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Comparing Diesel Engines with Gasoline Engines

Diesel Engine Construction


How the Combustion Chamber Shape Affects Engine
Performance
Diesel Fuel
Characteristics of Diesel Fuel
Direct Injection Combustion Type Vs. Precombustion and Swirl Type

The Principle of Diesel Engines

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Comparing Diesel Engines with Gasoline Engines

The following points will be noted when comparing the diesel engine
with the gasoline engine.

The diesel engine is built rugged to withstand high compression with


the consequential increase in weight per horse power and
manufacturing cost. These disadvatages are well offset by the
advantages which include:

1. Low fuel cost

2. High compression pressure improves the thermal efficiency which


reduces the fuel consumption. These features combine to minimize
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Due to low engine speed the output of the diesel engine is lower than
that of the gasoline engine of the same cylinder capacity. However,
the torque variation due to change in the engine speed is small and
relatively large torque can be obtained at low engine speed.

The diesel engine is not equipped with carburetor, ignition system,


etc., but it has the fuel injection pump and nozzles which spray the
fuel into the combustion chamber in place of the carburetor.

IPC-Technical Training Section

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Diesel Engine Construction

The combustion chamber is the most important part of the diesel


engine; it determines engine performance. Because of the
atomization of fuel resulting from airless injection, the time for
formation of the air/fuel mixture is very short; the injected fuel and
intake air must be immediately and uniformly mixed, and these
factors, plus how efficiently the mixture can be burned, have a great
influence on engine performance. Performance depends, in other
words, on how well the configuration and performance of the nozzles,
the shape of the combustion chamber, and the swirling movement of
the intake air are combined.

The following are necessary for effective and efficient combustion of


injected fuel:
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● The intake air and injected fuel must be uniformly mixed and
maintained in an easy-to-ignite condition.
● The injected fuel must be ignited as soon as possible and
completely burned.

Various combustion chamber shapes have been conceived and


examined, but two main types are used in vehicle engines: the single-
chamber type (direct injection) and the multichamber type.

In the former, a chamber is at the upper part of the piston; in the latter
is an auxiliary chamber besides the main chamber, and the two
chambers are linked by a connection port:

Combustion chambers can also be classified by shape:

● Single-chamber type..........Direct-injection type


● Multichamber type..............Precombustion type & Swirl Type

Source: IPC-Technical Training Section

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Diesel Fuel

What are the characteristics of


Diesel fuel?

Diesel fuel (also known as distillate fuel)


contains more energy per unit volume
than gasoline. In addition, diesel is a
safer fuel than gasoline because it is
less volatile, and has a higher
flashpoint, making it far less likely to
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ignite or explode if spilled or released as
a result of an accident.

Combined with the more efficient


combustion process of the diesel engine
as compared to gasoline, diesel engines
provide for as much as 45 to 60 %
better fuel economy.

These characteristics are the reason


why one of the greatest hopes for
significant advances in fuel economy in
vehicles of the future is the use of next-
generation clean diesel engines.

Source: www.dieselforum.com

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Direct Injection Combustion Type Vs. Precombustion and
Swirl Type

Direct Injection Combustion Type

This type has long been used; its configuration is simple: heart type,
hemispherical type, and spherical type. The chamber is formed by the
recessed part at the upper part of the piston. Currently many types
are improvements of these, especially of the heart type, for use in
high-speed diesel engines. In a direct-injection type of combustion
chamber, the injection nozzle function and the air movement within
the chamber are the most important factors. To ensure a good
mixture of fuel and air, the particles of injected fuel must be small and
injection pressure high.

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Consequently, most chambers have a shape that results in strong
compression flow, and air movement is increased by offsetting the
intake-air port and providing a tuning runner in to the cylinder. This
causes the air to swirl greatly.

Injection nozzles have an injector-start pressure of about 200 kgf/cm


(2800 psi) to ensure a mistlike injection, and a wide injection spray
pattern is necessary.

Single chamber provides better starting than the multichamber type


does. During cold-weather starting, when ignition is difficult, the
necessity for a simple auxiliary device (glow plug) makes the
configuration slightly complex. The compression ratio is low, but
because the chamber's surface area is small, heat loss is low,
thermal efficiency is high, and fuel consumption is better.

On the other hand, combustion pressure is high and noise and


vibration become greater.

Precombustion Type

Besides the main chamber is an auxiliary chambder (with a capacity


25%-40% of the total, called the capacity ratio) connected to the main
chamber by a restricted connection port.

When fuel is injected into the auxiliary chamber, it's ignited and
combustion begins; the gases that are not burned reach a high
temperature and high pressure and because of combustion pressue,
are forced through the restricted connection port in to the main
chamber, where they are further mixed with air and burned.

The degree of airflow is very active as a result of the restriction of the


connection port. The main chamber combustion occurs at a point
quite a while after TDC because of 2-stage combustion; as a result,

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thermal efficiency relative to complete combustion is inferior to the


direct-injection method.

Compared with other combustion chambers, however, the pressure


within the auxiliary chamber is high, the pressure in the main
chamber is low, pressure rise is gradual, noise and vibration are low,
and exhaust gas is cleaner.

This is also a complex type; thermal load near the restriction port is
high; heat-related malfunctions occur easily; and because starting
can be difficult, a glow plug is usually used as an auxiliary starting
device. The injection-start pressure is lower than in the direct-injection
type; thus the load on the injection pump is light.

Swirl Type

Swirling of the air is caused within the auxiliary (swirl) chamber to


promote good mixture with the fuel. Compared with the
precombustion chamber, the connection port with the auxiliary
chamber is larger and the ratio of the auxiliary chamber to total
chamber area (capacity ratio 60%-75%) is greater.

Because of the air inflow to the swirl chamber during the compression
stroke, a strong swirl is produced in to which fuel is injected, mixed
with the air, quickly ignited and burned, and injected into the main
chamber. Unburned gases (most are burned at the swirl chamber)
contact fresh air in the main chamber and are burned there.

If the swirl were a simple swirl of air, fine particles of injected fuel
would tend to adhere to the chamber wall, resulting in poor use of the
air; so the chamber is designed to create a complex swirling motion.

Compared with the precombustion chamber type, the injection hole


restriction effect is low, and the restriction losses are low. Thermal
efficiency and fuel consumption are also better.

The useful rpm range of the engine is wide, which is especially useful
in high-speed diesel engines.

But because the chamber configuration is complex, the chamber is


suceptible to thermal load effects and the air swirl differs at low and
high speeds; especially at low speed, thermal efficiency is slightly
inferior and black smoke easily occurs. And because starting is not as
good, the glow plug is needed, the same as it is in the precombustion
type.

Source: IPC-Technical Training Section

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The Principle of Diesel Engines

The development of the diesel engine dates back to 1893, when a


German by the name of Rudolf Diesel, first proposed "compression
of air to attain high temperature to ignite the fuel and then to
achieve fuel combustion". This theory still today underlies the very
fundamental principle of the modern diesel engines. it was in the early
years of the twentieth century when a marine engine of practical
design was introduced as a result of intensive research and
development. In the early part pf 1920, a high-speeddiesel engine
was produced for autmotive use.

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HOW DO BRAKES WORK?

HOW DOES ENGINE OIL DO ITS JOB?

