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Power System

Transients
EE-449 – Power System Analysis II
Milwaukee School of Engineering
Winter Term 2009 – 2010
Dr. Glenn T. Wrate, P.E.
Fault Currents

1.0A

0.5A

0A

-0.5A
0s 20ms 40ms 60ms 80ms 100ms
I(R1)
Time

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PSpice Circuit

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Example

R 1 := 0.125Ω L1 := 10mH

Vmax := 120V ⋅ 2 Vmax = 169.7 V

rad
ω := 2π ⋅ f ω = 377
s

v ( t) := Vmax sin( ω ⋅ t + α )

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Z := R 1 + j ⋅ ω ⋅ L1 Z = 3.772 Ω

Vmax
Imax := Imax = 44.99 A
Z

L1
τ := τ = 0.08 s
R1

 ω ⋅ L1 
ϕ := atan
  ϕ = 88.1 deg
 R1 
 

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Solve for i(t)

From EE-2070?

 −
t 
 τ 
i ( t) := Imax⋅  sin( ω ⋅ t + α − ϕ ) − e ⋅ sin( α − ϕ )

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α = 0 deg t := 0 , 0.00

100

50

50
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

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α := 88.1deg i ( t) := Im ax

60

40

20

20

40

60
0 0.05 0.1 0.15 0.2 0.25

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Causes of Transient
Overvoltages
Capacitor Bank Switching
Voltage magnification
Lightning
Ferroresonance
Switching Surges

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Simple Capacitor Switching
Model

     

 
  

 

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Example Inrush Current

30000 Click to edit Master text styles


Second level
20000 ● Third level

● Fourth level
10000
● Fifth level
Current (A)

0
0 0.002 0.004 0.006 0.008
-10000

-20000

-30000
Time (S)

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 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
     

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
       

   
 
    
 
 
 
 
 
       

   
 
      
 
      
 
       

   
 
    
 
   
 
 
     

              
 
       

    
      

    
  
   

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Capacitor Bank Switching

Why are so many high-voltage shunt


capacitor banks being added now?
What problems might occur when these new
banks are installed?
What tools are needed to research and
correct operational problems?

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Why so many new banks?

Shunt capacitor banks can:


Reduce system losses
Increase power transfer without new lines
Economic & Regulatory Pressures
Increased competitiveness
Deregulation
An Example:
Northern States Power Co.
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What are the problem
areas?
Transient Problems
Unmitigated transient inrush currents can
damage equipment or cause system
protection to misoperate
Steady-State Behaviors
System resonances can cause capacitor
banks and harmonic filters to be
overstressed or cause voltage distortion

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Classical Frequency Response

Click
3000 to edit Master text styles

Second level
2500
● Third level
Impedance (ohms)

2000
● Fourth level

1500 ● Fifth level

1000

500

0
0 100 200 300 400 500
Frequency (Hz)

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Related Problems

Transient Problems
Voltage magnification
Transformer resonance
Insulation coordination
Protection system verification
Ground mat design

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What tools are needed?

An easy-to-use tool for transient analysis


General transient analysis packages are
difficult to use (EMTP) or
They can’t model distributed-parameter
lines (PSpice)
A nonlinear tool for harmonic analysis
Traditional phasor techniques are
inadequate

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Part of my Ph.D.
Dissertation
Capacitor Bank Switching
Development of a closed-form solution for
calculating switching transients
Comparison of results for the new program
to those from existing methods
Nonlinear Frequency Characteristics
Development of new methods to obtain
nonlinear system frequency characteristics
Results from the new methods
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Existing Methods of
Analysis
Back-to-Back Switching Transients
IEEE Application Guide equations
EMTP simulations
Frequency Characteristics
Phasor calculations
Harmonic power flows
Small-signal attempts in time domain

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Problems with these
methods
IEEE Application Guide
Equations don’t include damping and source
impedances
Higher-order closed-form solutions
Some attempts, but a complete closed-form
solution was thought to be impractical
EMTP
Hard to use -- tool of researchers

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Part of my Ph.D. work …

Closed-Form Solution for Capacitor Bank


Switching
Fourth-order system
Solution Methods Investigated
Laplace methods untenable
Augmented system matrix method was
chosen
● Transforms into homogenous system
● Possible since forcing functions are of the proper
form (complex exponential)
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Back-to-back Switching

Click to edit Master text styles


Second level
● Third level

● Fourth level

● Fifth level

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Augmented System Matrix

Given a system in the A’ is of the form


standard form
A B
A′ =  
x = A x + B u  0 P 

The equations can be


and P is of the form
transformed into a
homogenous form  0 −ω 
P= 
ω 0 
x ′ = A′ x ′

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System Matrices

 − RS − R1 Click toR1 edit Master 


1 text styles
 L SecondL level − 0 
L Vm 
 S S
● Third level
S

 R − R − R 1 1 L 
1 1
● Fourth 2
level − 
 L2 ●L Fifth L2
level L2   S
A= 2
 B= 0 
1 1
 − 0 0   0 
 C1 C2   
 1   0 
 0 0 0 
 C2 

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Characteristic Equation

∆=λ 4
+
( RS + R1 ) Click
L2 + ( to + R2Master
R1 edit ) LS 3text styles
λ
Second
L● S L2 level
Third level
C1 LS + C1C2 RS R 1 + C1C2level
● Fourth RS R2 + C1C2 R1 R2 + C2 L2 + C2 LS
+ ● Fifth level
λ 2

C1C2 LS L2
C1 RS + C2 R2 + C2 RS + C1 R1 1
+ λ+ .
C1C2 LS L2 C1C2 LS L2

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Computer Implementation

Finding the eigensystem is the most difficult


task
Eigenvalues for A and P found separately
Symbolic solution hard to implement
Numeric problems using typical component
values
QR Algorithm
Robust and well-documented

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Closed-Form Solution

x = solution vector of voltages and currents

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Program from my Ph.D.

B2b.exe

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Voltage Magnification

Capacitor switching on the utility side may


cause excessive voltages on the customer
capacitor banks
A 2.0 p.u. voltage on the utility bus could
create a 4.0 p.u. voltage on the customer
bus
Tuned circuit
Occurs if L1C1 = L2C2

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Without a Surge Arrester

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With Surge Arresters

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Arrester Energy

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Coron
High Voltage a Ring
Line
Connection

Polymer or
Porcelain
Insulator
surrounding a
Ground ZnO
Connecti semiconductor
on
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Line Switching Example

Nominal peak line-neutral voltage is 450kV

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Probability of
Overvolatge Occurrence

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Probability of
Overvolatge Occurrence

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Discharge Energy
Probability

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