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Basic & Major Parts of Motherboard and its Functions - Techchore https://www.techchore.

com/parts-motherboard-functions/

July 2, 2017 By I.C Tiempo (https://www.techchore.com/author/ittechchore-


com/)

(https://www.techchore.com/parts-motherboard-functions/)

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It s the electric conductor of the computer, responsible of distributing


current and communication on each hardware components and chipset
(CPU, RAM & etc.).

Motherboard is also often called as Planar board, MOBO, MB, Mainboard,


System Board, Logic Board, Base Board and Backplane Board.

Processor Socket
North Bridge
South Bridge
RAM/Memory Slot x2
24 pin ATX Power Connector
I/O ( Input Output)
PCI express x16
PCI

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These are the basic parts of the Motherboard. Later we will discuss each
functions. Knowing the basic parts of the Motherboard is important for all
computer users. It may not be necessary but it will give you a big
advantage.

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For now, at least you know what a processor socket look like, where the
24 pin ATX Power Connector is situated. The difference between PCI and
PCI express. Motherboard has two bridges the North bridge and the south
bridge.What else? Your Motherboard has a tiny battery called CMOS
Backup battery, the location of I/O, Memory slot and SATA connectors.
Now let’s proceed to Major parts of Motherboard and its functions.

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See also: Basic Components of System unit (https://www.techchore.com


/six-6-basic-components-of-your-system-unit/)

The major parts of Motherboard are a bit overwhelming compared to its


basic components. However, these will give you a better knowledge and
understanding about Motherboard.

PCI Express x16 and x1


CD-IN
PCI
SPDIF
FDD Connector
CMOS Battery
1394 Header
USB Headers
Screw Hole
System Panel Connector
SATA 1 Connector
SATA 2 Connector
ATA IDE
24 Pin ATX Power Connector
Capacitors
North Bridge
South Bridge
Memory Slot

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Motherboard Model (name) number


Jumper
F Audio Connector
4+4 Pin Auxillary ATX Power Connector
I/O Input/Output for Integrated Peripheral

See also: PC Assemble and Disassemble Precautions


(https://www.techchore.com/pc-assemble-and-disassemble-precautions/)

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Unit) usually fits in. On the other hand PCIe x1 is recently used to hold
PCIe SSD (Solid State Drive).

PCI Express replaced the AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) and it is also
considered as PCI successor as well. PCIe x1 has a standard speed of
250 MB/s up to 3.9 GB/s while PCIe x 16 starts at 4GB/s up to 63GB/s.

CD-IN is a black-four-pin connector on Motherboard or Sound card. It is


also known as Optical Drive Audio Connector. It’s being used to connect
the four (4) pin wire from CD/DVD ROM to the CD-IN four (4) pin
connector on MOBO/Motherboard.

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PCI refers to Peripheral Component Interconnect and used to attach


hardware components on Motherboard. Intel pioneered the introduction of
PCI in 1992. It has both 32 bit and 64 bit versions with the speed of 133
MBps. Most hardware that fits in on PCI slot/s were sound card, LAN
(Ethernet) card, Video card, USB port extension and etc.

SPDIF (Sony and Phillips Digital Interconnect Format) is being used to


connect audio equipment for digital audio transmission. It transmits
compressed digital audio. Most Motherboards have this connector as well
as sound cards and laptops. SPDIF can output digital audio through
coaxial cable or fiber optic. For your information, SPDIF pins may vary. It is
a good practice to check MOBO’s manual.

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FDD (Floppy Drive Disk) header or connector is where the Floppy disk
connects through a Floppy Drive cable. Floppy drive were not common
today though it is still being used by some. It evolves from a floppy drive
cable into a USB type.

CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor) also known us Real-


Time Clock (RTC) and NVRAM. It is powered by a 3 volts lithium battery.
And it stores computer information such as; system time & date and
system hardware settings.

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Capable of high-speed communications and real-time data transfer. Faster


than USB 2.0 with the speed of almost 1 Gbps. 1394 Header resembles
USB header, be careful not attached USB header cable into it or vice-
versa. It may damage your Motherboard. Always check Motherboard’s
manual.

USB header is a nine (9) pins header. It allows additional USB connection
on your computer’s front/drive bay area. Motherboard already have a built-
in USB ports at the I/O for integrated peripherals but additional can be
added at the front bay that attached to USB header/s.

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that, all of it should be filled with standoffs. It’s a case to case basis, only
insert standouts in screw hole that coincides chassis screw hole.

System Panel Connector also known us System Panel header, Front


Panel and FPanel header is specifically meant to connect System panel
Cables. To control or make Power Button, reset button, HDD LED and
Power LED works. Take note: Colored System panel cables are positive
or powered wire while black or white wires are the ground or negative
wires. The wire colors, cables and connector may be different from each
Motherboard brands and chassis, so always check the manual.

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g p p
is officially known as SATA 1.5 Gbps. It has a bandwidth throughput of up
to 150 Mbps. This is the successor of P/ATA or IDE type connector.

