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- Fluid-Flow in porous media
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S.A. SHEDID, R.A. ALMEHAIDEB

United Arab Emirates University

Abstract (RQI) concepts, however, may or may not determine whether a

This study is conducted to test and evaluate the use of current formation can be considered to have a single flow unit or multiple

methods of reservoir characterization, namely the permeability- ones(1-4).

porosity correlation, the J-function, and the Reservoir Quality It is well recognized that an improved and effective reservoir

Index (RQI) concepts, for reservoir description of heterogeneous description is a prerequisite for efficient development of oil reser-

carbonate formations. These approaches were compared with a voirs. The following is a brief review of the most common tech-

new technique developed in this paper for improved reservoir niques available for reservoir description.

description of carbonate reservoirs. This technique is called the

Characterization Number (CN) technique and it is based upon Permeability-Porosity Correlation Technique

considering fluid, rock, rock-fluid properties, and flow mechan-

ics of oil reservoirs. The effective porosity(1) of a rock is defined as the ratio of its

To compare these reservoir characterization techniques, mea- interconnected pore volume to its bulk volume. The permeability

surements of porosity, absolute permeability, oil and water rela- of the reservoir rock is defined as the ability of that rock to allow

tive permeability, and irreducible water saturation for 83 actual fluids to flow through its interconnected pores. The permeability-

core samples extracted from eight different wells for a new oil porosity relationship has always been considered as a very valu-

reservoir in the U.A.E. were obtained. These experimental data able tool for interpreting petrophysical properties of the rock,

are used first to develop a permeability-porosity correlation. providing better reservoir description and/or enhanced reservoir

Then, the J-function and the RQI concepts along with the newly characterization. A number of investigators(5-8) showed that rock

developed CN approach are applied and evaluated for the reser- permeability depends mainly upon the effective porosity. For this

voir description of the UAE carbonate reservoir under investiga- reason, permeability is mainly affected by grain size, grain shape,

tion. The results show that the Reservoir Quality Index concept grain packing, sorting, and degree of cementation.

is capable of identifying the flow units while the J-function con- Wyllie-Rose(6), Timur(7), and Morris-Biggs(8) developed similar

cept is quite poor. Also, a more refined identification of flow empirical correlations to calculate the permeability using porosity

units is obtained by using the newly-developed Characterization and irreducible water saturation for sandstone reservoirs. If one is

Number. This improved description for the Characterization to apply these correlations in general, he has to take into consider-

Number approach may be attributed to the consideration of ation the following limitations:

rock/fluid properties of flowing fluid(s) and flow dynamic con- 1. They are not applicable to carbonate reservoirs.

ditions of its containing formation. 2. They were developed for local fields/formations.

3. They apply only to irreducible water saturation condition

Introduction and Review (which may vary with oil production).

4. They can not be applied to wells drilled in water zones.

Reservoir characterization techniques are quite valuable as they

provide a better description of the storage and flow properties of a Recently, Saner et al. (11) used 75 core plugs from a Saudi

petroleum reservoir and thus provide the basis for developing its Arabian carbonate reservoir to develop an experimental relation-

simulation model. Also, carbonate reservoirs, in particular, pre- ship capable of calculating permeability using porosity data. It is

sent a tougher challenge to engineers and geologists to character- one of the few available correlations for carbonate rocks. The pro-

ize because of their tendency to be tight and heterogeneous. posed correlation (which has a correlation coefficient = 0.81) can

also be applied for sandstone reservoirs as well and was given as

Permeability and porosity of the reservoir rock have always follows:

been considered as two of the most important parameters for for-

mation evaluation, reservoir description, and characterization.

K = 0.0078726 * 10 (

0.16602*ϕ )

Beyond evaluating permeability and porosity, one can also use ..................................................................(1)

combinations of two or more rock properties to gain insight into

the character of flow through porous media. The J-function and Since carbonate reservoir data show severe scattering due to

the Reservoir Quality Index (RQI) are two of the concepts that the their heterogeneous nature, one has to be cautious in using the

oil industry has used to characterize the reservoir media. They permeability-porosity correlation for calculating permeability

incorporate parameters such as porosity and permeability into a unless a good correlation coefficient is available. In addition, a

single quantity that describes/characterizes the formation. The permeability-porosity correlation technique is not enough by itself

PEER REVIEWED PAPER (“REVIEW AND PUBLICATION PROCESS” CAN BE FOUND ON OUR WEB SITE)

since simulation studies also require more accurate tools for reser- Application and Evaluations

voir description and diagnosis of flow and non-flow units.