HOW OFTEN SHOULD I HAVE MY WHEELS ALIGNED?

IS ISUZU THE ONLY ONE WHO USES DIRECT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY?

WHAT CAUSES PREMATURE RUST FORMATION?

WHAT CAUSES WHEELS TO BE MISALIGNED?

WHAT DOES THE WEIGHT MEAN ON A CAN OF MOTOR OIL?

WHAT IS A TURBO CHARGER?

WHAT IS AN INTERCOOLER?

WHAT IS INDIRECT INJECTION DIESEL? HOW DOES IT DIFFER FROM


DIRECT INJECTION?
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WHY ARE MY BRAKES SOMETIMES WEAK?

WHY IS TIRE ROTATION ESSENTIAL FOR VEHICLE PERFORMANCE?

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HOW DO BRAKES WORK?
Brakes are actually energy conversion devices,
which convert the vehicle’s momentum into
heat energy. This heat energy produces a force
ten times more powerful than the force that
keeps a vehicle in motion.

The basic process of converting a


vehicle’s momentum into heat
energy has not changed much since
the days of the horse and buggy. To
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stop a horse-drawn carriage, the


driver would pull on a lever, one end
of which comes in contact and rubs
on the wheel, thus stopping the
carriage.

For modern vehicles, when you step


on the brakes, the mechanical
pressure caused by your foot is
converted into hydraulic pressure by
the master cylinder, which contains
the brake fluid. This pressure is
transmitted to wheel cylinders placed
in each wheel through steel brake
lines and flexible brake hoses. The
wheel cylinders then push on the
brake shoes and brake pads to come
in contact with the wheel’s drum and
rotor, in the same way that a
carriage’s lever would rub on the
wheel, thus causing the drag which
stops the vehicle.

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HOW DOES ENGINE OIL DO ITS JOB?

In an internal combustion engine,


the engine oil is contained in the
sump, or crankcase. The oil pump
draws the oil through a screen,
which strains out foreign particles,
then forces it through a filter, which
removes smaller contaminants. The
filtered oil then circulates through
passages drilled in the engine block
to bearings, the valve mechanism,
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the pistons, the cylinder walls and


other engine components that need
lubrication, before returning to the
pump. A bypass valve ensures that
oil will reach engine parts if the filter
becomes clogged. In some engines,
lubrication may be accomplished in
part by splashing caused by rotation
of the crankshaft in the oil.

One of the major components of


engine oil performance is protection
against wear deposits, and oil
deterioration. By incorporating
additives, for example an anti-wear
additive, wears between heavily
loaded engine parts are greatly
reduced. Detergents and dispersants
help prevent buildup of
contaminants, sludge, soot and
varnish causing the oil to assume a
black color even after a recent oil

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change. Oxidation inhibitors help


prevent lubricant breakdown at high
operating temperatures, which
increase oil viscosity and impede oil
flow to critical engine parts.

In diesel engines particularly, the


combustion process results in the
formation of large quantities of soot
(carbon particles), which
contaminate the oil and diminishes
its anti-wear properties. For this
reason, it is essential to drain and
change the oil before it loses much
of its ability to prevent contaminants
from accumulating on critical engine
parts. Extending the oil change
interval beyond that recommended
by the manufacturer could void the
warranty.

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HOW OFTEN SHOULD I HAVE MY WHEELS ALIGNED?

Isuzu recommends alignment every


10,000 kilometers or every six (6)
months. This interval on wheel
alignment schedule at our Isuzu
Authorized Service Center plus
necessary adjustments can add
thousands of kilometers to your tires
over the years. That’s money in your
pocket in tires not bought and extra
fuel not burnt. Of course, when you
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change tires, that’s an excellent time


to have your wheels aligned.

For most standard Asian Utility


Vehicles and Passenger Cars, a
wheel alignment will cost around P
1,000 – 1,500. There is usually an
extra charge for vans, 4x4’s or 4-
wheel steer cars, and it takes about
an hour to do.

REMINDER: take care of your tires!


At any sign of unusual wear, bring
your Isuzu vehicle to your dealer
without delay.

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IS ISUZU THE ONLY ONE WHO USES DIRECT INJECTION
TECHNOLOGY?
No, we are not the only one using
this technology. Other car
manufacturer uses direct injection
technology too, but in the AUV(Asian
Utility Vehicle) category, Isuzu is the
only one that offers Direct Injection
Diesel. Below is a comparative table
of engine specifications:
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COMPARATIVE AUV ENGINE


SPECIFICATION
Brand Fuel Type
Engine Type
Isuzu Diesel 4JAI
4JA1-T 4 Cyl DI, OHV4 Cyl,
OHV+Turbo
Mitsubishi Diesel
4D56 4 Cyl, In-line,SOHC
Toyota
Diesel 2L 4
Cyl, In-line, OHC

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WHAT CAUSES PREMATURE RUST FORMATION?

When iron or steel reacts with


oxygen, it forms iron oxide or rust,
which often causes the iron to puff
up and flake easily thus causing
erosion of the iron or steel. This
phenomenon, called “pitting”, occurs
because iron oxide or rust requires
more physical space than the original
iron or steel.
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Some things cause steel or iron to


rust faster than others:

1. Water
Rust occurs much more rapidly in
moist conditions. As oxygen in the
water reacts with iron, pitting
occurs and rust formation follows.
Salt water and hard water (water
from deep well) will cause rust
faster than water because both are
better electrical conductors. Living
in “rust belt” areas where the
vehicle is exposed to the ocean or
salty air and commonly flooded
areas, hastens rust formation.

2. Heat and Humidity


Although rusting occurs much
more rapidly in moist conditions as
compared to a dry environment,
the degree of exposure to direct

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sunlight also speeds up rust


formation.
Humidity (relative wetness or
moisture content of the air) can
also speed up rust formation.
When unavoidable, it is
recommended to cover your
vehicle using a breathable
materials. However, avoid a cover
that goes all the way to the floor
or one that traps moisture, as this
will encourage condensation on the
vehicle’s surface thus speeding up
rust formation.

3. Dust
Dust is a very good magnet for
moisture. Keeping dust off your
vehicle by giving it a good rub
down after traveling in a dusty
area or use of a cover when the
vehicle is parked are effective in
keeping off dust and discouraging
rust formation.

4. Damage to a vehicle’s finish


Rain, tree sap, bird droppings,
dead insects and air pollution
damage your vehicle’s finish. The
finish, which is your vehicle’s first
line of defense, consists of a thin
layer of paint with a much thicker
layer of glossy clear coat applied
on top of the paint. Once you
impair the finish of the car, you
invite more destructive types of
corrosion to take place.

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WHAT CAUSES WHEELS TO BE MISALIGNED?

Even without abuse, front wheel


alignment will change under normal,
everyday driving conditions. The
change may be so gradual that it is
not noticed at first. The first sign of
something wrong usually shows up
on the front tires, which develop
peculiar wear patterns that will
severely shorten the life of the tire.
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Hitting potholes, rubbing curbs and


bumping concrete parking stops
knock things in your steering and
suspension. This eventually, leads to
misalignment. Your car could pull
one way or the other or the steering
wheel might resist you when you
turn or hold to maintain a straight
course. When these symptoms
manifest, bring your Isuzu to your
dealer for an alignment check.

