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000. Tematica pentru limba engleza
Tematica pentru limba engleza pentru admiterea la Academia de Politie

I. MORFOLOGIE

1. SUBSTANTIVUL:

Numar
Caz
Substantive cu prepozitii obligatorii
Substantive collective

2. ARTICOLUL:

Hotarat
Nehotarat
Zero
Cazuri de omisiune

3. ADJECTIVUL:

Tipuri, grade de comparatie


Comparatia intensive
Adjective cu prepozitii obligatorii

4. PRONUMELE:

Personal
Reflexiv
Reciproc
Posesiv
Demonstrativ
Relativ
Nehotarat

5. NUMERALUL:

Cardinal
Ordinal
Multiplicativ

6. VERBUL:

Modurile si timpurile diatezei active


Diateza pasiva
Verbele cauzative (have, get)
Constructii cu subjonctivul
Verbe modale
Modalitatea
Constructii cu infinitivul si cu participiul/ (Gerund)
Verbe cu prepozitii obligatorii
“Phrasal verbs”

7. ADVERBUL:

Tipuri
Locutiuni
Ordinea adverbelor de loc, mod si timp in propozitie
Folosirea adverbelor in pozitie accentuata la inceputul propozitiei
Grade de comparatie

8. CUVINTE DE LEGATURA:

Prepozitii
Conjunctii
Locutiuni

II. SINTAXA
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1. PROPOZITIA SI FRAZA:

Ordinea cuvintelor in propozitii


Acordul
Propozitii declarative, interrogative, exclamative, imperative
Tag-questions (intrebari disjunctive)
Propozitii subordinate
Propozitia conditional (I, II, III), constructii conditionale mixte
Propozitia temporala
Concordanta timpurilor
Vorbire directa si indirecta
Inversiunea
Constructii emfatice
Constructii cu “IT” si “THERE”

III. ELEMENTE DE VOCABULAR

1. Colocatii
2. Sinonime
3. Antonime
4. Omonime
5. Paronime
6. Polisemie, familii de cuvinte
7. Cuvinte si expresii idiomatice (idioms, similes, do vs make, proverbs)

00. The Tenses


01. The Tenses: Present Simple vs. Present Continuous

02. The Tenses: Verbs NOT normally used with -ING

03. The Tenses: Present Perfect Simple vs. Past Simple

04. The Tenses: Present Perfect Continuous

05. The Tenses: Past Continuous

06. The Tenses: Past Perfect Simple vs. Past Perfect Continuous

07. The Tenses: The Future

08. The Tenses: The Sequence of Tenses

01. The Tenses: Present Simple vs. Present Continuous


The Present Simple
Form: VB. Short Inf./ pers.III sg. +(e)s

+ I drink/ -I don’t drink/ ? Do I drink?

+ He/ she/ it drinks/ -He/ she/ it doesn’t drink/ ? Does he drink?

Orthography for –es

- Vb.+ cons. + y => vb. + cons. + i+ -es (Verbele terminate in -y precedat de o consoana schimba pe -y in -i si adauga -es la
persoana a III-a singular)

to cry => He cries / to try => he tries

- Vb. + vowel + y + s (Verbele terminate in -y precedat de o vocala adauga -s la persoana a III-a singular)

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He plays

- Vb. + -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -zz + -es (Verbele terminate in -ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -zzadauga -es la persoana a III-a singular)

He kisses

He wishes

He watches

- Vb. –o +es (Verbele terminate in -o adauga -es la persoana a III-a singular)

He goes

He does

USE:

1. Permanent actions/situations (actiuni/ situatii permanente):

E.g. She lives in Australia. (Ea locuieste in Australia.)

He ... fast cars. (Lui ii plac masinile rapide.)

a) likes

b) is liking

c) like

d) will be liking

2. Universal truths, laws of nature and proverbs (adevaruri generale, legi ale naturii si
proverbe):

E.g. Water freezes at 0 Celsius degrees. (Apa ingheata la 0 grade Celsius.)

The Earth ... round the Sun. (Pamantul se invarte in jurul Soarelui.)

a) moves

b) is moving

c) will move

d) move

Taylors ... clothes. (Croitorii fac haine.)

a) are making

b) make

c) makes

d) are being made

A friend in need ... a friend indeed. (Prietenul la nevoiese cunoaste.)

a) is

b) is being

c) will be

d) is been

3. Repeated actions (actiuni repetate):

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S + ADV of Frequency + P -> (se situeaza intre subiect si predicat):

Adverbs of frequency: often (adesea), rarely (rareori), seldom (rareori), usually (de obicei), frequently (frecvent),
occasionally (ocazional), sometimes (cateodata), always (intotdeauna) -> stau un fata verbului

E.g. She often talks on the phone. (Ea adesea vorbeste la telefon.)

!!!!!!! S + TO BE + Adv. of Frequency -> (ATENTIE: adverbele de mai sus se situeaza DUPA VERBUL TO BE)

E.g. She is often late. (Ea este adesea in intarziere.)

She ... with her friends on the phone. (Ea vorbeste cu prietenii ei la telefon de obicei.)

a) usually talks

b) is usually talking

c) talks usually

d) usually is talking

My mother ... in a good mood. (Mama mea este de obicei in buna dispozitie.)

a) usually is

b) is usually

c) is usually being

d) is being usually

S + P + Adv. of Frequency

Adverbs of frequency: once/twice a day/week/month/year (odata/ de doua ori pe zi/ saptamana/ luna/ an) -> (se situeaza la
finalul propozitiei):

e.g. We meet twice a week. (Noi ne intalnim de doua ori pe saptamana.)

S+P+ Adv. of Time -> (se situeaza la finalul propozitiei):

Every day/week/month/year (in fiecare zi/ saptamana/ luna/ an), every other day (din doua in doua zile), every other
week/month/year (din doua in doua saptamani/ luni/din doi in doi ani), every now and then (din cand in cand), from time to
time (din cand in cand), every once in a while (din cand in cand), on Sundays (duminicile), on Tuesdays (martile), at times
(cateodata), at the weekends (in weekenduri), as a rule (de regula)

E.g. She visits us every week. (Ea ne viziteaza in fiecare saptamana)

He ... her car from time to time. (El conduce masina ei din cand in cand.)

a) is driving

b) drives

c) drive

d) will be driven

4. Timetables (orare):

E.g. The train leaves at 5 tomorrow. (Trenul pleaca la 5 maine.)

The plane ... at 8:30 in the morning. (Avionul decoleaza la 8:30 dimineata.)

a) takes off

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b) is taking off

c) will take off

d) will be taking off

The shop opens at 7 a.m. and closes at 8 p.m. (Magazinul se deschide la 7 dimineata si se inchide la 8 seara.)

5. Radio or T.V. sports commentaries (comentarii sportive radio sau TV):

E.g. Ronaldo passes to Messi who scores. (Ronaldo ii paseaza lui Messi care inscrie.)

6. Experiments, demonstrations, explanations (experimente, demonstratii, explicatii):

E.g. Now I mix the milk with the sugar and add a drop of vanilla essence. (Acum amestec laptele cu zaharul si adaug
o picatura de esenta de vanilie.)

From here you ... the road and then ... left. (De aici traversezi strada si apoi o iei la stanga.)

a) cross/ turn

b) are crossing/ are turning

c) will cross/ will turn

d) cross/ are turning

7. Exclamations (exclamatii):

E.g. Here/ There + Pronoun + P! -> Daca subiectul este un pronume atunci el sta in fata verbului.

Here she is!/ There he goes! (Iat-o!/ Iata-l ca pleaca!)

Here/ There + P + Noun! -> Daca subiectul este un substantiv atunci el sta dupa verb.

Here comes Mother!/ There goes the bus! (Iata ca vine mama!/ Iata ca pleaca autobuzul!)

8. Stage directions or narrations/ successive actions (indicatii de regie sau naratiuni/ actiuni succesive):

E.g. He stirs the fire, arranges some books, is restless, shivers slightly and settles to read.

(El atata focul, aranjeaza niste carti, este nelinistit, tremura usor si se aseaza sa citeasca.)

9. Assertions (verbs used in the first person to perform an action)(asertiuni => verbe folosite la persoana I
pentru a realiza o actiune):

accept (a accepta), agree (a fi deacord), apologise (a-si cere scuze), admit (a recunoaste), congratulate (a felicita),
declare (a declara), deny (a nega), beg (a implora), disagree (a nu fi deacord), forbid (a interzice), forgive (a ierta),
guarantee (a garanta), insist (a insista), intend (a intentiona), invite (a invita), order (a ordona cuiva), predict (a prezice),
promise (a promite), recommend (a recomanda), refuse (a refuza), request (a cere), suggest (a sugera), thank (a
multumi), warn (a avertiza)

E.g. I apologise for any inconveniences caused. (Imi cer scuze pentru orice neplacere cauzata.)

(I perform the act of apologizing)

10. Used in IF Clauses and Time Clauses (folosit in propozitii subordonate conditionale si temporale):

E.g. If I have time, I will visit you later. (Daca voi avea timp, o sa te vizitez mai tarziu.)

When she has time, she will visit you. (Cand ea va avea timp, o sa te viziteze.)

!!!!!! NEVER USE WILL or WOULD IN TIME CLAUSES (NU FOLOSITI NICIODATA WILL SAU WOULD IN SUBORDONATE
CONDITIONALE SAU TEMPORALE)

11. Newspaper headlines (titluri de ziare):


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E.g. Plane crushes in fog. (Avion se prabuseste in ceata.)

M.P. (Member of Parliament) demands measures. (Membru al Parlamentului cere masuri.)

12. Used with verbs of communication (folosit cu verbe de comunicare):

Forget (a uita), hear (a auzi), gather (a intelege), understand (a intelege), learn (a afla), tell(a spune)

E.g. I hear you’ve married. (Aud ca te-ai maritat.)

Peter ... me you’re engaged. (Peter imi spune ca esti logodita.)

a) tells

b) is telling

c) will tell

d) tell

The Present Continuous


Form: Present of TO BE + vb.-ing

+ I am drinking

- I am not drinking/ I’m not drinking

? Am I drinking?

+ You are drinking

-You aren’t drinking

? Are you drinking?

+ He/she/it is drinking

-He isn’t drinking

? Is he drinking?

Orthography for –ing

- final consonant doubled when (consoana finala se dubleaza cand):

vb. + vowel (stressed + short) + cons. + cons. (are in fata o vocala scurta si accentuata)

E.g. beg – begging (a implora)/ begin - beginning (a incepe)

vb. + -l + l (verbul se termina in l)

E.g. cancel - cancelling (a anula)

vb. – ap/ -ip (first syllable stressed) (cand verbul se termina in -ap sau -ip iar prima silaba din verb este accentuata)

E.g. kidnap (a rapi) – kidnapping/ worship (a venera)– worshipping

- vb. – ic + K + -ing (se adauga un k daca verbul se termina in -ic)


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E.g. frolic (a face glume) – frolicking/ panic (a panica) – panicking

- final –e disappears: e.g. have (a avea) – having (-e final dispare)

- final –y does not change: play (a juca)- playing/ cry (a plange) - crying (-y final nu se schimba niciodata)

- vb. –ie => vb.–y + -ing: die (a muri) - dying/ lie (a minti) - lying/ vie (a rivaliza) - vying (verbele terminate in -ie il transforma in -
y)

USE:

1. Temporary actions (actiuni temporare):

Adverbs: today (azi), this week/ month/ year (saptamana aceasta/ luna aceasta/ anul acesta)

E.g. He usually drinks coffee, but he is drinking tea this week. (De obicei el bea cafea, dar saptamana asta el bea ceai.)

Jane ... my cat this week while I am on holiday. (Jane are grija de pisica mea cat timp eu sunt in vacanta.)

a) looks after

b) is looking after

c) will look after

d) is looked after

2. Action in progress NOW (actiune in progres in momentul vorbirii):

Adverbs: NOW (acum)/ RIGHT NOW (chiar acum)/ AT THE MOMENT (pe moment)/ IN THIS MOMENT (in acest moment):

E.g. They are cleaning their room now. (Ei fac curat in camera lor acum.)

Why is the baby crying (now)? He is hungry. (De ce plange copilul? Ii este foame.)

The man who is passing by (now) is my father. (Barbatul care trece <acum> pe langa noi este tatal meu.)

They are sleeping at the moment. (Ei dorm in acest moment.)

She seems very happy. Why ...? (Ea pare foarte fericita. De ce zambeste?)

a) does she smile

b) is she smiling

c) she is smiling

d) she smiles

3. Temporary behaviour (comportament temporar):

Use TO BE with -ing (folositi verbul TO BE - a fi - cu terminatia -ing)

E.g. She is usually very polite, but today she is being rude to everybody. (Ea este foarte politicoasa de obicei, dar azi ea
este nepoliticoasa cu toata lumea.)

I find it very strange that she ... so nice with metoday when she ... not. (Gasesc ca este foarte ciudat ca ea este asa de
draguta cu mine azi cand de obicei nu este.)

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a) is being/ usually is

b) is/ is usually being

c) is being/ is usually

d) is/ usually is being

4. Action that annoys the speaker (actiune care enerveaza vorbitorul):

Adverbs: always, forever, continually, constantly (se folosesc intre TO BE si verbul cu -ing)

E.g. She is forever talking on the phone. (Ea vorbeste incontinuu la telefon.)

My little brother ... my toys. (Fratele meu mai mic imi ia jucariile in continuu.)

a) continually takes

b) is continually taking

c) is taking continually

d) takes continually

5. Changing situations (situatii in schimbare):

Adverbs: gradually (gradat), more and more (din ce in ce mai)

E.g. The weather is getting worse and worse. (Vremea este din ce in ce mai rea.)

It ... dark (more and more). (Se intuneca din ce in ce mai mult.)

a) is getting

b) gets

c) will be getting

d) is got

6. Action that extends over some time including the moment of speaking (actiune care se extine pe o preioada de timp
incluzand momentul vorbirii):

Adverbs: this week/ month/ year/ semester/ these days (saptamana aceasta/ luna aceasta/ anul acesta/ semestrul acesta/
zilele astea)

E.g. They are studying hard this semester. (Ei studiaza din greu semestrul acesta.)

We ... English this year. (Noi invatam engleza anul acesta.)

a) are learning

b) learn

c) learning

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d) are learned

7. Immediate personal plans, intentions or arrangements for the future (planuri personale imediate de viitor, intentii sau
aranjamente pentru viitor):

E.g. I am meeting Tom tomorrow. (Ma intalnesc cu Tom maine.)

Jane ... to work by bus tomorrow. (Jane merge cu autobuzul la servici maine.)

a) is going

b) goes

c) will be gone

d) is gone

8. Actions on the point of happening (actiuni pe punctul de a se intampla): folosim just (tocmai)

E.g. Hurry up! The train is just leaving. (Grabeste-te! Trenul tocmai pleaca.)

