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Absolute Entropy (of a substance) A compound containing an alkyl group bonded to a

The increase in the entropy of a substance as it goes from benzene ring.

a perfectly ordered crystalline form at 0 °K (where its Alkynes
entropy is zero) to the temperature in question. Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more
Absolute Zero carbon-carbon triple bonds.
The zero point on the absolute temperature scale; Allotropes
-273.15°C or 0 K; theoretically, the temperature at which Different forms of the same element in the same physical
molecular motion ceases. state.
Absorption Spectrum Allotropic Modifications (Allotropes)
Spectrum associated with absorption of electromagnetic Different forms of the same element in the same physical
radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from state.
transitions from lower to higher energy states. Alloying
Accuracy Mixing of metal with other substances (usually other
How closely a measured value agrees with the correct metals) to modify its properties.
value. Alpha Particle
Acid A helium nucleus.
A substance that produces H+(aq) ions in aqueous Alpha (a) Particle
solution. Strong acids ionize completely or almost Helium ion with 2+ charge; an assembly of two protons
completely in dilute aqueous solution. Weak acids ionize and two neutrons.
only slightly. Alums
Acid Anhydride Hydrated sulfates of the general formula M+M3+
The oxide of a nonmetal that reacts with water to form an (SO4)2.12H2).
acid. Amide
Acid Anhydride Compound containing the O-C-N group.
Compound produced by dehydration of a carbonic acid; Compound that can be considered a derivative of
general formula is R--C--O--C--R ammonia in which one or more hydrogens are replaced by
Acidic Salt a alkyl or aryl groups.
A salt containing an ionizable hydrogen atom; does not Amine
necessarily produce acidic solutions. Derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen
Activation Energy atoms have been replaced by organic groups.
Amount of energy that must be absorbed by reactants in Amine Complexes
their ground states to reach the transition state so that a Complex species that contain ammonia molecules bonded
reaction can occur. to metal ions.
Active Metal Amino Acid
Metal with low ionization energy that loses electrons Compound containing both an amino and a carboxylic
readily to form cations. acid group.The --NH2 group.
Activity (of a component of ideal mixture) For more information see:Amino Acids
A dimensionless quantity whose magnitude is: equal to Amorphous Solid
molar concentration in an ideal solution; equal to partial A noncrystalline solid with no well-defined ordered
pressure in an ideal gas mixture; and defined as 1 for pure structure.
solids or liquids. Ampere
Activity Series Unit of electrical current; one ampere equals one coulomb
A listing of metals (and hydrogen) in order of decreasing per second.
activity Amphiprotism
Actual Yield Ability of a substance to exhibit amphiprotism by accepting
Amount of a specified pure product actually obtained from donated protons.
a given reaction. Compare with Theoretical Yield. Amphoterism
Actinides The ability to react with both acids and bases.
Elements 90 to 103 (after actinium) Ability of substance to act as either an acid or a base.
Acyl Group Anion
Compound derived from a carbonic acid by replacing the A negative ion; an atom or goup of atoms that has gained
--OH group with a halogen (X), usually --Cl; general one or more electrons.
formula is O R--C--X Anode
Addition Reaction In a cathode ray tube, the positive electrode.
A reaction in which two atoms or groups of atoms are Electrode at which oxidation occurs.
added to a molecule, one on each side of a double or Antibonding Orbital
triple bond A molecular orbital higher in energy than any of the atomic
Adhesive Forces orbitals from which it is derived; lends instability to a
Forces of attraction between a liquid and another surface. molecule or ion when populated with electrons; denoted
Adsorption with a star (*) superscript or symbol.
Adhesion of a species onto the surfaces of particles Aromatic Hydrocarbons
Alcohol Benzene and its derivatives.
Hydrocarbon derivative containing an --OH group attached Artificial Transmutation
to a carbon atom not in an aromatic ring. An artificially induced nuclear reaction caused by the
Aldehyde bombardment of a nucleus with subatomic particiles or
Compound in which an alkyl or aryl group and a hydrogen small nucei.
atom are attached to a carbonyl group and a hydrogen Aryl Group
atom are attached to a carbonyl group; general formula, Group of atoms remaining after a hydrogen atom is
O-R-C-H removed from the aromatic system.
Alkali Metals Associated Ions
Metals of Group IA (Na, K, Rb). Short-lived species formed by the collision of dissolved
Alkaline Battery ions of opposite charges.
A dry cell in which the electrolyte contains KOH. Atmosphere
Alkaline Earth Metals A unit of pressure; the pressure that will support a column
Group IIA metals of mercury 760 mm high at 0 °C.
Alkenes (Olefins) Atom
Unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain one or more The smallest particle of an element
carbon-carbon double bonds. Atomic Mass Unit (amu)
Alkyl Group One twelfth of a mass of an atom of the carbon-12
A group of atoms derived from an alkane by the removal isotope; a unit used for stating atomic and formula
of one hydrogen atom. weights; also called dalton.
Alkylbenzene Atomic Number
Integral number of protons in the nucleus; defines the Bonding Orbital
identity of element. A molecular orbit lower in energy than any of the atomic
Atomic Orbital orbitals from which it is derived; lends stability to a
Region or volume in space in which the probability of molecule or ion when populated with electron
finding electrons is highest. Bonding Pair
Atomic Radius Pair of electrons involved in a covalent bond.
Radius of an atom. Boron Hydrides
Atomic Weight Binary compounds of boron and hydrogen.
Weighted average of the masses of the constituent Born-Haber Cycle
isotopes of an element; The relative masses of atoms of A series of reactions (and accompanying enthalpy
different elements. changes) which, when summed, represents the
Aufbau ('building up') Principle hypothetical one-step reaction by which elements in their
Describes the order in which electrons fill orbitals in standard states are converted into crystals of ionic
atoms. compounds (and the accompanying enthalpy changes.)
Autoionization Boyle's Law
An ionization reaction between identical molecules. At constant temperature the volume occupied by a definite
Avogadro's Law mass of a gas is inversely proportional to the applied
At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes of pressure.
all gases contain the same number of molecules. Breeder Reactor
Avogadro's Number A nuclear reactor that produces more fissionable nuclear
The number (6.022x10^23) of atoms, molecules or fuel than it consumes.
particles found in exactly 1 mole of substance. Bronsted-Lowry Acid
Background Radiation A proton donor.
Ratiation extraneous to an experiment. Usually the low- Bronsted-Lowry Base
level natural radiation form cosmic rays and trace A proton acceptor
radioactive substances present in our environment. Buffer Solution
Band Solution that resists change in pH; contains either a weak
A series of very closely spaced, nearly continuous acid and a soluble ionic salt of the acid or a weak base
molecular orbitals that belong to the crystal as a whole. and a soluble ionic salt of the base.
Band of Stability Buret
Band containing nonradioactive nuclides in a plot of A piece of volumetric glassware, usually graduated in 0.1-
number of neutrons versus atomic number. mL intervals, that is used to deliver solutions to be used in
Band Theory of Metals titrations in a quantitative (dropwise) manner.
Theory that accounts for the bonding and properties of Calorie
metallic solids. The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of
Barometer one gram of water from 14.5°C to 15.5°C. 1 calorie =
A device for measuring pressure. 4.184 joules.
Base Calorimeter
A substance that produces OH (aq) ions in aqueous A device used to measure the heat transfer between
solution. Strong soluable bases are soluble in water and system and surroundings.
are completely dissociated. Weak bases ionize only For further information see Analytical Chemistry
slightly. Canal Ray
Basic Anhydride Stream of positively charged particles (cations) that moves
The oxide of a metal that reacts with water to form a base. toward the negative electrode in cathode ray tubes;
Basic Salt observed to pass through canals in the negative electrode.
A salt containing an ionizable OH group. Capillary
Beta Particle A tube having a very small inside diameter.
Electron emitted from the nucleus when a neuton decays Capillary Action
to a proton and an electron. The drawing of a liquid up the inside of a small-bore tube
Biodegradability when adhesive forces exceed cohesive forces, or the
The ability of a substance to be broken down into simpler depression of the surface of the liquid when cohesive
substances by bacteria. forces exceed the adhesive forces.