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WHAT DOES THE WEIGHT MEAN ON A CAN OF MOTOR
OIL?
On every bottle of motor oil there is
a seal that contains 3 pieces of
information:

The American Petroleum Industry


(API) service rating
The Society of Automotive Engineers
(SAE) viscosity grade
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The service rating is a 2-letter rating


that tells you the type of engine the
oil is meant for (gasoline or diesel)
and the quality level. The first letter
indicates the vehicle fuel type that
the oil is designed for. Ratings that
begin with an "S", which stands for
'spark', are intended for gasoline
engines. Ratings that begin with a
"C", which stands for 'compression',
are for four-stroke and two-stroke
diesel engines. The second letter
designates the quality level of the
motor oil. The higher the letter, the
more advanced the oil and the more
protection it offers your engine (i.e.,
a "B" rating offers more engine
protection than a "A" rating).

The viscosity grade (for example,


10W-30) tells you the oil's thickness

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or resistance to flow. Thin oil has a


lower number and flows more easily,
while thick oil has a higher number
and is more resistant to flow.

There are two types of motor oils,


single grade and multi-grade. A
single grade oil with a 10W rating
indicates that it will perform well in
cold weather, the "W", for winter,
signifying that the oil meets viscosity
requirements for low temperatures
(below 30 Fo).

Multi-grade oils, such as a 10W-30,


are designed to have the viscosity of
a single grade 10W oil at cold
temperatures combined with the
viscosity of single grade 30 oil at
engine operating temperatures.

Oils displaying the ENERGY


CONSERVING label are formulated
with friction modifiers to improve
fuel economy in an industry standard
test.

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WHAT IS A TURBO CHARGER?

A turbo charger (also called a forced


induction system) gets its power
from the exhaust stream. The
pressure from the hot exhaust gases
causes the turbine to spin. Since the
turbine is mounted on the same
shaft as the compressor, the
compressor is forced to spin at the
same time, drawing more air into the
cylinders than is normal, or in
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vehicles without a turbocharger.


More air means that more fuel can
be stuffed in too; therefore you get
more power from each air-fuel
mixture explosion. A turbo-charged
engine produces more power overall
than the same engine without it.

In theory, a turbocharger is efficient


because it is using the “waster”
energy in the exhaust stream for its
power source.

WARNING! A turbocharger causes


some amount of back pressure in the
exhaust system and it also tends to
provide less boost unless the engine
is running at higher RPMs. The
turbine in the turbocharger spins at
speeds up to 180,000 rotations per
minute (RPM)—that’s about 30 times
faster than most vehicle engines can

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go.

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WHAT IS AN INTERCOOLER?

As the turbocharger compresses


more air into the cylinders, the
compressed air heats up, causing the
air to expand. However, to increase
the power of the engine, the goal is
to get more air molecules in, not
necessarily more air pressure.

This is where an intercooler or


charged air cooler does its work. It is
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an additional component to the


turbocharger that looks something
like a radiator, through which the
compressed air passes to cool it off
before it enters the cylinder. The
intake through passes sealed
passageways inside the cooler, while
cooler air from outside is blown
across fins by the engine cooling fan.

The intercooler further increases the


power of the engine by cooling the
pressurized air coming out of the
compressor before it goes into the
engine. This means that if the
turbocharger is operating at 7 PSI
boost, the intercooled system will
put in 7 PSI of cooler air, which is
denser and contains more air
molecules than warmer air.

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WHAT IS INDIRECT INJECTION DIESEL? HOW DOES IT
DIFFER FROM DIRECT INJECTION?
The Indirect-injection system is
currently limited to use in
passenger cars and light-duty
trucks. The most popular design
has a spherical swirl chamber in
the cylinder head. Air is forced into
the chamber by the piston and
begins whirling rapidly, which
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fuel is injected. A preliminary
combustion of the mixture takes
place and heat rises, forcing the
remaining unburned fuel into the
chamber at high velocity, where it
mixes well with the air and
undergoes complete combustion.

Direct-injection system
introduces fuel directly into the
combustion chamber. Direct
injection promotes good fuel
economy, but the air’s swirling
motion is not strong enough to
promote an ideal mix with the fuel.
This weakness is overcome,
however, with specially designed
chambers and air-intake ports, and
high-pressure fuel injection.
Direct injection diesels are gaining increasing
popularity. They are now used in nearly all
trucks with payloads of four tons or more
and a significant percent of passenger cars in

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Europe. The most popular direct-injection


system produces a strong swirl of air in the
combustion chamber to help mix it with the
fuel, which is then injected under high
pressure from four to five nozzle holes.

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WHY ARE MY BRAKES SOMETIMES WEAK?

1. Repeated hard braking


Brake Fade is a temporary
condition caused by high
temperatures generated by
repeated hard breaking.
Repeated hard braking causes
the brake linings (pads and shoes)
that rub on the drums and rotors
to create friction, heating up the
brake fluid. The increases
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pressure and heat causes the brake


linings to “glaze” or harden. Also,
heating up the brake fluid too
much can produce vapor on the
brake system. When this happens,
the friction provided by the lining
decreases and consequently, the
braking efficiency also decreases.
2. Driving in heavy rain, driving
across a shallow river or across a
flooded area
Water adversely affects braking
efficiency; it would require
increased pressure on the brake
pedal to achieve the usual
braking effects.
The heat generated when
braking causes the water to boil
and create gases which prevent
full contact between the linings
and the drums and rotors.
After driving I heavy rain or

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across a shallow river or flooded


area, it is recommended to step
on the brakes repeatedly to test
its efficiency. If you feel that the
braking efficiency has
deteriorated considerably,
stepping on the brakes several
times serves to evacuate water
that may have penetrated the
braking surface, thus helping
restore brake efficiency.

WARNING! Depressing the brake


pedal repeatedly may cause the
brake warning light to come on
when the engine is running at idling
speed or at low speed. When you’re
done, one hard brake application
should extinguish the brake warning
light.

3. Loose hydraulic connections,


ruptured or damage hoses or lines
(causing leakage), worn or
damage master cylinder. When
there is something wrong with the
brake system, the brake system
warning light will remain on even
after the engine has been turned
on and with the parking brake
released, or when it comes on
during operation of the vehicles.
When the brake warning system
does come on during operation of
the vehicle, check to see if the
parking has been fully released
and check the brake fluid level. If
it the parking has been fully
released, pull over to the side of
the road and stop carefully.

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Remember that stopping distances


may be longer, you may have to
push harder on the pedal and the
pedal may go down farther than
normal, or what is termed as a
“sinking pedal”. Immediately
contact an authorized ISUZU
dealer nearest you and have your
vehicle towed.

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WHY IS TIRE ROTATION ESSENTIAL FOR VEHICLE
PERFORMANCE?
Because your vehicle’s tires perform
different jobs, they often wear
differently. Tires at the front and the
rear of the vehicle operate at
different loads and perform different
steering and breaking functions. To
get the longest wear from your tire
and help them wear at the same
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positions every once in a while. You
should consider rotating your tires,
front and back, every 9,600
kilometers (6000 miles).

