822 11 .018 Skewed
Second Session Mann-Whitney U
Simulation Method Test
.345 11 .001 Skewed
Second Session

For dataset small than 2000 elements, the Shapiro-Wilk test,

otherwise, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used. In this case, the random

sample from the population for the first and second sessions were only 18 and

11 students respectively, and therefore, the Shapiro-Wilk was used. At 0.05

significant level of difference, only the result of the written examination during

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the first session of the Simulation Class were normal distributed and the rest

are already skewed.

So to test the significant difference between lecture method and

simulation during the first and the second sessions, a nonparametric test was

applied for statistical treatment. In this study, the Mann-Whitney U Test (also

called Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney Test) was used as the nonparametric test to

assess the significant difference between the performance of students

subjected to different teaching strategies for two sessions.

Table 43
Summary Table for Wilcoxon Rank Test on student’s learning
comprehensionbased on teaching method used in terms of Written
Examination
Teaching Method N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks
Lecture Method 18 20.47 368.50
Simulation Method 18 16.53 297.50
Total 36
(First Session)

Results indicated that the mean rank of the students who attended the

lecture is higher with 20.47 compared to the mean rank of the students who

undergo the simulation method with 16.53. Therefore, performance of the

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students in the written examination during the first session was higher on the

lecture than on the simulation.

Table 44
Summary Table for Mann-Whitney U test on student’s learning
comprehension based on teaching method used in terms of Written
Examination
Written
Examination
Mann-Whitney U 126.500
Wilcoxon W 297.500
Z -1.139
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) 0.254
(First Session)

Data showed that there is no significant difference (U=126.500,

p=0.254) between the performance of the students in the identified teaching

strategies in the written examination during the first session. Therefore, the

written examination results of the students who attended the lecture is not

significantly higher to the written examination results of the students under the

simulation method.

Table 45
Summary Table for Wilcoxon Rank Test on student’s learning
comprehension based on teaching method used in terms of Written
Examination

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Teaching Method N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks
Lecture 11 6.18 68.00
Simulation 11 16.82 185.00
Total 22
(Second Session)

The data showed that the results of the written examination of the

students in the simulation is higher with a mean rank of 16.82, compared to

the mean rank of the students in the lecture with 6.18. Therefore, the

performance of

the students in the written examination during the second session is higher on

the simulation than on the lecture.

Table 46
Summary Table for Mann-Whitney U test on student’s learning
comprehension based on teaching method used in terms of Written
Examination
Written
Examination
Mann-Whitney U 2.000
Wilcoxon W 68.000
Z -4.067
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .001
(Second Session)

The test statistics result indicate that there is a significant difference on

the performance of the students on the lecture and simulation methods. At

0.05 critical level of significance, the percentage scores in the written

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examination of the students who attended the simulation is significantly

different with the percentage scores in the written examination of the students

at U=2, p=0.001.

4.2 Oral Recitation

Table 47
Summary Table for Shapiro-Wilk Test for data normal distribution
on student’s performance based on the teaching method used

Shapiro-Wilk Statistical
Teaching Method Normality
Statistic df Sig. Treatment
Lecture Method
.603 15 .001 Skewed
First Session Mann-Whitney U
Simulation Method Test
.284 15 .001 Skewed
First Session
Lecture Method
.643 15 .001 Skewed
Second Session Mann-Whitney U
Simulation Method Test
.413 15 .001 Skewed
Second Session

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In this case, the random sample from the population for the first and

second sessions were still 18 and 11 students respectively, and therefore, the

Shapiro-Wilk is used. At 0.05 significant level of difference, all of the result

from the oral examination during the second session were skewed. So to test

the significant difference between lecture method and simulation during the

first and the second sessions, a nonparametric test is applied for statistical

treatment namely the Mann-Whitney U test.

Table 48
Summary Table for Wilcoxon Rank Test on oral recitation based on
teaching method used in terms of Written Examination
Teaching Method N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks
Lecture Method 15 13.50 202.50
Simulation Method 15 17.50 262.50
Total 30
(First Session)

Results indicated that the mean rank of the students who attended the

simulation is higher with 17.50 compared to the mean rank of the students

who undergo the lecture method with 13.50. Therefore, performance of the

students in the 15 item oral examination during the first session was higher on

the simulation than on the lecture.