Binary Acid Carbanion
A binary compound in which H is bonded to one or more An organic ion carrying a negative charge on a carbon
of the more electronegative nonmetals. atom.
Binary Compound Carbonium ion
A compound consisting of two elements; may be ionic or An orgainic ion carrying a positive charge on a carbon
covalent. atom.
Binding Energy (nuclear binding energy) Carcinogen
The energy equivalent (E = mc^2) of the mass deficiency A substance capable of causing or producing cancer in
of an atom. mammals.
where: E = is the energy in joules, m is the mass in Catalyst
kilograms, and c is the speed of light in m/s^2 A substance that speeds up a chemical reaction without
Boiling Point being consumed itself in the reaction.
The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is A substance that alters (usually increases) the rate at
equal to the applied pressure; also the condensation point which a reaction occurs.
Boiling Point Elevation Catenation
The increase in the boiling point of a solvent caused by Bonding of atoms of the same element into chains or
the dissolution of a nonvolatile solute. rings.
Bomb Calorimeter The bonding together of atoms of the same element to
A device used to measure the heat transfer between form chains.
system and surroundings at constant volume. The ability of an element to bond to itself.
For more information see Analytical Chemistry Cathode
Bond Energy Electrode at which reduction occurs
The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of In a cathode ray tube, the negative electrode.
bonds of a given kind (in gas phase). Cathodic Protection
The amount of energy necessary to break one mole of Protection of a metal (making ir a cathode) against
bonds in a substance, dissociating the sustance in the corrosion by attaching it to a sacrifical anode of a more
gaseous state into atoms of its elements in the gaseous easily oxidized metal.
state. Cathode Ray Tube
Bond Order Closed glass tube containing a gas under low pressure,
Half the numbers of electrons in bonding orbitals minus with electrodes near the ends and a luminescent screen at
half the number of electrons in antibonding orbitals.
the end near the positive electrode; produces cathode Theory of reaction rates that states that effective collisions
rays when high voltage is applied. between reactant molecules must occur in order for the
Cation reaction to occur.
A positive ion; an atom or group of atoms that has lost one Colloid
or more electrons. A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles do
Cell Potential not settle out.
Potential difference, Ecell, between oxidation and Combination Reaction
reduction half-cells under nonstandard conditions. Reaction in which two substances ( elements or
Central Atom compounds ) combine to form one compound.
An atom in a molecule or polyatomic ion that is bonded to Reaction of a substance with oxygen in a highly
more than one other atom. exothermic reaction, usually with a visible flame.
Chain Reaction Combustible
A reaction that, once initiated, sustains itself and expands. Classification of liquid substances that will burn on the
This is a reaction in which reactive species, such as basis of flash points. A combustible liquid means any liquid
radicals, are produced in more than one step. These having a flash point at or above 37.8°C (100°F) but below
reactive species, radicals, propagate the chain reaction. 93.3°C (200°F), except any mixture having components
Chain Termination Step with flash points of 93.3°C (200°F) or higher, the total of
The combination of two radicals, which removes the which makes up 99 percent or more of the total volume of
reactive species that propagate the change reaction. the mixture.
Charle's Law Common Ion Effect
At constant pressure the volume occupied by a definite Suppression of ionization of a weak electrolyte by the
mass of gas is directly proportional to its absolute presence in the same solution of a strong electrolyte
temperature. containing one of the same ions as the weak electrolyte.
Chemical Bonds Complex Ions
The attractive forces that hold atoms together in elements Ions resulting from the formation of coordinate covalent
or compounds. bonds between simple ions and other ions or molecules.
Chemical Change Composition Stoichiometry
A change in which one or more new substances are Descibes the quantitative (mass) relationships among
formed. elements in compounds.
Chemical Equation Compound
Description of a chemical reaction by placing the formulas A substance of two or more elements in fixed proportions.
of the reactants on the left and the formulas of products on Compounds can be decomposed into their constituent
the right of an arrow. elements.
Chemical Equilibrium For more Information see Compounds
A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward Compressed Gas
and reverse reactions are equal; there is no net change in A gas or mixture of gases having, in a container an
concentrations of reactants or products while a system is absolute pressure exceeding 40 psi at 21.1°C (70°F)
at equilibrium. A gass or mixture having in a container, an absolute
Chemical Hygiene Officer (CHO) pressure exceeding 104 psi at 54.4°C (130°F) regardless
A person or employee who is qualified by training or of the pressure at (21.1°C (70°F)
experience to provide technical guidance in the A liquid having a vapour pressure exceeding 40 psi at
development and implementations of the provisions of a 37.8°C (70°F) as determined by ASTM D-323-72.
Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) Concentration
Chemical Hygiene Plan (CHP) Amount of solute per unit volume or mass of solvent or of
A written program developed and implemented by an solution.
employer designating proceedures, equipment, personal Condensation
protective equipment, and work practices that are capable Liquefaction of vapor.
of protecting employees from the health hazards Condensed Phases
presented by hazardous chemicals usid in that particular The liquid and solid phases; phases in which particles
workplace. interact strongly.
Chemical Kinetics Condensed States
The study of rates and mechanisms of chemical reactions The solid and liquid states.
and of the factors on which they depend. Conduction Band
Chemical Periodicity A partially filled band or a band of vacant energy levels
The variations in properties of elements with their position just higher in energy than a filled band; a band within
in the periodic table which, or into which, electrons must be promoted to allow
Cis- electrical conduction to occur in a solid.
The prefix used to indicate that groups are located on the Conjugate Acid-base Pair
same side of a bon about which rotation is restricted. In Bronsted-Lowry terminology, a reactant and product
Cis-Trans Isomerism that differ by a proton, H+.
A type of geometrical isomerism related to the angles Conformations
between like ligands. Structures of a compound that differ by the extent of
Clay rotation about a single bond.
A class of silicate and aluminosilicate minerals with sheet- Continuous Spectrum
like structures that have enormous surface areas that can Spectrum that contains all wave-lengths in a specified
absorb large amounts of water. region of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Cloud Chamber Control Rods
A device for observing the paths of speeding particiles as Rods of materials such as cadmium or boron steel that act
vapor molecules condense on them to form foglike tracks. as neutron obsorbers (not merely moderaters) used in
Coefficient of expansion nuclear reactors to control neutron fluxes and therfore
The ratio of the change in length or volumen of a body to rates of fission.
the original lengthor volume for a unit change in Conjugated Double Bonds
temperature. Double bonds that are separated from each other by one
Cohesive Forces single bond -C=C-C=C-.
All the forces of attraction among particles of a liquid. Contact Process
Coke Industrial process by which sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid
An impure form of carbon obtained by destructive are produced from sulfur dioxide.
distillation of coal or petroleum. Coordinate Covalent Bond
Colligative Properties Covalent bond in which both shared electrons are
Physical properties of solutions that depend upon the furnished by the same species; bond between a Lewis
number but not the kind of solute particles present. acid and Lewis base.
Collision Theory Coordinate Covalent Bond
A covalent bond in which both shared electrons are Of the same energy.
donated by the same atom; a bond between a Lewis base Delocalization
and a Lewis acid. Of electrons; refers to bonding electrons that are
Coordination Compound or Complex distributed among more than two atoms that are bonded
A compound containing coordinate covalent bonds. together; occurs in species that exhibit resonance.
Coordination Isomers The formation of a set of molecular orbitals that extend
Isomers involving exchanges of ligands between complex over more than two atoms; important in species that
cation and complex anion of the same compound. valence bond theory describes in terms of resonance.
Coordination Number Denaturation
In describing crystals, the number of nearest neighbours A process pertaining to a change in structure of a protein
of an atom or ion. form regular to irregular arrangement of the polypeptide
The number of donor atoms coordinated to a metal. chains.
Coordination Sphere Denatured
The metal ion and its coordinating ligands but not any A commercial term used to describe ethanol that has been
uncoordinated counter-ions. rendered unfit for human consumption because of the
Corrosion addition of harmful ingredients to make it sales tax-
Oxidation of metals in the presence of air and moisture. expempt.