Description of Field Data Used

The J-Function Technique Analysis of 83 actual carbonate core samples from one of the

The J-function(1, 9, 10) has been extensively used to describe and United Arab Emirates (UAE) reservoirs was obtained(12). These

characterize porous media through evaluating capillary pressure core samples were cleaned, dried, and evacuated for almost 24

data and plotting these together using the concept of J-function. hours. Then, samples were saturated with actual water formation.

The J-function(9) is defined as: Porosity was measured volumetrically while water absolute per-

meability was estimated using Darcy’s law after a steady-state

PC K

condition is well established (using constant flow rate = 1.00

J (SW ) = cc/min). The core was flooded with actual crude oil (viscosity =

σ o−w Cosθ ϕ .........................................................................(2)

6.2 cp and API gravity is 37˚) until a condition of irreducible

water saturation is gained. These flood tests were used to calculate

Important information about the pore structure may be obtained the relative permeability of oil and water. Oil water interfacial

by studying the fine structure of capillary pressure curves that tension of the used actual liquids was measured using a capillary

result from capillary instabilities at the single and multi-pore pressure apparatus for an oil-water system (Core Lab. Inc, Catalog

level. This J-function technique(1, 9, 13) is, however, limited in prac- No. 118) at room temperature (29.3˚ C). Capillary pressure for

tice because of the lack of accurate instrumentation, data gather- four core samples (from Well A) was measured.

ing, and interpretation requirements. The obtained porosity and absolute permeability data are used

next to develop a permeability-porosity correlation for this car-

The Reservoir Quality Index Technique bonate UAE reservoir, and also in calculating the J-function and

the RQI. In addition, these along with all other measured data are

A hydraulic flow unit is defined(2-4) as “the representative ele-

used to investigate the validity of the newly developed

mentary volume (REV) of total reservoir rock within which geo-

Characterization Number (CN).

logical and petrophysical properties that affect fluid flow are

internally consistent and predictably different from properties of

other rock volumes.” Amaefule et al.(4) developed a practical and Application of the Permeability-Porosity

theoretically correct methodology to identify the flow unit(s) con- Correlation Technique

stituting the reservoir of interest. Amaefule et al.(4) developed the

reservoir quality index (RQI) which is given as follows: All available data for permeability vs. porosity are plotted as

shown in Figure 1. A mathematical expression was developed

relating the two variables with a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.87

K is obtained. It is given as follows:

RQI (µm ) = 0.0324

ϕe

.........................................................................(3)

K = 0.2722 * EXP (0.5351 * ϕ)

................................................................(4)

This method uses core data to describe the variations in pore

geometry within different lithofacies. This variation defines simi-

lar fluid-flow characteristics (flow units). The application of this Equation (4) can be used generally throughout the reservoir to

technique requires a log-log plot of reservoir quality index (RQI) predict permeability using porosity data for this reservoir.

vs. pore volume-to-grain volume ratio {ϕz = [ϕe/(1 – ϕe)]}. Additionally, for each single well, a separate correlation is devel-

oped so that permeability around wells can be better estimated.

Table 1 shows all developed permeability equations for the eight

wells in this carbonate reservoir. The developed permeability cor-

Development of a New Technique for relations have the following advantages: (1) they have very good

Reservoir Description correlation coefficients (the range is between 0.83 and 0.95),

which makes them a good and representative tool for predicting

Description and/or characterization of heterogeneous porous permeability; and (2) they are capable of predicting permeability

media have to consider all types of fluid and rock properties. A in the water zone, the transition zone, and the oil zone.

new correlation is developed here that considers variable charac- A comparison of permeability of the UAE and the Saudi

teristics of porous media and its contained fluids. These variables Arabian (SA) carbonate reservoirs is carried out using Equations

include rock properties (porosity, permeability, and pore diame- (1) and (4), respectively. Table 2 presents the used porosity values

ter), fluid properties (oil density and viscosity of both oil and

water), rock-fluid properties (interfacial tension and wettability),

and dynamic conditions (oil and water flow velocities). The 100

detailed derivation of this correlation is shown in Appendix A.