They ... the restaurant so we cannot go eat there anymore. (Ei tocamai inchid restaurantul asa ca nu mai putem sa
mergem sa mancam acolo.)

a) just close

b) are just closing

c) have just closing

d) are closing just

PRESENT SIMPLE OVERVIEW


1. Permanent situations
2. General truths/ laws of nature/ proverbs
3. Repeated actions: always / often/ seldom/ usually/ never/ rarely/ frequently/ occasionally/ sometimes/ EVERY .../ from
time to time/ every once in a while/ once a day, week, year/ at the weekends/ on Mondays/etc.
4. Timetables
5. Sports commentaries
6. Narrations
7. Exclamations
8. Assertions: invite/ thank/ apologise/ agree/ etc.
9. Time Clauses/ IF Clauses
10. Demonstrations
11. Newspaper headlines
12. Used with verbs of communication: Forget, hear, gather, understand, learn, tell

PRESENT CONTINUOUS OVERVIEW


1. Temporary action
2. Temporary behaviour
3. Actions happening NOW/ RIGHT NOW/ AT THE MOMENT
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4. Annoying actions: always/ forever/ continually/ constantly
5. Personal plans
6. Changing actions
7. Action on the point of happening: JUST

02. The Tenses: Verbs NOT normally used with -ING


1. Verbs of cognition/ thinking (verbe de cognitie/ gandire) :
e.g. believe (a crede), know (a sti), think (a gandi), contemplate (a contempla), imagine (a-si imagina), mean (a insemna),
remember (a-si aminti), suppose (a presupune), forget (a uita), guess (a ghici/ a crede), understand (a intelege), realise (a-
si da seama), recognise (a recunoaste), doubt (a se indoi), expect (a se astepta), feel (= think - a crede), intend (a
intentiona), see (= understand - a intelege)

I think you are right. (Cred ca ai dreptate. - atunci cand verbulTHINK arata opinia cuiva sau ce crede cineva despre
ceva, el nu se foloseste cu -ing)

I don’t think she’ll come. (Nu cred ca ea va veni.)

What do you think? (Ce crezi?)

I understand what you’re saying. (Inteleg ce spui.)

I want to do it like this. I see. (Vreau sa faca asta asa. Inteleg.)

I realise it’s a bit too much. (Imi dau seama ca e umpic prea mult.)

I am thinking about moving abroad. (Ma gandesc sa ma mut in strainatate.) (Atunci cand verbulTHINK exprima ideea de
cantarire a situatiei, el se poate folosi cu -ing)

(I am considering the idea seriously) (Cantaresc situatia serios.)

What are you thinking about? (La ce te gandesti?)

I have been considering taking up riding. (Am luat in considerare sa ma apuc de calarit.)

You are imagining things, this house is not haunted. (Iti imaginezi lucruri, casa asta nu este bantuita.)

2. Verbs of perception (verbe de perceptie) :


e.g. see (a vedea), hear (a auzi), smell (a mirosi), taste (a gusta), feel (a simti), seem (a parea), appear (a parea), notice (a
observa), look (= seem - a parea)

I see them coming. (I have the ability) (Ii vad venind.)

She’s seeing the doctor tomorrow. (she has an appointment) (Ea are programare la doctor maine.)

Mary is seeing a new guy at present. (she is going out with him) (Mary se vede cu un tip nou in prezent.)

The tourists are seeing the castle. (they are visiting it) (Turistii viziteaza castelul.)

You’re seeing things, there is no ghost here. (you have the impression you see something) (Ai vedenii, nu este nici o
fantoma aici.)

She is seeing him off to the station. (she is accompanying him there) (Ea il conduce pe el la gara.)

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Daca verbul SEE exprima perceptie senzoriala atunci nu se foloseste cu -ing, dar daca este folosit cu alte sensuri decat
cel de perceptie, atunci se poate folosi cu -ing)

I hear you loud and clear, you don’t have to shout. (I have the ability) (Te aud clar si bine, nu trebuie sa tipi.)

The judge is hearing the witness.(Judecatorul audiaza martorul.)

Daca verbul HEAR exprima perceptie senzoriala atunci nu se foloseste cu -ing, dar daca este folosit cu alte sensuri decat
cel de perceptie, atunci se poate folosi cu -ing)

These roses smell very nice. (they have a nice smell) (Trandafirii miros foarte frumos.)

The room smells of roses. (involuntary action) (Camera miroase a trandafiri.)

Why are you smelling the soup? Has it gone off? (why are you checking the smell/ intentional action) (De ce mirosi supa?
S-a stricat?)

Daca verbul SMELL exprima o actiune involuntara de a mirosi (ca atunci cand intri undeva si mirosul din acel loc este simtit
involuntar) sau o calitate permanenta atunci nu se foloseste cu -ing, dar daca este folosit pentru a exprima o actiune
voita, pe care o fac in mod voluntar, intentionat, atunci se poate folosi cu -ing)

This stew tastes delicious. (its flavour is good) (Aceasta tocana are gust delicios.)

I taste cream in this cake. (there is cream in this/ involuntary action) (Pot sa simt gustul de smantana din aceasta
prajitura.)

My mother is tasting the food for salt. (deliberate/ intentional action) (Mama mea gusta supa de sare. -> ca sa vada daca
este sarata.)

Daca verbul TASTE exprima o actiune involuntara de a gusta (ca atunci cand mananci ceva si simti gustul ingredientelor)
sau o calitate permanenta atunci nu se foloseste cu -ing, dar daca este folosit pentru a exprima o actiune voita, pe care o
fac in mod voluntar, intentionat, atunci se poate folosi cu -ing)

This dress feels like velvet. (it has the texture of velvet/ involuntary action) (Rochia aceasta se simte de parca este
catifea.)

He is feeling her arm to see if it’s broken. (he’s touching the arm intentionally) (El pipaie bratul ei ca sa vada daca este
rupt.)

Daca verbul FEEL exprima o actiune involuntara de a simti (ca atunci cand atingi ceva cu pielea si simti textura) sau o
calitate permanenta atunci nu se foloseste cu -ing, dar daca este folosit pentru a exprima o actiune voita, pe care o fac in
mod voluntar, intentionat, atunci se poate folosi cu -ing)

It appears the villa is empty. (it looks/ seems like it) (Se pare ca vila este goala.)

The actors are appearing at the Palladium. (they are performing) (Actorii joaca pe scena la Teatrul Palladium.)

Daca verbul APPEAR are sensul de a se parea atunci nu se foloseste cu -ing, dar daca are sensul de a aparea pe
scena, a juca pe scena atunci se poate folosi cu -ing)

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I’m noticing that she doesn’t say much.

I notice that she doesn’t say much. (Observ ca ea nu spune multe. -> verbul NOTICE nu se poate folosi niciodata cu -
ing)

It looks as if it’s going to snow. (it appears) (Se pare ca o sa ninga.) (Cand verbul LOOK are sensul de a se parea atunci el
nu se poate folosi cu -ing)

They are looking at the painting. (they’re examining it) (Ei se uita la tablou.) (Cand verbul LOOK aresensul de a se uita
atunci el se poate folosi cu -ing)

3. Verbs of feeling or wanting (verbe care arata sentimente si dorinte) :


e.g. adore (a adora), desire (a dori), despise (a dispretui), detest (a detesta), dislike (a displacea), envy (a invidia), hate (a
uri), like (a placea), love (a iubi), loathe (a dispretui), need (a avea nevoie), pity (a-i fi mila), prefer (a prefera), regret (a
regreta), trust (a avea incredere), want (a vrea), wish (a dori)

I love going to McDonalds. (in general) (Iubesc sa merg la McDonalds.)

I am loving this food from McDonalds. (in particular) (Imi place foarte mult aceasa mancare de la McDonalds.)

Daca verbul LOVE arata ce iubesc in general atunci nu se foloseste cu -ing, dar daca arata ceva ce iubesc in particular
atunci se foloseste cu -ing)

Do you like her new dress? (do you find it beautiful?) (Iti place noua ei rochie?)

How are they liking the trip? (how are they enjoying it) (Cum le place excursia?)

Daca verbul LIKE arata ce place in general atunci nu se foloseste cu -ing, dar daca arata ceva ce place in particular
atunci se foloseste cu -ing)

4. Verbs of having (possessing) and being (existing)(verbe care exprima posesia si


existenta):
e.g. belong to (a apartine cuiva), have (a avea), own (a poseda), include (a include), involve (a implica), lack (a-i lipsi ceva),
possess (a poseda), contain (a contine), be (a fi), consist of (a consta din), exist (a exista)

He has a beautiful house.(he possesses it) (El are o casa frumoasa.)

He is having fun with his friends. (he is enjoying himself) (El se distreaza cu prietenii lui.)

He is having a walk in the park. (he is taking a walk) (El se plimba prin parc.)

They are having dinner. (they are eating) (Ei iau cina.)

She is having a shower now. (she is showering) (Ea face dus acum.)

They are having a nice time. (they are enjoying themselves) (Ei se distreaza.)

Daca verbul HAVE arata posesia atunci nu se foloseste cu -ing, dar daca arata altceva decat posesie atunci se
foloseste cu -ing)
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Mary is polite. (it is her character to be polite all the time) (Mary este politicoasa. - in general)

Mary is being rude today. (she is behaving rudely which is temporary, it’s not in her character) (Mary este nepoliticoasa/
obraznica azi. in particular, doar azi)

Daca verbul BE arata o situatie permanenta atunci nu se foloseste cu -ing, dar daca arata un comportament temporar
atunci se foloseste cu -ing)

5. Other verbs (alte verbe):


e.g. weigh (a cantari), cost (a costa), resemble (a semana cu cineva), mean (a insemna), expect (a se astepta)

She weighs 70 kilos. (she has that weight/ involuntary action) (Ea cantareste 70 de kilograme.)

I am weighing the ingredients for the cake. (I am doing the action of weighing deliberately) (Cantaresc ingredientele
pentru prajitura.)

Daca verbul WEIGH arata o situatie permanenta atunci nu se foloseste cu -ing, dar daca arata o actiune voluntara,
intentionata atunci se foloseste cu -ing)

!!! ATENTIE: nu confundati verbul care se scrie WEIGH = a cantari cu substantivul care se scrie WEIGHT = greutate

How much does it cost? It costs 30 dollars. (Cat costa? Costa 30 de dolari.)

Petrol is costing more and more these days. (changing action) (Benzina costa din ce in ce mai mult in ziua de azi.)

Verbul COST se foloseste fara -ing cand arata cat costa ceva, dar se poate folosi cu -ing atunci cand arata o actiune in
schimbare cu expresia "din ce in ce mai")

You resemble your parents. (Tu semeni cu parintii tai.)

You are resembling your mother more and more. (changing action) (Tu semeni cu mama ta din ce in ce mai mult.)

Verbul RESEMBLE se foloseste fara -ing cand arata ca cineva seamana cu altcineva, dar se poate folosi cu -ing atunci
cand arata o actiune in schimbare cu expresia "din ce in ce mai")

What do you mean by that? (what does it suppose) (Ce vrei sa spui cu asta?)

You’re always meaning to call us, but you never do it. (you intend to do it) (Intotdeauna intentionezi sa ne suni, dar nu o
faci niciodata.)

Daca verbul MEAN are sensul de a insemna atunci nu se foloseste cu -ing, dar daca are sensul de a intentiona atunci se
poate folosi cu -ing)

I expect she is happy with him. (I suppose) (Presupun ca ea este fericita cu el.)

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She is expecting (a baby). (she is pregnant) (Ea asteapta (un copil). - > este insarcinata)

Daca verbul EXPECT are sensul de a presupune atunci nu se foloseste cu -ing, dar daca are sensul de a astepta un
copil/ a fi insarcinata atunci se poate folosi cu -ing)

03. The Tenses: Present Perfect Simple vs. Past Simple


!!!!!!! Diferenta intre Prezent Perfect Simplu si Trecutul Simplu este ca la Prezent Perfect Simplu timpul NU ESTE DAT sau
ESTE VAG iar la Trecut Simplu timpul ESTE DAT.

I have played a computer game (recently). (Eu am jucat un joc pe calculator [recent]).

I played a computer game yesterday. (Eu am jucat un joc pe calculator ieri.)

My deskmate ... a lot. (Colegul meu de banca a mancat mult.)

a) has eaten

b) ate

c) have eaten

d) eat

My deskmate ... a lot an hour ago. (Colegul meu de banca a mancat mult acum o ora.)

a) has eaten

b) ate

c) have eaten

d) eat

Present Perfect
Simple
Form: HAVE/HAS + vb.III/-ed (verbul HAVE la prezent plus verbul de conjugat la forma a treia daca este verb neregulat sau
verb la infinitiv plus -ed daca este verb regulat)

See – saw – seen

I have seen

You have seen

He/She/It has seen

We/You/They have seen

I/ You/ We/ They haven’t seen

He/ She/ It hasn’t seen

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Have I/ you/ we/ they seen?

Has he/ she/ it seen ?

USE:

1. Past action -> Time not given -> present effect: (Prezentul Perfect Simplu se foloseste atunci cand actiunea s-a petrecut in
trecut, dar timpul nu este dat si exista un efect in prezent => TRECUT - FARA ADVERB DE TIMP - EFFECT IN
PREZENT)

E.g. I have seen Jane. (now I know what she looks like) (Am vazut-o pe Jane.) (si acum stiu cum arata - desi timpul cand am
vazut-o nu este specificat)

I have lost my key. (now I can't enter the house) (Am pierdut cheia.) (acum nu pot sa intru in casa - timpul cand am
pierdut cheia nu este specificat)

My father ... this book. (Tatal meu a citit cartea aceasta.)

a) read

b) has read

c) have read

d) reads

2. Vague time: (Prezentul Perfect Simplu se foloseste atunci cand timpul dat este vag)

Adverbe specifice:

Just/ only just (tocmai):

E.g. We have just arrived. (Noi tocmai am sosit)

Already (deja):

E.g. She has already bought a car. (Ea deja a cumparat o masina)

Never/ ever (niciodata/ vreodata):

E.g. I have never seen such a house. (Eu nu am vazut niciodata o astfel de casa)

Often/ rarely (adesea/ rareori):

E.g. He has often thought of quitting his job. (El s-a gandit adesea sa renunte la slujba lui)

Always (intotdeauna):

E.g. She has always loved reading books. (Ea intotdeauna a iubit sa citeasca carti)

(Toate adverbele de mai sus se folosesc intre auxiliarul HAVE si verbul la forma a III-a sau cu -ed)

My brother ... for today. (Fratele meu a invatat deja astazi.)

a) already studied

b) has studied already

c) has already studied

d) studied already

Recently (recent):

E.g. We have spoken recently. (Noi am vorbit recent)

Lately/ of late (in ultimul timp):

E.g. I haven’t seen him lately. (Eu nu l-am vazut in ultimul timp)

So far (pana acum):


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E.g. What have you done so far? (Ce ai facut pana acum?)

In my/ your/ his/ her life (in viata mea/ ta/ lui/ ei):

E.g. She has never lied in her life. (Ea nu a mintit niciodata in viata ei)

Yet (inca/ deja): (used only in negative/ interrogative sentences) (folosit numai in propozitii negative si interogative):

E.g. They haven’t left yet./ Have you finished yet? (Ei nu au plecat inca./ Ai terminat deja?)

!!! S + Verb Present Perfect negative + YET => S + HAVE + YET + Vb. Long Infinitive
I haven't eaten yet. => I have yet to eat.
NU am mancat inca. => Mai am inca sa mananc.

Since (de cand) (arata inceputul actiunii):

E.g. She has slept since noon. (Ea doarme de la pranz. - arata de cand a inceput actiunea)

For (timp de) (arata durata):

E.g. She has slept for 10 hours. (Ea doarme de 10 ore. - arata durata actiunii)

In the last/ past day(s)/ week(s)/ month(s)/ year(s) (in ultimele zile/saptamani/ luni/ ani sau in ultima zi/ saptamana/ luna/ in
ultimul an):

E.g. I haven’t seen her in the last month. (Nu am vazut-o in ultima luna.)