For more information see Corrosion Density
Coulomb Mass per unit Volume: D=MV
Unit of electrical charge. Deposition
Coulometry The direct solidification of a vapor by cooling; the reverse
The quantitative application of Faraday's Law to the of sublimation.
analysis of materials. The current and time are the usual Derivative
variables measured. A compound that can be imagined to arise from a partent
Covalent Bond compound by replacement of one atom with another atom
Chemical bond formed by the sharing of one or more or group of atoms. Used extensively in orgainic chemistry
electron pairs between two atoms. to assist in identifying compounds.
Covalent Compounds Dermal toxicity
Compounds containing predominantly covalent bonds. Adverse health effects resulting from skin exposure ot a
Critical Mass substance.
The minimum mass of a particular fissionable nuclide in a Designated area
given volume required to sustain a nuclear chain reaction. An area that may be used for work with carcinogens,
Critical Point reproductive toxins, or substances that have a high
The combination of critical temperature and critical degree of acute toxicity. A designated area may be the
pressure of a substance. entire laboratory, an area of a laboratory, or a device such
Critical Pressure as a loboratory hood.
The pressure required to liquefy a gas (vapor) at its critical Detergent
temperature. A soap-like emulsifer that contains a sulfate, SO 3 or a
Critical Temperature phosphate group instead of a carboxylate group.
The temperature above which a gas cannot be liquefied; Deuterium
the temperature above which a substance cannot exhibit An isotope of hydrogen whose atoms are twice as
distinct gas and liquid phases. massive as ordinary hydrogen;deuterion atoms contain
Crystal Field Stabilization Energy both a proton and a neutron in the nucleus.
A measure of the net energy of stabilization gained by a Dextrorotatory
metal ion's nonbonding d electrons as a result of complex Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the
formation. plane of plane polarized light clockwise; also called dextro.
For more information see Crystallography Diagonal Similarities
Crystal Field Theory Refers to chemical similarities in the Periodic Table of
Theory of bonding in transition metal complexes in which elements of Period 2 to elements of Period 3 one group to
ligands and metal ions are treated as point charges; a the right; especially evident toward the left of the periodic
purely ionic model; ligand point charges represent the table.
crystal (electrical) field perturbing the metal?s d orbitals Diamagnetism
containing nonbonding electrons. Weak repulsion by a magnetic field.
For more information see Crystallography Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC)
Crystal Lattice A technique for measuring the temperature, direction, and
A pattern of arrangement of particles in a crystal. magnitude of thermal transitions in a sample material by
For more information see Crystallography heating/cooling and comparing the amount of energy
Crystal Lattice Energy required to maintain its rate of temperature increase or
Amount of energy that holds a crystal together; the energy decrease with an inert reference material under similar
change when a mole of solid is formed from its constituent conditions.
molecules or ions (for ionic compounds) in their gaseous Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA)
state. A technique for observing the temperature, direction, and
The energy charge when one mole of formula units of a magnitude of thermally induced transitions in a material by
crystalline solid is formed from its ions, atoms, or heating/cooling a sample and comparing its temperature
molecules in the gas phase; always negative. with that of an inert reference material under similar
For more information see Crystallography conditions.
Crystalline Solid Differential Thermometer
A solid characterized by a regular, ordered arrangement of A thermometer used for accurate measurement of very
particles. small changes in temperature.
For more information see Crystallography Dilution
Curie (Ci) Process of reducing the concentration of a solute in
The basic unit used to describe the intensity of solution, usually simply by mixing with more solvent.
radioactivity in a sample of material. One curie equals 37 Dimer
billion disintegrations per second or approximately the Molecule formed by combination of two smaller (identical)
amount of radioactivty given off by 1 gram of radium. molecules.
Cyclotron Dipole
A device for accelerating charged particles along a spiral Refers to the separation of charge between two covalently
path. bonded atoms
Daughter Nuclide Dipole-dipole Interactions
Nuclide that is produced in a nuclear decay. Attractive interactions between polar molecules, that is,
Debye between molecules with permanent dipoles.
The unit used to express dipole moments. Dipole Moment
The product of the distance separating opposite charges Effective Molality
of equal magnitude of the charge; a measure of the The sum of the molalities of all solute particles in a
polarity of a bond or molecule; a measured dipole moment solution.
refers to the dipole moment of an entire molecule. Effective Nuclear Charge
Dispersing Medium The nuclear charge experienced by the outermost
The solvent-like phase in a colloid. electrons of an atom; the actual nuclear charge minus the
Dispersed Phase effects of shielding due to inner-shell electrons.
The solute-like species in a colloid. Example: Set of dx2-y2 and dz2 orbitals; those d orbitals
Displacement Reactions within a set with lobes directed along the x-, y-, and z-
Reactions in which one element displaces another from a axes.
compound. Electrical Conductivity
Disproportionation Reactions Ability to conduct electricity.
Redox reactions in which the oxidizing agent and the Electrochemistry
reducing agent are the same species. Study of chemical changes produced by electrical current
Dissociation and the production of electricity by chemical reactions.
In aqueous solution, the process in which a solid ionic Electrodes
compound separates into its ions. Surfaces upon which oxidation and reduction half-
Dissociation Constant reactions; occur in electrochemical cells.
Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissociation of a Electrode Potentials
comples ion into a simple ion and coordinating species Potentials, E, of half-reactions as reductions versus the
(ligands). standard hydrogen electrode.
Distilland Electrolysis
The material in a distillation apparatus that is to be Process that occurs in electrolytic cells.
distilled. Electrolyte
Distillate A substance whose aqueous solutions conduct electricity.
The material in a distillation apparatus that is collected in Electrolytic Cells
the receiver. Electrochemical cells in which electrical energy causes
Distillation nospontaneous redox reactions to occur.
The separation of a liquid mixture into its components on An electrochemical cell in which chemical reactions are
the basis of differences in boiling points. forced to occur by the application of an outside source of
The process in which components of a mixture are electrical energy.
separated by boiling away the more volitile liquid. Electrolytic Conduction
Domain Conduction of electrical current by ions through a solution
A cluster of atoms in a ferromagnetic substance, all of or pure liquid.
which align in the same direction in the presence of an Electromagnetic Radiation
external magnetic field. Energy that is propagated by means of electric and
Donor Atom magnetic fields that oscillate in directions perpendicular to
A ligand atom whose electrons are shared with a Lewis the direction of travel of the energy.
acid. Electromotive Series
D-Orbitals The relative order of tendencies for elements and their
Beginning in the third energy level, aset of five degenerate simple ions to act as oxidizing or reducing agents; also
orbitals per energy level, higher in energy than s and p called the activity series.
orbitals of the same energy level. Electron
Dosimeter A subatomic particle having a mass of 0.00054858 amu
A small, calibrated electroscope worn by laboratory and a charge of 1-.
personnel and designated to detect and measure incident Electron Affinity
ionizing radiation or chemical exposure. The amount of energy absorbed in the process in which
Double Bond an electron is added to a neutral isolated gaseous atom to
Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of four electrons form a gaseous ion with a 1- charge; has a negative value
(two pairs) between two atoms. if energy is released.
Double Salt Electron Configuration
Solid consisting of two co-crystallized salts. Specific distribution of electrons in atomic orbitals of
Doublet atoms or ions.
Two peaks or bands of about equal intensity appearing Electron Deficient Compounds
close together on a spectrogram. Compounds that contain at least one atom (other than H)
Downs Cell that shares fewer than eight electrons
Electrolytic cell for the commercial electrolysis of molten Electronic Transition
sodium chloride. The transfer of an electron from one energy level to
For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells another.
DP number Electronegativity
The degree of polymerization; the average number of A measure of the relative tendency of an atom to attract
monomer units per polymer unit. electrons to itself when chemically combined with another
Dry Cells atom.
Ordinary batteries (voltaic cells) for flashlights. radios, and Electronic Geometry
so on; many are Leclanche cells. The geometric arrangement of orbitals containing the
For further information see Electrochemistry or Fuel Cells shared and unshared electron pairs surrounding the
D -Transition elements (metals) central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.
