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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

In this chapter, the researchers discuss the research design, area of study, population,

sample of the population, sampling technique, and instrument for data collection, validation

of the questionnaire, administration of the instrument and method of data analysis.

Research Method

The researchers used the descriptive method of research utilizing quantitative data

gathering. According to the author of Study.Com, descriptive research is a study designed to

depict the participants in an accurate way. In this study, social media addiction state of the

target group, which consists of students, is examined. The study can be named as “Thousands

of Friends: Effect of Social Media Usage among PUPians.” Survey type research model and

quantitative data which is obtained through a reliable and valid scale are used in the study.

Research Locale

The researchers conducted their research study in Polytechnic University of the Philippines

(PUP) located in Anonas St., Sta. Mesa, Manila Philippines.

Figure 2: Location Map of (PUP) Sta. Mesa, Manila Philippines


Respondents of the Study

The respondents of the study is consisted of fifty (50) teenagers aged 17-22 years. Fifty (50)

students who are enrolled in Polytechnic University of the Philippines for the academic year

2018-2019.

Research Design

The researcher used the normative survey in the method of gathering data.

Normative means relating to an ideal standard or model, or being based on what is

considered to be the normal or correct way of doing something (Dorschel, 2016). The term

“survey” is commonly applied to a research methodology design to collect data from a

specific population, or a sample from that population and typically utilizes a questionnaire

or an interview as the survey instrument. Normative survey, information about how things

should be or how they can be improved is gathered through evaluative cases studies, critique

of the objector process being studied, testing of ways to remove or correct an identified

problem, and planning ways to improve the object or process (IAC Publishing 2016).

The researcher used normative survey method design to identify the effect of social

media usage among PUPians.

Research instrument

The instrument used to collect data and information was the questionnaire. A

questionnaire is a set of carefully designed questions given in exactly the same form to a

group of people in order to collect data about some topic(s) in which the researcher is
interested (Mclean, 2016). It can be thought of as a kind of written interview. They can be

carried out face to face, by telephone or post. (Gault, 1907).

Additionally, the researcher chose the questionnaire because of some basis. First, it

has advantages over some other types of surveys in that they are inexpensive, do not require

as much effort from the questionnaire as verbal or telephone surveys, and often have

standardized answers that make it simple to compile data. Also, the questionnaires provide

a relatively quick and efficient way of obtaining large amounts of information from a large

sample of people. Data can be collected relatively quickly because the researcher would not

need to be present when the questionnaires were finished. This is useful for large

populations when interviews would be impractical.

Lastly, the selected respondents were students and so they are very literate. They

could understand and answer the questionnaire with relief. The questionnaire has questions

related to the study and the questions were answered consequently.

Development of the Instrument

The instrument developed was a researcher-made questionnaire to gather the

needed data from the respondents. The draft of the questionnaire was written out based on

the researcher’s experience, learnings, previous studies, professional literature, published

and unpublished thesis relevant to the study. In preparation of the instrument, the

requirements in designing good data collection instrument were considered. For an instance,

statement describing the situation or issues pertaining was toned down to accommodate the

knowledge preparedness of the respondents. Moreover, the researchers assure that there

were sufficient items to gather data to cover all aspects of the problems and respond to all
the specific questions under the statement of the problem. In this way, the instrument is

authorized to obtain valid responses of the students. In the end, the questionnaire was

presented to their previous professor who reviewed the grammar and suggested use of the

appropriate words and phrases, to assure that no misinterpretation occurred. Further, the

instrument must be approved by few consultant and previous professors before it laid on to

the study.

Data Gathering Procedure

The researchers asked permission to the professor of Practical Research at the

Polytechnic University of the Philippines, Sta. Mesa, Manila. They orient the target

respondents about the research. The researchers consulted in the internet and different

books. The researchers also distributed the questionnaire directly to the respondents that

was answered and retrieved. The data was tallied, analyzed and interpreted. The findings,

conclusions and recommendations were made fairly.

Population and Sampling Design

The researcher ensures that the size of the population was sufficient enough to collect

data and information that will lead to the conclusion of the level of addiction on Social Media

among PUPians. In this study the total number of respondents at Polytechnic University of

the Philippines Academic Year 2018 to 2019 involved in the study population was fifty (50).