(Toate adverbele de mai sus se folosesc la finalul propozitiei)

We ... what to do about the party so far. (NU am decis ca sa facem in legatura cu petrecerea pana acum.)

a) haven't decided

b) didn't decide

c) aren't deciding

d) haven't decide

How long/ long (de cat timp/ (cat) de mult):

E.g. How long have you waited?/ Has he been here long? (De cat timp astepti?/ Este aici de mult?)

It’s the first time/ This is the first time/ It’s the second time/ This is the second time/ It’s the third time/ This is the third time/ It’s the
only/ last time (este prima oara/ este a doua oara/ este a treia oara/ este singura data/ este ultima data) :

E.g. It’s the first time wehave eaten at this restaurant. (Este prima oara cand am mancat la acest restaurant.)

(Toate adverbele de mai sus se folosesc la inceputul propozitiei cu exceptia lui long care se foloseste la final)

It's the last time I ... him with his problems. (Este ultima oara cand l-am ajutat cu problemele lui.)

a) helped

b) have helped

c) did help

d) have help

Past Simple
Form: vb.II/-ed (forma a II-a a verbului de conjugat daca este verb neregulat SAU verb la infinitiv plus terminatia -ed daca
este verb regulat)

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see – saw – seen/ do – did - done/ work - worked - worked

I saw/ I didn’t see/ Did I see?

You saw/ You didn’t see/ Did you see?

He saw/ He didn’t see/ Did he see?

ATENTIE: la negativ si interogativ verbul se intoarce la forma de INFINITIV: I didn't work/ He didn't see/ Did they do?

USE:

1. Past action -> Time given -> no present connection : (Trecutul Simplu se foloseste atunci candtimpul din trecut cand
actiunea s-a intamplat ESTE DAT/ SPECIFICAT si nu exista nici o legatura cu prezentul)

Adverbe specifice:

yesterday (ieri):

E.g. I saw Jane yesterday. (Am vazut-o pe Jane ieri)

the day before yesterday (alalteri):

E.g. She called me the day before yesterday. (Ea m-a sunat alalteri)

last week/ month/ year (saptamana trecuta/ luna tracuta/anul trecut):

E.g. We talked last month. (Noi am vorbit luna trecuta)

Three days/ weeks/ months/ years ago (cu trei zile/saptamani/ luni/ ani in urma):

E.g. She called five hours ago. (Ea a sunat acum cinci ore/ cu cinci ore in urma)

Once/ once upon a time/ in the past (odata/ a fost odata ca niciodata/ in trecut):

E.g. We met her once in the past. (Noi am intalnit-o pe ea odata in trecut)

In 1990/ at 4 o’clock/ in May/ on December 15th/ on Christmas Day (in anul 1990/ la ora 4/ in mai/ pe data de 15 decembrie/
in ziua de Craciun -> daca se da un an/ o ora/ o luna/ o data se foloseste Trecutul Simplu):

E.g. We visited them in July. (Noi i-am vizitat in luna iulie)

Just now (adineaori):

E.g. She talked with me just now. (Ea a vorbit cu mine adineaori)

When (Time Clause) (cand -> daca avem o temporala cu un verb la trecut in ea se foloseste Trecutul Simplu in principala):

E.g. I saw her / when I was in Paris./ (Am vazut-o cand eram in Paris)

Location given (daca se da locul unde s-a petrecut actiunea atunci se foloseste Trecutul Simplu):

E.g. They met in London. (Ei s-au intalnit in Londra)

My sister ... her friends last week. (Soara mea s-a intalnit cu prietenii ei saptamana trecuta.)

a) has met

b) meets

c) is meeting

d) met

She ... . (Ea a vorbit cu mama ei adineaori.)

a) has just now talked with her mother

b) talked with her mother just now

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c) is talked with her mother just now

d) just now talked with her mother

We ... her birthday on 23rd of September. (Noi am sarbatorit ziua ei de nastere pe 23 septembrie.)

a) celebrated

b) have celebrated

c) did celebrated

d) has celebrated

!!! Daca se foloseste DID in fata unui verb la Infinitiv atunci inseamna ca acctentuez pe actiune: E.g. Iloved him. (Eu l-am iubit) -
> I DID LOVE him. (Eu chiar l-am iubit)

2. Repeated action in the past (actiuni repetate in trecut):

Adverbs: often (adesea)/ rarely (rareori)/ seldom (rareori)/ sometimes (cateodata)/ usually (de obicei)/occasionally
(ocazional)/always (intotdeauna)

E.g. We often went in the park as children. (Noi adesea ne duceam in parc atunci cand eram copii)

3. USED TO + verb Long Infinitive = WOULD + verb Short Infinitive (used to describe habits and routines in the past)
(obisnuiam sa se foloseste pentru a descrie obiceiuri din trecut):

E.g. We used to run in the park when we were younger. (Obisnuiam sa alergam prin parc cand eram mai tineri)

We would run in in the park when we were younger. (Obisnuiam sa alergam prin parc cand eram mai tineri)

!!! ATENTIE: only USED TO can be used to talk about STATES in the past (numai USED TO se poate folosi pentru a vorbi
despre STARI din trecut):

E.g. He used to love her. (El obisnuia sa o iubeasca)

He would love her. -> NOT POSSIBLE (nu este posibil sa folosim WOULD pentru a exprima o stare. WOULD nu se
foloseste cu cele 4 grupe de verbe care nu se pun in mod normal la aspect continuu)

They ... carols for Christmas when they were children. (Ei obisnuiau sa cante colinde de Craciun cand erau copii.)

a) used to sing

b) would to sing

c) used sing

d) used to singing

She ... that he was the best. (Ea obisnuia sa creada ca el era cel mai bun.)

a) would believe

b) used to believe

c) used to believing

d) would to believe

FOR can be used with both Present Perfect Simple (the action is still happening) and Past Simple (the action
happened in the past but there is no connection with the present)

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(FOR se poate folosi cu ambele timpuri, dar cand este folosit cu Prezentul Perfect Simplu inseamna ca actiunea inca
se mai intampla iar cand este folosit cu Trecutul Simplu inseamna ca actiunea si durata de timp cand aceasta a avut
loc s-au terminat demult)

I have lived in London for 5 years. (I am still in London) (Locuiesc in Londra de 5 ani si inca sunt acolo)

I lived in London for 5 years and then I moved to Paris where I have lived ever since. (I no longer live in London)
(Am locuit in Londra timp de 5 ani si pe urma m-am mutat in Paris unde locuiesc de atunci)

This morning/ afternoon/ evening, today, this summer/ autumn/ winter/ springcan be used with both Present Perfect
Simple and Past Simple
(Dimineata/ dupamaiaza/ seara aceasta; astazi; vara/ toamna/ iarna/ primavara aceasta se pot folosi cu ambele
timpuri, dar cand este folosit cu Prezentul Perfect Simplu inseamna ca inca mai sunt in perioada de timp exprimata
iar cand este folosit cu Trecutul Simplu inseamna ca perioada de timp s-a terminat)

Present Perfect: E.g. I have had breakfast this morning. (it is still morning) (Am luat micul dejun in aceasta
dimineata si este inca dimineata)

Past Simple: E.g. I had breakfast this morning, but now it’s 3 p.m. and I am hungry again. (Am luat micul dejun
dimineata aceasta, dar acum este 3 dupamasa si imi este foame din nou)

PRESENT PERFECT is followed by PAST SIMPLE (Daca avem Prezent Perfect Simplu in principala atunci in
secundare sau in propozitiile urmatoare acesta este urmat de Past Simplu)

E.g. I have met Mary recently. She told me that she was happy with the new job. (Am intalnit-o pe Mary recent. Ea mi-a
spus ca este fericita cu noua slujba)

SINCE si EVER SINCE introduc o subordonata temporala si pot sa aiba dupa ele atatPrezent Perfect Simplu cat si Trecut
Simplu:

ATENTIE: In principala trebuie sa avem intotdeauna un verb la Prezent Perfect

!!!!! Main Clause (EVER) SINCE Secondary Clause

Present Perfect (EVER) SINCE Past Simple (action happened ONCE in the past)

I have liked her since she moved here last week. (Imi place de ea de cand s-a mutat aici saptamana
trecuta)

In principala se foloseste Prezent Perfect Simplu care este cerut de SINCE iar DUPA SINCE in secundara se foloseste Trecutul
Simplu DACA actiunea s-a intamplat O SINGURA DATA in trecut.

My mother ... me to behave ever since she ... home from work. (Mama imi spune sa ma port frumos de cand s-a intors acasa
de la munca.)

a) has told/ has arrived

b) told/ has arrived

c) told/ arrived

d) has told/ arrived

Present Perfect (EVER) SINCE Present Perfect (action is still happening)

I have liked this car ever since I have had it. (Imi place masina asta de cand o am)

She has been difficult ever since she has been here. (Ea este dificila de cand este aici)

He has loved her ever since he has known her. (El o iubeste de cand o cunoaste)

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In principala se foloseste Prezent Perfect Simplu care este cerut de SINCE iar DUPA SINCE in secundara se foloseste
Prezentul Perfect Simplu DACA actiunea din secundara INCA SE MAI INTAMPLA.

I ... this job ever since I ... here. (Eu iubesc aceasta slujba de cand sunt aici.)

a) have loved/ was

b) loved/ have been

c) have loved/ have been (iubesc slujba de cand sunt aici si inca mai lucrez aici)

d) loved/ was

Ever since they ..., they ... together. (De cand s-au casatorit, ei locuiesc impreuna.)

a) married/ lived

b) have married/ have lived

c) married/ have lived (s-au casatorit odata in trecut, dar locuiesc impreuna de atunci)

d) have married/ lived

In subordonata temporala se poate folosi Prezentul Perfect Simplu DACA actiunea din temporala este anterioara celei din
principala:

!!!!! Main Clause - Time Clause

I will visit you when I have time. (simultaneity) (Te voi vizita cand voi avea timp. -> actiunile sunt simultane)

I will visit you once I have finished my work here. (anteriority – first finish work then visit) (Te voi vizita odata ce mi-am terminat
munca aici. -> intai termin munca si pe urma te voi vizita, este actiune anterioara fata de principala)

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE OVERVIEW

1. TIME NOT GIVEN – PAST ACTION => PRESENT EFFECT


2. ADVERBS: just/ only just/ already/ always/ never/ ever/ often/ rarely/ seldom/ before/ lately = of late/ recently/ so far/
yet (neg. & interrogative)/ for/ since/ ever since/ in my life/ it’s the first time/ it’s the last time/ it’s the only time/ how
long/ long/ now = already)

PAST SIMPLE OVERVIEW

1. TIME GIVEN – PAST ACTION - NO CONNECTION WITH THE PRESENT


2. ADVERBS: 5 years AGO/ LAST night, week .../ just now/ once/ once upon a time/ in the past/ in December/ on 25th
May/ on Christmas Day/ in 1996/ yesterday/ the day before yesterday/ when/ at 3 o’clock/ that day/ etc.
3. Location given: in London
4. Repeated actions in the past
5. Used when talking about dead people
6. USED TO = WOULD (past habits and routines), BUT NO WOULD with past STATES

04. The Tenses: Present Perfect Continuous


FORM: Have/ has + BEEN + Vb.-ING

E.g. + I have been reading

You have been reading

He/ she has been reading

- I haven’t been reading

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You haven't been reading

He/ she hasn’t been reading

? Have I been reading?

Have you been reading?

Has he/ she been reading?

USE:

1. Action which started in the past and is still continuing (Actiune care a inceput in trecut si inca mai continua):

Adverbs: SINCE/ FOR/ ALL/ LONG/ LATELY/ RECENTLY/ OVER THE LAST FEW MONTHS (de/ timp de/ toata, tot/ de mult/
recent/ in ultimele cateva luni)

E.g. We have been listening to music since noon. (Noi ascultam muzica de la pranz.)

He has been living in London for ten years. (El locuieste in Londra de zece ani.)

My father has been working in the garden all day. (Tatal meu a lucrat in gradina toata ziua.)

Have you been waiting here long? (Astepti aici de mult?)

My parents ... all day. (Parintii mei s-au certat toata ziua.)

a) have fought

b) fought

c) have been fighting

d) are fighting

2. A general activity in progress (no mention of time) (o actiune generala in progres fara mentionarea timpului):

E.g. I have been thinking about moving. (M-am gandit sa ma mut./ Ma gandesc sa ma mut.)

She has been doing a lot of progress with her piano lessons. (Ea a facut multe progrese cu lectiile ei de pian.)

3. Repeated action (actiune repetata):

E.g. He has been calling me a lot lately. (El m-a sunat mult in ultimul timp.)

She has been sending letters over the last few months. (Ea a trimis scrisori in ultimele luni.)

I have been trying to call you. (Am tot incercat sa te sun.)

4. Recently finished action which explains a present result (the effects of the action are still apparent) (actiuni terminate

recent care explica un rezultat in prezent - efectele actiunii sunt inca aparente/ vizibile):

E.g. Her eyes are red. She has been crying. (Ochii ei sunt rosii. Ea a plans.)

You are all sweaty. You have been running. (Esti transpirat tot. Ai alergat.)

His eye is black: he has been fighting. (Ochiul lui este negru: el s-a batut.)

The pavement is wet. It has been raining./ It has been raining, the pavement is wet. (Trotuarul este ud. A plouat.)

The kitchen is a mess. Have you been cooking? (Bucataria este murdara. Ai gatit?)

You look tired. Have you been sleeping properly? (Arati obosit. Ai dormit cum trebuie?)

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(the action started in the past => stopped recently => present result)

I don’t know what’s happened to Tom because hiseyes are black. I think he ... . (Nu stiu ce s-a intamplat cu Tom pentru ca
ochii lui sunt negri. Cred ca s-a batut.)

a) Has fought

b) Fought

c) Is fighting

d) Has been fighting

Present Perfect Simple vs. Present Perfect


Continuous

I have lived here since 1990. (Eu locuiesc aici din 1990.) I have been living here since
1990. (Eu locuiesc aici din 1990.)

(both possible – Present Perfect Continuous stresses on duration - ambele timpuri sunt posibile dar Prezentul Perfect
Continuu accentueaza pe durata)

Who has eaten my cake? (Cine mi-a mancat prajitura?) Who has been eating my
cake? (Cine mi-a mancat din prajitura?)

(there is no cake left [nu mai este prajitura deloc] -> completed action) (there is some cake left [a mai ramas
ceva din prajitura] -> incomplete action)

Cand folosim Prezent Perfect Simplu inseamna ca actiunea este terminata -deci nu mai este prajitura deloc, iar cand
folosim Prezent Perfect Continuu inseamna ca actiunea este incompleta -deci in acest caz mai este ceva prajitura ramasa.

E.g. Do you know who ... my cookies? There is none left. (Sti cine mi-a mancat prajiturile? Nu a mai ramas nici una.)

a) has been eating

b) ate

c) has eaten

d) is eating

What have you done with my pen? (Ce ai facut cu stiloul meu?) What have you been doing with
my pen? (Ce i-ai facut stiloului meu?)

(I cannot find it/ I don’t know where it is - nu pot sa il gasesc) (I have it but it is broken - il
am dar este stricat)

Daca folosim Prezent Perfect Simplu inseamna ca nu stim ce s-a intamplat cu obiectul, iar daca folosim Prezent Perfect
Continuu inseamna ca avem obiectul dar este stricat/ schimbat/ modificat.