Here are some simple diagrams (A =


including the spare tire, B = only the
four tires) to help you with your tire
rotation:

When the front tire size and the rear


tire size are different, interchange
front wheels and rotate rear wheels
as shown in the figure.

When the front and rear tires are the


same size, rotate the wheels as
shown in the figure.

For radial tires, interchange front


and rear wheels on the same side as
shown in the figure.

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If one-sided tire wear appear on


radial tires, rotate the wheels as
shown in the figure.

WARNING! Front and rear tires on a


vehicle use different pressures
(please refer to ISUZU TIRE
SPECIFICATIONS on page 4). For
that reason it is advised that after
rotation, adjust individual tire air
pressures.

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How can I maintain the good paint condition of my Isuzu?

How do I prevent Turbocharger failure?

How to check engine oil level

How to interpret tire wear

How will I know the right tire specifications for my Isuzu vehicle?

Is your vehicle smoke belching-free?

The facts every driver should know about wheel alignment

The proper way to check tire pressure

What tips can I follow to prevent premature rust formation?

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How can I maintain the good paint condition of my Isuzu?

Isuzu uses only the highest quality


paint that maintains the integrity
and value of your vehicles original
factory finish using the advanced
Electrodeposition coating or ED. In
ED, a special method is taken in
forming the paint film, by depositing
a uniform and water-soluble paint
film. A tank is filled with ED paint
diluted with relatively low
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concentration of water and is passing


through an electric current. On of
the advantages of ED coating is the
automated consistency system,
which results in an excellent finish.

One of the major causes of paint


deterioration is oxidation. The paint
of a brand new vehicle is relatively
oxidation free, and if you maintain
your vehicle’s paint with regular
washing and protection, oxidation
will be minimized.

When cleaning your Isuzu, always


use wet cloth for wiping, after rinsing
the paint surface with water. Avoid
using detergents as it can dull your
car’s finish faster (most automobile
manufacturers recommend using
only pure water to wash your car,
because even the mildest soaps can

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remove the natural oils from your


unit’s paint, causing oxidation).
Remember not to wipe dust off your
car with a dry cloth or duster as this
will cause nicks and scratches.

Regular washing is important, since


your vehicle attracts contaminants
(i.e., road debris, birds dropping or
tree sap). These should be washed
off immediately; they contain acid
and can ruin paint film. Polishing is
also necessary to remove minor
blemishes, and keep a perfectly
smooth paint finish. It is also
advisable to have your vehicle waxed
at least once a year. This will keep
UV rays from fading the paint.

By maintaining your vehicle’s paint


in good condition, you can be
assured that Isuzu’s best quality
paint can last up to ten years.

WARNING! Do not wash, polish or


wax your car in the heat of the sun,
it could streak or stain the paint
surface. Avoid parking your vehicle
under direct sunlight for an extended
period of time as will cause the paint
to blister.

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How do I prevent Turbocharger failure?

Change the oil at least every 5,000


kms, or more frequently with severe
usage. Our New Vehicle Warranty
Policy and Maintenance Booklet
defines severe usage as any of the
following:
1. Driving in dusty areas or in
areas where the vehicles is likely
to be exposed to salt or brine.
2. Driving on rough roads,
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submerged road, or hilly areas


3. Engine idling for a longtime or
short distance travel
4. Frequent and sudden
application of brakes
5. Operation under excessive
load such as towing of a trailer or
use as a taxi or rent-a-car
6. More than 50% of operating
time in heavy traffic; in hot
temperatures of 320C or higher
7. More than 50% of operating
time at speeds of 100 km/hr; in
hot temperatures of 320C or
higher

WARNING! Metro Manila driving is


considered as severe driving
condition.

• Always use the oil that is


recommended by the engine

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manufacturer. It is recommended
to use BESCO for the Isuzu
Trooper; Isuzu Genuine Motor Oil
(IGMO) for other Isuzu vehicles.
• Do not use cleaning additives
for it may loosen particles in any
used engine.
• Always let the engine warm up
for about 30-60 secs before
driving. Extend warm-up time as
the weather gets colder.

WARNING! Cold, thick oil does not


flow as freely as warm oil!

• Do not rev engine during warm


up time, the turbo may not yet
have received a full supply of oil.
• Always let the engine idle for 3-
5 minutes before shut down,
otherwise the turbo will continue to
spin without oil lubrication and
pressure. The faster you have
driven, the longer you should let it
idle down.

WARNING! Your turbo is free


spinning at high RPMs. When the
engines is shut off the oil supply is
also shut off, which may result in
bearing damage almost immediately.

• Immediately after an oil


change, the filter is dry or is
without lubrication. Always prime
the filter by applying a thin of coat
of oil then crank over engine
without starting by placing the
ignition or starter switch in the
"“N” position until oil pressure is

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observed. The oil pressure


indicator light should light up when
the lubricating system is operating
normally before the engine is
started.

WARNING! If the light comes on


while driving, it indicates that the oil
pressure is dangerously low. Stop
the engine and check the oil level in
the engine crankcase with the use of
a dipstick. If the oil is normal, have
your lubricating system checked by
your nearest dealer.

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How to check engine oil level

The crankcase oil level should be


checked regularly. Our driver's and
owner's manual suggests it should
be done before driving your vehicle.
It should be performed even with a
vehicle that consumes very little oil,
since a sudden leak in a gasket, oil
line, filter, or seal could result in
rapid oil loss, which could in turn
result in engine damage.
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REMINDER! The best time to check


your oil level is before the operation
of the vehicle, with unit parked on
level ground. If the engine has been
running, stop the engine and wait for
5 minutes to allow the oil to drain
back into the oil pan.

Pull out the dipstick and wipe it clean


before reinserting to check the oil
level to ensure that you get the right
reading. The oil level should be kept
between the "add" and "full" marks
on the dipstick.
Overfilling can cause the crankshaft
to excessively churn the oil, thus
producing foam. This can impair the
oil's lubricating characteristics and
also lead to oil loss. On the other
hand, if the oil level is too low, the
oil volume may not be sufficient to

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handle cooling requirements and


contaminants, which could result in
buildup of deposits. A low volume of
oil can also cause the oil to overheat
, increasing oil deterioration rate. In
extreme cases, the feed of oil into
the suction side of the oil pump may
be interrupted, resulting in oil
starvation to the bearings and other
moving parts of the engine.
Checking the oil level regularly is
also an opportunity to check for any
contamination in the engine oil.

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How to interpret tire wear

The manner by which your tires


show wear is a good indicator of
other parts of suspension. Ball
Joints, Tie Rods, Bushings, Struts,
Shocks, Coil Springs, Leaf Springs, U
Joints, and Drive Axles- all these
suspension parts play a vital role in
the safety and handling of your
vehicle.
Abnormal wear patterns are often
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caused by the need for simple car


maintenance, or for front-end
alignment.

UNDER-INFLATION
If a tire looks like this, it may be
under-inflated. The worst enemy a
tire could have is probably too little
inflation pressure. Under inflation
reduces tread life through increased
tread wear on the outside edges (or
shoulders of the tire). It also
generates excessive heat, reducing
tire durability. Finally, it decreases
fuel economy through increased
rolling assistance (a soft tire makes
your vehicle work harder).