B Group elements except IIB in the periodic table; Electrophile
sometimes called simply transition elements EX. Fe, Ni, Positively charged or electron-deficient.
Cu, Ti . Electrophoresis
For further information see Metals A technique for separation of ions by rate and direction of
Dumas Method migration in an electric field.
A method used to determine the molecular weights of Electroplating
volatile liquids. Plating a metal onto a (cathodic) surface by electrolysis.
Dynamic Equilibrium Element
An equilibrium in which processes occur continuously, with A substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler
no net change. substances by chemical means.
When two (or more) processes occur at the same rate so Eluant or eluent
that no net change occurs. The solvent used in the process of elution, as in liquid
Effective Collisons chromatography.
Collision between molecules resulting in a reaction; one in Eluate
which the molecules collide with proper relative
orientations and sufficient energy to react.
Solvent (or mobile phase) which passes through a Explosive
chromatographic column and removes the sample A chemical or compound that causes a sudden, almost
components from the stationary phase. instantaneous release or pressure, gas, heat and light
Emission Spectrum when subjected to sudden shock, pressure, high
Spectrum associated with emission of electromagnetic temperature or applied potential.
radiation by atoms (or other species) resulting from Explosive limits
electronic transitions from higher to lower energy states. The range of concentrations over which a flammable
Emulsifying Agent vapour mixed with proper ratios of air will ignite or explode
A sustance that coats the particles of the dispersed phase if a source of ignitions is provided.
and prevents coagulation of colloidal particles; an Extensive Property
emulsifier. A property that depends upon the amount of material in a
Emulsion sample.
Colloidal suspension of a liquid in a liquid. Extrapolate
Enantiomer To estimate the value of a result outside the range of a
One of the two mirror-image forms of an optically active series of known values. Technique used in standard
molecule. additions calibration procedure.
Endothermic Faraday
Describes processes that absorb heat energy. One faraday of electricity corresponds to the charge on
Endothermicity 6.022 x 10 23 electrons, or 96,487 coulombs.
The absorption of heat by a system as the process occurs. Faraday's Law of Electrolysis
End Point One equivalent weight of a substance is produced at each
The point at which an indicator changes colour and a electrode during the passage of 96,487 coulombs of
titration is stopped. charge through an electrolytic cell.
Energy Fast Neutron
The capacity to do work or transfer heat. A neutron ejected at high kinetic energy in a nuclear
Enthalpy reaction.
The heat content of a specific amount of substance; Fat
defined as E= PV. Solid triester of glycerol and (mostly) saturated fatty acids.
Entropy Fatty Acids
A thermodynamic state or property that measures the An aliphatic acid; many can obtained from animal fats.
degree of disorder or randomness of a system. Ferromagnetism
For more information see Thermochemistry The ability of a substance to become permanently
Enzyme magnetized by exposure to an external magnetic field.
A protein that acts as a catalyst in biological systems. Film badge
Equation of State A small patch of photographic film worn on clothing to
An equation that describes the behavior of matter in a detect and measure accumulated incident ionizing
given state; the van der Waals equation describes the radiation.
behavior of the gaseous state. Flammable
Equilibrium or Chemical Equilibrium A liquid as defined by NFPD and DOT as having a flash
A state of dynamic balance in which the rates of forward point below 37.8°C (100°F).
and reverse reactions are equal; the state of a system Flash Point
when neither forward or reverse reaction is The temperature at which a liquid will yield enough
thermodynamically favored. flamable vapour to ignite. There are various recognized
Equilibrium Constant industrial testing methods; therefore the method used
A quantity that characterizes the position of equilibrium for must be stated.
a reversible reaction; its magnitude is equal to the mass Fluorescence
action expression at equilibrium. K varies with Absorption of high energy radiation by a substance and
temperature. subsequent emission of visible light.
Equivalence Point Fossil Fuels
The point at which chemically equivalent amounts of Substances consisting largely of hydrocarbons, derived
reactants have reacted. from decay of organic materials under geological
Equivalent Weight conditions of high pressure and temperature
An oxidizing or reducing agent, who's mass gains (metamorphism) include coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat
(oxidizing agents) or loses (reducing agents) 6.022 x and oil shale.
1023 electrons in a redox reaction. For further information see Fuel Chemistry
The mass of an acid or base that furnishes or reacts with Frasch Process
6.022 x 1023 H3O+ or OH- ions. Method by which elemental sulfur is mined or extracted.
Essential Oil Sulfur is melted with superheated water (at 170°C under
A plant extract that has a distinctive odour or flavour. high pressure) and forced to the surface of the earth as a
Ester slurry.
A Compound of the general formula R-C-O-R1 where R First Law of Thermodynamics
and R1 may be the same or different, and may be either The total amount of energy in the universe is constant
aliphatic or aromatic. (also known as the Law of Conservation of Energy)
Ether energy is neither created nor destroyed in ordinary
Compound in which an oxygen atom is bonded to two chemical reactions and physical changes.
alkyl or two aryl groups, or one alkyl and one aryl group. For further information see Thermochemistry
Eutrophication Flotation
The undesirable overgrowth of vegetation caused by high Method by which hydrophobic (water-repelling) particles of
concentrates of plant nutrients in bodies of water. an ore are separated from hydrophilic (water-attracting)
Evaporization particles of a metallurgical pretreatment process.
Vaporization of a liquid below its boiling point. Fluids
Evaporation Rate Substances that flow freely; gases and liquids.
The rate at which a particular substance will vapourize Flotation
(evaporate) when compared to the rate of a known Flux
substance such as ethyl ether. This term is especially A substance added to react with the charge, or a product
useful for health and fire-hazard considerations. of its reduction, in metallurgy; usually added to lower a
Excited State melting point.
Any state other than the ground state of an atom or Foam
molecule. Colloidal suspension of a gas in a liquid.
Exothermic Forbidden Zone
Describes processes that release heat energy. A relatively large energy separation between an insulator's
Exothermicity highest filled electron energy band and the next higher
The release of heat by a system as a process occurs. energy vacant band. Beginning in the fourth energy level,
a set of seven degenerate orbitals per energy level, higher Ground State
in energy than s, p, and d orbitals of the same energy The lowest energy state or most stable state of an atom,
level. molecule or ion.
Formal Charge Group
A method of counting electrons in a covalently bonded A vertical column in the periodic table; also called a family.
molecule or ion; counts bonding electrons as though they For more information see Periodic Tables
were equally shared between the two atoms. Haber Process
Formula A process for the catalyzed industrial production of
Combination of symbols that indicates the chemical ammonia from N2 and H2 at high temperature and
composition of a substance. pressure.
Formula Unit Half-Cell
The smallest repeating unit of a substance. The molecule Compartment in which the oxidation or reduction half-
for nonionic substances reaction occurs in a voltaic cell.
Formula Weight Half-Life
The mass of one formula unit of a substance in atomic The time required for half of a reactant to be converted
mass units. into product(s).
Fractional Distillation The time required for half of a given sample to undergo
The process in which a fractioning column is used in radioactive decay.
distillation apparatus to separate components of a liquid Half-Reaction
mixture that have different boiling points. Either the oxidation part or the reduction part of a redox
Fractional Precipitation reaction.
Removal of some ions from solution by precipitation while Halogens
leaving other ions with similar properties in solution. Group VIIA elements: F, Cl, Br, I
Free Energy, Gibbs Free Energy Hard Water
The thermodynamic state function of a system that Water containing Fe3+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ ions, which forms
indicates the amount of energy available for the system to precipates with soap.
do useful work at constant T and P. Heat
Free Energy Change A form of energy that flows between two samples of
The indicator of spontaneity of a process at constnt T and matter because of their differences in temperature.
P. If delta-G is negative, the process is spontaneous. Heat Capacity
Free Radical The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a
A highly reactive chemical species carrying no charge and body (of any mass) one degree Celsius.
having a single unpaired electron in an orbital. Heat of Condensation
Freezing Point Depression The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram
The decrease in the freezing point of a solvent caused by of a vapor at it's condensation point to condense the
the presence of a solute. vapour with no change in temperature.