E.g. Why is my pen bent? What ... with it? (De ce este stiloul meu indoit? Ce ai facut cu el?)

a) have you done

b) are you doing

c) did you do

d) have you been doing

I have read ten books so far. (Eu am citit zece carti pana acum.) I have been reading ten books
so far. (Eu am citit carti pana acum.)

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(completed action done ten times - actiune completeta facuta de zece ori) (an incomplete action - o
actiune incompleta)

Putem folosi Prezentul Perfect Simplu pentru a spune de cate ori am facut o actiune d
( eci putem sa folosim numere), dar
nu putem sa spunem de cate ori am facut o actiune cu Prezentul Perfect Continuu deoarece acesta arata o actiune
incompleta (deci nu folosim numere cu el)

E.g. My little brother ... three toys so far. (Fratiorul meu a stricat trei jucarii pana acum.)

a) has broken

b) broke

c) has been breaking

d) is breaking

My little brother ... a lot of toys so far. (Fratiorul meu a sticat multe jucarii pana acum.)

a) has been breaking

b) is breaking

c) broke

d) breaks

05. The Tenses: Past Continuous

FORM: WAS/ WERE + Vb. –ING (BE – WAS/ WERE – BEEN)

+ I was reading

You were reading

He/she was reading

We/ they were reading

I wasn’t reading

-You weren’t reading

He/ she wasn’t reading

We/ they weren’t reading

? Was I reading?

Were you reading?

Was he/ she reading?

Were we/ they reading?

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USE:

1. An action in progress at a certain moment in the past (o actiune in progres la un moment dat in trecut).

Adverbs: at the time/ at this time yesterday/ this time last week/ at that time/ at six yesterday (la vremea aceea/ ieri
pe vremea asta/ saptamana trecuta pe vremea asta/ la acel moment/ ieri la ora sase)

E.g. I was eating at five yesterday. (Eu mancam ieri la ora cinci)

He was travelling this time last year. (El calatorea anul trecut pe vremea asta)

At that time we were living in the country. (La vremea aceea noi locuiam la tara)

They ... computer games this time last week. (Ei se jucau la calculator saptamana trecuta pe vremea asta.)

a) played

b) were playing

c) have played

d) have been playing

2. An action in progress (Past Continuous) at a time when another action occurred (Past Simple)(o actiune in progres,
exprimata prin Trecut Continuu, care era in desfasurare intr-un moment cand o alta actiune s-a intamplat, actiune
exprimata prin Trecut Simplu):

E.g. The boys were playing in the garden when it started to rain. (Baietii se jucau in gradina cand a inceput sa ploua)

I was walking in the park when Iheard someone shout. (Mergeam prin parc cand am auzit pe cineva strigand)

A car passed me by as I was crossing the street. (O masina a trecut pe langa mine pe cand traversam strada)

We ... T.V. in the bedroom when the earthquake ... . (Noi ne uitam la televizor in dormitor cand s-a intamplat cutremurul.)

a) Watched/ was happening

b) Were watching/ happened

c) Have been watching/ happened

d) Were watching/ was happening

3. Parallel actions in the past (actiuni desfasurate in paralel in trecut):

E.g. Mother was cooking while I was watching T.V. (Mama gatea in timp ce eu ma uitam la televizor)

The parents ... while the children ... in the bedroom. (Parintii mancau in timp ce copiii se jucau in dormitor.)

a) ate/ played

b) were eating/ played

c) were eating/ were playing

d) ate/ were playing

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4. Used in descriptions without a time expression (Trecutul Continuu este folosit in descrieri fara a avea o expresie de timp
data):

E.g. It was a cold winter. Outside the windwas blowing. A fire was burning in the fireplace. (Era o iarna rece. Afara vantul
batea. Un foc ardea in semineu)

It was a beautiful summer day. The birds ... happily on the trees. The sun ... in the sky. (Era o zi frumoasa de vara. Pasarile
ciripeau in copaci. Soarele stralucea pe cer.)

a) chirped/ shone

b) were chirping/ was shining

c) were chirping/ shone

d) chirped/ was shining

5. An incomplete action in the past (Trecutul Continuu expria o actiune incompleta in trecut):

E.g. I was reading a book last night. (I didn’t finish it) (Citeam o carte noaptea trecuta - dar nu am terminat-o)

I read a book last night. (I finished it) (Am citit o carte noaptea trecuta - si am terminat-o)

The soldier ... from the many wounds he had, but he was still breathing a little when the doctors arrived.

(Soldatul era pe moarte din cauza ranilor multe pe care le avea, dar inca mai respira putin cand doctorii au sosit.)

a) died

b) was dying

c) has died

d) was dyeing

!!! Atentie: nu confundati verbul to die (a muri) care are forma in -ing =>dying cu verbul to dye (a vopsi) care are
forma cu -ing => dyeing

6. Anticipated event – the action was arranged (Trecutul Continuu exprima un eveniment anticipat, care urma sa se
intample deoarece a fost aranjat dinainte):

E.g. He was leaving for the country on Sunday. (Urma sa plece la tara duminica - pentru ca aranjase asta ulterior)

The pupils ... on a trip the following weekend. (Elevii urmau sa mearga intr-o excursie weekendul urmator.)

a) have gone

b) have been going

c) were going

d) was going

7. Action that annoyed the speaker ( Trecutul Continuu exprima o actiune care il enerva pe vorbitor in trecut):

E.g. He was always ringing me up late at night. (El ma suna intotdeauna noaptea tarziu)

She was asking questions all the time. (Ea punea intrebari tot timpul)

My grandparents ... me how to behave all the time which was very annoying. (Bunicii mei imi spuneau cum sa ma port tot
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timpul ceea ce era foarte enervant.)

a) told

b) have told

c) were telling

d) have been telling

8. A casual, less deliberate action (Trecutul Continuu exprima o actiune care a fost facuta intamplator, fara multe
aranjamente dinaine):

E.g. I was talking to Tom the other day. (I happened to meet him and I talked to him) (Vorbeam cu Tom ziua trecuta - s-a
intamplat sa il intalnesc si am vorbit cu el)

I talked to Tom the other day. (deliberate action) (Am vorbit cu Tom ziua trecuta - l-am cautat in mod special sa vorbesc cu
el)

9. An action you intended to do, but didn’t do in the end (Trecutul Continuu exprima o actiune pe care ai intentionat
sa o faci, dar pe care nu ai mai facut-o pana la urma):

E.g. I was going to phone/ was phoning you, but I forgot. (Voiam sa te sun/ urma sa te sun, dar am uitat)

They ... us a visit, but then they had a problem to solve so they didn't have time anymore.

(Ei voiau sa ne faca o vizita, dar apoi au avut o problema de rezolvat si nu au mai avut timp.)

a) paid

b) were paying

c) have paid

d) payed (!!! atentie formele verbului to pay sunt pay - paid - paid)

10. Polite forms (Trecutul Continuu se foloseste pentru o exprimare politicoasa):

E.g. I was wondering if you could come to the film with me. (Ma intrebam daca ai putea veni la film cu mine)

!!! Atentie sa nu confundati wonder cu wander: verbul to wonder inseamana "a se intreba" iar verbul wander
inseamna "a hoinari"

06. The Tenses: Past Perfect Simple vs. Past Perfect


Continuous
Past Perfect Simple
FORM: HAD + Vb. III/ - ED

+ I had eaten

-I hadn’t eaten

? Had I eaten?

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USE:

1. An action completed in the past before another point of time in the past or before another activity in the past
(o actiune completata in trecut inainte de un moment din trecut sau inainte de o alta actiune din trecut):

Time markers:

BEFORE/ BY/ UNTIL (inainte/ pana in/ pana)

E.g. I had never heard about him until yesterday. (Nu auzisem de el niciodata pana ieri.)

I had done my homework by five o’clock. (Imi facusem tema pana in ora cinci.)

We had bought the tickets a few days before the concert. (Noi cumparasem biletele cu cateva zile inainte de concert.)

BEFORE/ WHEN/ AS SOON AS/ AFTER/ BY THE TIME (inainte/ cand/ de indata ce/ dupa ce/ pana) + Subordinate
Sentence

In Propozitia principala se foloseste Past Perfect pentru a arata anterioritatea fata de Propozitia secundara in care se
foloseste Past Simple:

S + Past Perfect + BY THE TIME/ BEFORE/ WHEN/ AS SOON AS + S + Past Simple

E.g. She had eaten before she went to school. (Ea mancase inainte sa mearga la scoala.)

I had finished my work by the time you called me. (Eu imi terminasem treaba pana m-ai sunat tu.)

I had left when they came by to visit me. (Eu plecasem cand ei au venit sa ma viziteze.)

Se poate pune Past Simple in propozitia principala si Past Perfect in propozitia secundara pentru a arata ca actiunea
din secundara s-a intamplat inainte de cea din principala:

S + Past Simple + AFTER + S + Past Perfect

She left the house after she had turned off the lights. (Ea a plecat de acasa dupa ce stinsese luminile. - intai a stins luminile si
dupa aceea a plecata de acasa)

ALREADY/ JUST (deja/ tocmai)

E.g. He had already left when we arrived home. (El deja plecase cand noi am ajuns acasa.)

She had just fallen asleep when the phone rang. (Ea tocmai adormise cand a sunat telefonul.)

We ... our chores by 6 p.m. yesterday. (Noi terminasem treburile prin casa pana in ora 6 seara ieri.)

a) have finished

b) had finished

c) were finished

d) finished

My sister ... two pairs of shoes by the time I met her in town. (Sora mea cumparase doua perechi de pantofi pana am intalnit-o in
oras.)

a) has bought

b) had bought

c) bought

d) was buying

They ... after they ... their work. (Ei s-au intalnit dupa ce terminasera munca.)

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a) have met/ finished

b) had met/ have finished

c) met/ had finished

d) met/ would finish

HARDLY (when)/ SCARCELY (when)/ BARELY (when) (abia ... ca/ cand ...): I had hardly left when a storm broke out. (Abia
plecasem cand a izbucnit o furtuna.)
NO SOONER (than)(abia ... ca/ cand ...): He had no sooner arrived than the phone rang. (El abia sosise ca a sunat
telefonul.)

They can be used in INVERSIONS for emphasis (aceste adverbe pot fi folosite in inversiuni pentru a accentua pe idee):

ADV. (hardly, scarcely, barely, no sooner) + HAD + S + Vb. III/-ED .... WHEN/ THAN + S + Past S

E.g. I had hardly got into the room /when the phone rang./ (Abia intrasem in camera cand a sunat telefonul.)

Hardly had I got into the room /when the phone rang./

My sister ... him when his mother ... the room. (Sora mea abia l-a sarutat ca mama lui a intrat in camera.)

a) had hardly kissed/ entered

b) has scarcely kissed/ entered

c) hardly kissed/ had entered

d) had no sooner kissed/ entered

She had scarcely fallen asleep /when a storm broke out./ (Ea abia adormise cand a izbucnit furtuna.)

Scarcely had she fallen asleep /when a storm broke out./

Mary had barely brushed her teeth when the electricity went out. (Abia s-a spalat Mary pe dinti ca s-a luat lumina.)

a) Scarcely Mary had brushed her teeth when the electricity went out.

b) Scarcely had Mary brushed her teeth when the electricity went out.

c) Scarcely had Mary brushed her teeth than the electricity went out.

d) Scarcely did Mary brush her teeth when the electricity had gone out.

They had barely finished eating /when the guests arrived./ (Ei abia terminasera de mancat cand au sosit oaspetii.)

Barely had they finished eating /when the guests arrived./

Abia au ajuns elevii la scoala ca au inceput orele.

a) Hardly had the pupils arrived at school than the classes started.

b) Barely had the pupils arrived at school when the classes started.

c) No sooner the pupils had arrived at school than the classes started.

d) Scarcely had the classes started when the pupils arrived at school.

We had no sooner left the shop /than it started raining./ (Noi abia am iesit din magazin ca a inceput sa ploua.)

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No sooner had we left the shop /than it started raining./

No sooner had he said those words ... she started crying. (Abia a rostit el acele cuvinte ca ea a inceput sa planga.)

a) when

b) that

c) than

d) then

BECAUSE (pentru ca) (Used in Clauses of Reason)(folosit in cauzale)

E.g. He couldn’t get into the house because he had lost his key. (El nu a putut sa intre in casa pentru ca isi pierduse cheia.)

2. A past action which did not happen/ materialize (o actiune din trecut care nu s-a intamplat sau nu s-a materializat):

verbele specifice pentru aceasta folosire sunt: hope (a spera), intend (a intentiona), mean (a intentiona), suppose (a
presupune), expect (a se astepta), think (a crede), want (a vrea)

E.g. I had hoped to catch the 8:30 train, but found it was gone. (Sperasem sa prind trenul de 8:30, dar am aflat ca a plecat.)

I had expected her to come sooner, but she was late. (Ma asteptasem ca ea sa vina mai devreme, dar a intarziat.)

Past Perfect Continuous


FORM: HAD + BEEN + Vb. – ING

+ I had been eating

- I hadn’t been eating

? Had I been eating

USE:

1. An action which began before a point in the past, continued up to it and may have continued after (O actiune care a inceput
inainte de un moment din trecut, a continuat pana in acel moment si poate a continuat si dupa acel moment):

Time markers:

SINCE/ FOR/ ALL/ LONG (duration)


BY THE TIME/ WHEN/ BEFORE

E.g. He had been writing letters for an hour by the time we called. (El scria scrisori de o ora cand am sunat noi.)

I had been working for three years by January. (Eu lucram de trei ani inainte de ianuarie.)

They ... for three hours before we called them. (Ei au condus trimp de trei ore inainte ca noi sa ii sunam.)

a) had driven

b) had been driving

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c) have been driving

d) were driving

They ... before we called them. (Ei condusesera/ au condus inainte ca noi sa ii sunam.)

a) had driven

b) had been driving

c) have been driving

d) were driving

!!! Daca durata de timp este specificata prin FOR/ SINCE/ ALL sau LONG, atunci se foloseste Past Perfect Continuous.
Daca nu se specifica durata ci actiunea este doar anterioara fata de alta din trecut, atunci se foloseste Past Perfect Simple.

2. Resultative use – it explains the cause of an effect (Clauses of Reason – because)(Folosit pentru a explica o cauza a unui
efect - de multe ori folosit in cauzale):

E.g. He had a black eye because he had been fighting with the other boys. (El avea un ochi negru pentru ca se batuse cu alti
baieti.)

When I saw her red eyes I knew she ... . (Cand i-am vazut ochii rosii am stiut ca ea plansese.)

a) has been crying

b) had cried

c) had been crying

d) was crying

3. Repeated action in the past (Actiuni repetate in trecut):

E.g. I had been trying to get her on the phone. (Eu incercasem sa dau de ea la telefon.)

OVERVIEW

PAST PERFECT SIMPLE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

MARKERS: MARKERS:

Before/ until/ till/ by .../ by the time/ already/ Before/ until/ till/ by .../ by the time/ when/ after

Just/ When/ after/ hardly/ scarcely/ barely/

no sooner SPECIFIC MARKERS: FOR/ SINCE/ ALL/ LONG

Past Perfect Simple – Past Perfect Continuous

He had eaten by the time we arrived. (El mancase pana am sosit noi.)

He had been eating for one hour by the time we arrived. (El manca de o ora pana am sosit noi.)

since noon (El manca de la prinz pana am sosit noi.)

all morning (El a mancat toata dimineata pana am sosit noi.)

