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MARCH 2019

The power of the mind has no use without the knowledge and pieces of information

provided by Saint Mary’s School of Sagada library and the school internet, of which the

researchers are very grateful and thankful about.

The authors would also like to extend their straightforward thankfulness to all the people

who provided and gave the materials needed for the experiment. Words would not be enough to

utter one’s deepest gratitude to all of you. Without you, the research would be nothing and


To begin with, the researchers are particularly grateful to Mr. ALLEN K.

CHAMLANGEN and Ms. BRENDA POMAY-O who offered their generous assistance and

advice. Their constructive suggestions and critics regarding the study has helped a lot especially

during the experiment proper. They have never left the researchers since day one.

To Mr. Rocky Montero and Mr. David Yamashita, for providing the used tires which was

used for the experiment, the researchers are very much grateful for them. Thus, they extend their

sincerest appreciation. To Ms. Florence Lango and Mrs. Josephine Peredo, the authors

appreciation belongs to them. Words would not be enough to acknowledge your wonderful

support and for allowing us to use your backyard in conducting the experiment. They owe you a

debt of gratitude.

Above all, whether this research can contribute to one farmer or not, the author thanks the

Almighty Father for the patience and perseverance towards the attainment of their dreams and

their experiment. Thank you and Godbless.

An experimental research about organic and inorganic fertilizer, specifically pig

manure and complete(NH⁺4) was conducted to determine which of the two kinds of fertilizers

mentioned is more effective on the growth of thePetchay plantwithin the duration of 42 days. It

contains the overview of the problem, which mainly talks about the conditions that bring the

importance of the fertilizers (specifically organic and inorganic) not onlyto the researcher but in

all other places where the fertilizers are used in crop production particularly, Petchay plant, and

why this experiment is fundamentally needed to be done. Further studies and article reviews

provide the effect of fertilizers to the soil and to the growth of plants. The exact methods to

which the experiment will follow have been laid out as well. The researchers choose thePetchay

plant to be used in the experiment because it has the fastest duration in terms of growing and is

observed that it is the main crop in the backyard gardens of the people in Sagada.

The result and discussion part of this paper involves every discussion made after the

actual experiment was conducted. The observations and results of the study are discussed

thoroughly. It includes the measurement of the soil, water, and fertilizers used. The leaves of the

plant was also measured using the ruler. From the data gathered, conclusions, including the

validity of the scientific literature, were completed and results were projected to its best


Chapter 1

Background of the Study

Generally, plants need nutrients like nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), and potassium (K)

for them to properly grow and develop. The soil needs to be fertile in order for it to increase

productivity in supplying plants with its needed minerals and nutrients. These fertilizers are

compounds given to plants with the intention of promoting growth and increasing land fertility.

They are classified into two, namely: inorganic and organic fertilizers. Nevertheless, both supply

plants with the nutrients needed for optimum growth but with different effects.

Organic fertilizers are derived from animal matters, animal wastes, and vegetable matter

and all fertilizer’s derived from any organic sources. They are considered to be an environment

friendly fertilizers for they improve the structure of the soil and increase its ability to hold water

and nutrients. Soil with plenty of organic materials remain loose and light while retaining more

moisture and nutrients and foster growth of soil micro-organisms that promotes healthier plants

and root development. Lastly, organic fertilizer provides the necessary soil micro-organisms.

These organisms assist with the manufacturing of organic matter and nitrogen fixation products

that are very important to plant production and health.

Inorganic fertilizers, on the other hand, is the second classification of fertilizer. It is

manufactured artificially and contains minerals and synthetic chemicals. They provide the

nutrients needed by plants in ready-form and immediately upon applying. However, the heavy

application of these fertilizers can burn and destroy plants.

Petchay plant will be used to test as to what kind of fertilizer suitsbetter. It is anannual

biennial herb, a leafy vegetable that can easily grow even in containers. It can be grown in any

type of soil but needs a good water supply, a favourable climate (warm) for growth, and a

sufficient protection against farm animals or anything that can cause harm to the growing plant.
Moreover, petchay plant was used so that the result can be easily identified through their size, the

color of the plant and the appearance of the leaves.