Frequency Heat of Crystallization
The number of repeating corresponding points on a wave The amount of heat that must be removed from one gram
that pass a given observation point per unit time. of a liquid at its freezing point to freeze it with no change
Fuel Cells in temperature.
Voltaic cells in which the reactants (usually gases) are Heat of Fusion
supplied continuously. The amount of heat required to melt one gram of solid at
A voltaic cell that converts the chemical energy of a fuel its melting point with no change in temperature. Usually
and an oxidizing agent directly into electriacl energy on a expressed in J/g. The molar heat of fusion is the amount
continuous basis. of heat required to melt one mole of a solid at its melting
Functional Group point with no change in temperature and is usually
A group of atoms that represents a potential reaction site expressed in kJ/mol.
in an organic compound. Heat of Solution
Gamma Ray The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of solution
High energy electromagnetic radiation. that contains one mole of solute; the value is positive if
A highly penetrating type of nuclear radiation similar to x- heat is absorbed (endothermic) and negative if heat is
ray radiation, except that it comes from within the nucleus released (exothermic).
of an atom and has a higher energy. Energywise, very Heat of Vaporization
similar to cosmic ray except that cosmic rays originate The amount of heat required to vaporize one gram of a
from outer space. liquid at its boiling point with no change in temperature.
For more information see Electrochemistry Usually expressed in J/g. The molar heat of vaporization is
Galvanizing the amount of heat required to vaporize one mole of liquid
Placing a thin layer of zinc on a ferrous material to protect at its boiling point with no change in temperature and
the underlying surface from corrosion. usually expressed ion kJ/mol.
Gangue Heavy Water
Sand, rock, and other impurities surrounding the mineral Water containing deuterium, a heavy isotope of hydrogen.
of interest in an ore. Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
Geiger counter It is impossible to determine accurately both the
A gas filled tube which discharges electriaclly when momentum and position of an electron simultaneously.
ionizing radiation passes through it. Henry's Law
Gel The pressure of the gas above a solution is proportional to
Colloidal suspension of a solid dispersed in a liquid; a the concentration of the gas in the solution.
semirigid solid. Hess' Law of Heat Summation
Gem-dimethyl group The enthalpy change for a reaction is the same whether it
Two methyl groups of the same carbon atom. occurs in one step or a series of steps.
Geometrical Isomers Heterocyclic Amine
Compounds with different arrangements of groups on Amine in which the nitrogen is part of a ring.
either side of a bond with restricted rotation, such as a For further information see Heterocyclic Chemistry
double bond or a single bond in a ring; for example cis- Heterogeneous Catalyst
trans isomers of certain alkenes. A catalyst that exists in a different phase (solid, liquid or
Stereoisomers that are not mirror images of each other; gas) from the reactants; a contact catalyst.
also known as position isomers. Heterogeneous Equilibria
Graham's Law Equilibria involving species in more than one phase.
The rates of effusion of gases are inversely proportional to Heterogeneous Mixture
the square roots of their molecular weights or densities. A mixture that does not have uniform composition and
Greenhouse Effect properties throughout.
Trapping of heat at the surface of the earth by carbon Heteronuclear
dioxide and water vapour in the atmosphere. Consisting of different elements.
High Spin Complex Ionization Constant
Crystal field designation for an outer orbital complex; all Equilibrium constant for the ionization of a weak
t2g and eg orbitals are singly occupied before any pairing electrolyte.
occurs. Ion Product for Water
Homogeneous Catalyst Equilibrium constant for the ionization of water, Kw =
A catalyst that exists in the same phase (solid, liquid or [H3O+][OH-] =1.00 x 10-14 at 25 °C.
gas) as the reactants. Inhibitory Catalyst
For more information see Catalysis An inhibitor, a catalyst that decreases the rate of reaction.
Homogeneous Equilibria For more information see Catalysis
Equilibria involving only one species in a single phase. For Integrated Rate Equation
example, all gases, all liquids or all solids. An equation giving the concentration of a reactant
Homogeneous Mixture remaining after a specified time; has different
A mixture which has uniform composition and properties mathematical form for different orders of reactants.
throughout. Ioniztion
Homologous Series The breaking up of a compound into separate ions.
A series of compounds in which each member differs from Ideal Solution
the next by a specific number and kind of atoms. A solution that obeys Raoult's Law exactly.
Homonuclear Insulator
Consisting of only one element. Poor electric and heat conductor.
Hund's Rule Intermolecular Forces
All orbitals of a given sublevel must be occupied by single Forces between individual particles (atoms, molecules,
electrons before pairing begins (see Aufbau Principle) ions) of a substance.
Hybridization Isomorphous
Mixing a set of atomic orbitals to form a new set of atomic Refers to crystals having the same atomic arrangement.
orbitals with the same total electron capacity and with For more information see Crystallography
properties and energies intermediate between those of the Ideal Gas
original unhybridized orbitals. A hypothetical gas that obeys exactly all postulates of the
Hydrate kinetic-molecular theory.
A solid compound that contains a definite percentage of Ideal Gas Law
bound water. The product of pressure and the volume of an ideal gas is
Hydrate Isomers directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas and
Isomers of crystalline complexes that differ in whether the absolute temperature.
water is present inside or outside the coordination sphere Ionization
Hydration In aqueous solution, the process in which a molecular
Reaction of a substance with water. compound reacts with water and forms ions.
Hydration Energy Ionic Bonding
The energy change accompanying the hydration of a mole Chemical bonding resulting from the transfer of one or
of gase and ions. more electrons from one atom or a group of atoms to
Hydride another.
A binary compound of hydrogen. Ionic Compunds
Hydrocarbons Compounds containing predominantly ionic bonding.
Compounds that contain only carbon and hydrogen. Ionic Geometry
Hydrogen Bond The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons)
A fairly strong dipole-dipole interaction (but still about the central atom of a polyatomic ion.
considerably weaker than the covalent or ionic bonds) Isoelectric
between molecules containing hydrogen directly bonded Having the same electronic configurations
to a small, highly electronegative atom, such as N, O, or F. Ionization Energy
Hydrogenation The minimum amount of energy required to remove the
The reaction in which hydrogen adds across a double or most loosely held electron of an isolated gaseous atom or
triple bond. ion.
Hydrogen-Oxygen Fuel Cell Isotopes
Fuel cell in which hydrogen is the fuel (reducing agent) Two or more forms of atoms of the same element with
and oxygen is the oxidizing agent. different masses; atoms containing the same number of
Hydrolysis protons but different numbers of neutrons.
The reaction of a substance with water or its ions. Ion
Hydrolysis Constant An atom or a group of atoms that carries an electric
An equilibrium constant for a hydrolysis reaction. charge.
Hydrometer Joule
A device used to measure the densities of liquids and A unit of energy in the SI system. One joule is 1 kg. m2/s2
solutions. which is also 0.2390 calorie.
Hydrophilic Colloids K Capture
Colloidal particles that repel water molecules. Absorption of a K shell (n=1) electron by a proton as it is
For more information see Colloidal Chemistry converted to a neutron.
Inner Orbital Complex Ketone
Valence bond designation for a complex in which the Compound in which a carbonyl group is bound to two alkyl
metal ion utilizes d orbitals for one shell inside the or two aryl groups, or to one alkyl and one aryl group.
outermost occupied shell in its hybridization. Kinetic Energy
Isomers Energy that matter processes by virtue of its motion.
Different substances that have the same formula. Kinetic-molecular Theory
Ionization Isomers A theory, that attempts to explain macroscopic
Isomers that result from the interchange of ions inside and observations on gases in microscopic observations on
outside the coordination sphere. gases in microscopic observations on gases in
Inert s-pair Effect microscopic or molecular terms.
Characteristic of the post-transition minerals; tendency of Lanthanides
the outermost s electrons to remain nonionized or un Elements 58 to 71 (after lanthanum)
shared in compounds. Lanthanide Contraction
Insoluble Compound A decrease in the radii of the elements following the
A very slightly soluble compound. lanthanides compared to what would be expected if there
Indicators were no f-transition metals.