This correlation is obtained by using the dimensional analysis

technique. This technique shows that these variables can be 10

reduced to a dimensionless combination called here the

Permeability (mD)

follows:

1

ρ σ K K

CN = 1.0067 × o2 o−W × ro ×

µ oCosθ K rw ϕ

....................................... (A-8) 0.1

0.5351*Phi

K = 0.2722e

It is important to point out that Krw and Kro (at the intersection R 2 = 0.8718

point of the two curves) are relative permeability of water and oil, 0.01

respectively. Krw is generally less than 30% for water-wet reser- 0 5 10 15

voirs and greater than 50% for oil-wet reservoirs(13). The corre-

sponding Sw for the selected Kro point is less than 50% for oil-wet Porosity (%)

reservoirs and Sw > for water-wet reservoirs. Where the oil density

FIGURE 1: Permeability-porosity correlation for UAE carbonate

is expressed in kg/m3, viscosity is in centipoise, IFT in N/cm, and

reservoir.

permeability in Darcy.

TABLE 1: Developed permeability correlations for TABLE 2: Comparison of the computed permeability of

some UAE producing wells. the UAE and Saudi Arabian (SA) carbonate reservoirs.

Well Porosity Correlation Coefficient (R2) Porosity K (UAE) (mD) (mD) using

A K = 0.2112 * EXP (0.4505ϕ) 0.8455 (%) using Equation (3) Equation (4)

B K = 0.0743 * EXP (0.5376ϕ) 0.8617 1 0.47 0.01

C K = 0.1528 * EXP (0.4761ϕ) 0.9056 3 1.35 0.03

D K = 0.0916 * EXP (0.6006ϕ) 0.8097 5 3.94 0.06

E K = 0.0592 * EXP (0.5647ϕ) 0.9416 7 11.46 0.12

F K = 0.0486 * EXP (0.5851ϕ) 0.9501 9 33.35 0.25

G K = 0.0503 * EXP (0.5851ϕ) 0.9258 11 97.09 0.53

H K = 0.0413 * EXP (0.6426ϕ) 0.8337

ability for Well A are used in conjunction with capillary pressure

(shown in Table 3), oil-water interfacial tension of 32 dyne/cm,

TABLE 3: Data of capillary pressure vs. water satura- and contact angle (assumed 70 degrees) to calculate the J-func-

tion for Well A. tion. The obtained J-function vs. water saturation for Well A is

presented graphically in Figure 2.

Pc for Core Samples

It is clear, as can be seen from Figure 2, that the application of

Sw 1 2 3 4 this concept provides an identification of two overlapping flow

(%) (psia) (psia) (psia) (psia) units constituting the pay zone. This result is more accurate than

that obtained using the permeability-porosity technique since two

16 50 47 41 48

flow units are identified. The obtained results using the J-function

26 25 27 32 29 may be considered an inaccurate characterization since the

40 15 14.5 18 12 obtained flow units overlap and show very close values for the J-

49 12 10.5 13 9.5 function. The reasons for the J-function inaccuracy may be attrib-

70 5 4.5 6 5 uted to the existence of capillary pressure in the J-function, which

is restricted to only the transition zones and lower values of

84 3 2 3 2

applied capillary pressure measurements. In addition, the J-func-

90 2 1 2 1.5 tion inability to identify the flow units is due to the functional

form of the J-function combining porosity, permeability, capillary

and the permeability predicted by both equations. It is clear that pressure, and contact angle which does not allow for reservoir

the UAE carbonate reservoir has higher permeability than that of flow-unit characterization.

the Saudi Arabian one, when both have the same porosity values

of the carbonate rock. The significance of this comparison is that

its confirmation to the severe nature of heterogeneity of carbonate Application of the Reservoir Quality Index

reservoirs. Although both correlations are developed for carbonate Technique

reservoirs in the same region of the Gulf area, a drastic difference

of the obtained permeability is proven. Based on the flow unit concept, Equation (2), the obtained per-

meability values of the UAE carbonate reservoir are used with

their corresponding porosity values to calculate the RQI. The

Application of the J-Function Technique obtained RQI is plotted vs. pore volume-to-grain volume ratio {ϕz

Reservoir description and/or characterization has been consid- = [ϕe/(1 – ϕe)]}, as shown in Figure 3. This figure indicates that

ered as a critical component of any reservoir development because two flow units can be identified when all data points covering 8

of its ability in distinguishing the essential features of petrophysi- wells are used. Data of RQI and ϕz for the single Well A are also

cal and geological parameters influencing the fluid flow in the pay plotted in Figure 4 to test the existence of flow units on the single

zones. The J-function(9) is used to correlate many variables of well scale. The same two flow units also show up in Well A as

rock/fluid systems. The obtained values of porosity and perme- in the data for all wells in this carbonate reservoir. Figure 4

shows a high scattering degree. This may be attributed to the

1

6

Flow Unit # 2

5

Sample # 1 Sample # 2

0.1

RQI (um)

4

(dimensionless)

Sample # 3 Sample # 4

J-Function

Flow Unit # 1

2 0.01

Flow Unit # 2

1

Flow Unit # 1

0 0.001

0 50 100 150 0.1 1 10 100

Water Saturation (% pv) Phi (Z) (%)

FIGURE 3: Reservoir quality index vs. Phi (Z) for UAE carbonate

FIGURE 2: J-function of the producing formation for Well A. reservoir.