Review of Related Literature

Ann Sanders (2018) has stated that, “Plants need nutrients so they can grow strong and

healthy. Fertilizers provide the soil with large amounts of nutrients to supplement what it already

has.” In which plants get most of their nutrients from the soil. Water, sunlight and nutrients are
compulsory for strong and healthy plants and picking the right kind of fertilizer will be beneficial

to help achieve the best result in plants.

According to Narkhede et. Al., (2010) the nutrient status of the compost obtained from

municipal solid waste and sewage sludge was eminent.While Ansari and Ismail (2001) stated

that, “Although the use of chemical fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides have enhanced the

production of farming but there is growing concerns over the adverse effects of the use of

chemicals on soil productivity and environment quality. Use of chemical fertilizers for a long

time has resulted in poor soil health, reduce production, and increase in incidences of pest and

disease and environmental pollution.” This would help our research through providing

knowledge about ones study of which we can compare and contrast our own experiment.

Moreover, the excessive use of chemical fertilizers causes unforeseen environmental

impacts and sensitivity to pests and diseases through the oversupply of nitrogen. Organic farming

practices are a potential way to decrease the negative environmental impact of excessive

amounts of chemical fertilizers. Organic fertilizers are environmentally friendly and improve soil

health, water-holding capacity. (Islam, Ferdous, Akter, & Hossain, 2017) It is therefore implied

that fertilizers can affect the plants differently and would also affect the soil where it will be

mixed for the plant to absorb the nutrient in it. While another study that was conducted by Rai,

Ashiya, Devendra, and Rathore, the inorganic fertilizers may also contribute indirectly to an

increase in earthworm population by increasing the quantity of crop residues returned to the

soils, although long-term use of inorganic nitrogen fertilizers, may sometimes cause a decrease

in earthworm abundance and biomass, particularly if it is ammonia-based.

Whilst, a land mark study conducted by the University of Wisconsin-Madison has shown

manure to provide better results in terms of crop yield and soil quality compared to the use of
inorganic fertilizer (Reckinger, Nick; Carlson, Carrie;). In their study, they concluded that the

use of manure is better than using inorganic or readily made fertilizers.

While some researchers have proved that organic fertilizers have better effect on plants

Ryu, et al. (2003) stated that, “Inorganic fertilizers have a better and faster effect on plant

productivity and growth as the nutrients are faster to break which can be immediately used by

these plants.” This would be a great help in the research as it explained how the nutrients are

being absorbed by plants.

Conceptual Framework

Fertilizer is very essential to agriculture for it gives farmers a big help in their produce.

This process play’s a crucial role in shaping the country’s overall economic growth and


"It remains as one of the most economically significant and promising industries in the

Philippines in terms of its vast potential and opportunities for expansion and growth" (Pico).

Fertilizers, in any form, organic or inorganic material or synthetic origin that is added to a

soil to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
A study stated that is literature, "some researchers have concluded the chemical fertilizers

to be harmful for soil organisms but on the contradictory, they have been supported to be

beneficial as far as their food supply is concerned. The acute toxicity of complete on

environment by using a simple paper contact method was studied, where the relative toxicity

grade of urea was categorized as "very toxic".

Sunlight is an essential requirement for plant growth particularly the food process which

is called photosynthesis. Scientists proved that during photosynthesis plants trap light energy

with their leaves. Plants use the energy of the sun to change water and carbon dioxide into a

sugar called glucose. Technically without the sun rays, the plants would eventually die.

Soil is also essential in our study because it provides beneficial soil processes in

developing sustainable planting. It holds moisture and nutrients that would help the plant grow. It

also provides place for the plant to anchor itself and eventually grow.

Water is also needed when we plant our seeds for seeds need evenly moist soil to

germinate. In soggy soils, the seeds become waterlogged and can’t receive oxygen. They

eventually rot and die. In dry soils, the coasts remain hard so the seed can’t germinate, watering

needs vary somewhat depending on seed type.

Seeds provide pioneers in starting to plant. They serve as our new beginning. Itprovides

the first steps of reproduction in planting.

A theory comprising two basic concept is a nutrient flux model and is based upon studies

of plants at constant internal nutrient concentrations, where a formal mathematical derivation

shows that the relative growth rate is equal.