For acid-base titrations, organic compounds that exhibit Law of Combining Volumes (Gay-Lussac's Law)
different colors in solutions of different acidities; used to At constant temperature and pressure, the volumes of
determine the point at which reaction between two solutes reacting gases ( and any gaseous products) can be
is complete. expressed as ratios of small whole numbers;
Law of Conservation of Energy in the balanced chemical equation, divided by the product
Energy cannot be created or destroyed; it may be of the concentrations of reactants (species on the left),
changed from one form to another. each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient
Law of Conservation of Matter in the balanced chemical equation. At equilibrium the
There is no detectable change in the quantity of matter mass action expression is equal to K; at other times it is
during an ordinary chemical reaction. Q.[C]c[D]d [A]a[B]b = Q, or at equilibrium K
Law of Conservation of Matter and Energy Mass Deficiency
The total amount of matter and energy available in the The amount of matter that would be converted into energy
universe is fixed. if an atom were formed from constituent particles.
Law of Definite Proportions (Law of Constant Composition) Mass Number
Different samples of a pure compound always contain the The sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in an
same elements in the same proportions by mass. atom; an integer.
Law of Partial Pressures (Dalton's Law) Mass Spectrometer
The total pressure exerted by a mixature of gases is the An instrument that measures the charge-to-mass ratio of
sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases. charged particles.
Lead Storage Battery For further information see Mass Spectrometry
Secondary voltaic cell used in most automobiles. Matter
Leclanche Cell Anything that has mass and occupies space.
A common type of dry cell. Mechanism
Le Chatelier's Principle The sequence of steps by which reactants are converted
States that a system at equilibrium, or striving to attain into products.
equilibrium, responds in such a way as to counteract any Melting Point
stress placed upon it. The temperature at which liquid and solid coexist in
If a stress (change of conditions) is applied to a system at equilibrium; also the freezing point.
equilibrium, the system shifts in the direction that reduces Meniscus
stress. The shape assumed by the surface of a liquid in a
Leveling Effect cylindrical container.
Effect by which all acids stronger than the acid that is Metal
characteristic of the solvent react with solvent to produce An element below and to the left of the stepwise division
that acid; similar statement applies to bases. The (metalloids) in the upper right corner of the periodic table;
strongest acid (base) that can exist in a given solvent is about 80% of the known elements are metals.
the acid (base) characteristic of the solvent. Metallic Bonding
Levorotatory Bonding within metals due to the electrical attraction of
Refers to an optically active substance that rotates the positively charges metal ions for mobile electrons that
plane of plane polarized light counterclockwise; also called belong to the crystal as a whole.
levo. Metallic Conduction
Lewis Acid Conduction of electrical current through a metal or along a
Any species that can accept a share in an electron pair. metallic surface.
Lewis Base Metalloids
Any species that can make available a share in an Elements with properties intermediate between metals
electron pair. and nonmetals: B, Al, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, and At.
Lewis Dot Formula (Electron Dot Formula) Metallurgy
Representation of a molecule, ion or formula unit by Refers to the overall processes by which metals are
showing atomic symbols and only outer shell electrons extracted from ores.
Ligand Metathesis Reactions
A Lewis base in a coordination compound. Reactions in which two compounds react to form two new
Limiting Reactant compounds, with no changes in oxidation number.
Substance that stoichiometrically limits the amount of Reactions in which the ions of two compounds exchange
product(s) that can be formed. partners.
Linear Accelerator Method of Initial Rates
A device used for accelerating charged particles along a Method of determining the rate-law expression by carrying
straight line path. out a reaction with different initial concentrations and
Line Spectrum analyzing the resultant changes in initial rates.
An atomic emission or absorption spectrum. Miscibility
Linkage Isomers The ability of one liquid to mix with (dissolve in) another
Isomers in which a particular ligand bonds to a metal ion liquid.
through different donor atoms. Mixture
Liquid Aerosol A sample of matter composed of two or more substances,
Colloidal suspension of liquid in gas. each of which retains its identity and properties.
London Forces Moderator
Very weak and very short-range attractive forces between A substance such as hydrogen, deuterium, oxygen or
short-lived temporary (induced) dipoles; also called paraffin capable of slowing fast nuetrons upon collision.
dispersion Forces. Molality
Lone Pair Concentration expressed as number of moles of solute
Pair of electrons residing on one atom and not shared by per kilogram of solvent.
other atoms; unshared pair. Molarity
Low Spin Complex Number of moles of solute per litre of solution.
Crystal field designation for an inner orbital complex; Molar Solubility
contains electrons paired t2g orbitals before eg orbitals Number of moles of a solute that dissolve to produce a
are occupied in octahedral complexes. litre of saturated solution.
Magnetic Quantum Number (mc) Molecular Equation
Quantum mechanical solution to a wave equation that Equation for a chemical reaction in which all formulas are
designates the particular orbital within a given set (s, p, d, written as if all substances existed as molecules; only
f ) in which a electron resides. complete formulas are used.
Manometer Molecular Formula
A two-armed barometer. Formula that indicates the actual number of atoms present
Mass in a molecule of a molecular substance.
A measure of the amount of matter in an object. Mass is Molecular Geometry
usually measured in grams or kilograms. The arrangement of atoms (not lone pairs of electrons)
Mass Action Expression around a central atom of a molecule or polyatomic ion.
For a reversible reaction, aA + bB cC + dD the product of Molecular Orbital
the concentrations of the products (species on the right),
each raised to the power that corresponds to its coefficient
An orbit resulting from overlap and mixing of atomic Particles comprising the nucleus; protons and neutrons.
orbitals on different atoms. An MO belongs to the molecule Nucleus
as a whole. The very small, very dense, positively charged center of
Molecular Orbital Theory an atom containing protons and neutrons, as well as other
A theory of chemical bonding based upon the postulated subatomic particles.
existence of molecular orbitals. Nuclides
Molecular Weight Refers to different atomic forms of all elements in contrast
The mass of one molecule of a nonionic substance in to ?isotopes?, which refer only to different atomic forms of
atomic mass units. a single element.
Molecule Nuclide Symbol
The smallest particle of an element or compound capable Symbol for an atom A/Z E, in which E is the symbol of an
of a stable, independent existence. element, Z is its atomic number, and A is its mass number.
Mole Fraction Octahedral
The number of moles of a component of a mixture divided A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions
by the total number of moles in the mixture. that have one atom in the center and six atoms at the
Monoprotic Acid corners of a octahedron.
Acid that can form only one hydronium ion per molecule; Octane Number
may be strong or weak. A number that indicates how smoothly a gasoline burns.
Acid that contains one ionizable hydrogen atom per Octet Rule
formula unit. Many representative elements attain at least a share of
Mother Nuclide eight electrons in their valence shells when they form
Nuclide that undergoes nuclear decay. molecular or ionic compounds; there are some limitations.
Native State Oil
Refers to the occurrence of an element in an uncombined Liquid triester of glycerol and unsaturated fatty acids.
or free state in nature. Open Sextet
Natural Radioactivity Refers to species that have only six electrons in the
Spontaneous decomposition of an atom. highest energy level of the central element (many Lewis
Nernst Equation acids).
Corrects standard electrode potentials for nonstandard Optical Activity
conditions. The rotation of plane polarized light by one of a pair of
Net Ionic Equation optical isomers.
Equation that results from canceling spectator ions and Optical Isomers
eliminating brackets from a total ionic equation. Stereoisomers that differ only by being
Neutralization nonsuperimposable mirror images of each other, like right
The reaction of an acid with a base to form a salt and and left hands, also called enantiomers.
water. Usually, the reaction of hydrogen ions with Ore
hydrogen ions to form water molecules. A natural deposit containing a mineral of an element to be
Neutron extracted.
A neutral subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0087 Organic Chemistry
amu. The chemistry of substances that contain carbon-
Nickel-cadmium cell (Nicad battery) hydrogen bonds.