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Table 49
Summary Table for Mann-Whitney U test on oral recitation based on
teaching method used in terms of Written Examination
Oral
Examination
Mann-Whitney U 82.500
Wilcoxon W 202.500
Z -1.795
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .073
(First Session)

Data showed that there is no significant difference (U=82.500,

p=0.073) between the performance of the students in the identified teaching

strategies in the oral examination during the first session. Therefore, the oral

examination

results of the students who attended the simulation was not significantly

higher to the oral examination results of the students under the lecture

method.

Table 50
Summary Table for Wilcoxon Rank Test on oral recitation based on
teaching method used in terms of Written Examination
Teaching Method N Mean Rank Sum of Ranks
Lecture 15 13.00 195.00
Simulation 15 18.00 270.00
Total 30
(Second Session)

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The data showed that the results of the oral examination of the

students in the simulation was higher with a mean rank of 18.00, compared to

the mean rank of the students in the lecture with 13.00. Therefore, the

performance of the students in the 15 item oral examination during the second

session was higher on the simulation than on the lecture.

Table 51
Summary Table for Mann-Whitney U test on oral recitation based on
teaching method used in terms of Written Examination
Oral
Examination
Mann-Whitney U 75.000
Wilcoxon W 195.000
Z -1.959
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .050
(Second Session)

The test statistics result indicated that there was a significant difference

on the performance of the students on the lecture and simulation methods. At

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0.05 critical level of significance, the percentage scores in the written

examination of the students who attended the simulation was significantly

different with the percentage scores in the written examination of the students

at U=75, p=0.05.

Chapter V
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

This chapter discussed the summary of findings, the conclusion drawn

from the findings, and the recommendations based on the findings and

conclusions.

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5.1 Summary

This study focused on the optimization of prototype projects of

Aeronautical Engineering students of Philippine State College of Aeronautics-

Villamor Campus toenhance existing practical teaching methods. In the first

quantitative phase of this study, the researchers evaluated the current

condition of concluded prototype projects via perceptive survey questionnaire

in terms of design precision, ease of utilization and mode of presentation.

Subsequently, on the second phase of this study, a classroom teaching

sessions were conducted followed by a post-test examination which consist of

written and oral type of examination to measure the level of effectiveness of

the two (2) conducted teaching methods. Inferential analysis was done to test

if there was significant difference on the student’s learning comprehension

and oral recitation when respondents undergo two different teaching methods.

More specifically, this study answered the following questions:


1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:
1.1 Gender
1.2 Section
1.3 Occupational Status?

2. What prototype projects of aeronautical engineering students have met

the standards that qualifies its optimization in terms of:

2.1 Design Precision

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2.2 Ease of Utilization (user friendly)
2.3 Mode of Presentation?

3. What level of effectiveness do the lecture method and the simulation

teaching method with the utilization of prototype projects reflect based

on the performance of the students on:

3.1Written Examination

3.2 Oral Examination?

4. Is there a significant difference between the lecture method and the

simulation teaching method with utilization of prototype projects in the

performance of the students in terms of:

4.1 Student learning comprehension

4.2 Oral Recitation?

This study hypothesized that:

There is no significant difference on the performance of the students in

the lecture method and the discussion teaching method with the utilization of

prototype projects in terms of:

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1.1 Student learning comprehension

1.2 Oral recitation

A locally structured questionnaire on optimization of prototype projects

was used to gather data. The questionnaire made use of a four-point Likert

scale that was divided into three areas, i.e., design precision, ease of

utilization and mode of presentation. The questionnaire underwent content

validation by internal experts who have sufficient knowledge in the field of

Engineering and were considered experts in the field of educational

management, administration, and educational policy formulation.

Reliability of the data gathering instrument was established through

Cronbach’s Alpha using the software SPSS 16.0 for Windows.

Sample population in the first phase of this study was determined using

purposive sampling involving Aero-AT and instructors. Eight (8) instructors

were taken as respondents. Meanwhile, simple random sampling was utilized

to select among the 4th year Aeronautical Engineering students for the

second phase of this study. Total target population is 103 students of which

thirty six (36) and twenty two (22) students were taken as respondents for the

first and second session respectively and were randomly selected.

5.2 Summary of Findings

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The following are the results of the study based on the stated problem

statements in Chapter 1.

5.2.1 Profile of the Respondents

5.2.1.1. Gender of Respondents

Forty one or about 70.7% of the respondents are males that basically

belong to the first teaching session of the lecture class while majority of the

females or 29.3 % are from the first teaching session simulation class

5.2.1.2 Section of Respondents

Thirty five or about 60.3% of the respondents is BSAeE4-3 that

basically belong to the first teaching session simulation class while the

majority of the BSAeE 4-1 or 39.7 % are from the first teaching session

lecture class

5.2.1.3 Occupational Status of Respondents

Eighty seven percent of the respondents are Job-order faculty

member and the rest are Full time faculty members.