The researcher supposed that the number of population is adequate enough to provide

sufficient data and information necessary for the interpretation of the study.

The researcher used both the purposive and convenience sampling procedure for the

students. Purposive sampling is used in cases where the specialty of an authority can select
a more representative sample that can bring more accurate results than by using other

probability sampling techniques. The process involves nothing but purposely handpicking

individuals from the population based on the authorities or the researcher’s knowledge and

judgment (Explorable.com, 2015). All the respondents are requested to answer the

questions since they are the ones who are involved in the research study. Convenience

sampling is the statistical method of drawing representative data by selecting people

because of their availability or easy access. The advantages of this type of sampling are the

availability and quickness with which data can be gathered. The disadvantaged are the risk

that the sample might not represent the population as a whole, and it might be biased by

volunteers (Business dictionary, 2015).


CHAPTER IV PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter includes the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data that have been

gathered from the questionnaires distributed to the respondents. This chapter also contains

the presentation of data in tabular form along with their corresponding interpretations.

I. PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS

Table 1.1. Age of the Respondents

AGE Frequency Percentage (%)


15-16 0 0
17-18 37 74
19-20 12 24
21-22 1 2
Total 50 100

Table 1.2 Gender of the Respondents

GENDER Frequency Percentage (%)


Male 12 24
Female 38 76
Total 50 100
II. THOUSAND OF FRIENDS: EFFECTS OF SOCIAL MEDIA USAGE AMONG PUPIANS

The data collected from the field were analysed. Statistically weighted mean was used in

answering the research questions. The response options in the instrument are weighted as

shown below:

Table 2.1 I'm only interested in things on my wall.

Percentage
CHOICES Frequency
(%)
Strongly Agree 8 16
Agree 16 32
Neutral 15 30
Disagree 8 16
Strongly Disagree 3 6
Total 50 100

The objective of table 2.1 is to know if the respondents are only interested in things on

their wall. It is measured on five point Likert scale having items like strongly disagree,

disagree, neutral (neither agree nor disagree), agree, and strongly agree. Of the total 50

respondents, twenty four (24) or 48% of the students agree or strongly agree, fifteen (15) or

30% neither agree nor disagree and eleven (11) or 22% disagree.
Table 2.2 I do not have much of time to talk personally unless with the use of

Social Media (i.e., Facebook, Twitter etc.)

CHOICES Frequency Percentage (%)


Strongly Agree 2 4
Agree 10 20
Neutral 16 32
Disagree 16 32
Strongly Disagree 6 12
Total 50 100

The objective of table 2.1 is to know if the respondents do not have much of time to talk

personally unless with the use of Social Media (i.e., Facebook, Twitter etc.). It is measured

on five point Likert scale having items like strongly disagree, disagree, neutral (neither agree

nor disagree), agree, and strongly agree. Of the total 50 respondents, twelve (12) or 24% of

the students agree or strongly agree, sixteen (16) or 32% neither agree nor disagree and

twenty two (22) or 44% disagree.

Table 2.3 I easily get information about something that caught my interest

CHOICES Frequency Percentage (%)

Strongly Agree 16 32
Agree 29 58
Neutral 4 8
Disagree 1 2
Strongly Disagree 0 0
Total 50 100
The objective of table 2.1 is to know if the respondents easily get information about

something that caught my interest. It is measured on five point Likert scale having items like

strongly disagree, disagree, neutral (neither agree nor disagree), agree, and strongly agree.

Of the total 50 respondents, forty five (45) or 90% of the students agree or strongly agree,

four (4) or 8% neither agree nor disagree and one (1) or 2% disagree.

Table 2.4 I spend much of time on my gadgets than my personal life

Percentage
CHOICES Frequency
(%)
Strongly Agree 4 8
Agree 15 30
Neutral 17 34
Disagree 12 24
Strongly Disagree 2 4
Total 50 100

The objective of table 2.1 is to know if the respondents spend much of time on my gadgets

than my personal life. It is measured on five point Likert scale having items like strongly

disagree, disagree, neutral (neither agree nor disagree), agree, and strongly agree. Of the

total 50 respondents, nineteen (19) or 38% of the students agree or strongly agree,

seventeen (17) or 34% neither agree nor disagree and fourteen (14) or 28% disagree.
Table 2.5 I forget my personal hygiene to communicate with friends online.