A dry cell in which the anode is Cd, the cathode is NiO2, Osmosis
and the electrolyte is basic. The process by which solvent molecules pass through a
Nitrogenases semipermable membrane from a dilute solution into a
A class of enzymes found in bacteria within root nodules in more concentrated solution.
some plants, which catalyze reactions by which N2 Osmotic Pressure
molecules from the air are converted to ammonia. The hydrostatic pressure produced on the surface of a
For more information see Enzymes semipermable membrane by osmosis.
Nitrogen Cycle Ostwald Process
The complex series of reactions by which nitrogen is A process for the industrial production of nitrogen oxide
slowly but continually recycled in the atmosphere, and nitric acid from ammonia and oxygen.
lithosphere and hydrosphere. Outer Orbital Complex
Noble Gases (Rare Gases) Valence bond designation for a complex in which the
Elements of the periodic Group 0; also called rare gases; metal ion utilizes d orbitals in the outermost (occupied)
formerly called inert gases, He,Ne,Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn. shell in hybridization.
Nodal Plane Overlap
A region in which the probability of finding an electron is The interaction of orbitals on different atoms in the same
zero. region of space.
Nonbonding Orbital Oxidation
A molecular orbital derived only from an atomic orbital of An algebraic increase in the oxidation number; may
one atom; lends neither stability nor instability to a correspond to a loss of electrons.
molecule or ion when populated with electrons. Oxidation Numbers
Nonelectrolyte Arbitrary numbers that can be used as mechanical aids in
A substance whose aqueous solutions do not conduct writing formulas and balancing equations; for single- atom
electricity. ions they correspond to the charge on the ion; more
Nonpolar Bond electronegative atoms are assigned negative oxidation
Covalent bond in which electron density is symmetrically numbers (also called Oxidation states).
distributed Oxidation-reduction Reactions
Nuclear Binding Energy Reactions in which oxidation and reduction occur; also
Energy equivalent of the mass deficiency; energy released called redox reactions.
in the formation of an atom from the subatomic particles. Oxide
Nuclear Fission A binary compound of oxygen.
The process in which a heavy nucleus splits into nuclei of Oxidizing Agent
intermediate masses and one or more protons are The substance that oxidizes another substance and is
emitted. reduced.
Nuclear Reaction Pairing
Involves a change in the composition of a nucleus and can A favourable interaction of two electrons with opposite m ,
evolve or absorb an extraordinarily large amount of energy values in the same orbital.
Nuclear Reactor Pairing Energy
A system in which controlled nuclear fisson reactions Energy required to pair two electrons in the same orbital.
generate heat energy on a large scale, which is Paramagnetism
subsequently converted into electrical energy. Attraction toward a magnetic field, stronger than
Nucleons diamagnetism, but still weak compared to ferromagnetism.
Partial Pressure A large molecule consisting of chains or rings of linked
The pressure exerted by one gas in a mixture of gases. monomer units, usually characterized by high melting and
Particulate Matter boiling points.
Fine divided solid particles suspended in polluted air. Polymorphous
Pauli Exclusion Principle Refers to substances that crystallize in more than one
No two electrons in the same atom may have identical crystalline arrangement.
sets of four quantum numbers. Polyprotic Acid
Percentage Ionization An Acid that can form two or more hydronium ions per
The percentage of the weak electrolyte that ionizes in a molecule; often a least one step of ionization is weak.
solution of given concentration. Positron
Percent by Mass A Nuclear particle with the mass of an electron but
100% times the actual yield divided by theoretical yield. opposite charge.
Percent Composition Potential Energy
The mass percent of each element in a compound. Energy that matter possesses by virtue of its position,
Percent Purity condition or composition.
The percent of a specified compound or element in an Precipitate
impure sample. An insoluble solid formed by mixing in solution the
Period constituent ions of a slightly soluble solution.
The elements in a horizontal row of the periodic table. Primary Standard
Periodicity A substance of a known high degree of purity that
Regular periodic variations of properties of elements with undergoes one invariable reaction with the other reactant
atomic number (and position in the periodic table). of interest.
Periodic Law Primary Voltaic Cells
The properties of the elements are periodic functions of Voltaic cells that cannot be recharged; no further chemical
their atomic numbers. reaction is possible once the reactants are consumed.
Periodic Table Proton
An arrangement of elements in order of increasing atomic A subatomic particle having a mass of 1.0073 amu and a
numbers that also emphasizes periodicity. charge of +1, found in thew nuclei of atoms.
Peroxide PseudobinaryIonic Compounds
A compound containing oxygen in the -1 oxidation state. Compounds that contain more than two elements but are
Metal peroxides contain the peroxide ion, O22- named like binary compounds.
pH Quantum Mechanics
Negative logarithm of the concentration (mol/L) of the Mathematical method of treating particles on the basis of
H3O+[H+] ion; scale is commonly used over a range 0 to quantum theory, which assumes that energy (of small
14. particles) is not infinitely divisible.
Phase Diagram Quantum Numbers
Diagram that shows equilibrium temperature-pressure Numbers that describe the energies of electrons in atoms;
relationships for different phases of a substance. derived from quantum mechanical treatment.
Phenol Radiation
Hydrocarbon derivative containing an [OH] group bound to High energy particles or rays emitted during the nuclear
an aromatic raing. decay processes.
Photochemical Oxidants Radical
Photochemically produced oxidizing agents capable of An atom or group of atoms that contains one or more
causing damage to plants and animals. unpaired electrons (usually very reactive species)
Photochemical Smog Radioactive Dating
A brownish smog occurring in urban areas receiving large Method of dating ancient objects by determining the ratio
amounts of sunlight; caused by photochemical (light- of amounts of mother and daughter nuclides present in an
induced) reactions among nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons object and relating the ratio to the object?s age via half-life
and other components of polluted air that produce calculations.
photochemical oxidants. Radioactive Tracer
Photoelectric Effect A small amount of radioisotope replacing a nonradioactive
Emission of an electron from the surface of a metal isotope of the element in a compound whose path (for
caused by impinging electromagnetic radiation of certain example, in the body) or whose decomposition products
minimum energy; current increases with increasing are to be monitored by detection of radioctivity; also called
intensity of radiation. a radioactive label.
Photon Radioactivity
A packet of light or electromagnetic radiation; also called The spontaneous disintegration of atomic nuclei.
quantum of light Raoult's Law
Physical Change The vapor pressure of a solvent in an ideal solution
A change in which a substance changes from one physical decreases as its mole fraction decreases.
state to another but no substances with different Rate-determining Step
composition are formed. Example Gas to Liquid - Solid. The slowest step in a mechanism; the step that
Plasma determines the overall rate of reaction.
A physical state of matter which exists at extremely high Rate-law Expression
temperatures in which all molecules are dissociated and Equation relating the rate of a reaction to the
most atoms are ionized. concentrations of the reactants and the specific rate of the
Polar Bond constant.
Covalent bond in which there is an unsymmetrical Rate of Reaction
distribution of electron density. Change in the concentration of a reactant or product per
Polarimeter unit time.
A device used to measure optical activity. Reactants
Polarization Substances consumed in a chemical reaction.
The buildup of a product of oxidation or a reduction of an Reaction Quotient
electrode, preventing further reaction. The mass action expression under any set of conditions
Polydentate (not necessarily equlibrium); its magnitude relative to K
Refers to ligands with more than one donor atom. determines the direction in which the reaction must occur
Polyene to establish equilibrium.
A compound that contains more than one double bond per Reaction Ratio
molecule. The relative amounts of reactants and products involved in
Polymerization a reaction; maybe the ratio of moles. millimoles, or
The combination of many small molecules to form large masses.
molecules. Reaction Stoichiometry
Description of the quantitative relationships among Solvolysis
substances as they participate in chemical reactions. The reaction of a substance with the solvent in which it is
Reducing Agent dissolved.
The substance that reduces another substance and is S Orbital
oxidized. A spherically symmetrical atomic orbital; one per energy
Resonance level.