0.1

RQI (um)

FU # 2

FU # 1

0.01

1 10

Phi (Z) (%)

FIGURE 4: RQI vs. Phi (Z) for Well A. carbonate reservoir.

reservoir rock (porosity and permeability), as well as its contained

450 fluid (viscosity and density of oil) and oil-rock properties (relative

400 permeability of oil and water, wettability, and oil-water interfacial

Characterization Number

Characterization Number (CN) vs. K /ϕ for this well, shown in

(dimensionless)

FU # 1

300

Figure 6. This figure shows the existence of only two flow units.

250 This means that the reservoir shows four flow units when all wells

200 are considered but only two of them cross through Well A.

FU # 2 A comparison of Figures 3 and 5 shows that the application of

150

the CN concept is capable to identify four flow units while the

100 RQI application provides only two flow units. This means that the

50 addition of fluid and rock-fluid properties (which may be almost

constant for the same well but different from one well to another)

0

into the CN technique improves the performance for reservoir

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 description although the same data set is used. In addition, a com-

SQRT (K/Phi), Sqrt (mD)

parison of Figures 4 and 6 indicates that although the RQI and CN

concepts confirm the existence of two flow units through Well A,

the CN provides accurate and more harmonious identification than

FIGURE 6: Characterization Number (CN) vs. SQRT (K/Phi) for

the RQI concept does. This is shown in Figure 6 where the scat-

Well A.

tering degree of used data points is much lower than that shown in

Figure 4 for the RQI. It is important to emphasize that although

heterogeneous nature of carbonate reservoir(s) and/or the non- the application of the RQI concept requires a log-log plot (which

suitability of the RQI concept for this situation. usually accumulates data points and reduces its scattering degree)

to obtain a straight line (characterizing single flow unit), its final

Application of the Characterization Number result still shows a high scattering degree of data points. On the

Technique other side, the CN concept uses a Cartesian plot and provides a

lower scattering degree. The CN technique also has another

Although the use of the reservoir quality index (RQI) for reser- advantage of plotting more rock/fluid variables involved in the

voir description has proven effective, a number of other available CN vs. dual parameter of K /ϕ .

properties can still be added to improve the application of the con-

cept. Three such improvements have been identified in this work.

These include: (1) the density of reservoir flowing fluids (oil and

water); (2) the rock-fluid properties, such as interfacial tension

Conclusions

and relative permeability of oil and water systems; and, (3) the 1. A permeability correlation is developed for the UAE carbon-

variation in dynamic flow conditions. The addition of these prop- ate reservoir. This correlation is capable of predicting the

erties provides a more robust reservoir description/characteriza- permeability using porosity data. A comparison between it

tion considering fluid, rock, and rock/fluid properties. This varia- and the permeability correlation for Saudi Arabia shows that

tion of fluid properties (density, viscosity, and IFT) from well to the UAE carbonate reservoir has higher permeability than

well is expected to have a greater impact to differentiate between that of the Saudi Arabian reservoir, when both have the

different oil flow units because of expected variations of tempera- same porosity values.

ture and pressure conditions. 2. Applying the concepts of J-function and reservoir quality

The Characterization Number (CN) is plotted vs. K /ϕ using index on an actual carbonate reservoir show that the RQI

all data points for the UAE carbonate reservoir under investiga- provides better identification of the flow units constituting

tion in Figure 5. Inspection of Figure 5 shows that the producing this formation than the J-function does.

formation of this reservoir consists of four distinct flow units. 3. A new technique is developed to provide more detailed

This result is very interesting and means that one may be able to information on the flow units of the reservoir. This tech-

produce a more refined reservoir description over the description nique is based on using the dimensionless analysis technique

provided using the concepts of J-function and RQI, as obtained in to develop the Characterization Number. It was successfully

this study in Figures 2 and 3, respectively. The reasons for this applied to the UAE carbonate reservoir for which data was

more refined reservoir description are that the Characterization available.