Deviations from equality are results of experimental insufficiencies and errors. The

second concept is based on the observation that growth rate is linearly related to the internal

nutrient concentration. Light and the plant genome, for example, influence the value of the

proportionality factor, but not the formal relationship between the internal nutrient concentration

and growth rate.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to know the effect of fertilizers on the growth of petchay plants and to seek

answers on the following

1. What would be the effect of organic fertilizer to the growth of petchay?

1.aIs there a significant effect of organic fertilizer to the growth of petchay?

2. What would be the effect of inorganic fertilizer to the growth of petchay?

2.aIs there a significant effect of inorganic fertilizer to the growth of petchay?

3. What is the difference between inorganic and organic fertilizer on the growth of


3.aIs there a significant difference between inorganic and organic fertilizer on the

growth of petchay?

Research hypothesis

1. There is no significant effect of organic fertilizer on the growth of petchay.

2. There is no significant effect of inorganic fertilizer on the growth of petchay.

3. There is no significance difference between inorganic and organic fertilizer on the growth

of petchay.
Significance of the Study

This study aims to provide reliable and justified information regarding the organic and

inorganic fertilizer. With the help of this study, we will be able to know which fertilizer is much

more effective to use whenever we are to plant petchay. The knowledge that we would acquire in

this study would help us to master the basic applications of fertilizer in our produce.

With the help of this study, we are able to use out our own biodegradable waste at home

as our fertilizer and that we are able to compare the difference of organic and inorganic fertilizer.
Scope and Delimitations

The study is merely focused on the effect and difference of organic and inorganic

fertilizer on the growth of petchay plant. Moreover, the experiment will only be done in two used


Chapter 3


Results and Discussion

Sagada is a place where most people have backyard farms wherein they plant vegetables

for their daily consumption. And along with this they also have animals like pigs and chickens.

However, it was observed that most of the people are using the processed fertilizers such as the

complete (NH⁺4) rather than using the readily available fertilizers in their backyard or the animal

wastes. Therefore, this study was conducted to help not only the local farmers but also the people

who have backyard gardens. In this chapter the result of the experiment will be presented and
discussed with the reference of the aim of the study, which is to identify what fertilizer, either

organic or in-organic, will have a better result to the growth of the petchay plant.

On the experiment involving the use of organic and in-organic fertilizer andpetchay

seeds. It could be observed that upon the planting of the petchay seeds those that were planted

using the organic fertilizer showed a faster growth compared to that of the plant with an NH⁺4

(complete fertilizer). Three days after the planting, the seeds with an organic fertilizer started to

sprout while it took four days for the seeds in the inorganic fertilizer to sprout. This information

became a starting point for us to further observe and monitor our plant until it continuously

grow.After two weeks, the seeds grow bigger and was ready for transplant. At this point, it was

still observable that the petchay plant with an organic fertilizer showed a better result than in the

inorganic fertilizer. And as it continues to grow until the time that it was ready to harvest the

plant in the organic fertilizer has shown a remarkable difference or a better result than that of the

in-organic fertilizer.

Therefore, it can be concluded that the result of our experiment coincides with the study

done by Reckinger, Nick; Carlson, Carrie. Wherein it states that the use of manure is better than

using inorganic or readily made fertilizers.While it is in contrast with the conclusion of the study

done by Ryu, et al. (2003), which states that,“Inorganic fertilizers have a better and faster effect

on plant productivity and growth as the nutrients are faster to break which can be immediately

used by these plants.” Because as was observed, the petchay plant with an organic fertilizer grew

faster and has larger leaves as can be seen in the picture below.

The table below shows the size of the petchay plant when it was ready to harvest.

Flowering Petchay

Amount of Water used: 1 L each

Days planted: 42 Days

Length Width

Organic Fertilizer 6.3 inches 2.5 inches

Inorganic Fertilizer 3.5 inches 2 inches

Organic Fertilizer

These were the result of the experiment when an organic fertilizer was used.



Chapter 3


On basis of the research findings of the study, the following conclusion and

recommendations are made.


1. It can be concluded that the studies and articles sited in the Review of Related Literature

are true because both organic and inorganic fertilizers affected the growth of the Petchay
plants. The organic fertilizer (pig manure) was more effective to the growth of Petchay

plants because the leaves were healthier than the inorganic fertilizer (complete/ NH⁺4).