Atat Past Perfect Simple cat si Past Perfect Continuous arata o actiune anterioara fata de alta din trecut. Diferenta dintre ele este
ca Past Perfect Continuous arata si durata si are in plus ca markeri de timp FOR, SINCE, ALL sau LONG.

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07. The Tenses: The Future


Future Simple

FORM: SHALL/ WILL + Vb. Short Infinitive

+ I/ we shall leave - I/ we shan’t leave ? Shall I/ we leave? (SHALL se foloseste la persoana I singular si plural)

You will leave You won’t leave Will you leave? (WILL se foloseste la persoana a II-a si a III-a singular si plural)

He will leave He won’t leave Will he leave?

USE:

1. Future actions (actiuni viitoare):

Adverbs: NEXT WEEK/ MONTH/ YEAR (saptamana viitoare/luna viitoare/ anul viitor), TOMORROW (maine)/ THE DAY AFTER
TOMORROW (poimaine), SOON (in curand)

E.g. They will come tomorrow. (Ei vor veni maine.)

2. Unpremeditated, immediate actions (on the spot decisions)(actiuni nepremeditate, imediate/ deciziit luate pe loc):

E.g. We have run out of bread. I’ll go and buy some. (Am ramas fara paine. Ma duc sa cumpar.)

The phone is ringing. I’ll answer. (Suna telefonul. Raspund eu.)

3. Used after verbs such as (Viitorul se foloseste dupa anumite verbe cum ar fi):think (a gandi), believe (a crede),
expect (a se astepta), doubt (a se indoi), hope ( a spera), suppose (a presupune) or expressions like (sau expresii ca): I’m
sure/ certain (sunt sigur), it’s possible/ likely/ unlikely (e posibil/ e probabil/ e improbabil)

E.g. I hope it won’t rain. (Sper ca nu va ploua.)

I expect she will be late. (Ma astept ca ea va intarzia.)

I doubt whether she will come. (Ma indoiesc ca ea va veni.)

I think she will be angry. (Cred ca ea va fi manioasa.)

Atata SHALL cat si WILL se pot folosi ca verbe modale avand diferite sensuri:

SHALL used as a MODAL VERB can express (SHALL folosit ca verb modal poate exprima):

Determination (hotarare): e.g. I shall pass this exam. (Eu sunt hotarat sa trec acest examen.)

Promise (promisiune): e.g. I shall buy you a car, I promise. (O sa iti cumpar o masina, iti promit.)

Threat (amenintare) (2nd and 3rd person sg./ pl.): e.g. You shall be sorry! (O sa iti para rau!)

Offer (oferta): e.g. Shall I give you a hand? (Sa iti dau o mana de ajutor?)

Laws and regulations (legi si regulamente): e.g. Books shall be brought back in a week./ Youshall not kill. (Cartile trebuie
aduse inapoi intr-o saptamana./ Sa nu ucizi.)

Asking for advice (cerere de sfat): e.g. Shall I buy a Ferrari or a Bentley? (Sa cumpar un Ferrari sau un Bentley?)

Suggestions (sugestii): e.g. Shall we go in the park later? (Sa mergem in parc mai tarziu?)

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WILL used as a MODAL VERB can express (Will folosit ca verb modal poate exprima):

Promise (promisiune): e.g. Your father will buy you ice cream. (Tatal tau o sa iti cumpere inghetata.)

Determination (hotarare): e.g. I will see this done. (O sa duc asta pana la capat.)

Predictions (preziceri): e.g. She will make a good mother. (Ea va fi o mama buna.)

Assumptions (presupuneri): e.g. The bell is ringing. That will be Jim at the door. (Suna la usa. Trebuie sa fie Jim.)

Refusal in the present (refuz la prezent): e.g. I won’t do it. (Nu voi face asta - refuz sa o fac.)

Habit in the present (obicei in prezent): e.g. She will drop things all the time. = She is in the habit of dropping things. (Ea are
tendinta sa scape lucruri din mana tot timpul.)

Known facts (fapte stiute): e.g. We will miss the plane because we are caught in a traffic jam. (O sa pierdem avionul pentru ca
suntem prinsi in trafic.)

Polite requests (cereri politicoase): e.g. Will you help me with this? (Vrei sa ma ajuti cu asta, the rog?)

Offers (oferte): Will you have some more cake? (Mai vrei prajitura?)

Invitations (invitatii): e.g. Won’t you have a seat? (Nu vrei sa iei loc?)

Possibility (questions)(Posibilitate in intrebari) : e.g. Will it rain, do you think? (Crezi ca e posibil sa ploua?)

Willingness (vointa): e.g. The doctor will see you in a minute. (Doctorul o sa va vada intru-un minut.)

WILL ca Verb Modal se poate folosi in Conditionale de tipul 1 cu urmatoarele sensuri:

1. willingness (vointa)

E.g. If you want to come to the party, I’ll be glad. (Daca vrei sa vi la petrecere, voi fi bucuros.)

If you will come to the party, I’ll be glad. (Daca vrei sa vi la petrecere, voi fi bucuros.)

2. refusal (refuz)

E.g. If you refuse to help us, I’ll get upset. (Daca refuzi sa ne ajuti, ma voi supara.)

If you won’t help us, I’ll be upset. (Daca refuzi sa ne ajuti, ma voi supara.)

3. polite request (cerere politicoasa)

E.g. If you are kind enough to wait here, I’ll announce you. (Daca sunteti dragut sa asteptati aici, va voi anunta.)

If you will wait here, I’ll announce you. (Daca sunteti dragut sa asteptati aici, va voi anunta.)

4. habit/insistence (obicei/ insistenta)

E.g. If you insist on/ keep on smoking so much, you’ll get lung cancer. (Daca insisti sa fumezi/ continui sa fumezi atat de
mult, o sa faci cancer la plamani.)

If you will smoke so much, you’ll get lung cancer. (Daca insisti sa fumezi/ continui sa fumezi atat de mult, o sa faci
cancer la plamani.)

Future Continuous

FORM: SHALL/ WILL + BE + Vb.-ING

+ I/ we shall be leaving - I/ we shan’t be leaving ? Shall I/ we be leaving? (SHALL se foloseste la persoana I singular si
plural)

You will be leaving You won’t be leaving Will you be leaving?(WILL se foloseste la persoana a II-a si a III-a
singular si plural)

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He will be leaving He will be leaving Will he be leaving?

USE:

1. Action in progress at a certain point in the future (actiune in progres la un moment dat in viitor)
:

Adverbs: THIS TIME NEXT WEEK/ MONTH/ YEAR (saptamana trecuta/ luna viitoare pe vremea asta/ anul viitor pe vremea
asta), AT 5 TOMORROW (maine la 5), SOON (in curand), IN 10 YEARS’ TIME (in zece ani)

E.g. I will be sleeping at five tomorrow. (Eu voi dormi maine la cinci.)

They will be travelling this time next week. (Ei vor calatori saptamana viitoare pe vremea asta.)

2. Action which will follow naturally one in the present (actiune care va urma in mod natural uneia din prezent)/ used
for predicting or guessing about future events (folosit pentru a prezice sau a ghici evenimente viitoare):

E.g. The clouds are gathering. It will be raining soon. (Norii se aduna. O sa ploua in curand.)

I guess you will be feeling thirsty after working in the sun. (Presupun ca o sa iti fie sete dupa munca in soare.)

3. Polite questions about somebody’s future intentions (intrebari politicoase despre intentiile de viitor ale cuiva):

E.g. Will you be staying here long? (Veti sta mult aici?)

4. Events which are going to happen anyway (evenimente care se vor intampla oricum):

E.g. I won’t fix a time to talk because wewill be meeting anyway. (Nu o sa aranjez un timp sa vorbim pentru ca oricum o sa ne
intalnim.)

5. Fixed arrangements and plans for the future (aranjamente si planuri fixe de viitor):

E.g. The band will be performing in London this summer. (Trupa va canta in Londra vara aceasta.)

6. Routines (activitati de rutina):

Adverb: AS USUAL (ca de obicei)

E.g. I will be meeting the girls in town as usual. (O sa ma intalnesc cu fete in oras ca de obicei.)

7. When combined with "still", the future continuous refers to events that are already happening now and that we
expect to continue some time into the future. (cand este combinat cu "still = inca", viitorul continuu se refera la evenimente care
se intampla deja in present si care ne asteptam sa continue ceva timp in viitor)

E.g. In an hour I'll still be ironing my clothes. (Intr-o ora inca o sa imi mai calc hainele.)

Future Perfect Simple

FORM: SHALL/ WILL + HAVE + Vb. III/ -ED

+ I shall have left - I shan’t have left ? Shall I have left?

You will have left You won’t have left Will you have left?

He will have left He won’t have left Will he have left?

USE:

Action that will happen in the future before another action or point in the future (actiune care se va intampla in viitor
inainte de o alta actiune sau de un alt moment din viitor):

Time markers:

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Se foloseste Viitor Perfect in Principala si Prezent in Secundara introdusa prinBY/ BY THE TIME (pana atunci)/ BY THIS
TIME NEXT WEEK/ MONTH/ YEAR (pana saptamana/ luna/ anul viitor pe vremea asta)/ WHEN (cand)/ BEFORE (inainte)

Future Perfect Simple + BY/ BY THE TIME/ BY THIS TIME NEXT MONTH, YEAR/ WHEN/ BEFORE(+ Present Tenses)

E.g. We will have left by the time you arrive. (Noi vom fi plecat pana tu vei sosi.)

She will have eaten when they call her. (Ea va fi mancat cand o sa o sune ei.)

Future Perfect Continuous

FORM: SHALL/ WILL + HAVE + BEEN + Vb.-ING

+ I shall have been reading - I shan’t have been reading ? Shall I have been reading?

You will have been reading You won’t have been reading Will you have been reading?

He will have been reading He won’t have been reading Will he have been reading?

USE:

Action that will happen in the future for a period of time before another action or point in the future (actiune care se va
intampla in viitor pentru o perioada de timp inainte de o alta actiune sau de un alt moment din viitor):

Time markers:

SINCE/ FOR/ ALL/ LONG


BY (NOON/ 5 o’clock)/ BY THE TIME/ WHEN/ BEFORE (+ Present Tenses)

E.g. I will have been reading for three hours by the time dinner is ready. (Eu voi fi citit de trei ore cand cina va fi gata.)

She will have been sleeping since noon when they arrive from the airport. (Ea va fi dormit de la pranz cand ei vor sosi de la
aeroport.)

They will have been working all day before the guests come. (Ei vor fi muncit toata ziua inainte ca oaspetii sa soseasca.)

OVERVIEW
FUTURE PERFECT SIMPLE vs. FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS

I shall have eaten by the time you arrive home from work. (Eu voi fi mancat pana ajungi tu acasa de la
munca.)

I shall have been eating for an hour by the time you arrive home from work. (Eu voi fi mancatde o ora pana ajungi tu acasa
de la munca.)

I shall have been eating since 2 o'clock by the time you arrive home from work. (Eu voi fi mancatde la ora doua pana ajungi tu
acasa de la munca.)

I shall have been eating all morning by the time you arrive home from work. (Eu voi fi mancattoata dimineata pana ajungi tu
acasa de la munca.)

e.g. My aunt ... the house by the time you call on her. (by the time asks for Future Perfect but you choose Simple because the
duration is not given)

Matusa mea va fi curatat casa pana o vizitezi tu. (by the time cere Viitor Perfect Simplu pentru ca durata nu este data)

a) will have cleaned

b) would be cleaning

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c) will have been cleaning

d) shall be cleaning

They ... for three hours by the time they reach their destination. ( choose Future Perfect Continuous because of BY THE
TIME + DURATION -> for three hours)

Ei vor fi condus de trei ore pana vor ajunge la destinatie. (Se foloseste Viitor Perfect Continuupentru ca este data durata iar by
the time cere un Viitor Perfect)

a) will have driven

b) will have been driving

c) are driving

d) will be driving

Other ways of expressing future actions


(Alte modalitati pentru a exprima actiuni viitoare)

Present Simple:

- Timetables/ schedules/ previous arrangements (orare/ arenjamente anterioare):

E.g. The train leaves at 5 p.m. tomorrow. (Trenul pleaca maine la 5 dupa amiaza.)

- Fixed events which are not simply the wish of the speaker (evenimente fixe care nu sunt dorinta vorbitorului):

E.g. Tom retires in three years. (Tom se pensioneaza in trei ani.)

- Calendar reference (referiri calendaristice):

E.g. Christmas is on Tuesday next week. (Craciunul este marti saptamana viitoare.)

- Time Clauses/ IF Clauses (Subordonate temoprale si conditionale):

E.g. When we get there, we will have dinner./ If we have time, we will go to the movies. (Cand von ajunge acolo, o sa cinam./
Daca vom avea timp, vom merge la film.)

Present Continuous:

- Future personal plans/ fixed arrangements (planuri personale de viitor/ aranjamente fixe):

E.g. I am seeing Tom tomorrow. (Ma vad cu Tom maine.)

- Used with JUST to describe something on the point of happening (folosit cu JUST pentru a descrie ceva pe
punctul sa se intample):

E.g. The train is just leaving. (Trenul tocmai pleaca.)

TO BE ABOUT TO - a fi pe punctul sa (near future - viitor apropiat):


E.g. The film is about to begin. (Filmul este pe punctul sa inceapa.)

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TO BE ON THE VERGE OF + Vb.-ING - a fi pe punctul sa (near future - viitor apropiat):


E.g. The plane is on the verge of crushing. (Avionul este pe punctul sa se prabuseasca.)

TO BE ON THE POINT OF + Vb.-ING - a fi pe punctul sa (near future - viitor apropiat):


E.g. Mary is on the point of crying. (Maria este pe punctul sa planga.)

TO BE TO (used to describe formal arrangements - folosit pentru a descrie aranjamente formale):


E.g. All students are to assemble in the hall at five. (Toti elevii trebuie sa se adune in hol la cinci.)

TO BE DUE TO (used to refer to scheduled times which are not necessarily fixed events):
(se foloseste pentru a se referi la orare care nu sunt neaparat evenimente fixe)
E.g. The play is due to start in five minutes./ The baby is due (to be born) in May./ The train is due to arrive at 5, but it is a little
late.

(Piesa de teatru trebuie sa inceapa in cinci minute./ Copilul trebuie sa se nasca in mai./ Trenul trebuie sa soseasca la ora 5 dar
este in intarziere.)

TO BE GOING TO:

- Intention (intentie): E.g. I am going to buy a car next week. (Intentionez sa cumpar o masina saptamana viitoare.)

- Future action which will happen due to a present event (actiune viitoare care se va intampla din cauza unui eveniment
din prezent):

E.g. You are driving too fast. We are going to have an accident. (Conduci prea repede. O sa ai un accident.)

08. The Tenses: The Sequence of Tenses


Concordanta timpurilor se refera la raportul dintre timpul din propozitia secundara si cel din propozitia principala. In functie de timpul
verbului din Propozitia Principala se pot pune numai anumite timpuri in Propozitia Secundara.

Concordanta timpurilor se aplica la urmatoarele propozitii secundare:

1. Subordonate Completive Directe (Direct Object Clauses)


2. Subordonate Temporale (Time Clauses)
3. Subordonate de Scop (Purpose Clauses)
4. Subordonate introduse de IN CASE (in caz ca)

FOR DIRECT OBJECT CLAUSES (Completive Directe)

Main Clause Direct Object Clause

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Daca in Propozitia Principala avem Past Tense Simple si exista raport de simultaneitate intre actiuni atunci in Compeltiva Directa
se foloseste tot Past Tense Simple:

Past Simple simultaneity Past Simple

She said that she is was happy. (Ea a spus ca este/ era fericita.)

