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PLATE NO.

:
Sheet No.:
CE 52: Waterfront Structures
and Bridges Date Started Date Submitted:
nd
2 Semester S.Y. 2018-2019 Feb. 4, 2019 Feb. 11, 2019
Plate Title: Prepared by: James Daryl A. Alaban
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
Instructor: Engr. William M. Loreto

1. FOUNDATION ENGINEERING- A foundation is defined as that part of the structure that


supports the weight of the structure and transmits the load to underlying soil or rock.
Foundation engineering applies the knowledge of soil mechanics, rock mechanics,
geology, and structural engineering to the design and construction of foundations for
buildings and other structures. The most basic aspect of foundation engineering deals with
the selection of the type of foundation, such as using a shallow or deep foundation
system. Another important aspect of foundation engineering involves the development of
design parameters, such as the bearing capacity of the foundation.

2. SHALLOW FOUNDATION- is a type of building foundation that transfers building


loads to the earth very near to the surface, rather than to a subsurface layer or a range of
depths as does a deep foundation. Shallow foundations include spread footing
foundations, mat-slab foundations, slab-on-grade foundations, pad foundations, rubble
trench foundations and earth bag foundations. It is usually embedded about a meter or so
into the soil.

3. PAD FOUNDATION- are generally shallow foundations, but can be deep depending on
the ground conditions. They are a form of spread foundation formed by rectangular,
square, or sometimes circular concrete ‘pads’ that support localized single-
point loads such as structural columns, groups of columns or framed structures.
This load is then spread by the pad to the bearing layer of soil or rock below. Pad
foundations can also be used to support ground beams. They are generally of a uniform
thickness, but sometimes the upper face may be sloped or stepped. Their plan shape will
depend on the nature of the applied load and the allowable bearing capacity of the layers
below. Their thickness must be sufficient to distribute the loadacross the plan shape. They
are generally reinforced on all but the smallest structures, with the reinforcement allowing
higher loads to be imposed and the construction of shallower pads which require
less excavation and use less concrete. The arrangement of pad foundations will vary
depending on the nature of the structure they are supporting, the loads imposed, the
allowable bearing capacity of the layers below and the space available on site. They may
be:
A series of discrete, well-separated pads.
Balanced base pads that support more than one point load.
Continuous pads, where there are a number of point loads close together.
Pad and beam, where a series of pads support a continuous beam.

Pad foundations can be selected as they do not require much excavation, and are
generally suitable where the bearing capacity of ground is sufficient at relatively low
depths. However, they can be large in plan shape and may not be effective against
differential settlement, uplift forces or wind forces.
PLATE NO.:
Sheet No.:
CE 52: Waterfront Structures
and Bridges Date Started Date Submitted:
nd
2 Semester S.Y. 2018-2019 Feb. 4, 2019 Feb. 11, 2019
Plate Title: Prepared by: James Daryl A. Alaban
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
Instructor: Engr. William M. Loreto

Pad Foundation Sample Problem:

A 400 x 400mm concrete column has an axial characteristic load of 700 kN (980 kN
design) with an accompanying characteristic bending moment of 35 kNm (50 kNm design)
along one axis only. Check to see if a 1.85m x 1.85m x 0.6m deep pad foundation can
support the applied loads. The founding soil stratum has a bearing capacity of 250 kN/m2
and the axial load includes the self-weight of the foundation and soil surcharge. Any
reinforcement specified will be applied in both directions. Concrete grade to be C30/70.
PLATE NO.:
Sheet No.:
CE 52: Waterfront Structures
and Bridges Date Started Date Submitted:
nd
2 Semester S.Y. 2018-2019 Feb. 4, 2019 Feb. 11, 2019
Plate Title: Prepared by: James Daryl A. Alaban
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
Instructor: Engr. William M. Loreto
PLATE NO.:
Sheet No.:
CE 52: Waterfront Structures
and Bridges Date Started Date Submitted:
nd
2 Semester S.Y. 2018-2019 Feb. 4, 2019 Feb. 11, 2019
Plate Title: Prepared by: James Daryl A. Alaban
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
Instructor: Engr. William M. Loreto

3. STRIP FOUNDATION- Strip foundations can be used for most subsoils, but are most
suitable for soil which is of relatively good bearing capacity. They are particularly suited
to light structural loading such as those found in many low-to-medium rise domestic
buildings - where mass concrete strip foundations can be used. In other
situations, reinforced concrete may be required. Older buildings may have brick strip
foundations. Very broadly, the size and position of strip foundations is typically related to
the wall’s overall width. The depth a traditional strip foundation is generally equal to or
greater than the overall wall width, and the foundation width is generally three times the
width of the supported wall. This results in the load being transmitted at 45º from the wall
base to the soil. Approved document A of Building Regulations defines minimum widths
for strip footings based on the type of ground and load-bearing wall, although it is
generally advisable to consult a structural engineer when designing foundations.
PLATE NO.:
Sheet No.:
CE 52: Waterfront Structures
and Bridges Date Started Date Submitted:
nd
2 Semester S.Y. 2018-2019 Feb. 4, 2019 Feb. 11, 2019
Plate Title: Prepared by: James Daryl A. Alaban
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
Instructor: Engr. William M. Loreto