OVER-INFLATION
When a tire is over inflated, the
center of the tread bears most of the
load and wears out faster than the

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outside edges. Uneven wear reduces


the useful life of a tire, and the size
of the contact patch is reduced. This
increases the likelihood of traction
loss in imperfect road conditions. An
over inflated tire tends to wear
unevenly, often leading to
“scalloped” tread wear.

CUPS OR DIPS IN THE TREAD:


WORN PARTS
Cupping is most common on front
tires, though rear tires can cup as
well. It may be a sign that tires are
out of balance or that suspension or
steering system parts are worn out.
Cupping is a condition caused by the
tire bouncing as it rolls. Small areas
of heavy wear are created. Worn
shocks are often the cause of
cupping, but loose suspension parts
or tire imbalance are also possible
causes.

WEAR ON ONE SIDE:


MISALIGNMENT
Do the edges of the tread take a
sawtooth or feathered appearance?
This is caused by erratic scrubbing
against the road, as only one side
hits the pavement. This is due to
misalignment as could be corrected
by toe-in (for outside wear) or toe-
out (for inside wear).

IMPORTANT! Check your tires


before each trip!

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How will I know the right tire specifications for my Isuzu
vehicle?
It is important to note that the
recommended inflation pressures
may differ for the front and rear
tires. Tire inflation pressure should
be more or less equal side-to-side.

WARNING! Never exceed the


maximum inflation pressure specified
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number is the maximum pressure
tire designed for safely handle.

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Is your vehicle smoke belching-free?

Among the many concerns ailing the society and the


government, air pollution is but one crucial matter getting
exceptionally distressing and clamoring more than ever for
immediate attention. More people are caught up with health
troubles, the atmosphere is getting real worse, the weather
is becoming especially unpredictable, and the agriculture
trade is suffering crudely.

In response to this deepening problem, the government has


taken a bold step in implementing a forcible pollution-
busting provision. Just recently, an anti smoke belching law
was arrayed through the Clean Air Act of 1999 also known
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as the Republic Act 8749. This provision limits the
registration of vehicles to those that passed the emission
tests administered by the Land Transportation Office (LTO)
or other authorized private testing centers. Also, the act
authorizes LTO and its deputized agents to apprehend
smoke belchers and confiscate their vehicle plates should
they fail to pass the free acceleration test.

These helpful hints in keeping your exhaust emissions in


check. Black smoke is usually the consequence of improper
vehicle handling, slack maintenance and upkeep. To reduce
black smoke from your engine, below are practical pointers:

1. Follow your preventive maintenance


schedule as stipulated in the owner’s manual.
Make sure that your vehicle is being serviced by a
qualified technician.

2. Ensure that you are using genuine parts for


your vehicle.

3. Avoid overloading.

4. Avoid jackrabbit starts and unnecessary


revving up of engine. This generates imbalance in
the mixture of air and fuel giving way to formation
of harmful gases and particulate matter.

5. Once in a while, take your vehicle on a long


drive at high rpm (revolutions per minute),
approximately 3,000 rpm, to flush out particulate
matter normally trapped in the exhaust system.

6. Clean filters regularly, more often if your

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vehicle is frequently used under severe driving


conditions (e.g. driving in dusty roads). In such
cases, the air intake system is usually clogged up
causing improper combustion of fuel.

Eliminate the hassles of dingy exhaust emissions. Gear up


your own vehicle and keep those MMDA guys from ripping
your plate off.

Now it’s everybody’s responsibility. The move towards a


smoke belching-free metro is our first step towards cleaner
air and a healthier society.

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The facts every driver should know about wheel alignment

A wheel alignment job should always


start and end with a test drive.

The front end and steering linkage


should be checked for wear before
performing an alignment.

The tires should all be in good shape


with even wear patterns.
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NOTE: Pulling problems are not


always related to wheel alignment.
Tires, brakes and power steering
could also be the culprit. It is best to
consult your Isuzu service
representative to determine the root
of the pulling.

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The proper way to check tire pressure

It is recommended that tire pressure


be taken from “cold tires”, meaning
the tire condition before the vehicle
is moved or driven. Driving heats up
the tires (”hot tires”) and causes the
air inside to expand. If you check tire
pressure from “hot tires”, the
reading will be at least several
pounds higher than normal.
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Here is how to check your tire


pressure:
1. Remove tiny black valve cap
on the valve that comes out of
your tire.
2. Press the round part of the tire
gauge firmly on to the valve.
3. Read the gauge like a
thermometer. The highest number
you see closest to the stem of the
gauge is the PSI or Kg / cm2. That
number should match the
recommended air pressure for your
tire.
4. If the gauge reading is higher
than it should be, use your finger,
or the notch on the opposite side
of most tire gauges, to release a
bit of air by pressing it on the pin
inside the tire valve.
5. If the gauge reading is lower
than it should be, use the pump to

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add more air.


6. Check your tire pressure
again, and see if you get the PSI
rather the Kg / cm2 right.

WARNING! A tire can lose up to half


of its air pressure and not appear to
be flat.

REMINDER! Check inflation pressure


(including the spare) at least once a
month and before every long trip.

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What tips can I follow to prevent premature rust formation?

• Wash your vehicle regularly


• Park the car in the shade.
When washing, let it cool off
before you start. It is better if
you can park on a slight incline
as the water will run off more
easily, and the car will dry more
quickly.
• Wash and dry your car with
clean, soft towels, or car washing
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mitts. It is recommended to use


all-cotton towels or synthetic
chamois as most towels contain
polymer fibers that scratch a
car’s finish.
• Use a good liquid detergent
specifically designed for vehicles.
If you want your wax to last
longer, you may consider
products based on detergent
instead of soap. Soap
manufactured from animal
byproducts can damage your
paint. Avoid detergent in powder
form as the undissolved granules
can scratch the paint surface.
• Use a water hose to wet the
car thoroughly from top to
bottom. It is preferable to use a
pistol grip hose nozzle set to
create a medium-strong stream
that will drive off bird droppings

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and other hardened deposits.


Avoid using a high-pressure
spray. They can damage a car by
driving road grime into the
finish, rather than washing it off.
• Aim the hose up under the
car and into the wheelwells to
wash off road salt and dirt from
those areas.
• If there’s still some bug
splats, tree sap, or other
materials on the surface, use a
pre-cleaning solution and
remove it with a clean mitt or
towel. The answer can be as
simple as adding a spot of full-
strength car detergent to a mitt
or towel or pouring seltzer water
on the stubborn bird droppings.
Let it bubble up, then wipe clean.
Bird droppings should removed
as soon as you spot them. The
highly acidic droppings are very
damaging to the car’s paint.
Don’t scrub the area and risk
scratches. Birds use gravel to
digest their food hence grit is
one of the major components of
their droppings. When possible
wash area thoroughly after the
droppings have been wiped clean
with seltzer water and apply a
coat of wax to remove all traces
of acid.
• Since there’s more dirt on a
car’s sides and panels than on
the top , hood and trunk, it is
advisable to work from top to
bottom. Switch to fresh mitts
and towels when you get to

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these dirtier areas—again to


keep scratches to a minimum.
• Wash each area thoroughly
by flooding it with a low-pressure
flow. Don’t wash a section and
then leave it to wash another.
The dirty wash solution can dry
on the surface, and then you’re
back where you started!
• Gently blot up any remaining
water until all the surfaces are
dry. Opening the doors, trunk
and hood will allow you to wipe
up any water that trickled in.
Finish by cleaning up the
doorjambs with a damp
towel—this will prevent water
from dripping inside the car.
• Waxing your car a few times
a year adds and additional
protective coating, helps
maintain the resale value, and
just might extend the car’s life.
Be sure to wax when the finish
looks dull or when water doesn’t
“bead” on the surface.
Otherwise, apply wax at least
once per year. Always wax your
car in the shade, or out of direct
sunlight, as bright sun is bad for
the raw wax. Always wash and
dry your car well before you wax
it so you don’t grind anything
into the surface.

