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# Power System

Transients
EE-449 – Power System Analysis II
Milwaukee School of Engineering
Winter Term 2009 – 2010
Dr. Glenn T. Wrate, P.E.
Fault Currents

1.0A

0.5A

0A

-0.5A
0s 20ms 40ms 60ms 80ms 100ms
I(R1)
Time

PSpice Circuit

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 33

Example

R 1 := 0.125Ω L1 := 10mH

## Vmax := 120V ⋅ 2 Vmax = 169.7 V

ω := 2π ⋅ f ω = 377
s

v ( t) := Vmax sin( ω ⋅ t + α )

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 44

Z := R 1 + j ⋅ ω ⋅ L1 Z = 3.772 Ω

Vmax
Imax := Imax = 44.99 A
Z

L1
τ := τ = 0.08 s
R1

 ω ⋅ L1 
ϕ := atan
  ϕ = 88.1 deg
 R1 
 

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 55

Solve for i(t)

From EE-2070?

 −
t 
 τ 
i ( t) := Imax⋅  sin( ω ⋅ t + α − ϕ ) − e ⋅ sin( α − ϕ )

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 66

α = 0 deg t := 0 , 0.00

100

50

50
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 77

α := 88.1deg i ( t) := Im ax

60

40

20

20

40

60
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 88

Causes of Transient
Overvoltages
Capacitor Bank Switching
Voltage magnification
Lightning
Ferroresonance
Switching Surges

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 99

Simple Capacitor Switching
Model

     

 
  

 

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 1010

Example Inrush Current

## 30000 Click to edit Master text styles

Second level
20000 ● Third level

● Fourth level
10000
● Fifth level
Current (A)

0
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008
-10000

-20000

-30000
Time (S)

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 1111

 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
     

 
 
 
 
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 
       

   
 
    
 
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 
       

   
 
      
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      
 
       

   
 
    
 
   
 
 
     

              
 
       

    
      

    
  
   

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 1212

Capacitor Bank Switching

## Why are so many high-voltage shunt

What problems might occur when these new
banks are installed?
What tools are needed to research and
correct operational problems?

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 1313

Why so many new banks?

## Shunt capacitor banks can:

Reduce system losses
Increase power transfer without new lines
Economic & Regulatory Pressures
Increased competitiveness
Deregulation
An Example:
Northern States Power Co.
11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 1414
What are the problem
areas?
Transient Problems
Unmitigated transient inrush currents can
damage equipment or cause system
protection to misoperate
System resonances can cause capacitor
banks and harmonic filters to be
overstressed or cause voltage distortion

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 1515

Classical Frequency Response

Click
3000 to edit Master text styles

Second level
2500
● Third level
Impedance (ohms)

2000
● Fourth level

## 1500 ● Fifth level

1000

500

0
0 100 200 300 400 500
Frequency (Hz)

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 1616

Related Problems

Transient Problems
Voltage magnification
Transformer resonance
Insulation coordination
Protection system verification
Ground mat design

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 1717

What tools are needed?

## An easy-to-use tool for transient analysis

General transient analysis packages are
difficult to use (EMTP) or
They can’t model distributed-parameter
lines (PSpice)
A nonlinear tool for harmonic analysis

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 1818

Part of my Ph.D.
Dissertation
Capacitor Bank Switching
Development of a closed-form solution for
calculating switching transients
Comparison of results for the new program
to those from existing methods
Nonlinear Frequency Characteristics
Development of new methods to obtain
nonlinear system frequency characteristics
Results from the new methods
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Existing Methods of
Analysis
Back-to-Back Switching Transients
IEEE Application Guide equations
EMTP simulations
Frequency Characteristics
Phasor calculations
Harmonic power flows
Small-signal attempts in time domain

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 2020

Problems with these
methods
IEEE Application Guide
Equations don’t include damping and source
impedances
Higher-order closed-form solutions
Some attempts, but a complete closed-form
solution was thought to be impractical
EMTP
Hard to use -- tool of researchers

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 2121

Part of my Ph.D. work …

## Closed-Form Solution for Capacitor Bank

Switching
Fourth-order system
Solution Methods Investigated
Laplace methods untenable
Augmented system matrix method was
chosen
● Transforms into homogenous system
● Possible since forcing functions are of the proper
form (complex exponential)
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Back-to-back Switching

Second level
● Third level

● Fourth level

● Fifth level

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 2323

Augmented System Matrix

## Given a system in the A’ is of the form

standard form
A B
A′ =  
x = A x + B u  0 P 

## The equations can be

and P is of the form
transformed into a
homogenous form  0 −ω 
P= 
ω 0 
x ′ = A′ x ′

System Matrices

##  − RS − R1 Click toR1 edit Master 

1 text styles
 L SecondL level − 0 
L Vm 
 S S
● Third level
S

 R − R − R 1 1 L 
1 1
● Fourth 2
level − 
 L2 ●L Fifth L2
level L2   S
A= 2
 B= 0 
1 1
 − 0 0   0 
 C1 C2   
 1   0 
 0 0 0 
 C2 

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 2525

Characteristic Equation

∆=λ 4
+
( RS + R1 ) Click
L2 + ( to + R2Master
R1 edit ) LS 3text styles
λ
Second
L● S L2 level
Third level
C1 LS + C1C2 RS R 1 + C1C2level
● Fourth RS R2 + C1C2 R1 R2 + C2 L2 + C2 LS
+ ● Fifth level
λ 2

C1C2 LS L2
C1 RS + C2 R2 + C2 RS + C1 R1 1
+ λ+ .
C1C2 LS L2 C1C2 LS L2

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 2626

Computer Implementation

## Finding the eigensystem is the most difficult

Eigenvalues for A and P found separately
Symbolic solution hard to implement
Numeric problems using typical component
values
QR Algorithm
Robust and well-documented

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 2727

Closed-Form Solution

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 2828

Program from my Ph.D.

B2b.exe

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 2929

Voltage Magnification

## Capacitor switching on the utility side may

cause excessive voltages on the customer
capacitor banks
A 2.0 p.u. voltage on the utility bus could
create a 4.0 p.u. voltage on the customer
bus
Tuned circuit
Occurs if L1C1 = L2C2

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 3030

Without a Surge Arrester

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 3131

With Surge Arresters

Arrester Energy

## 11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 3333

Coron
High Voltage a Ring
Line
Connection

Polymer or
Porcelain
Insulator
surrounding a
Ground ZnO
Connecti semiconductor
on
es from: http://www.abb.com/product/us/9AAC710009.aspx?country
11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 3434
Line Switching Example

## Nominal peak line-neutral voltage is 450kV

es from: http://www.abb.com/product/us/9AAC710009.aspx?country
11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 3535
Probability of
Overvolatge Occurrence

es from: http://www.abb.com/product/us/9AAC710009.aspx?country
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Probability of
Overvolatge Occurrence

es from: http://www.abb.com/product/us/9AAC710009.aspx?country
11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 3737
Discharge Energy
Probability

es from: http://www.abb.com/product/us/9AAC710009.aspx?country
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es from: http://www.abb.com/product/us/9AAC710009.aspx?country
11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 3939
es from: http://www.abb.com/product/us/9AAC710009.aspx?country
11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 4040
es from: http://www.abb.com/product/us/9AAC710009.aspx?country
11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 4141
es from: http://www.abb.com/product/us/9AAC710009.aspx?country
11/12/10 © 2009, Milwaukee School of 4242