5.2.2 Standards that qualifies prototype projects’ optimization

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5.2.2.1. Design Precision
Respondents favorably perceived Prototype Project No. 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9,

and 10 to have moderately met this standard with a mean scores ranging from

2.56 to 3.10, all having an adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

Meanwhile, Prototype Project No. 1, 3, and 5 were only perceived to

have satisfactorily met its design precision with a mean score of 2.41, 2.03,

and 2.19 respectively with an adjectival description of Satisfactorily Attain.

However, among the 3 standards, the precision of prototype project design

got the lowest

mean score of 2.03 in which originates from Prototype Project No. 3 that is a

model of horizontally opposed reciprocating engine.

5.2.2.2. Ease of Utilization


Prototype Project No. 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 were perceived by the

respondents to have moderate user comfort with a mean score ranging from

2.66 to 3.38, all having an adjectival description of Moderately Attain.

Nonetheless, Prototype Project No. 1, 3 and 5 were only perceived by

the respondents to have acceptable user comfort with a mean score of 2.44,

2.29 and 2.28 respectively with adjectival description of Satisfactorily Attain.

5.2.2.3. Mode of Presentation


Results showed that only Prototype Project No. 4 was perceived to

have a very high prospect to effectively demonstrate its design and

operations, may it be by lecture or hands-on activities. A mean score of 3.54

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was computed with an adjectival description of Strongly Attain. Hence, this

standard got the highest mean score among the 3 standards.

Favorably, the nine (9) remaining Prototype Projects were perceived to

have a high prospect of effective class demonstration with a mean score

ranging from 2.66 to 3.50, all having an adjectival description of Moderately

Attain.

5.2.3 Level of Effectiveness of Lecture Method and Simulation Method

based on the performance of the students.

5.2.3.1. Written Examination

In the first teaching session, students who attended the Lecture Class

got the higher percentage mean of 86.06% with a remarks of High

Satisfactory while the Simulation Class only got 82.39% with a remarks of

Average obtaining a percentage difference of 3.61%.

However, on the second teaching session, students who attended the

Simulation Class got the higher percentage mean of 99.55% with a remarks of

Excellent while the Lecture Class only got 88.18% with a remarks of Very

Satisfactory obtaining a higher percentage difference of 11.37%.

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5.2.3.2 Oral Examination

In the first teaching session, students who attended the Simulation

Class got the higher percentage mean of 96.67% with a remarks of Excellent

while the Simulation Class only got 83.33% with a remarks of High Average.

Likewise, on the second teaching session, students who attended the

Simulation Class got the higher percentage mean of 93.33% with a remarks of

Very Good while the Lecture Class only got 76.67% with a remarks of Fair.

5.2.4 Inferential Statistics on the Assessment of Student’s Performance

based on the Teaching Method used.

5.2.4.1 Student learning comprehension

The researchers used the Mann-Whitney U test to measure the

significant difference in student’s learning comprehension who underwent

lecture method and simulation method as reflected by the result of their

written examination.

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For the first teaching session, an introduction to Gas Turbine Engine,

its types and parts were the subject of discussion. Results showed that the

mean rank scores of the students who attended the lecture class is higher

with 20.47 compared to the mean rank of the students who underwent the

simulation class

with 16.53. However, test statistics result show that there was no significant

difference (U=126.500, p=0.254) between the performance of the students in

the identified teaching strategies in the written examination during the first

session.

This confirmed the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference

on the student’s performance in the lecture method and simulation method in

terms of student learning comprehension. This implied that both of the

teaching methods had a similar effect on student’s learning comprehension.

In the second teaching session, incorporation of the engine parts to

realize the operating principles of gas turbine engine was the focus of the

discussion. The results showed the written examination of the students who

attended the simulation class was higher with a mean rank of 16.82,

compared to the mean rank of the students in the lecture class with 6.18.

Moreover, test statistics result showed that there was a significant difference

on the performance of the students who attended the lecture and simulation

class. At 0.05 critical level of significance, the percentage scores in the written
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examination of the students who attended the simulation class was

significantly different with the percentage scores in the written examination at

U=2, p=0.001.