CHOICES Frequency Percentage (%)


Strongly Agree 1 2
Agree 3 6
Neutral 4 8
Disagree 20 40
Strongly Disagree 22 44
Total 50 100

The objective of table 2.1 is to know if the respondents forget their personal hygiene to

communicate with friends online. It is measured on five point Likert scale having items like

strongly disagree, disagree, neutral (neither agree nor disagree), agree, and strongly agree.

Of the total 50 respondents, four (4) or 8% of the students agree or strongly agree, four (4)

or 8% neither agree nor disagree and forty two (42) or 84% disagree.

Table 2.6 I post everything I do on my Social Media account.

Percentage
CHOICES Frequency
(%)
Strongly Agree 0 0
Agree 2 4
Neutral 5 10
Disagree 17 34
Strongly Disagree 26 52
Total 50 100

The objective of table 2.1 is to know if the respondents post everything they do on their

Social Media account. It is measured on five point Likert scale having items like strongly

disagree, disagree, neutral (neither agree nor disagree), agree, and strongly agree. Of the
total 50 respondents, two (2) or 4% of the students agree or strongly agree, five (5) or 10%

neither agree nor disagree and forty three (43) or 86% disagree.

Table 2.7 I neglect studying because of social networking activities.

CHOICES Frequency Percentage (%)


Strongly Agree 0 0
Agree 2 4
Neutral 18 36
Disagree 16 32
Strongly Disagree 14 28
Total 50 100

The objective of table 2.1 is to know if the respondents neglect studying because of Social

networking activities. It is measured on five point Likert scale having items like strongly

disagree, disagree, neutral (neither agree nor disagree), agree, and strongly agree. Of the

total 50 respondents, two (2) or 4% of the students agree or strongly agree, eighteen (18) or

32% neither agree nor disagree and thirty (30) or 60% disagree.

Table 2.8 I usually don't talk to anyone personally.

CHOICES Frequency Percentage (%)


Strongly Agree 0 0
Agree 5 10
Neutral 15 30
Disagree 17 34
Strongly Disagree 13 26
Total 50 100
The objective of table 2.1 is to know if the respondents usually don't talk to anyone

personally. It is measured on five point Likert scale having items like strongly Disagree,

Disagree, Neutral (neither agree nor disagree), Agree, and Strongly Agree. Of the total 50

respondents, five (5) or 10% of the students agree or strongly agree, fifteen (15) or 30%

neither agree nor disagree and thirty (30) or 60% disagree.

Table 2.9 I usually skip meals to spend time on social media.

CHOICES Frequency Percentage (%)


Strongly Agree 2 4
Agree 7 14
Neutral 7 14
Disagree 15 30
Strongly Disagree 19 38
Total 50 100

The objective of table 2.1 is to know if the respondents usually skip meals to spend time

on social media It is measured on five point Likert scale having items like strongly disagree,

disagree, neutral (neither agree nor disagree), agree, and strongly agree. Of the total 50

respondents, nine (9) or 18% of the students agree or strongly agree, seven (7) or 14%

neither agree nor disagree and thirty four (34) or 68% disagree.
Table 2.10 I often have headaches because of lack of sleep.

CHOICES Frequency Percentage (%)


Strongly Agree 8 16
Agree 12 24
Neutral 14 28
Disagree 11 22
Strongly Disagree 5 10
Total 50 100

The objective of table 2.1 is to know if the respondents often have headaches because of

lack of sleep. It is measured on five point Likert scale having items like strongly disagree,

disagree, neutral (neither agree nor disagree), agree, and strongly agree. Of the total 50

respondents, twenty (20) or 40% of the students agree or strongly agree, fourteen (14) or

28% neither agree nor disagree and sixteen (16) or 32% disagree.

Table 2.11 I sleep less to use social media.