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Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS)

Brakes

Chassis

Clutch

Cooling System

Fuel System

Full Air Brake System vs. Hydraulic Brake System

Lubrication System

Radiator

Steering System

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Tires

Turbocharger System

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Anti-Lock Brake System (ABS)

The ABS Objective

To provide the average driver with:

● Enhanced braking performance by reducing vehicle speed in


the shortest distance possible on most traction surfaces.
● Enhanced steering control by enabling the vehicle to move in
a driver-controlled direction during braking mabeuvers.

What happens without the ABS?

Visit Other Websites! When the brakes are applied it is important that tire traction is equal
across each axle. If the tire traction is equal, the braking power is
balanced. This provides a stable stop.

Due to weight transfer, road surface variations and other factors, the
grip of the four tires is never exactly the same. The tire that is
operating with the lowest grip will lock when the friction in the brake
exceeds the wheel turning effort of the tire's grip on the road. Then
braking forces become unbalanced. The locked wheel produces a
lower braking force and the vehicle will 'pull' to the side of the
unlocked wheel. This effect is called 'yaw'. If it continues, the vehicle
will rotate around its center of gravity. If the yaw force is too great or
occurs too quickly, the driver cannot counteract it with steering. The
vehicle will spin.

Braking Slip Ratio

When brakes are applied, the wheel speed will become slower than
the vehicle speed, causing slip between the tire and the road surface.

There is always some tire slip when the brakes are applied. The
amount of slip is expressed in 'slip ratio'.

On a moving vehicle:

● A wheel that is not supplying any braking force has a slip


ratio of zero.
● A wheel that is locked has a slip ratio of 1.

Basic ABS Operation

The system consists of the conventional brake system to which the


ABS components have been added. The main components of ABS
are: the Hydraulic Unit and Solenoid Valves, Electronic Brake Control
Module, (EBCM) Wheel Speed Sensors, Brake Pedal Switch,

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Longitudina G-sensor and Warning Light.

The four wheel speed sensors continually send wheel speed signals
to the EBCM when the vehicle is moving. during braking, the EBCM
electronically senses and compares the rate of deceleration of each
wheel. when the EBCM detects a wheel slowing down too quickly, it
signals the solenoid valves in the hydraulic unit to rapidly adjust the
hydraulic pressure in the brake of the affected wheel to maintain the
ideal slip ratio. The solenoid valves can hold, reduce, or increase
pressure. The ABS only operates to control braking slip ratio when
the EBCM detects one wheel decelerating faster than the other
wheels. ABS controls the slip ration to close limits.

SOURCE: IPC-Technical Training Section

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Brakes

History of Automobile Brakes

Early Brakes

Ever since the invention of the wheel, one of the most difficult
problems early vehicle designers encountered was the problem of
bringing the vehicle to a safe stop once it got rolling. Some of the very
first vehicle braking systems were used on horse-drawn carriages.
They were nothing more than a wood block being applied to the
wheel rim with a lever operated by the drivers foot. This type of brake
was not very efficient, it had a very short life and was affected by
water and mud. Various different materials were substituted for the
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but it remained relatively inefficient.

Early Automobile Brakes

With the internal combustion engine replacing the horses, the weight
and speed of vehicles began to increase. The problem of safely
stopping automobiles was much more difficult than stopping horse-
drawn carriages. One of the reasonably successful early types of
automobile brake was the external contracting type, the type we see
in some automatic transmissions today. This brake had a flexible
metal band with a friction material facing. The band wrapped around
a drum that was attached to the car's back axle. To apply the brake,
the driver operated a lever that pulled the band tightly about the drum.
To apply the brake, the driver operated a lever that pulled the band
tightly about the drum. While this system was much better than the
early block type brake, it suffered from overheating and erratic
operation. Furthermore, the science of friction materials was still very
new and brake lining durability was a major problem.

The Drum Brake

The next brake development is still with us today; the drum brake, or
more correctly the internal expanding shoe drum type brake.
Development of the drum brake was a major step forward in the field
of automotive braking. The drum brake had several advantages over
the contracting band brake, among them better resistance to
overheating, better response to driver demands, and a freedom to
design several different methods of applying the shoe to the drum.
This lead to servo action drum brakes, and drum brakes with more
than two shoes. Furthermore, brake drums could be made of
lightweight metals and fitted with a liner of cast iron, giving the
advantage of weight reduction. All the time the science of friction
materials was improving, and brake lining durability was improving
dramatically.

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Two Wheel Braking

Early automobiles were equipped with brakes only on the rear axle.
Designers of the time considered that fitting brakes to the front
wheels was dangerous. Tests had showed them that if they fitted
brakes to the front wheels it could result in a problem: If the driver
locked the wheels during braking, the vehicle could not be steered
while the front wheels were not turning. Roads and tires of that time
were not good, and early cars often had to share the road with
horses. It was considered undesirable to fit brakes to the front wheels
so that steering control could be maintained at all times. Of course,
stopping distances were considerably longer with two wheel brakes.

Four Wheel Braking

As tires and roads improved, and vehicle speeds increased, it


became obvious that brakes on all four wheels was necessary. This
reduced stopping distances markedly, but the problem of lack of
steering control if the front wheels locked was apparent. To some
degree advances in tire and suspension design reduced this problem,
but it still remained.

Actuation Systems

Early automobile brakes, both contracting band type and drum type
were actuated by a mechanical system that transferred driver effort to
the brake by levers and rods or cables. Some of the later and more
expensive mechanical systems even had a form of power assistance.
While the mechanical systems were simple and mostly reliable, they
did suffer from some disadvantages. Corrosion of the actuating
components was one; this was especially bad with sheathed cable
systems and resulted in unequal effort being applied to each brake.
Problems also occirred due to wear and misadjustment, and equal
braking effort on all wheels was often difficult to obtain. This resulted
in the vehicle attempting to rotate about its center of gravity while
braking, a condition known as 'yawning'. Also, the response time
of larger systems was slow due to the large mass of the moving
components and rubbing surfaces in the system.

Hydraulic Systems

Most of the disadvantages of the mechanical actuation systems were


overcome with the introduction of hydraulic brake actuation.

This overcame one of the main difficulties of the mechanical systems


in that it could provide equal effort to each brake. Also, hydraulic
actuation allowed the designers greater freedom of overall design of
the vehicle's structure, as hydraulic lines did not need to be mounted
on rigid mountings the way mechanical systems did. They were also
lighter, the response times were better, and a better transfer of
energy between the driver's foot and the brake was possible.
Furthermore, the use of hydraulic systems allowed the development
of lightweight and effective power asistance devices.