Daca in Propozitia Principala avem Past Tense Simple si exista raport de anterioritate intre actiuni atunci in Compeltiva Directa se
foloseste Past Perfect Simple:

Past Simple anteriority Past Perfect

She said that she saw had seen him before. (Ea a spus ca l-a vazut/ il vazuse pe el
inainte.)

Daca in Propozitia Principala avem Past Tense Simple si exista raport de posterioritate intre actiuni atunci in Compeltiva Directa
se foloseste Future-in-the-Past:

Past Simple posteriority Future-in-the-Past (would + Vb. Short INF.)

She said that she will would come the next day. (Ea a spus ca va veni ziua
urmatoare.)

EXCEPTIONS (exceptii):

1. Daca in Completiva Directa avem un adevar general atunci se foloseste numai Present Simple in subordonata:

General Truths:

Past Simple Present Simple

The teacher said that oil never mixes with water. (Profesorul a spus ca uleiul nu se amesteca
niciodata cu apa.)

He said that a friend in need is a friend indeed. (El a spus ca prietenul la nevoie se
cunoaste.)

2. Daca actiunea din secundara urmeaza sa se intample atunci dupaTrecut in principala se foloseste Prezent Continuu.

Past Simple Present Continuous

He said yesterday that he is coming tomorrow. (it is not tomorrow yet)

(El a spus ieri ca el va veni maine.) (inca nu este maine)

3. Regulile Concordantei timpurilor se aplica numai in Completive Directe. Daca avem o subordonata Atributiva atunci se poate
folosi orice timp prezent sau viitorul cu WILL dupa Trecut Simplu in principala:

Main Clause Relative Clause

He told her a lie which still upsets her nowadays. (El i-a spus ei o minciuna care inca o
supara si azi.)

OVERVIEW for The Sequence of Tenses in DIRECT OBJECT CLAUSES

PAST SIMPLE (MAIN CLAUSE):

PRESENT
FUTURE (WILL)
PAST SIMPLE (simultaneity)
PAST PERFECT (anteriority)
FUTURE-IN-THE-PAST (WOULD +Vb. Short INF.)(posteriority)

e.g. He promised that he ... the money. (El a promis ca va aduce banii.)

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a) will bring

b) would bring

c) is bringing

d) will be bringing

e.g. The teacher said that the Earth ... round the Sun. (Profesorul a spus ca pamantul se invarte in jurul soarelui.)

a) moves (General Truth)

b) is moving

c) moved

d) would move

FOR TIME CLAUSES

Main Clause Time Clause

Future simultaneity Present Simple

I will call you when I finish here.

(Eu te voi suna cand voi termina aici.)

Daca folosim Prezent Simplu in secundara temporala atunci actiunile sunt simultane.

Future anteriority Present Perfect

I will visit you as soon as I have finished my work.

(Eu te voi vizita de indata ce imi voi fi terminat munca.)

Daca folosim Prezent Perfect Simplu in secundara temporala atunci actiunea din temporala este anterioara fata de cea din
principala.

Future-in-the-Past simultaneity Past Simple

He said/ that he would come/ when he finished his work.

(El a spus/ ca va veni cand el si-a terminat munca.)

Daca suntem in axa trecutului si avem Viitor-in-Trecut in principala atunci se foloseste Trecut Simplu in temporala pentru a arata
ca actiunile din principala si din temporala au fost simultane.

Future-in-the-Past anteriority Past Perfect

He said/ that he would come/ as soon as he had finished his work.

(El a spus/ ca va veni de indata ce el isi terminase munca.)

Daca suntem in axa trecutului si avem Viitor-in-Trecut in principala atunci se foloseste Mai mult ca perfect Simplu in temporala
pentru a arata ca actiunea din temporala a fost anterioara fata de cea din principala.

!!! NEVER USE WILL or WOULD in a TIME CLAUSE (NU FOLOSITI NICIODATA WILL SAU WOULD IN SUBORDONATE
TEMPORALE)

e.g. They will give you a call as soon as they ... in town. (Ei o sa te sune de indata ce sosesc in oras.)

a) will arrive

b) would arrive

c) arrive
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d) had arrived

!!! WHEN poate sa introduca o Completiva Directa caz in care se poate folosi WILL sau WOULD dupa WHEN

Main Clause DO Clause

I want to know when he will arrive. (ce vreau sa stiu?) (Vreau sa stiu /cand va
sosi el.)

He wanted to know when she would come to the party. (ce dorea sa stie?)* (El a vrut sa
stie /cand ea va veni la petrecere.)

(*se aplica regulile Concordantei timpurilor pentru Completive Directe -> dupa trecut se foloseste Viitor-in-trecut cu
WOULD)

!!! WHEN poate sa introduca o subordonata relativa/ atributiva caz in care se poate folosi WILL sau WOULD dupa WHEN

Main Clause RELATIVE Clause

That will be the moment when he will try to kill you. (care moment?) Acela va fi
momentul /cand el va incerca sa te omoare.)

FOR PURPOSE CLAUSES (pentru subordonate de scop)

Main Clause Purpose Clause

Daca in principala avem urmatoarele timpuri: -> se folosestewill/ may/ can in secundara de scop

Present Simple/ Cont.

Future

Imperative so that/ in order that (ca sa) will/may/can + Vb. Short Inf.

Present Perfect Simple/ Cont

e.g. She is studying so that she may pass the exam. (Ea studiaza ca sa treaca examenul.)

Daca in principala avem trecuturi -> se folosestewould/might/could in subordonata de scop (should


este de asemenea posibil)

Past Tenses so that/ in order that (ca sa) would/might/could +Vb. Short Inf. (should is also
possible)

e.g. She left early so that she might catch the bus. (Ea a plecat devreme ca sa prinda
autobuzul.)

e.g. They are studying hard so that they ... the maximum grade at English. (Ei studiaza din greu ca sa obtina nota maxima
la engleza.)

a) would get

b) could get

c) may get

d) must get

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The sequence of Tenses also applies after IN CASE (NEVER USE WILL or WOULD after IN CASE) (Concordanta
timpurilor se aplica si dupa IN CASE - in caz ca/ in caz de dupa care nu se foloseste niciodata WILL sau WOULD)

Daca avem timpuri prezente, imperativ sau viitor in principala atunci dupa IN CASE se foloseste prezent sau MAY sau
SHOULD

Present or Imperative or Future + IN CASE + verb in the present/ may/ should

e.g. Take your umbrella in case it rains/ may rain/ should rain/ will rain/ would rain. (Ia umbrela in caz ca ploua.)

Daca avem trecut in principala atunci dupa IN CASE se foloseste tot trecut sau MIGHT

Past + IN CASE + verb in the past/ might

e.g. I took my umbrella in case it rained/ might rain/ would rain. (Am luat umbrela in caz ca ar putea sa ploua.)

e.g. They brought her with them in case they ... her help. (Ei au adus-o cu ei in caz ca o sa aiba nevoie de ajutorul ei.)

a) might need

b) will need

c) would need

d) may need

09. Reported Speech


Direct Speech (Vorbire directa) Reported Speech (Vorbire indirecta)

“He saw you there last night,” she said. -> She said that he had seen me there the previous night.

(- El te-a vazut acolo noaptea trecuta, a spus ea. -> Ea a spus ca el m-a vazut acolo noaptea anterioara.)

There are three things that change when transforming a sentence from Direct Speech into Reported Speech:

(Sunt trei lucruri care se schimba cand se face trecerea din vorbirea directa in vorbirea indirecta)

The personal pronouns and possesive adjectives. (pronumele personale si adjectivele posesive)
The tenses of the verb. (timpurile verbului)
Time words. (adverbele de timp)

I. The personal pronouns and possessive adjectives change as follows (pronumele personale si adjectivele posesive
se schimba astfel):

First and second person => third person: eg.You


“ are a liar” he said to her. ->He said (that)she
was a liar.

(persoana I si a II-a trec in persoana a III-a) (- Tu esti o mincinoasa, el i-a spus ei. -> El i-a spus ca
ea era o mincinoasa.)

Second person => first person (when talking about yourself): eg. “You are very smart.” -> He said (that) I was very
smart.

(persoana a II-a trece in persoana I atunci cand vorbesti despre tine insati) (- Tu esti foarte destept. -> El a spus ca eu eram
foarte destept.)

II. The tenses of the verb change as follows (timpurile verbului se schimba in felul urmator):

Present Simple => Past Simple:

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“She sings well,” he said. => He said that she sang well. (- Ea canta bine, a spus el. -> El a spus ca ea canta bine.)

Present Continuous => Past Continuous:

“ She is singing well,” he said. => He said that she was singing well. (- Ea canta bine, a spus el. -> El a spus ca ea canta bine.)

Present Perfect Simple => Past Perfect Simple:

“She has sung well,” he said. => He said that she had sung well. (- Ea a cantat bine, a spus el. -> El a spus ca ea cantase bine.)

Present Perfect Continuous => Past Perfect Continuous:

“She has been singing well,” he said. => He said that she had been singing well. (- Ea canta bine, a spus el. -> El a spus ca ea
cantase bine.)

Past Simple => Past Perfect Simple:

“She sang well,” he said. => He said that she had sung well. (- Ea a cantat bine, a spus el. -> El a spus ca ea cantase bine.)

Past Continuous => Past Perfect Continuous:

“She was singing well,” he said => He said shehad been singing well. (- Ea canta bine, a spus el. -> El a spus ca ea cantase
bine.)

E.g. “I saw Tom yesterday morning and he told me he was happy” she said. (- L-am vazut pe Tom ieri dimineata si el mi-a
spus ca era fericit, a spus ea.)

a) She said she saw Tom yesterday morning and he told her he was happy.

b) She said she had seen Tom yesterday morning and he had told her he had been happy.

c) She said she had seen Tom the previous morning and he had told her he had been happy.

d) She said that she had seen Tom the previous morning and he had told her that he was happy.

E.g. He said that he had spoken with her the previous day and she had told him not to worry.

(El a spus ca el vorbise cu ea ziua anterioara si ea ii spusese sa nu se ingrijoreze.)

a) ”I have spoken with her the previous day and she has told me not to worry.”

b) ”I spoke with her yesterday and she told me not to worry.”

c) ”I have spoken with her yesterday and she told me not to worry.”

d) ”I spoke with her the previous day and she has told me not to worry.”

WILL => WOULD: “She will sing well,” he said. => He said that she would sing well.

(-Ea va canta bine, a spus el. - El a spus ca ea va canta bine.)

CAN => COULD: “She can sing well,” he said. => He said that shecould sing well.

(-Ea poate sa cante bine, a spus el. - El a spus ca ea putea sa cante bine.)

CAN => WOULD BE ABLE TO (future reference): "I can visit you next weekend." => He said he would be able to visit us the
following weekend.

(daca CAN se refera la viitor se transforma in WOULD BE ABLE TO) (Pot sa va vizitez weekendul viitor. - El a spus ca va putea
sa ne viziteze weekendul urmator.)

MAY => MIGHT: “It may rain later,” he said. => He said it might rain later.

(-E posibil sa ploua mai tarziu, a spus el. - El a spus ca era posibil sa ploua mai tarziu.)
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MUST (obligation) => HAD TO: “You must try again,” he said. => He said that I had to try again.

(cand MUST exprima obligatie se schimba in HAD TO) (-Trebuie sa incerci iar, a spus el. - El a spus ca trebuia sa incerc iar.)

NEEDN’T => DIDN’T NEED TO/ DIDN’T HAVE TO: “You needn’t worry about this thing,” he said. => He said Ididn’t need to
worry about that thing.

(Nu trebuie sa te ingrijorezi de acest lucru, a spus el. - El a spus ca nu trebuia sa ma ingrijorez de acel lucru.)

NEEDN’T => WOULDN’T HAVE TO (future reference): “She needn’t leave tomorrow,” he said. => He said she wouldn’t have
to leave the following day.

(daca NEEDN'T se refera la viitor se schimba in WOULDN’T HAVE TO) (-Ea nu trebuie sa plece maine, a spus el. - El a spus ca
ea nu va trebui sa plece ziua urmatoare.)

SHALL => WOULD (future reference): “I shall be there,” she said. => She said she would be there.

(-Voi fi acolo, a spus ea. -> Ea a spus ca va fi acolo.)

SHALL => SHOULD (asking for advice/ information): “What shall I buy?” he asked. => He asked what heshould buy.

(daca SHALL este verb modal folosit pentru a cere sfat sau informatii atunci se transforma inSHOULD)(-Ce sa cumpar> a
intrebat el. -> El a intrebat ce sa cumpere.)

COME => GO: “Will you come to the party?” she asked him. => She asked him if he wouldgo to the party.

(- Vei veni la petrecere, l-a intrebat ea pe el. -> Ea l-a intrebat pe el daca o sa se duca la petrecere.)

HERE => THERE: “She isn’t here,” he said. => He said she wasn’t there.

(- Ea nu este aici, a spus el. -> El a spus ca ea nu era acolo.)

THIS => THAT: “This is my sister,” he said. => He said that was his sister.

(- Aceasta este sora mea, a spus el. -> El a spus ca aceea era sora lui.)

THESE => THOSE: “ These are my parents,” he said. => He saidthose were his parents.

(- Acestia sunt parintii mei, a spus el. -> El a spus ca aceeia erau parintii lui.)

Tenses DO NOT change in Reported Speech when (timpurile nu se schimba la vorbirea indirecta atunci cand):

1. the reporting verb (said, told, asked, etc) is in the Present, Future or Present Perfect. (verbul care raporteaza
este la Prezent, Viitor sau Prezent Perfect)

E.g. “It is sunny today,” he says. => He says that it is sunny today./ He’s said that it is sunny today.

(- Este insorit azi, spune el. -> El spune ca este insorit azi./ El a spus ca este insorit azi. Prezentul
( Perfect ['s said] se traduce
prin trecut in limba romana)

2. the speaker expresses general truths. (vorbitorul exprima adevaruri generale)

E.g. “Water never mixes with oil,” she said. => She said that water never mixes with oil.

(- Apa nu se amesteca niciodata cu uleiul, a spus ea. -> Ea a spus ca apa nu se amesteca niciodata cu uleiul.)

3. the reported sentence is a conditional clause type 2 or type 3. (propozitia raportata este o conditionala de
tipul II sau III)

E.g.

Type 1 “If I have time, I will visit you,” he said. => He said that if he had time, he would visit me.

(- Daca voi avea timp, te voi vizita, a spus el. => El a spus ca daca ar avea timp, m-ar vizita.)

Type 2 “If I were rich, I would buy a house,” he said. => He said that if he were rich, he would buy a house.

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(- Daca as fi bogat, as cumpara o casa, a spus el. => El a spus ca daca ar fi bogat, ar cumpara o casa.)

Type 3 “If I had seen her, I would have told her the truth,” he said. => He said that if he had seen her, he would have told her the
truth.

(- Daca as fi vazut-o, i-as fi spus adevarul, a spus el. => El a spus ca daca ar fi vazut-o, i-ar fi spus adevarul.)