2. The research that was conducted coincides with the study mentioned in the related

literature which states that the organic fertilizer also improves the soil by escalating the

soil’s ability to hold water and nutrients. The evidence of this can also be seen at the

effect of the organic fertilizer to the Petchay plant growth. In which it provided nutrients

that even made the plant healthier


1. Since the organic fertilizer has a better effect to the growth of the Petchay plant, farmers

may follow this kind of procedure and that they should maintain the moisture of the soil

through supplying it with enough water that the plants need as well as sunlight.

2. It is recommended that the farmers should put barb wire or any barrier from animal

destruction especially domestic animals like dogs, chickens and sometimes humans.

3. In crop production, is better to use organic fertilizer than the inorganic because inorganic

fertilizers that are chemically manufactured have adverse effect to the soil and to the

environment quality.
Reference List

Rai, N., Ashiya, P., & Rathore, D. (2014, May 5). Comparative Study of the Effect of Chemical

Fertilizers and Organic Fertilizers on Eisenia foetida. Retrieved November 12, 2018,



Islam, Md & Ferdous, Gulam & Akter, Ayasha & Hossain, Md & Nandwani, Dilip. (2017).

Effect of Organic, Inorganic Fertilizers and Plant Spacing on the Growth and Yield

of Cabbage. Agriculture. 7. 31. 10.3390/ agriculture7040031.

Ansari, A.A. and S.A. Ismail. 2001. A Case Study on Organic Farming in Uttar Pradesh. J. Soil

Biol. Ecol., 27: 25-27.

Reckinger, Nick; Carlson, Carrie;. (n.d.). Manure better Than Inorganic Fertilizer, According To

New Study. Retrieved March 21, 2019, from https:/


Researcher’s Biography

1. Diamara Gomowad Aguilba Father: Damaso Aguilba Jr.

Female Mother: Diane Gomowad Aguilba

Birth date: October 1, 2000


Elementary: Sagada Central School

Junior High School: Guinaoang National High School

Senior High School: Saint Mary’s School of Sagada


Academic Track Strand: Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

DiamaraAguilba is the first child among 5 children. She is an active student and a loving

sister to her younger brothers and sisters. She loves reading books and is a good player in board

games. She lives with her grandmother in Dagdag, Sagada.

2. Manja Capuyan Batnag Father: Doque Batnag

Female Mother: Sonia Capuyan Batnag

Birth date: June 15, 2001


Elementary: Natonin Central School

Junior High School: Saint Mary’s School of Sagada

Senior High School: Saint Mary’s School of Sagada

Academic Track Strand: Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

Manja Batnag is an active member of Youth Ministry. She is the last child among 4 children.

She is a good singer and a helpful daughter. She is always willing to help no matter who and no

matter what. Moreover, she loves reading fiction stories and drawing anime.

3. Carrizz Laurie Wasian Daysa Father: Dennis Daysa

Female Mother: Olive Wasian Daysa

Birth date: June 19, 2000

Elementary: Sagada Central School

Junior High School: Sagada National High School


Senior High School: Saint Mary’s School of Sagada

Academic Track Strand: Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

Carrizz Laurie Daysa was born in Baguio but raised in Sagada. She is a simple

student and is good in Mathematics. She loves dogs and loves playing the piano. During her free

time, she eats and sleeps that is evident with her current size.

4. Heather Page-et Father: Gabrielle Page-et

Female Mother: Isabel Tauli

Birth date: January 7, 2000


Elementary: Sagada Central School

Junior High School: Saint Mary’s School of Sagada

Senior High School: Saint Mary’s School of Sagada

Academic Track Strand: Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

Heather Page-et was born and raised in Sagada by her parents. She is an average student. She

is a volleyball player and has represented the school in the District, Provincial, and even

CARAA Meet. She works part time jobs to help her parents in her in schooling. She has a great

attitude towards life and works herself for her future.

5. Conyap Kate Bayang Solang Father: LangbaySolang

Female Mother: Ivy Joy Bayang

Birth date: February 18, 2000


Elementary: Sagada Central School

Junior High School: Sagada National High School

Senior High School: Saint Mary’s School of Sagada

Academic Track Strand: Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics

Conyap Kate Solang is the third child among 5 children. She loves to read and write

articles, afterwards she reflects on it. She is good and is a kind person to other students. She is an

active student during flag ceremony. She is a softball player and she loves other outdoor games.

She respects other people and considers other people’s ideas more than her own.