The underside of strip foundations should be deep enough to avoid frost action; for
example, at least 450 mm unless they are bearing on rock, and at least 1 m on high
shrinkage clays. Deep strip foundations may be necessary where soil with a
suitable bearing capacity is deeper. Wide strip foundations may be required where
the soil is soft or of a low bearing capacity, so as to spread the load over a larger area.
Wide strip foundations will typically require reinforcement. Where there are higher
localised loads, such as columns, pad foundations may be used. See pad foundations for
more information Where ground conditions are poor, settlement is likely, or where it may
be impractical to create individual strip or pad foundations for a large number of
individual loads, raft foundations may be used. See Raft foundations for more information.
Where the bearing capacity of the surface soils is not adequate to support
the loads imposed by the structure, deep foundations such as pile foundations may be
used. See Pile foundationsfor more information. Larger or more complex buildings may
involve the use of a number of different types of foundation.
PLATE NO.:
Sheet No.:
CE 52: Waterfront Structures
and Bridges Date Started Date Submitted:
nd
2 Semester S.Y. 2018-2019 Feb. 4, 2019 Feb. 11, 2019
Plate Title: Prepared by: James Daryl A. Alaban
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
Instructor: Engr. William M. Loreto

4. RAFT FOUNDATION- Raft foundations (sometimes known as Mat Foundations) are a


large concrete slab which can support a number of columns and walls. The slab is spread
out under the entire building or at least a large part of it which lowers the contact pressure
compared to the traditionally used strip or trench footings. Because of the speed and
volume of houses required after the second world war, the raft foundation was widely
used. The raft foundation was cheaper, easier to install and most importantly, did not
require as much excavation as the usual strip foundations. When the Building Regulations
were introduced in 1965 there were no generic rules for raft foundations as there were for
strip foundations. This meant that to use a raft foundation, it had to be designed and
approved by Building Control. This made the entire operation much more difficult and time
consuming so raft foundations became less widely used almost overnight.

Rafts are most often used these days when the strata is unstable or (because of this) a
normal strip foundation would cover more than 50% of the ground area beneath the
building. There are also situations (usually in areas where mining has occurred) where
there may be areas of movement in the strata. A raft foundation spreads the weight of the
building over the whole ground floor area of that building. The raft is laid on a hardcore, or
scalping bed and usually thickened at the edges, especially in very poor ground. Rafts are
most suitable when the ground is of good load bearing capacity and little work is required
to get a solid foundation.
PLATE NO.:
Sheet No.:
CE 52: Waterfront Structures
and Bridges Date Started Date Submitted:
nd
2 Semester S.Y. 2018-2019 Feb. 4, 2019 Feb. 11, 2019
Plate Title: Prepared by: James Daryl A. Alaban
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
Instructor: Engr. William M. Loreto
PLATE NO.:
Sheet No.:
CE 52: Waterfront Structures
and Bridges Date Started Date Submitted:
nd
2 Semester S.Y. 2018-2019 Feb. 4, 2019 Feb. 11, 2019
Plate Title: Prepared by: James Daryl A. Alaban
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
Instructor: Engr. William M. Loreto

5. DEEP FOUNDATIONS- are structural elements that transfer loads through weak,
compressible soils to underlying competent soils or rock. Whether an open site or inside
an existing structure, Hayward Baker can provide the optimal deep foundation solution for
your project.

6. PILES- Pile, in building construction, a post like foundation member used from
prehistoric times. In modern civil engineering, piles of timber, steel, or concrete are driven
into the ground to support a structure; bridge piers may be supported on groups of large-
diameter piles. On unstable soils, piles are indispensable building supports and may also
be used on stable ground when exceptionally large structural loads are involved. Piles are
driven into the ground by pile drivers, machines consisting usually of a high frame with
appliances for raising and dropping a pile hammer or for supporting and guiding a stream
or air hammer.

Sample Problem:

1. A rectangular footing is acted by a vertical load of 8060 kN and two horizontal forces of
1500 kN in both the long and the short directions with a distance of 0.6 m from the ground
surface. Determine: 1. The base pressure at the four corners if the footing was on soil. 2.
Pile loads at the four corners if the footing was on piles whose pattern as shown.
PLATE NO.:
Sheet No.:
CE 52: Waterfront Structures
and Bridges Date Started Date Submitted:
nd
2 Semester S.Y. 2018-2019 Feb. 4, 2019 Feb. 11, 2019
Plate Title: Prepared by: James Daryl A. Alaban
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
Instructor: Engr. William M. Loreto
PLATE NO.:
Sheet No.:
CE 52: Waterfront Structures
and Bridges Date Started Date Submitted:
nd
2 Semester S.Y. 2018-2019 Feb. 4, 2019 Feb. 11, 2019
Plate Title: Prepared by: James Daryl A. Alaban
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
Instructor: Engr. William M. Loreto

2. For the group of friction piles shown; determine the settlement of the clay layers.
PLATE NO.:
Sheet No.:
CE 52: Waterfront Structures
and Bridges Date Started Date Submitted:
nd
2 Semester S.Y. 2018-2019 Feb. 4, 2019 Feb. 11, 2019
Plate Title: Prepared by: James Daryl A. Alaban
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
Instructor: Engr. William M. Loreto

3. Determine the settlement of the group of point bearing piles shown.


PLATE NO.:
Sheet No.:
CE 52: Waterfront Structures
and Bridges Date Started Date Submitted:
nd
2 Semester S.Y. 2018-2019 Feb. 4, 2019 Feb. 11, 2019
Plate Title: Prepared by: James Daryl A. Alaban
FOUNDATION ENGINEERING
Instructor: Engr. William M. Loreto