4. the reported sentence deals with unreal past (Subjunctive Mood). (propozitia raportata are un Subjonctiv in
ea)

The Subjunctive Mood is required by the following (Subjonctivul este cerut de urmatoarele verbe si expresii):

IF ONLY (ce-ar fi daca)

WISH => wished (wish devine wished)

WOULD RATHER/ WOULD SOONER (as prefera) + S + PAST SIMPLE/ PAST PERFECT (aceste doua timpuri sunt
Subjonctive si NU SE SCHIMBA)

AS IF/ AS THOUGH (de parca)

IT’S TIME/ IT’S HIGH TIME/ IT’S ABOUT TIME (e timpul)=>

It was time, It was hight time/ it was about time (era timpul)

SUPPOSE/ SUPPOSING (sa presupunem)

E.g. “I wish I had more free time,” she said. => She said she wished she had more time.

(- As dori sa am mai mult timp liber, a spus ea. -> Ea a spus ca isi doreasa aiba mai mult timp liber.)

" I wish I had had more free time when I was a child," she said. => She said she wished she had had more free time when
she was a child.

(- As dori sa fi avut mai mult timp liber cand eram copil, a spus ea. -> Ea a spus ca isi doreasa fi avut mai mult timp liber
cand era copil.)

ATENTIE: was nu s-a schimbat pentru ca este intr-o subordonata temporala, (vezi urmatorul punct), DAR pentru ca este o
temporala la trecut in propozitia directa, cere un Past Perfect pentru ca avem referire la trecut.)

5. !!!!!!!!!!!!! the reported sentence contains a Time Clause with a PAST TENSE in it. (daca propozitia raportata
este o TEMPORALA in care timpul este la Trecut atunci Trecutul din temporala nu se schimba)

E.g. “I was there/ when the postman came,” he said. => He said he was/ had been there when the postman came.

(- Am fost acolo cand a venit postasul, a spus el. -> El a spus ca era/ fusese acolo cand a venit postasul.)

“ I will be there when the postman comes.” => He said he would be there when the postman came.

(- Voi fi acolo cand va veni postasul. -> El a spus ca va fi acolo cand va veni postasul. - daca avem prezent in temporala atunci
acesta trece la trecut)

E.g. “He was sleeping while she was cooking dinner.” (El dormea in timp ce ea gatea cina.)

a) Mother said that he slept while she was cooking dinner.

b) Mother said that he had been sleeping while she had been cooking dinner.

c) Mother said that he had been sleeping while she was cooking dinner.

d) Mother said that he was sleeping while she had been cooking dinner.

6. the sentence contains the modal verbs (daca propozitia contine verbe modale): might, should, would,
mustn’t, ought to, must (deduction) or USED TO

E.g. “I ought to go,” he said. => He said he ought to go.

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(- Trebuie sa plec, a spus el. -> El a spus ca trebuie sa plece.)

"We used to have lots of fun," he said. => He said that theyused to have lots of fun.

(- Noi obisnuiam sa ne distram mult, a spus el. -> El a spus ca ei obisnuiau sa se distreze mult.)

!!!!!!!!!! If what we say is a LIE then the tenses change. (daca ceea ce spunem este o minciuna atunci timpurile se
schimba)

E.g. "America is a small country." => He said that America was a small country.

(- America este o tara mica. -> El a spus ca America era o tara mica.)

7. the action in the indirect speech IS STILL HAPPENING or IS GOING TO HAPPEN (daca actiunea de la
vorbirea insirecta inca se mai intampla sau urmeaza sa se intample):

E.g. "I am working on the details." => He said he is working on the details.

(- Lucrez la detalii. -> El a spus ca lucreaza la detalii. - el inca mai lucreaza la detalii)

" I am going on holiday in the morning." => She said that she is going on holiday in the morning.

(- Plec in vacanta dimineata. -> Ea a spus ca pleaca in vacanta dimineata. - ea inca nu a plecat in vacanta, urmeaza
sa faca asta)

III. Time words change as follows (adverbele de timp se schimba dupa cum urmeaza):

Tonight (diseara) => that night (acea noapte)

Today (astazi) => that day (acea zi)

This week/month/year (saptamana/ luna aceasta/ anul acesta) =>that week/month/year (acea saptamana/ luna/ acel
an)

Now (acum) => then/at that time/at once/immediately (atunci/ in acel moment/ imediat)

Yesterday (ieri) => the day before/ the previous day (ziua anterioara)

Last night/week/month/year (noaptea/ saptamana/ luna trecuta/ anul trecut) => the previous night/week/month/year
(noaptea/ saptamana/ luna anterioara/ anul anterior)

Three days/weeks/months/years ago (cu trei zile/ saptamani/ luni/ ani in urma) => three days/weeks/months/years
before (cu trei zile/ ... inainte)

So far (pana acum) => until then (pana atunci)

Tomorrow (maine) => next day/ the following day (ziua urmatoare)

Next day/week/month/year (ziua/ saptamana/ luna/ anul viitor) => the following day/week/month/year (ziua/ saptamana/
... urmatoare)

The day after tomorrow (poimaine) => two days later/after two days (doua zile mai tarziu/ dupa doua zile)

Reported Questions

Atunci cand trecem o intrebare din vorbirea directa in vorbirea indirecta in limba engleza cuvantul cu
WH (where/ what/ which/ etc.) se pastreaza dar nu se mai face inversiunea intre auxiliar si subiect,
subiectul se pune imediat dupa cuvantul cu WH si pe urma se pune verbul transformat:

Normal direct question: Wh-word + Aux + S + Verb?

Reported question: S + reporting verb + Wh-word + S + transformed Verb.


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E.g. “ Where have you been?” he asked. (- Unde ai fost, a intrebat el.)

He asked me where I had been. (El m-a intrebat unde fusesem.)/ He asked me where had I been. (NU FACETI INVERSIUNE
INTRE AUXILIAR SI SUBIECT)

Daca intrebarea in limba engleza se face cu un auxiliar atunci la vorbirea indirecta se folosesteIF sau WHETHER
(daca) (!! atentile sa nu confundati cu WEATHER care inseamna vreme) dupa care urmeaza subiectul si verbul transformat
(din nou nu se mai face inversiunea intre auxiliar si subiect)

Normal direct question: Aux + S + Verb?

Reported question : S + reporting verb + IF/WHETHER + S + transformed verb.

E.g. “Do you like cats?” (-Iti plac pisicile?)

He asked me if/whether I liked cats. (El m-a intrebat daca imi placeau pisicile.)

!!!!!!!!!!! (Atentie daca aveti o intrebare la trecut, DID dispare iar verbul se pune la Mai mult ca Perfect)

“Did you see her?” (- Ai vazut-o?)

He asked me if/ whether I had seen saw her. (El m-a intrebat daca o vazusem.)

Reported Commands/ Requests/ Suggestions

Ordinele, cererile si sugestiile se introduc la vorbirea indirecta prin verbe ca: advise, ask, beg, offer, request, etc. care
sunt urmate de Verb la Infinitiv Lung:

E.g. “Go away,” he said to me. => He ordered meto go away. (-Pleaca, el mi-a spus. -> El mi-a ordonat sa plec.)

“Please don’t shout,” he said to me. => He asked me not to shout. (- Te rog nu tipa, el mi-a spus. -> El m-a rugat sa nu tip.)

!!! Atentie: negatia la Infinitiv se face punand NOT in fata lui TO si nu intre TO si verb: NOT TO DRINK (a nu bea) si nu TO
NOT DRINK

!!!!!!!! Dupa verbul Suggest se folosesc urmatoarele structuri:

suggest + Vb. –ing

suggest + that + S + should + Vb. Inf.

suggest + that + S + Vb. Short Inf

E.g. “Let’s see a film,” he said. => He suggested seeing a film. (El a sugerat sa vedem un film.)

(- Hai sa vedem un film! a spus el.) Hesuggested that we should see a film. (El a sugerat sa vedem un film.)

suggested that we see a film. (El a sugerat sa vedem un film.)


He

He suggested to see a film. (Nu se pune Infinitiv dupa suggest)

Reported Exclamations are paraphrases of direct exclamations (exclamatiile se parafrazeaza in vorbirea indirecta):

E.g. “How nice to meet you!” => He exclaimed he was delighted to meet me.

(-Incantat sa va intalnesc! -> El a exclamat ca era incantat sa ma intalneasca.)

“What a terrible day!” => He complained about the day.

(- Ce zi groaznica! -> El s-a plans de vreme.)

“Good evening!” => She greeted me./ She wished me a good evening.

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(- Buna seara! -> Ea m-a salutat./ Ea mi-a dorit o seara buna.)

Indirect Questions (polite questions)

Direct question: Wh-word+Aux+S+Vb?


Indirect question: I wonder(ed)/I want(ed) to know (ma intreb/ ma intrebam/ vreau sa stiu/ voiam sa stiu)+Wh-word+S+P.
Could you tell me/ Do you know/Did you know (Ati putea sa imi spuneti/ Stiti/ Stiati)+ Wh-word+S+P?

Eg."How much does it cost?" => "Could you tell me how much it costs?"/ how much does it cost?

(- Cat costa? -> Ati putea sa imi spuneti cat costa?)

"Where did she live?" => "I wanted to know where she lived."/ where did she live.

(- Unde locuia ea? -> Doream sa stiu unde locuia ea.)

Diferenta intre Intrebarile raportate si Intrebarile indirecte in limba engleza este aceea ca Intrebarile raportate sunt introduse
prin "said, told, asked, etc." si sunt urmate de verbe care trebuie sa respecte transformarile de la vorbirea indirecta pe cand
Intrebarile indirecte sunt de fapt intrebari politicoase introduse de expresii politicoase ca: "I wonder, I want to know, Could
you tell me, etc." care nu sunt urmate neaparat de verbe transformate.

Asemanarea dintre Intrebarile raportate si intrebarile indirecte este ca in ambele nu se mai face inversiunea intre auxiliar si
subiect.

Direct Speech Reported question Indirect question

"Where is she?" => He asked where she was. "I want to know where she is."

(- Unde este ea? -> El m-a intrebat unde era ea. Vreau sa stiu unde este ea.)

Special Introductory Verbs

Exista mai multe verbe care pot sa introduca vorbirea indirecta in limba engleza in afara de "say", "tell" si "ask", dar unele
verbe introductive cer anumite structuri dupa ele:

Dupa verbele: agree ( a fi de acord), demand (a cere), offer (a oferi), promise (a promite), refuse (a refuza), threaten (a
ameninta), claim (a pretinde) se foloseste Vb. Long Infinitive

E.g. “Yes, I’ll help you.” => He agreed to help me (-Da, te voi ajuta. -> El a fost de acord sa ma ajute.)

=> He said that he would help me. (El a spus ca ma va ajuta.)

Dupa verbele: advise (a sfatui), allow (a permite), ask (a ruga), beg (a implora), command (a comanda), encourage (a
incuraja), forbid (a interzice), instruct (a in strui), invite ( a invita), order (a ordona), permit (permite), remind (a aminti
cuiva), urge (a indemna), warn (a avertiza), want ( a vrea) se foloseste un pronume in Acuzativ (me/ you/ him/ her/ it/ us/ you/
them) + Vb. Long Infinitive

“You should take an umbrella.” => He advised me to take an umbrella.

(- Ar trebui sa iei o umbrela. -> El m-a sfatuit sa iau o umbrela.)

Dupa verbele: accuse somebody of (a acuza pe cineva de), apologise for (a-si cere scuze pentru), admit to (a admite),
boast about (a se lauda), complain to sb about (a se plange cuiva de), deny (a nega), insist on (a insista), suggest (a
sugera) se foloseste Vb. –ING

“You broke my glasses.” => He accused me of breaking his glasses. (-Mi-ai spart ochelarii. -> El m-a acuzat ca i-am spart
ochelarii.)

“No, I didn’t steal it.” => He denied stealing it. (-Nu, nu am furat asta. -> El a negat ca a furat asta.)

Iata cateva expresii si verbe modale impreuna cu verbele introductive specifice lor la vorbirea indirecta:

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Would you like...? => offer

“Would you like me to help?” => He offered to help. (-Ati vrea sa va ajut? -> El s-a oferit sa ma ajute.)

Won’t => refuse

“I won’t do it.” => He refused to do it. (-Eu refuz sa fac asta. -> El a refuzat sa faca asta.)

Should => advise

“You should learn more.” => He advised me to learn more. (-Ar trebui sa inveti mai mult. -> El m-a sfatuit sa invat mai mult.)

Can => allow

“You can stay here.” => He allowed me to stay there. (-Poti sa stai aici. -> El mi-a permis sa stau acolo.)

Let’s/ How about/ What about/ Why don’t we => suggest +vb. –ing/ suggest + that +S + SHOULD + Vb. Inf/suggest + that +S
+ Vb. Short Inf

“Let’s pay her a visit later.” => He suggested paying her a visit later./ He suggested we should pay her a visit later./ He suggested
we pay her a visit later.

(- Hai sa ii facem o vizita/ sa o vizitam mai tarziu. -> El a sugerat sa o viziteze mai tarziu.)

Mustn’t/ not be allowed to => forbid + somebody + Long Infinitive

“You mustn’t cheat during the exam” he said. => The teacherforbade us to cheat during the exam.

(- Este interzis sa copiati in timpul examenului, a spus el. -> Profesorul ne-a interzis sa copiem in timpul examenului.)

“You are very beautiful.” (Tu esti foarte frumoasa.)

He said that I was very beautiful. (El a spus ca eram foarte frumoasa.)

He said to me that I was very beautiful. (dupa say se pune TO)(El mi-a spus mie ca eram foarte frumoasa.)

He said me that I was very beautiful.

He told me that I was very beautiful. (dupa tell nu se pune TO)(El mi-a spus mie ca eram foarte frumoasa.)

He told to me that I was very beautiful.

10. Passive Voice and Causatives


I. Passive Voice

Diateza Pasiva in limba engleza se formeaza in acelasi fel ca in limba romana din verbula fi (TO BE) care trebuie sa stea la
acelasi timp ca verbul din Diateza Activa plus Participiul Trecut (Verbul la forma a-III-a sau cu -ed) al verbului de la Diateza
Activa. In acelasi timp se foloseste ca Subiect gramatical unul dintre complemente (direct sau indirect) iar subiectul propozitiei
devine complement de agent (subiectul logic care face actiunea) introdus de BY.

S + TO BE + VB. III/ -ED

She gave me a flower. (me este complement indirect iar a flower este complement direct)(Ea mi-a dat mie o
floare)

I was given a flower (by her). (Mie mi s-a dat o floare de catre ea.)

A flower was given to me (by her). (O floare mi-a fost data mie de catre ea.)

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(Pentru ca timpul de la Diateza Activa este la Past Simple, atunci verbul TO BE trebuie sa stea tot la Past Simple => WAS in
acest caz)

!!!!!! (se prefera sa se puna persoana in fata si nu obiectul, deci daca aveti o grila in care aveti atat persoana cat si obiectul pe post
de subiect gramatical, alegeti grila cu persoana ca subiect)

e.g. They have given Mary a book. (Ei i-au dat lui Mary o carte.)

a) Mary was given a book. (nu este grilaa pentru ca to be [care este la Past Simple aici] nu este la acelasi timp ca cel de la
diateza activa din propozitia data [care este la Present Perfect Simple])

b) A book has been given to Mary. (nu este aleasa grilab pentru ca subiectul gramatical este exprimat printr-un obiect)

c) Mary has been given a book. (este corecta grila c pentru ca persoana (Mary) este subiectul gramatical iar to be este la
acelasi timp ca cel de la Diateza Activa)

d) A book had been given to Mary. (nu este aleasa grilad pentru ca to be [care este la Past Perfect Simple aici]nu este la
acelasi timp ca cel de la diateza activa din propozitia data [care este la Present Perfect Simple])

I ... flowers and he ... a book by our teacher. (la genul acesta de grile trebuie sa folositi cunostintele de la timpurile verbului si sa
vedeti ce timp la diateza pasiva trebuie ales)

a) Have been given/ was given

b) Have been given/ has been given (ambele timpuri trebuie sa fie la Present Perfect pentru ca nu este dat timpul cand
actiunile au fost facute)

c) Was given/ was given

d) Had given/ has given

(Mie mi s-au dat flori iar lui i s-a dat o carte de catre profesorul nostru.)