This contradicted the null hypothesis that there is no significant

difference on the student’s performance in the lecture method and simulation

method in terms of student learning comprehension. This implied that there is

variation on student’s learning comprehension depending on the teaching

method used, with the simulation method giving statistically more favorable

written examination result than the lecture method.

5.2.4.2 Oral Recitation

The researchers used the Mann-Whitney U test to measure the

significant difference on oral recitation who underwent lecture method and

simulation method as reflected by the result of their 15 item oral examination.

For the first teaching session, an introduction to Gas Turbine Engine, its types

and parts were the subject of discussion. Results showed that the mean rank

scores of the students who attended the simulation class was higher with

17.50 compared to the mean rank of the students who underwent the lecture

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class with 13.50. However, test statistics result showed that there was no

significant difference (U=82.500, p=0.073) between the performance of the

students in the identified teaching strategies in the oral examination during the

first session.

This confirmed the null hypothesis that there is no significant difference

on the student’s performance in the lecture method and simulation method in

terms of oral recitation. This implied that both of the teaching methods has a

similar effect on student’s oral class participation.

In the second teaching session, incorporation of the engine parts to

realize the operating principles of gas turbine engine was the focus of the

discussion. The results showed the oral examination of the students who

attended the simulation class was higher with a mean rank of 18.00,

compared to the mean rank of the students in the lecture class with 13.00.

Moreover, test statistics result showed that there was a significant difference

on the performance of the students who attended the lecture and simulation

class. At 0.05 critical level of significance, the percentage scores in the written

examination of the students who attended the simulation class was

significantly different with the percentage scores in the written examination at

U=75, p=0.05.

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This contradicted the null hypothesis that there is no significant

difference on the student’s performance in the lecture method and simulation

method in terms of oral recitation. This implied that there is variation on

student’s learning comprehension depending on the teaching method used,

with the simulation

method giving statistically more favorable oral examination result than the

lecture method.

5.3. Conclusions

Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were

drawn:

5.3.1.1 Instructors of Aero-AT Department generally perceived the

concluded prototype projects of Aeronautical Engineering students to have

moderately met the standards that qualifies for its optimization especially

when it comes to prototype project’s Ease of Utilization and Mode of

Presentation. Meanwhile, the Design Precision of prototype projects required

a more thorough attention in achieving appropriate and logical feedbacks as

well as the speed of response during mechanical demonstrations.

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5.3.1.2 Gas Turbine Engine prototype projects were all generally

perceived by Instructors of Aero-AT Department to have moderately met all

the standards that qualifies for its optimization.

5.3.2. The level of effectiveness of the teaching method was

significantly affected depending on the teaching method used in the chosen

topic of discussion.

As shown in the statistically significant and reliable data, the first

teaching session did not implied any significant difference on student learning

comprehension and oral recitation when different teaching methods were

used to discuss the first chosen topic. In contrary, the second teaching

session confirmed that there is a significant difference on both student’s

learning comprehension and oral recitation when different teaching methods

are used to discuss a chosen topic that is different from what was discussed

during the first teaching session, being simulation method giving statistically

more favorable result than the lecture method.

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Therefore, this suggested a relationship between teaching methods to

the subject matter to be discussed.

5.4 Recommendations

On the basis of the above conclusions, the following recommendations

were proposed:

5.4.1. A comprehensive maintenance and management system is

recommended to safeguard, monitor and enhance the condition of prototype

projects. By implementing these, it will ensure the productivity and

effectiveness

of the prototype as a teaching medium whenever being used during class

discussions. The management system shall provide all the necessary

procedures in the organization of prototype projects. The Aero AT

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Organization shall be appointed as an administrative body to supervise and

implement its policies and guidelines.

5.4.2. Repair and modification of existing prototype projects. All

prototype projects of Aeronautical Engineering students that have

satisfactorily passed the standards set by the researchers as perceived by the

Aero-AT Instructors shall all undergo repair and modification. The succeeding

batch of students who will take up the subject course where the prototype

project/s originated shall be the one to perform the repair and modification

procedures. By employing these, it will

help the students to be economical and enhance their creativity and critical

thinking skills.

5.4.3. Long term projects to produce high quality prototypes. To have

sufficient time to identify materials and equipment to be procured and long

term plan of design construction. By doing so, it will produce better quality of

prototypes that can be readily optimized by the instructors to enhance the

teaching - learning process.

5.4.4. Re-tooling of Instructor’s teaching methods. A comprehensive

exploration of alternative teaching techniques e.g. use of prototype projects

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will help them in selecting an effective teaching method for a particular subject

matter.

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