CHOICES Frequency Percentage (%)


Strongly Agree 5 10
Agree 9 18
Neutral 16 32
Disagree 14 28
Strongly Disagree 6 12
Total 50 100

The objective of table 2.1 is to know if the respondents sleepless to use social media. It

is measured on five point Likert scale having items like strongly disagree, disagree, neutral

(neither agree nor disagree), agree, and strongly agree. Of the total 50 respondents, fourteen
(14) or 28% of the students agree or strongly agree, sixteen (16) or 32% neither agree nor

disagree and twenty (20) or 40% disagree.

Table 2.12 I easily get angry since using social media.

CHOICES Frequency Percentage (%)


Strongly Agree 1 2
Agree 6 12
Neutral 17 34
Disagree 13 26
Strongly Disagree 13 26
Total 50 100

The objective of table 2.1 is to know if the respondents easily get angry since using social

media. It is measured on five point Likert scale having items like strongly disagree, disagree,

neutral (neither agree nor disagree), agree, and strongly agree. Of the total 50 respondents,

seven (7) or 14% of the students agree or strongly agree, seventeen (17) or 34% neither

agree nor disagree and twenty six (26) or 52% disagree.

Table 2.13 I feel sad and alone everytime I don't use social media.
CHOICES Frequency Percentage (%)
Strongly Agree 2 4
Agree 8 16
Neutral 14 28
Disagree 18 36
Strongly Disagree 8 16
Total 50 100
The objective of table 2.1 is to know if the respondents feel sad and alone if they don't

use social media. It is measured on five point Likert scale having items like strongly disagree,

disagree, neutral (neither agree nor disagree), agree, and strongly agree. Of the total 50

respondents, ten (10) or 20% of the students agree or strongly agree, fourteen (14) or 28%

neither agree nor disagree and twenty six (26) or 52% disagree.

Table 2.14 I get anxious when talking to people unless I talk with them using Social

Media.

CHOICES Frequency Percentage (%)


Strongly Agree 1 2
Agree 8 16
Neutral 20 40
Disagree 16 32
Strongly Disagree 5 10
Total 50 100

The objective of table 2.1 is to know if the respondents get anxious when talking to people

unless they talk with them using Social Media. It is measured on five point Likert scale having

items like strongly disagree, disagree, neutral (neither agree nor disagree), agree, and

strongly agree. Of the total 50 respondents, nine (9) or 18% of the students agree or strongly

agree, twenty (20) or 40% neither agree nor disagree and twenty one (21) or 42% disagree.
Table 2.15 I feel as if friends from social media is better than personal friends.

CHOICES Frequency Percentage (%)


Strongly Agree 1 2
Agree 2 4
Neutral 8 16
Disagree 20 40
Strongly Disagree 19 38
Total 50 100

The objective of table 2.1 is to know if the respondents feel as if friends from social media

is better than personal friends. It is measured on five point Likert scale having items like

strongly disagree, disagree, neutral (neither agree nor disagree), agree, and strongly agree.

Of the total 50 respondents, three (3) or 6% of the students agree or strongly agree, eight (8)

or 16% neither agree nor disagree and thirty nine (39) or 78% disagree.
Chapter V: Conclusion, Recommendation

Social media has a huge impact to the society especially to students of Polytechnic

University of the Philippines Senior High school. Social media are interactive computer-

mediated technologies that facilitate the creation and sharing of information, ideas, career

interests and other forms of expression via virtual communities and networks.

Today, internet users show a great interest in social networking sites like Facebook,

Twitter, Instagram, YouTube and Google+, and they create their own profiles on these sites.

These profiles make it more difficult for an individual to stay away from the Internet. Mobile

devices also support internet access and social networking applications, which triggers

social media addiction.

Although social media causes some distraction in the studies of the students of the

Polytechnic University of the Philippines, it doesn’t entirely affect the student’s daily lives.

The students spend time checking their accounts on Facebook, twitter, Instagram and other

SNS that might cause addiction in social media. Students spends time on their gadgets but

doesn’t let it affect their daily lives.

The findings of this study show that social media has an insignificant influence on

students, which help them gather information about thing that caught their interests. Some

students express themselves better in the real world more than in social media. Participants

in this study reported communicating with friends and family personally is better than

talking to them through SNS. Although all of the respondents of the study use social media,

they don’t let it affect and take over their lives.


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