Disk Brakes

The first experimental disk brake was developed by Dr. Lanchester in


England, in 1911. In the late 1940s aircraft became larger and
heavier, and the disk brake was further developed to stop them on
landing. By the early 1950s various racing car manufacturers had
adopted it for use in competition. The disk brake proved to have
superior resistance to overheating compared to the drum brake, and

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was subsequently fitted to mass production cars by most


manufacturers in the 1960s and 70s.

Anti-Lock Braking

With improving aircraft all-weather navigational systems in the 1960s,


safely stopping large aircraft on wet runways was a problem that had
to be confronted. If a tire skidded during brake application on landing ,
the aircraft could 'yaw' and become uncontrollable. Advances in
electronics made it possible to develop systems that automatically
varied the hydraulic pressure in each brake in response to the
traction of each tire during brake application. This prevented skidding
and allowed the aircraft to maintain a straight line during landing. As
electronic systems became smaller, cheaper and more powerful, Anti-
Lock braking systems (ABS) were developed for automotive
applications.

The Role of Brakes

The brake system is one of the most important systems in an


automobile. It is responsible for bringing the vehicle to rest from any
speed up to the vehicle's maximum speed and with any load up to the
vehicle's maximum load. It must do this time after time without failure,
in all weather conditions and on all road conditions.

What a Brake Does

When a vehicle is acclerated from rest up to 100 km/h, for example, a


certain quantity of fuel has to be burned to provide the energy to do
this. Some of the energy in the fuel that was burned is converted in to
vehicle speed. This is defined as Kinetic (moving) Energy.

To bring the vehicle back down to zero km/h, we have to do


something with this energy. Because energy cannot be created or
destroyed, we have to find a way to channel it in another direction,
and safely dissipate it and bring the vehicle to a halt.

A brake converts Kinetic Energy into Thermal (heat) Energy, and


dissipates the Thermal Energy into the atmosphere.

The Requirements of a Brake

Because a brake must convert Kinetic Energy into Thermal Energy, it


gets hot. To convert the energy from one form to the other, the brake
uses friction. In the case of the disk brake, the hydraulic pistons push
pads of a special material on to the side surfaces of a disk that is
driven by the wheel's rotation. A well designed brake must provide
similar braking power from cold right up to its maximum operating
temperature.

● The disk is attached to the wheel by the hub, and is rotated


by the grip of the tire on th road.
● The friction of the pads on the disk slow the wheel's speed,
which slows the vehicle.
● The Kinetic Energy is converted in to Heat Energy.

Source: Training Manual: Anti-Lock Brake System.Isuzu Motors Ltd,


Overseas Service Dept.-Training Group.

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Chassis

Chassis systems include the suspension that support the axles, the
steering that steers the vihicles, wheels, tires, brakes that stop the
vehicle, etc. These systems have direct impact on riding comfort, the
vehicle's stability, steering feeling, etc., and vary widely in
mechanisms and devices. The braking system is used to decelerate
or stop the running jvehicle and maintain it in a parked condition.

SOURCE: IPC-Technical Training Section

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Clutch

The clutch in general permits the gradual transmission of engine


power to the driven wheels when staring the automobile from stand
still, without lowering the rotative speed of the engine. It also serves
to connect and disconnect the transmission to and from the engine,
so that gear shifting can be carried out while the transmission is in no-
load condition.

PURPOSE

1. To facilitate engine starting.

2. To set the vehicle in motion without grab and chatter.


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3. To ease gear shifting.

4. To reduce the impact of the rotating power of the power train when
the vehicle is in motion.

5. To maintain idling speed.

FUNCTIONS

1. To engage and disengage the engine power.

2. To synchronize the rotative speed of the engine with vehicle


movement.

SOURCE: IPC-Technical Training Section

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Cooling System

The heat generated by fuel combustion in the cylinders heats the


component parts around the combustion chambers of the engine. If
these parts are not properly cooled, the inside engine temperature
rises sharply and, overheats, thus reducing power output.

It also adversely affects the lubricating oil supplied to the moving


parts of the engine, possibly reducing lubrication performance,
altering oil properties, or causing abnormal wear or seizure.
Overcooling on the other hand, can lower thermal efficiency and
deteriorate combustion. It can also accelerate cylinder liner wear as
the sulfur dioxide generated in the combustion stroke is combined
with water in the gas to form a corrosive substance.
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The cooling system is designed to prevent engine overheating or
overcooling, and maintainengine operation at an appropriate
temperature. The cooling water is circulated by the water pump. The
water pump draws the coolant from the radiator, feeds it through the
oil cooler in to the cylinder block to cool the outer surfaces of the
cylinders, and then in to the cylinder head. The water in the cylinder
head is directed by a water jet to cool the outer surfaces of the nozzle
holders and around the valve seats.

After cooling the cylinder head, the water runs through the water
outlet pipe to the radiator. The water outlet pipe has thermostat to
regulate cooling water temperature. If the cooling water temperature
is below the valve opening temperature, the cooling water is fed back
through the water pump by-pass in to the engine without returning to
the radiator.

SOURCE: IPC-Technical Training Section

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Fuel System

The fuel in the fuel tank of a diesel engine is pumped up into a fuel
filter by a feed pump, where water and dust are removed from the fuel
before being fed in to the injection pump.

The injection pump feeds the fuel at a very high pressure through
injection pipes, and injects it in to the combustion chambers of the
engine through injector nozzles. The feed pump increases the fuel
feed rate in direct proportion to the engine speed, but the amount of
fuel required to be injected in to the cylinders varies with vehicle
running conditions, and not in direct proportion to engine
speed. Thus, there is always an excess of fuel from the feed pump.
Therefore, the fuel return pipes run from the nozzles and injection
pump to the fuel tank via fuel filter to return excess fuel to the fuel
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tank.

SOURCE: IPC-Technical Training Section

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Full Air Brake System vs. Hydraulic Brake System

Full Air Brake System

The full air brake system uses the compressed air generated by an
engine-driven air compressor and stored in air tanks for braking the
wheels. Therefore, it requires larger-sized parts, such as an air
compressor, air tank, and brake chamber, than other brake systems.
The full air brake system is used for heavy duty trucks, buses, and
trailers for the features mentioned below.

Advantage of Full Air Brakes

1. The braking power of the air brake can be controlled only by


Visit Other Websites! the opening and closing of the dual brake valve, so a small
pedal depressing force results in a high braking power.
2. As the air is compressible, there is no drastic decrease in
braking power even with some leakage of air from the piping.
and the brakes can withstand rough usage conditions.
3. Maintainability is good because it is not necessary to change
brake fluid or bleed air when the brake system is
disassembled and reassembled.
4. No oil vapor lock due to friction heat.
5. Uniform lining wear.
6. Easy connection to and disconnection.

Disadvantage of Full Air Brake

1. A large number of parts required and high cost.


2. The brakes operate slightly slow.
3. Lining wear cannot be checked by the pedal stroke or
warning lamp.
4. Various kinds of valves for the chamber and others are large-
sized because the working air pressure is relatively low.

Hydraulic Brake System

Hydraulic brake systems which employ a liquid for power


transmission offer many advantage, that is, excellent response,
simple construction, and a degree of freedom in designing.