4. The improvement in definition of flow units for the Appendix A: Derivation of the

Characterization Number is attributed to its consideration of

the dynamic flow conditions in conjunction with properties Characterization Number

of the rock and its contained fluids. The Characterization Number combines the comprehensive set

of variables that are considered the most relevant and representa-

NOMENCLATURE tive of porous media and its contained fluids. These are the rock

data K, ϕ, and DP, the dynamic flow data VO, VW, the fluid proper-

CN = Characterization Number (dimensionless)

ties data µ O , µ W , ρ O , σ O-W , and the rock-fluid data Cosθ.

DP = pore diameter (cm)

Mathematically, this can be expressed as:

J(SW) = J-function (dimensionless)

K = absolute rock permeability (mD) Characterization function =

Kro, Krw = oil and water relative permeability, respectively, at

intersection point of oil and water relative perme- (

f K , ϕ, VO , VW , µO , µW , ρO , σ O−W , Cosθ, D p ) ........................(A-1)

ability curves.

IFT = interfacial tension (N/cm) Dimensions of these variables are expressed as follows:

NC = capillary number (dimensionless)

PC = capillary pressure (psia)

RQI = reservoir quality index (µm) [ ]

K = L2 ; VO = [ L / T ]; VW = [ L / T ];

SW = water saturation (fraction PV)

Vo ,VW = velocity of oil and water, respectively (m/sec)

µO = [ M / LT ]; µW = [ M / LT ]; ρO = M / L3 ; [ ]

ϕe = effective porosity (fraction)

ϕz = pore volume-to-grain volume ratio

[ ]

σ O−W = M / T 2 ; Cos θ = [dimensionless];

...................................(A-2)

ρO, ρW = density of oil and water, respectively (kg/m3)

θ = contact angle (degree) Application of the dimensional analysis yields the following

σO-W = oil-water interfacial tension (N/m) three groups:

ρ V D R

Acknowledgement π1 = O O P = e

µOCosθ Cosθ ..............................................................(A-3-a)

The authors would like to gratefully acknowledge the manage-

ment of Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Oil Co. (ADMA-OPCO)

for providing the data used in this study, and their permission to

publish this work. σ 1

π 2 = O−W =

VW µW N C ....................................................................(A-3-b)

REFERENCES

1. TIAB, D. and DONALDSON, E.C., Petrophysics-Theory and

Practice of Measuring Reservoir Rock and Fluid Transport

K /ϕ

Properties; Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX, 1996.

π3 = = RQI

2. EBANKS, W.J., Jr., Integrated Approach to Reservoir Description D D

p P

..................................................................(A-3-c)

for Engineering Projects; abstract only, AAPG, 1982.

3. EBANKS, W.J., Jr., SCHEIHING, M.H., and ATKINSON, C.D.,

Flow Units for Reservoir Characterization; AAPG, pp. 282-289, One can characterize the first group (A-3-a) as the Reynold’s

1983. Number, Re, (divided by contact angle); the second group (A-3-b)

4. AMAEFULE, J.O., ATUNBAY, M., TIAB, D., KERSEY, D.G., and as the inverse of Capillary Number, Nc, (without porosity); and,

KEELAN, D., Enhanced Reservoir Description: Using Core and Log

the third one (A-3-c) as the Reservoir Quality Index, RQI, divided

Data to Identify Hydraulic (Flow) Units and Predict Permeability in

Uncored Intervals/Wells; paper SPE 26436, the 66 th Annual by pore diameter. Multiplication of the above three dimensionless

Technical Conference and Exhibition of the Society of Petroleum groups together yields the characterizing function, denoted here as

Engineers, Houston, TX, pp. 205-217, October 3 – 6, 1993. the Characterization Number (CN), combining the type of flow

5. Schlumberger, Log Interpretation, Principles/Applications; regime (Reynold’s Number), the ratio of viscous to interfacial ten-

Schlumberger Educational Services, Houston, TX, 1989. sion forces (Capillary Number), and the reservoir description of

6. WYLLIE, M.R.J. and ROSE, W.D., Some Theoretical porous rock (Reservoir Quality Index). The result of the multipli-

Considerations Related to the Quantitative Evaluation of the cation is expressed as follows:

Physical Characteristics of Reservoir Rock From Electric Log Data;

Trans. AIME, Vol. 189, pp. 105-118, 1950.

