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Miniature aperture-coupled microstrip = lmm and L, = 9.5". The patch size is kept at L, = 19.

antenna of very high permittivity and W, = 13.5" in all cases.

T.K. Lo, Chun-On Ho, Y. Hwang, E.K.W. Lam and

B. Lee -
Indexing terms: Microstrip antennu, Antenna feeds

A miniature aperture-coupled microstrip antenna of very high

permittivity designed at 1.66GHz is described. Superstrates of
appropriate thickness are added on the substrate for gain
enhancement. Its size is dramatically reduced and the electrical
performance remains almost the same as compared with the
conventional microstrip antenna of low dielectric constant.
Experimental data for the return loss, radation pattern and
measured antenna gain are presented to validate the design.

Introduction: The low-profde and compactness of microstrip

antennas have made them attractive for application of portable
1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8
frequency, GHz
telephones for personal communications system. As the need for
antenna size reduction continues, two major techniques, using a Fig. 2 Return losses of proposed aperture coupled microstrip antenna
shorting post [l] and high-permittivity materials 12, 31, have been
proposed. In the technique which uses a shorting post [4], it was
found that the input impedance of a probe-fed antenna is very Experimental results: Fig. 2 shows the resonant frequency of the
sensitive to the distance of separation of the shorting post and the proposed aperture-coupled microstrip antenna measured with an
feeding probe. Even though an aperture-coupled structure [5] HP8510C network analyser. The proposed antenna matched at
could remove the feeding probe, a via hole was still required at the 1.66GHz has an impedance bandwidth (VSWR < 2:l) of
substrate for the shorting post. 42.9MHz (2.58%). Its measured return loss is 4 -20dB. Figs. 3
It is well-known that for the case of a conventional single-lay- and 4 show the E- and H-plane radiation patterns, respectively,
ered microstrip antenna, the gain decreases with an increase in die- 10
lectric constant. It was demonstrated in an inverted-F antenna [3]
that the gain could be recovered by adding superstrates of higher
dielectric constant. In this Letter, the same technique was applied
to an aperture-coupled microstrip antenna. The advantage of 0
loading very high permittivity materials (E, 2 38) for an aperture- m
coupled microstrip antenna is the elimination of the need for a i
shorting post to penetrate through the substrate, hence making the
device easier to manufacture. The achieved performance has been
,-I 0
validated by the measured return loss, radiation patterns and gain. ?

-2 0
superstrateI I
s u p e r s ~I~ ~ e
-3 0
-100 -50 0 50 100
substrate with angle ,deg m
Fig. 3 Measured E-plane radiation patterns
ground ptane conventional antenna of E, = 38
with aperture proposed antenna of very high E,

microstrip feed

Fig. 1 Conj?guration of gain-enhanced microstrip antenna of very high

E,d = 10.5, Ea = 38, Er, = 38, E,z = 80
d = 0.635mm, to = 0.67mm, tl = 1.34mm, t, = 3.35"
W, = 0.58mm, L, = 18mm, W, = lmm, L, = 9.5mm, W, = 13.5"
Lp = 19.5"

Configuration of miniature microstrip antenna: The applications of

the proposed antenna were investigated at 1.66GHz. The configu-
ration of the antenna is shown in Fig. 1. Both the substrate and
superstrates are of very high permittivity (rr0= E , ~= 38, E, = 80).
This antenna is excited by the microstrip (W, = 0.58mm) below
the ground plane, through an electrically small coupling aperture. angle, deg
The feeding microstrip is of comparatively low permittivity (crd=
10.5). Several matched antennas of different t2 with d = 0.635mm, Fig. 4 Measured H-plane radiation patterns
to = 0.67" and tl = 1.34mm were fabricated. The antenna with conventional antenna of E, = 38
the highest gain has dimensions of tz = 3.35mm, L,,, = 18mm, W, ........... proposed antenna of very high E,

ELECTRONICS LETTERS 2nd January 1997 Vol. 33 No. I 9

measured in a compact range The solid line represents the meas-
ured pattern of the conventional antenna of = 38 without super-
strates; the dashed line, the proposed antenna. These two Figures
show that the maxmum relative gain of the single-layered antenna
of E, = 38, without any superstrates, is -1OdB below that of the S.T. Cundiff, W.H. Knox and M.C. Nuss
proposed antenna. Thus the radiation loss is recovered by addmg
superstrate I and superstrate I1 of appropriate thickness. Fig. 5
presents the relation of the thickness of superstrate 11, t,, and the Indexing terms Wavelength division multplexing, Chanuel coding
measured absolute gain of antenna. It shows that the proposed
A channel equalisation scheme for chirped-pulse wavelength-
antenna can have a value of gain as high as 5.3dB, when t2 is division-multiplexing (CPWDM) is described and implemented.
3.35inm. The gain increase is due to the substrate-superstratereso- The equalisation is realised using a simple feed-fonvard circuit
nance effect as described in [6]. that dynamically varies the loss of the modulator, which i s used to
sequentially encode channels in CPWDM to actively adjust the
channel strengths. A 50% increase in the number of channels
withm 3dB power variation is achieved for our laser spectrum.

