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Biological Approach

Core study: Canli et al (2000) Brain scans and emotions

P - Point E - Explain the point E - Example from the study R - Relate to the point on why
is it a strength / weakness in
the study

High in reliability The extent to which a All ten participants saw 96 The standardised procedure of
procedure, task, or measure is images for 2.88 seconds with the duration of each image
consistent. That it would 12.96 seconds in between shown for all participants,
produce the same results with when the participants would eases the process of
the same people on each focus on a fixation cross. replication of future research
occasion. hence the study has high
reliability.

Low in ecological validity The extent to which the study For example, participants were This setting is not normal to
would be applicable in real life placed in an fMRI scanner in a everyday life. Participants had
settings. laboratory. Participants were to lie in the fMRI while rating
shown 96 images while biting the intensity of the 96 images
down on a bite bar to minimize shown, making the response
head movements. shown not genuine not
everyday life, hence making
this study low in ecological
validity.

High in validity The extent to which the For example, all the Therefore, as the environment,
researchers are testing what participants were right-handed the items, and the duration of
they claim to be studying. healthy females. All the presentation were controlled,
participants were tested in a the researchers can be more
laboratory and given the same confident that there are fewer
items, which are the 96 images confounding variables affecting
to rate in each condition. For the study, resulting in a high
all participants, the time that validity.
each item was presented for
2.88 seconds with an interval
between presentations of
12.96 seconds.

Low in generalisability Generalisability is how widely For example, the ten Therefore, generalisation of
the findings of the study is participants in this study were this study is not applicable to
applicable to other settings only right-handed female males and people who are left-
and populations. which is not representative of handed. Thus, this study is low
the whole population. in generalisability.