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BIOLOGY: AN INTRODUCTION  Scientific method

 Science - a precise and orderly process by which

- from the Latin words: information is obtained
scire “to know” - logical way to solve a problem or answer a
scientia “knowledge” question
- a systematized body of knowledge derived from
scientific methods  Steps in the Scientific Method
1. Define the problem
 Science attempts to: 2. Observe and collect data
- answer questions 3. Form a hypothesis
- explain phenomena (sing. phenomenon) 4. Experiment
- establish theories and create laws 5. Record and interpret data
- seek relationship between things 6. Draw conclusion
- discover things 7. Publish results

 Limitations of science:  Steps in the Scientific Method

- cannot answer all questions 1. Define the problem
- requires time; cannot be rushed - curiosity drives scientific inquiry
- lacks absolute certainty - includes questioning
- cannot make moral or value judgements - delimit the problem
2. Observe and collect data
 Divisions of Science - observation involves the use of the senses
 Physical science - facts, figures, and other evidence gained
-deals with matter and energy through observation are called data
 Biological science - data can be from scientific papers, journals,
-deals with living things books, consultation from experts, etc.
- inference is a logical interpretation based on
 Divisions of Science observation or prior knowledge
 Pure science 3. Form a hypothesis (hypotheses pl.)
- answers questions for the sake of knowledge - a trial answer to the problem
itself - must be testable
- Basic research - can be accepted or rejected
 Applied science 4. Experiment
- uses knowledge in basic research to solve - will either support or disprove the
practical problems hypothesis
- Technology - all the factors that can change are called
 gypsy moth - variables: manipulated or responding
- the larvae attack trees and shrubs - all other variables must be controlled to
- females produce pheromones that can be show the changes
detected miles away by males  Variables
- sex attractant is used in traps  Manipulated or independent
- pest population is controlled - the variable that is changed
 Responding or dependent
- the variable that is expected to change
- the variable being measured
5. Record and interpret data Mammalogy mammals
- data are often organized in tables or graphs Conchology shells
- data can be qualitative or quantitative Parasitology parasites
6. Draw conclusion Herpetology reptiles
- a conclusion states whether the data supported Mycology fungi
the hypothesis or showed it to be false
- if other experiments continue to support the  Contributors to Biological Knowledge
hypothesis, it becomes a theory
- a scientific law is a statement describing a Aristotle – the father of modern biology
general truth Galen – systematized the science of anatomy
7. Publish results Andreas Vesalius – study of human anatomy
- accurate report of research methods, results, William Harvey – showed that blood circulates
and conclusions Anton van Leewenhoek – observed organisms
- an obligation of a researcher with a microscope
- exchange of information speeds up scientific Carolus Linnaeus – developed a system of
progress taxonomy
Louis Pasteur – developed vaccine for rabies
 Branches of Biology and anthrax
Botany plants Gregor Mendel – laid the foundation of genetics
Zoology animals Charles Darwin – established the concept of
Anatomy structure (animals) natural selection
Taxonomy classification Alexander Fleming – discovered penicillin
Cytology cells Thomas Hunt Morgan – established the gene
Genetics heredity theory
Physiology function James Watson and Francis Crick – developed a
Microbiology microorganism model of the DNA
Ecology relationships
Embryology development  Importance of Biology

 Branches of Biology - health and well being

Evolution origin of species - medicine
Paleontology fossils - agriculture
Morphology form and structure - production of materials
Biochemistry chemistry of life - forensics
Biogeography distribution - environmental stewardship
Cryology low temperature - sports and leisure
Ethology animal behavior - aesthetics
Virology virus - warfare and defense
Pathology diseases
Pharmacology drugs

 According to the Kind of Organism Studied:

Entomology insects
Helminthology worms
Ichthyology fish
Ornithology birds