A novel multifrequency wavelength division inultiplexed (WDM)

source based on using the large bandwidth of an ultrafast (subpi-
cosecond) laser has been recently demonstrated [1, 21. This tech-
nique uses a single modulator to encode all of the wavelength
channels. This is accomplished by imposing a linear chrp on the
pulses to obtain a linear time-wavelengthrelationship, then modu-
lation can be used to define and encode wavelength channels
sequentially in time. This technique i s known as chirped-pulse
WDM (CPWDM). It is a specific instance of a more general class
of sequentially modulated WDM techniques that are all character-
ised by having a series of wavelengths interleaved in time pre-
sented to a single modulator. The interleaved wavelengths can be
derived from any one of a number of broadband pulsed sources,
e.g., a modelocked fibre laser or another broadband source. The
0 1 2 3 interleaving can also be carried out in a number of ways: examples
thickness of superstrate I1 t 2,”
are propagation through a dispersive fibre, a sequence of chirped
Fig. 5 Gain of antenna against thickness of superstvate II, t2 fibre gratings or a waveguide grating router and combiner pair
with differing delays in each path.
The exact parameters of a CPVVDM system depend 011 the laser
characteristics and how the chirp is obtained. Typically, propaga-
Co7Zc1usion:A miniature aperture-coupled nucrostnp antenna tion though a long singlemode fibre is used to chirp the In
made of very high permittivity materials matched at 1.66GHz has case, the inverse channel spacing is detemzined by the product
been fabricated and the results of measurement have been Pre- of the net fibre dispersion and the modulation rate, the modula-
sented in this Letter. The antenna has a gain of 5.3dB, and the tion rate being a multiple of the laser repetition rate [l]. The laser
patch size is greatly reduced to about one fith of that of the con- repetition rate determines the bit rate in each wavelength channel,
ventional microstrip antenna, of low dielectric constant, operating while its spectral bandwidth determines the number of channels.
at the same frequency band. The power in each channel of a CPWDM transmitter is deter-
mined by the laser spectrum, consequently control of the spectrum
is important. While the stretched pulse fibre laser used in the orig-
0 IEE 1997 21 Octobev 1996
inal demonstration [I] produces a relatively broad, flat spectrum,
Electronics Letters Online No: 19970053 this is typically not the case for the short cavity fibre lasers neces-
T.K. L ~ Chun-On
, HO, y. Hwang and E.K.W. Lam (Department of sary for the generation of higher repetition (bit) rates. Addition-
Electronic Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong ally, the exact spectrum of all modelocked lasers is sensitive to
small perturbations in alignment or pump power.
B. Lee (Space DivisionsLoral, Palo Alto, CA, USA) time, ns
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
1 WATERHOUSE, R.: ‘Small microstrip patch antenna’, Electron. Lett., 3 >
m10 E
1995, 31, pp. 604605 U)
W 50 2
2 ZHANG, Y.P., LO, T.K , and HWANG, Y.: ‘A dielectric loaded miniature \ m
antenna for microcellular and personal communications’, Proc.
IEEE A P - S ~ W .1995,
, pp, 1152-1155 %5 25
3 HWANG, Y., ZHANG, Y P , ZHENG, G.x., and LO, T.K : ‘Planar inverted-
F antenna loaded with high permittivity material’, Electron. Lett., 0 0
1995,31, pp. 1710-1712
h,nm 1899111
4 PARK, I., and MITTRA, R.: ‘Aperture-coupled small microstrip
antenna’, Electron. Lett., 1996, 32, pp. 1741-1742 Fig. I Comparison of pulse spectrum to stretchedyulse against time
5 SANAD, M.: ‘Effect of the shorting posts on short circuit microstrip left and bottom axes
right and top axes
antennas’, Proc. IEEE AP-Sym., 1994, pp. 194-791
6 ALEXOPOULOS, N.G., and JACKSON, D.R.: ‘Fundamental superstrate
(cover) effects on printed circuit antennas’, IEEE Trans., 1984, AP- Here we present a simple technique that equalises the power in
32, (8), pp. 807-816 each channel by dynamically adjusting the loss of the modulator.
10 ELECTRONICS LETTERS 2nd January 1997 Vol. 33 No. I