ρ σ V K

7. TIMUR, A., An Investigation of Permeability, Porosity, and CN = o o − W o

µ Cosθ µ V

Residual Water Saturation Relationships; Proceedings of SPLWA, o w w ϕ

......................................................(A-4)

9th Annual Logging Symposium, New Orleans, LA, Paper K, pp. 1-

17, June 23 – 28, 1968.

8. MORRIS, R.L. and BIGGS, W.P., Using Log-Derived Values of By definition using Darcy’s law for steady-state flow, oil and

Water Saturation and Porosity; Proceedings of SPWLA, 8th Annual water velocities can be expressed as follows:

Logging Symposium, Denver, CO, Paper X, pp. 1-26, June 12 – 14,

1967.

9. LEVERETTE, M.C., Capillary Behaviour in Porous Solids; Trans. Vo =

(

2πK o h Pe − Pwf )

AIME, Vol. 142, pp. 152-169, 1940. µo Ln (re / rw )

10. YUAN, H.H. and SWANSON, B.F., Resolving Pore Space

Characteristics by Rate Controlled Porosimetry; SPE Formation

Evaluation, pp. 17-25, March 1989. and

11. SANER, S., KISSAMI, M., and AL-NUFAILI, S., Estimation of

Permeability From Well Logs Using Resistivity and Saturation Data;

SPE Formation Evaluation, pp. 27-31, March 1997. Vw =

(

2πK w h Pe − Pwf )

12. Personal communication with the Petroleum Development Section of µ w Ln (re / rw )

......................................................................(A-5)

Abu Dhabi Marine Operating Oil Co.; ADMA-OPCO, 2001.

13. CRAIG, F.F., The Reservoir Engineering Aspects of Waterflooding;

Society of Petroleum Engineers of AIME, 1971. Divide VO by VW from Equation (A-5) yields:

Vo K o µ w KK ro µ w K ro µ w

= = =

Vw K w µo KK rw µo K rw µo

Authors’ Biographies

................................(A-6)

Shedid A. Shedid is currently an associate

Substitution of Equation (A-6) into Equation (A-4) provides the professor in petroleum engineering at the

Characterization Number as follows: United Arab Emirates University. Before

joining the UAE University, he was an

ρ σ K K assistant professor at the Suez Canal

CN = o2 o−W ro University in Egypt. He received his B.Sc.

µoCosθ K rw ϕ

............................................................(A-7) and M.Sc. degrees from the Suez Canal

University (Egypt) and Ph.D. degree from

where ρO, µO, σO-W, and K are expressed, respectively, in kg/m3, the University of Oklahoma (USA), all in

kg/m × s, N/m (N/m = 1000 dyne/cm), and m2. In practice, the

petroleum engineering. Dr. Shedid is a

viscosity is expressed as centipoise (kg/m × s = 1000 cp), oil den-

sity as kg/ m3, IFT as N/cm, and permeability in Darcy (m2 = member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers and the Petroleum

1.013248 x 1013 Darcy). For filed units then, the Characterization Society. His research interests include petrophysics, reservoir sim-

Number will be: ulation, enhanced oil recovery, and reservoir characterization.

K

CN = 1.0067 × o2 o−W × ro × the UAE University (1992 – present). In

µ

o Cosθ K rw ϕ

.......................................(A-8) 1989, he was appointed assistant professor

of petroleum engineering in the chemical

where Krw and Kro are the oil and water relative permeability, and petroleum engineering department. At

respectively. Craig (1971) introduced the rule of thumb to indicate the same time, he was assigned to head the

the reservoir wettability preference based upon relative permeabil- energy research section of the Technology

ity as follows: and Energy Research Centre, where he

served later as director from 1990 – 1992.

Water-Wet Oil-Wet

He served as assistant dean of engineering

Connate water usually > 20 generally < 15% for research affairs from 1992 – 1996. He is currently the associ-

saturation to 25% frequently < 10%

ate dean for the College of Engineering and the director of the

Saturation at > 50% Sw < 30% Sw M.Sc. Water Resources program. His research interests include

which Krw = Kro well testing, formation damage, and reservoir simulation.

Krw at generally > 50%

maximum Sw < 30%

Reservoir Description of Heterogeneous Carbonate Reservoirs (2001-

009) first presented at the Canadian International Petroleum Conference

(the 52nd Annual Technical Meeting of the Petroleum Society) June 12-14,

2001, in Calgary, Alberta. Abstract submitted for review January 11,

2001; editorial comments sent to the author(s) January 16, 2003; revised

manuscript received February 13, 2003; paper approved for pre-press May

9, 2003, final approval July 8, 2003.

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