The concept in which two or more equivalent dot formulas Specific Gravity
for the same arrangement of atoms (resonance structures) The ratio of the density of a substance to the density of
are necessary to describe the bonding in a molecule or water.
ion. Specific Heat
Reverse Osmosis The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of
Forcing solvent molecules to flow through a semipermable one gram of substance one degree Celsius.
membrane from a concentated solution into a dilute Specific Rate Constant
solution by the application of greater hydrostatic pressure An experimentally determined (proportionality) constant,
on concentrated side than the osmotic pressure opposing which is different for different reactions and which changes
it. only with temperature; k in the rate-law expression: Rate =
Reversible Reaction k [A] x [B]v.
Reactions that do not go to completion and occur in both Spectator Ions
the forward and reverse direction. Ions in a solution that do not participate in a chemical
Salt Bridge reaction.
A U-shaped tube containing electrolyte, which connects Spectral Line
two half-cells of a voltaic cell. Any of a number of lines corresponding to definite
Saponification wavelengths of an atomic emission or absorption
Hydrolysis of esters in the presence of strong soluable spectrum; represents the energy difference between two
bases. energy levels.
Saturated Hydrocarbons Spectrochemical Series
Hydrocarbons that contain only single bonds. They are Arrangement of ligands in order of increasing ligand field
also called alkanes or paraffin hydrocarbons. strength.
Saturated Solution Spectrum
Solution in which no more solute will dissolve. Display of component wavelengths (colours) of
Second Law of Thermodynamics electromagnetic radiation.
The universe tends toward a state of greater diorder in Square Planar
spontaneous processes. A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions
Secondary Standard that have one atom in the center and four atoms at the
a solution that has been titrated against a primary corners of a square.
standard. A standard solution is a secondary standard. Square Planar Complex
Secondary Voltaic Cells Complex in which the metal is in the center of a square
Voltaic cells that can be recharged; original reactanats can plane, with ligand donor atoms at each of the four corners
be regenerated be reversing the direction of the current Standard Electrodes
flow. Half-cells in which the oxidized and reduced forms of a
Semiconductor species are present at unit activity; 1.0M solutions of
A substance that does not conduct electricity at low dissolved ions, 1.0atm partial pressure of gases, and pure
temperatures but does so at higher temperatures. solids and liquids.
Semipermable Membrane Standard Electrode Potential
A thin partition between two solutions through which By convention , potential, Eo, of a half-reaction as a
certain molecules can pass but others cannot. reduction relative to the standard hydrogen electrode
Shielding Effect when all species are present at unit activity.
Electrons in filled sets of s , p orbitals between the nucleus Standard Entropy
and outer shell electrons shield the outer shell electrons The absolute entropy of a substance in its standard state
somewhat from the effect of protons in the nucleus; also at 298 K.
called screening effect. Standard Molar Enthalphy of Formation
Sigma Bonds The amount of heat absorbed in the formation of one mole
Bonds resulting from the head-on overlap of atomic of a substance in a specified state from its elements in
orbitals, in which the region of electron sharing is along their standard states.
and (cylindrically) symmetrical to the imaginary line Standard Molar Volume
connecting the bonded atoms. The volume occupied by one mole of an ideal gas under
Sigma Orbital standard conditions; 22.4liters.
Molecular orbital resulting from head-on overlap of two Standard Reaction
atomic orbitals. A reaction in which the numbers of moles of reactants
Silicones shown in the balanced equation, all in their standard
Polymeric organosilicon compounds; contain individual or states, are completely converted to the numbers of moles
cross-linked Si-O chains or rings in which some oxygens of products shown in the balanced equation, also sall at
of SiO4 tetrahedra are replaced by other groups. their standard state.
Single Bond Stereoisomers
Covalent bond resulting from the sharing of two electrons Isomers that differ only in the way that atoms are oriented
(one pair) between two atoms. in space; consist of geometrical and optical isomers.
Solubility Product Constant Stoichiometry
Equilibrium constant that applies to the dissolution of a Description of the quantitative relationships among
slightly soluble compound. elements and compounds as they undergo chemical
Solubility Product Principle changes.
The solubility product constant expression for a slightly Strong Electrolyte
soluble compound is the product of the concentrations of A substance that conducts electricity well in a dilute
the constituent ions, each raised to the power that aqueous solution.
corresponds to the number of ions in one formula unit. Strong Field Ligand
Solute Ligand that exerts a strong crystal or ligand electrical field
The dispersed (dissolved) phase of a solution. and generally forms low spin complexes with metal ions
Solution when possible.
Homogeneous mixture of two or more substances. Structural Isomers
Solvation Compounds that contain the same number of the same
The process by which solvent molecules surround and kinds of atoms in different geometric arrangements.
interact with solute ions or molecules. Sublimation
Solvent The direct vaporization of a sold by heating without
The dispersing medium of a solution. passing through the liquid state.
Substance Vapor
Any kind of matter all specimens of which have the same A gas formed by boiling or evaporating a liquid.
chemical composition and physical properties. Vapor Pressure
Substitution Reaction The particle pressure of a vapor at the surface of its
A reaction in which an atom or a group of atoms is parent liquid.
replaced by another atom or group of atoms. Voltage
Supercooled Liquids Potential difference between two electrodes; a measure of
Liquids that, when cooled, apparently solidify but actually the chemical potential for a redox reaction to occur.
continue to flow very slowly under the influence of gravity. Voltaic Cells
Supercritical Fluid Electrochemical cells in which spontaneous chemical
A substance at temperature above its critical temperature. reactions produce electricity; also called galvanic cells.
Supersaturated Solution Water Equivalent
A solution that contains a higher than saturation The amount of water that would absorb the same amount
concentration of solute; slight disturbance or seeding of heat as the calorimeter per degree temperature
causes crystallization of excess solute. increase.
Suspension Weak Electrolyte
A heterogeneous mixture in which solute-like particles A substance that conducts electricity poorly in a dilute
settle out of solvent-like phase some time after their aqueous solution.
introduction. Weak Field Ligand
Temperature A Ligand that exerts a weak crystal or ligand field and ge-
A measure of the intensity of heat, i.e. the hotness or nerally forms high spin complexes with metals.
coldness of a sample. or object. Zone Refining
Ternary Acid A method of purifying a bar of metal by passing it through
A ternary compound containing H, O, and another an induction heater; this causes impurties to move along a
element, often a nonmetal. melted portion.
Ternary Compound
A compound consisting of three elements; may be ionic or
A term used to describe molecules and polyatomic ions
that have one atom in center and four atoms at the
corners of a tetrahedron.
Theoretical Yield
Maximum amount of a specified product that could be
obtained from specified amounts of reactants, assuming
complete consumption of limiting reactant according to
only one reaction and complete recovery of product.
(Compare with Actual Yield)
Thermal Cracking
Decomposition by heating a substance in the presence of
a catalyst and in the absence of air.
The study of the energy transfers accompanying physical
and chemical processes.
Thermonuclear Energy
Energy from nuclear fusion reactions.
Third Law of Thermodynamics
The entropy of a hypothetical pure, perfect, crystalline
sustance at absolute zero temperature is zero.
A Procedure in which one solution is added to another
solution until the chemical reaction between the two
solutes is complete; the concentration of one solution is
known and that of the other is unknown.
Total Ionic Equation
Equation for a chemical reaction written to show the
predominant form of all species in aqueous solution or in
contact with water.
Transition State Theory
Theory of reaction rates that states that reactants pass
through high-energy transition states before forming
Tyndall Effect
The scattering of light by colloidal particles.
Unsaturated Hydrocarbons
Hydrocarbons that contain double or triple carbon-carbon
Valence Bond Theory
Assumes that covalent bonds are formed when atomic
orbitals on different atoms overlap and the electrons are
Valence Electrons
Outermost electrons of atoms; usually those involved in
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory
Assumes that electron pairs are arranged around the
central element of a molecule or polyatomic ion so that
there is maximum separation (and minimum repulsion)
among regions of high electron density.
van der Waals' Equation
An equation of state that extends the ideal gas law to real
gases by inclusion of two empirically determined
parameters, which are different for different gases.