SATA 2 is the second generation SATA interface with the speed of 3.0
Gbps. It is officially known as SATA 3.0 Gbps. It has a bandwidth
throughput of up to 300 Mbps. SATA 2 are usually located at the side of
the Motherboard.

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standard interface for IDE compatible hard drives but is now replaced by
SATA.

ATX 2 introduced the 24 Pin ATX power connector replacing the 20 pin
power connector. It is through ATX power connector that the Motherboard
gets power from Power Supply. Thus, distributing current and voltage to all
Motherboard components.

24-pin ATX power cable can be used to connect into 20-pin ATX power
connector by leaving the four (4) pins aside. However, 20-pin ATX power
cable will not work on 24-pin ATX power connector, 24-pin ATX power
cable should be used.

In most cases the 20 or 24 pin ATX power cable are supported by 4-pin or
8-pin ATX 12Volts secondary.

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Motherboard capacitors are small components on Motherboard that helps


condition power on other Motherboard components. Capacitor can also
store electronic charge, therefore it is advisable not to touch one if the
computer has just turned off. To release the capacitor electronic charge,
press the computer power button while it is unplug. Bulge capacitors may
cause different problems on Motherboard.

Northbridge also known as NB or PAC it controls the flow of


communications among Processor, PCIe and RAM or Memory stick.

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Southbridge is a Motherboard IC that takes care all I/O controller,


integrated hardware and hard drive controller. Integrated peripherals may
include sound card and video card, USB ports, SATA, IDE, BIOS,
Ehternet, Firewire and etc.

Memory Slot also known as RAM slot or Memory socket it is where the
RAM or Memory stick is inserted. Standard Motherboard used to have two
Memory slots but high-end Motherboards may have more.

This information is vital, it is important to know what speed and type of


RAM does the Motherboard support. The sample above explains that the
Motherboard is compatible with DDR3 RAM with 1666+ MHZ. So, DDR
and DDR2 RAM will not fit the Motherboard. However, any DDR3 RAM will
work even if it has a lower or higher MHZ like 1066, 1333, 1600, 1800. But
it is advised to follow the recommended MOBO’s required RAM speed and
type to maximize its performance.

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Motherboard. The image above is sample of AMD AM3 socket. AMD also
has socket FM1, socket FM2, AM3+, AM2, AM2+ and AM4 is the latest.
Intel used to have LGA 775, LGA 1156, LGA 1366, LGA 1150, LGA 1151
and LGA 1155.

CPU Socket it is where the Processor or CPU (Central Processing Unit) is


fit in. The processor should be compatible with Motherboard socket as the
Socket Name mentioned above.

Motherboard Model name & number is another information worth knowing.


This is important especially if the Motherboard drivers were misplaced or
lost. By typing the Motherboard model number followed by drivers (GA-
MA790XT-UD4P drivers) into search engine or manufacturer site, it will

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Jumper/s are used to close or allow current flow into certain board
sections. It also used to configure hardware components such as; hard
drive, BIOS, CD ROM, DVD ROM, Modem, Sound card and etc. On IDE
days, it was used to adjust master drive, slave drive and cable select by
moving the jumper between each two pins.

F Audio Connector is use to connect Front Audio Jacks via case


connector. This is an extension of I/O integrated Audio jacks.

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12V ATX 4 or 8 pins power is used to provide 12V to the processor voltage
regulator. Normally, 12V ATX power connector has only 4 pins. However,
in some cases there were Motherboards that has a 4+4 (8) pins.

The good thing is, if your power supply only has 4 pins, it will still work just
leave the other 4 connector vacant. Same goes to, if your power supply
has 8 pins and the Motherboard only has 4, just split it apart to make two
(2) 4 pins. Then, leave the other 4 pins and plug the other 4 into the
Motherboard.

I/O Input Output for Integrated Peripherals is a Motherboard’s built-in


external connector. It is where the Mouse, keyboard, monitor, USB cable,
Firewire, SPDIF, Audio jacks and other external devices are to be
connected.

Learning the parts of Motherboard are not that hard, knowing each
functions may be challenging but full of fun. We do hope that this Parts of

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We do appreciate your comments and suggestions to improve this guide


or make it better. Your input is important to us.

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passion to technology, especially to software, computer & networking


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Amara Sesay says


October 7, 2017 at 12:48 pm (https://www.techchore.com/parts-motherboard-functions
/#comment-4058)

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motherboard.
thanks

Reply

I.C Tiempo (https://www.techchore.com/) says


October 15, 2017 at 10:50 am (https://www.techchore.com/parts-motherboard-
functions/#comment-4116)

Hello Amara,

Thank you for such a wonderful comment. It gives us the energy to do more. As you
wish, we will try to keep you updated.

Reply

Prashant Singha says


August 24, 2017 at 5:47 pm (https://www.techchore.com/parts-motherboard-functions
/#comment-3759)

very helpful.

Reply

I.C Tiempo (https://www.techchore.com/) says


August 25, 2017 at 1:55 am (https://www.techchore.com/parts-motherboard-functions
/#comment-3764)

Hello Prashant, thanks for that wonderful words. Am very glad that you found this
Parts of Motherboard and its functions helpful.

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