For this reason, a large percentage of the vehicles in use today


employ a hydraulic brake system.

When the brake pedal is stepped on, the liquid pressure is raised by
the master cylinder. The wheel cylinder operates according to this
pressure, and the pressure of the shoe (lining) on the drum is applied
as a brake input to brake the wheel.

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Because there are limits on the braking power that can be produced
by stepping on the brake pedal, a booster is incorporated. In addition,
various control devices are employed for improving safety and brake
power distribution.

Source: Training Manual Brake Full Air Type (4th Edition); Hydraulic
Type (2nd Edition). Isuzu Motors Limited.

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Lubrication System

The engine has many sliding and rotating parts. These parts
constantly generates friction, which acts as frictional resistance. The
process of forming an oil film to prevent direct contact of these friction-
causing parts, converting their friction in to fluid friction, and thus
minimizing frictional resistance is called lubrication. The entire oil
supply route is called a lubricating system. Oil not only reduces
friction between moving parts, but cools, cleans, seals, prevents
rusting, and keeps dust out.

A forced circulation system which pressure-feeds oil from an oil pump


is generally used. The forced cisrculation lubrication system consists
of an oil pan, oil pump, oil filter, oil cooler, and an oil gallery in the
cylinder block.
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SOURCE: IPC-Technical Training Section

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Radiator

The radiator is a device for a large volume of water in close contact


with a large volume of air so that heat will transfer from the water to
the air. The radiator core is divided in to two separate and intricate
compartments; water passes through one, and air passes through the
other.

There are several types of radiator core. Two of the more commonly
used type are the plate-fin-tube type and the corrugated-fin-tube type.

The plate-fin-tube type consists of a series of long tubes extending


from the top to the bottom of the radiator (from upper to lower tank).
Fins are placed around the outside of the tubes, between the fins,
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The corrugated-fin-tube type also consists of a series of long tubes


extending from the top to the bottom of the radiator. While fins are
placed between the tubes and have a corrugation shape.

Radiator can also be classified in another way, according to the


direction that water flows through them. In some, the water flows from
top to bottom (down-flow type). In others, the water flows horizontally
from an input tank on one side to another tank on the other side
(cross-flow type). The water tank at the top or side of the radiator
serves three purposes. It provides a reserve and supply of water, and
it also provides a place where the water can be separated from any
air that might be cisculating in the system, and the expected coolant
can be accumulated.

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Steering System

The steering system is designed to permit the operator to control the


direction of the vehicle as desired by turning the steering wheel.

The steering system must meet the following conditions:

1 To permit changing running direction easily and quickly with a


minimum effort for steering.

2. Small in turning radii for a quick change in running direction.

3. Must remain free from steering shimmy and effect of irregularities


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wheel.

For the vital roles it is designed to play, the steering system is


considered as an important system of the automobile along with the
front axle, brakes, etc.

SOURCE: IPC-Technical Training Section

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Suspension System

Automobiles use pneumatic tires to absorb irregularities of the road


surface, so that they are not transmitted directly to the body.

However, despite cushioning interposed between the vehicle body


and road surface by the tires, road shocks are resulting from
irregularities of the road surface will be carried to the body when
driving at high speeds and to deaden shocks, to improve riding
comfort as well as to protect load on the vehicle against damage, a
shock deadening device called suspension system is employed.

The suspension system consist s basically of springs, shock


absorbers, buffer rubbers, rebound rubbers, stabilizers, torque rods,
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FUNDAMENTAL FUNCTIONS

The suspension system is required to have the following fundamental


functions:

1. To support the body of the vehicle with springs, to reduce


vibrations and shocks from the road surface for protection of body
structural members, seat occupants and load as well as to improve
running stability through control of the irregular vibrations counter
transmitted with the appropriate dampers.

2. To support the wheels in position with a sufficient rigidity to


withstand the forces acting on the vehicle body in force and aft and
crosswise direction and to ensure positive transmission of drive
torque and braking force to or from the wheels and vehicle body
thereby to maintain mobility originally intended.

SOURCE: IPC-Technical Training Section

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Tires

The tires provide the vehicle's contact with the road so the vihicle can
be steered, accelerated and braked. The tires re designed to transmit
the forces required for these actions to the road surface. Their
promary role is to provide a good 'connection' between the vehicle
and the road surface. A tire does this job the best while it's rotating.

COMPONENTS AND REQUIREMENTS

1. Carcass - Functions as a pressure container, stabilizes tire


shape.

- Provide strength for inflation pressure, cornering,


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- Transmits forces between belt and bead area during


cornering, braking, and accelerating.

2. Belt Overlay - Stabilizes the trad shape (tire diameter, tread


radius, and footprint).

- Provide lateral and circumferential stifness for


cornering, braking, and accelerating.

- Support tread elements for maximum ground contact,


minimum tread wear, and low noise level.

- Allow sufficient radial movement to provide ride and


comfort.

- Resist high stress and strain levels for faultless


durability.

3. Bead area a. Bead Bundle - Rigidly locates tire on rim.

- Withstands force due to seating


pressure, air pressure, and centrifugal force.

- Flexible enough to enable mounting.

b. Bead Base - Provides airtight seal.

- Provides friction to avoid rim slippage


and roll off.

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c. Toe Guard - Prevents damage during mounting


and dismounting.

d. Chafer - Transmits forces from sidewall to rim


flange during deflection and cornering.

- Helps resist scrubbing (chafing).

- Helps stifen lower sidewall area.

e. Chipper - Fabric or steel reinforcement for


chafer.

f. Apex - Fills triangular space between bead


bundle and carcass to stiffen lower sidewall area.

g. Flipper - Fulfill functions of both Apex and


Chafer.

4. Sidewall - Protects carcass cords against damage (scruffing,


impact, ultraviolet light, and chemical composition).

- Highly flexible.

- Provides "meat" for stamping and decoaration.

- Can act as shoulder wedge.

5. Tread a. Grip - Transmits forces between road surface


and tire at all road condition.

b. Contact - Drains water out of footprint.

c. Wear - Resists wear caused by relative


movements on the road's surface.

d. Tear - Resists forces during braking, cornering,


and high speed driving.

e. Hysteresis - Provides low rolling resistance.

f. Innerliner - Provides air seal.

SOURCE: IPC-Technical Training Section

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Turbocharger System

PRINCIPLE OF TURBOCHARGER

In the natural aspirated engines, about 40% of heat energy produced


by fuel combustion is wasted going in to the atmosphere as exhaust
gas. The turbocharger is a unit designed to make use of the
engine exhaust gas energy to charge additional air in to the cylinders,
so the turbocharger can utilize a portion of this energy found in
exhaust gas to drive a turbine, which rotates a compressor arranged
on the drive shaft. The compressor feeds highly pressurized air in to
the engine cylinder, thus producing a higher rate of fuel combustion,
compared with naturally aspirated engines.

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The turbocharger consists proncipally of three major components


whicha are a turbine housing, a compressor housing, and a center
housing inclusive of the turbine, the compressor, the impeller, shaft,
and the bearings. The bearings should be lubricated by hegh speeds
and high temperatures. Also, the parts are carefully made, so that it
must be serviced with precision.

SOURCE: IPC-Technical Training Sectioon

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