Schimbarea verbului de la Diateza Activa la Diateza Pasiva se face dupa cum urmeaza:

Present Simple: She washes her car every week. (Ea isi spala masina in fiecare saptamana.) =>

The car is washed (by her) every week. (Masina este spalata in fiecare saptamana.)

(!!Atentie: complementul de agent nu se mai pune atunci cand este exprimat printr-un pronume .)

Present Continuous: They are cleaning the room now. (Ei curata camera acum.) =>

The room is being cleaned (by them) now. (Camera este curatata de catre ei acum.)

Present Perfect Simple: They have sent for the doctor. (Ei au trimis dupa doctor.) =>

The doctor has been sent for. (S-a trimis dupa doctor)

!!! Atentie: daca verbul este urmat de o prepozitie atunci aceasta se pastreaza atunci cand verbul trece la Diateza Pasiva.

E.g. The doctor has operated on the patient. (Doctorul a operat pacientul.)

a) The patient was operated on. (nu este corecta grila a pentru ca timpul verbului TO BE nu este acelasi ca cel al verbului
de la Diateza Activa)

b) The patient has been operated. (nu este corecta grila b pentru ca nu are prepozitiaon dupa verb)

c) The patient is being operated on. (nu este corecta grila c pentru ca timpul verbului TO BE nu este acelasi ca cel al
verbului de la Diateza Activa)

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d) The patient has been operated on. (Pacientul a fost operat.)

(este corecta grila d pentru ca prepozitia on s-a pastrat si timpul lui TO BE este acelasi ca cel al verbului de la Diateza
Activa, adica Present Perfect Simple)

Past Simple: He stole a book last week. (El a furat o carte saptamana trecuta.) =>

A book was stolen last week. (O carte a fost furata saptamana trecuta.)

Past Continuous: The police were following him. (Politia il urmarea pe el.) =>

He was being followed (by the police). (El era urmarit de politie.)

Past Perfect Simple: She had bought a house. (Ea cumparase o casa. )=>

A house had been bought. (O casa fusese cumparata.)

E.g. A thief had already taken his money. (Un hot deja ii luase banii.)

a) Who has his money been taken by?

b) Who was his money taken by?

c) Who had his money been taken by? (De catre cine i se luasera banii?)

d) Who had his money been taken? (In intrebari la Diateza Pasiva trebuie sa avem prepozitia BY la final)

Future Simple: She will help them. (Ea ii va ajuta pe ei.) =>

They will be helped. (Ei vor fi ajutati.)

Future Perfect Simple: They will have finished their homework by tomorrow. (Ei isi vor fi terminat temele pana maine.) =>

The homework will have been finished by tomorrow. (Temele vor fi fost terminate pana maine.)

Modal Verbs: He must tell the truth. (El trebuie sa spuna adevarul.) =>

The truth must be told. (Adevarul trebuie spus.)

He may have bought the car. (E posibil ca el sa fi cumparat masina.) =>

The car may have been bought. (Masina e posibil sa fi fost cumparata.) (Verbul Modal se pastreaza)

Gerund: I hate people telling me what to do. (Urasc ca oamenii sa imi spuna ce sa fac.) =>

I hate being told what to do (by people). (Urasc sa mi se spuna ce sa fac.)

!! Verbul care cere un Gerund dupa el (de ex. hate, love, like, dislike, etc.) se pastreaza:

E.g. I love people giving me presents. (Iubesc ca oamenii sa imi dea cadouri)

a) I love to be given presents.

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b) I love being given presents. (Iubesc sa mi se dea cadouri)(S-a pastrat verbul LOVE si de asemenea TO BE are aceeasi
forma ca giving care este un Gerund)

c) I love having been given presents.

d) I love to have been given presents.

TO BE GOING TO/ TO HAVE TO si USED TO urmate de un verb la Infinitiv se pastreaza la Diateza Pasiva:

TO BE GOING TO + Vb. Inf. -> TO BE GOING TO + BE + Vb. III/ -ED

She is going to buy me a car. (Ea intentioneaza/ urmeaza sa imi cumpere mie o masina.) =>

I am going to be bought a car. ( Mie urmeaza sa mi se cumpere o masina.)

TO HAVE TO + Vb. Inf. -> TO HAVE TO + BE + Vb. III/ -ED

He has to deliver a parcel. (El trebuie sa livreze un pachet.) =>

A parcel has to be delivered. (Un pachet trebuie sa fie livrat.

USED TO + Vb. Inf. => USED TO + BE + Vb. III/ -ED

They used to give her flowers. =>

She used to be given flowers.

NEED + TO BE + Vb. III/ -ED = NEED + Vb. -ING

The roof needs to be mended. = The roof needs mending. (Acoperisul are nevoie sa fie reparat.)

O propozitie normala cu subiect si predicat se poate contrage punand oprepozitie urmata de Vb. -ing. Aceasta la randul
ei se poate pune la Diateza Pasiva dupa cum urmeaza:

Active Voice Passive Voice

After he bought the book, he left. => After buying the book, he left.=> The book being bought, he left.

(Dupa ce a cumparat cartea, el a plecat. => Dupa cumpararea cartii, el a plecat. => Cartea fiind cumparata, el a plecat.)

Active Voice Passive Voice

He had given the money and then he left. => Having given the money, he left. =>The money having been given, he left.

(El a dat banii si pe urma a plecat. => Dand banii, el a plecat. => Banii fiind dati, el a plecat.)

Diateza Pasiva in intrebari:

In intrebarile care incep cu un cuvant cu WH- (why/ who/ which/ where/ etc.) se pune cuvantul cu WH- primul, dupa care se pune
auxiliarul +S + restul verbului conjugat la Diateza Pasiva + prepozitiaBY:

He discovered the mistake. (El a descoperit greseala.)

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? Who was the mistake discovered by?/ By who was the mistake discovered?

(De catre cine a fost descoperita greseala? -> se pune BY la finalul intrebarii si nu la inceput)

+ The mistake was discovered by him. (Greseala a fost descoperita de catre el.)

!!Atentie: La Diateza Activa verbele de mai jos cer dupa ele un verb laInfinitiv Scurt dar cand sunt pasivizate Infinitivul Scurt
devine Infinitiv Lung:

Make

Have

See + pronoun + Short Infinitive: Short Infinitive => Long Infinitive

Watch

Hear Eg. I saw her leave. -> She was seen to leave. (Am vazut-o plecand. => Ea a fost vazuta plecand.)

I heard them laugh. -> They were heard to laugh. (I-am auzit razand. => Ei au fost auziti razand.)

E.g. The man heard the child cry. (Barbatul a auzit copilul plangand.)

a) The child was heard crying.

b) The child was heard to cry. (Copilul a fost auzit plangand.)

c) The child has been heard to cry.

d) The child was heard cry.

!!!!!!!! Atentie: Verbul Let + Short Inf. se inlocuieste cu TO BE ALLOWED TO la diateza pasiva:

They let me go yesterday. => I was allowed to go yesterday. (permission) (Ei m-au lasat sa plec ieri. => Mi s-a permis sa plec
ieri.)

LET la Diateza Pasiva inseamna TO RENT (a inchiria): The apartment was let last week. (Apartamentul a fost inchiriat
saptamana trecuta.)

Exista cateva verbe say (a spune), tell (a spune), believe (a crede), expect (a se astepta), know (a sti), think (a crede),
suppose (a presupune), deem (a considera), consider (a considera), etc. care pot sa faca Diateza Pasiva in doua feluri:

1. Cu IT impersonal: People say / that she has money./ (Oamenii spun ca ea are bani.) =>It is said / that she has money./ (in
acest caz secundara ramane neschimbata) (Se spune ca ea are bani.)
2. In mod personalizat punand pronumele din secundara in fata si apoi verbul la Diateza Pasiva:People say / that she
has money./ (Oamenii spun ca ea are bani.) => She is said to have money. (Ea este spusa ca are bani. - in limba romana
nu suna natural dar in limba engleza este o constructie normala) - in acest caz verbul din secundara trece la Infinitiv Lung

Formele Infinitivului sunt:

Infinitiv: to + verb: e.g. to drink (a bea)

Infinitiv Continuu: to be + verb-ing: e.g. to be drinking ( a bea)

Infinitiv Perfect Simplu: to have + verb III/-ed: e.g. to have drunk (a fi baut)

Infinitiv Perfect Continuu: to have been + verb-ing:e.g. to have been drinking ( a fi baut)

Pentru a doua situatie trecerea timpurilor la Infinitiv se face dupa cum urmeaza:

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I. Prezentul Simplu si Viitorul Simplu vor trece intr-un Infinitiv Simplu(eg. to ask):

People say /that he is handsome./(Oamenii spun ca el este frumos.) => It is said /that he is handsome./(impersonal) (Se
spune ca el este frumos.)

=> He is said to be handsome. (personal) (El este spus ca este


frumos.)

E.g. They believe that she will live in Paris. (Ei cred ca ea va locui in Paris.)

a) She is believed to have lived in Paris.

b) She is believed to live in Paris. (Ea este crezuta ca va locui in Paris.)

c) She is believed that will live in Paris.

d) She was believed to live in Paris.

II. Prezentul Continuu si Viitorul Continuu vor trece intr-un Infinitiv Continuu (to be + vb.-ing =>eg. to be sleeping)

People say /that she is crying./ (Oamenii spun ca ea plange.) => It is said/ that she is crying./ (Se spune ca ea plange.)

=> She is said to be crying. (Ea este spusa ca plange.)

III. Trecutul Simplu, Prezentul Perfect Simplu si Mai Mult ca Perfectul Simplu vor trece intr-un Infinitiv Perfect Simplu (to
have +vb.III/-ed => eg. to have eaten):

People say/ that he lived in Germany./ (Oamenii spun ca el locuia in Germania.) =>It is said/ that he lived in Germany./
(Se spune ca el locuia in Germania.)

=> He is said to have lived in Germany.

IV. Trecutul Continuu, Prezentul Perfect Continuu si Mai Mult ca Perfectul Continuu vor trece intr-un Infinitiv Perfect
Continuu (to have been + vb.-ing => eg. to have been talking)

People say/ that they were stealing./ (Oamenii spun ca ei furau.) => It is said/ that they were stealing./ (Se spune ca ei
furau.)

= > They are said to have been stealing.

Exista cateva verbe care exprima ideea de Diateza Pasiva dar au forma de Diateza Activa (ele se numesc verbe ergative -
ergative verbs):

The cat opened the window. (Pisica a deschis fereastra. - Diateza Activa)

The window was opened by the cat. (Fereastra a fost deschisa de catre pisica. - Diateza Pasiva)

The window opened. (Fereastra s-a deschis. - Verb ergativ - pare ca fereastra s-a deschis singura dar de fapt a fost
deschisa de catre cineva)

Other examples (alte exemple):

These blouses sell well. (These blouses are sold well by the shop assistant.) (Aceste bluze se vand bine. -> Aceste bluze
sunt vandute bine de catre vanzator.)

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I photograph well. (Sunt fotogenic)

The soup boils fast. (Supa fierbe repede)

The snow melts in the sun. (Zapada se topeste la soare)

The book reads fast. (Cartea se citeste repede)

The letter writes that he misses us. (Scrie in scrisoare ca lui ii e dor de noi)

II. Causatives

Forma cauzativelor este: S + HAVE + OBJECT + VB. III/-ED => Cauzativele se folosesc pentru a spune ca altcineva face
actiunea pentru o persoana.

I cleaned the car. (I did it myself) (Eu am curatat masina. - Diateza Activa - fac actiunea eu insumi/ insami)

I asked the man to clean my car. (L-am rugat pe barbat sa imi curete masina.)

I had my car cleaned (by the man, I didn’t do it myself). (Am avut masina curatata de catre barbat - nu am facut actiunea
singur)

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!Atentie: The verb to have must stay exactly in the same tense as the verb in the Active Voice.

(VERBUL HAVE TREBUIE SA STEA EXACT LA ACELASI TIMP CA VERBUL DE LA DIATEZA ACTIVA)

1. Se foloseste pentru a exprima nenorociri si accidente care s-au intamplat cuiva (Misfortunes and accidents):

A thief broke into my house. (Un hot mi-a spart casa.) ->

I had my house broken into. (Am avut casa sparta de un hot.)

2. Se foloseste pentru a spune ca altcineva face actiunea pentru tine (used to say that someone else does the action for
you):

Eg. Present Simple: She cleans my house every week. (Ea imi curata casa in fiecare saptamana.)

a) I have my house cleaned every week. (Eu am casa curatata in fiecare saptamana.)

b) I had my house cleaned every week.

c) I have had my house cleaned every week.

d) I am having my house cleaned every week.

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Present Continuous: A mechanic is repairing my car. (Un mecanic imi repara masina.)

a) I have my car repaired.

b) I have been having my car repaired.

c) I will be having my car repaired.

d) I am having my car repaired. (Am masina reparata de un mecanic.)

Present Perfect Simple: They have painted his house recently. (Ei i-au vopsit casa recent.)

a) He has been having his house painted recently.

b) He has had his house painted recently. (El a avut casa vopsita recent.)

c) He had had his house painted recently.

d) He has his house painted recently.

Present Perfect Continuous: They have been cleaning her room for two hours. (Ei curata camera ei de doua ore.)

She has been having her room cleaned for two hours. (Ea are camera curatata de doua ore.)

E.g. We ... the house cleaned by the maidall day. (Noi avem casa curatata de catre servitoare toata ziua.)

a) have had

b) had been having

c) have been having

d) have been had

Modal Verb: She must tidy his room. (Ea trebuie sa ii ordoneze camera lui.)

He must have his room tidied. (El trebuie sa aiba camera ordonata.)

He may be mowing your lawn tomorrow. (E posibil ca el sa iti tunda peluza maine.)

You may be having your lawn mown tomorrow. (E posibil ca tu sa ai peluza tunsa maine.)

They should have delivered his parcel. (Ei ar fi trebuit sa ii livreze pachetul.)

He should have had his parcel delivered. (El ar fi trebuit sa aiba pachetul livrat.)

Gerund: I love her cooking my breakfast. (Iubesc ca ea sa imi gateasca micul dejun.)

I love having my breakfast cooked. (Iubesc sa mi se gateasca micul dejun.)

TO BE GOING TO: He is going to wash my shirt. (El intentioneaza sa imi spele camasa.)

I am going to have my shirt washed. (O sa am camasa spalata.)

TO HAVE TO: They have to wash her car. (Ei trebuie sa ii spele masina ei.)

She has to have her car washed. (Ea trebuie sa aiba masina spalata.)

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USED TO: They used to clean my house every month. (Ei obisnuiau sa imi curate casa in fiecare luna.)

I used to have my house cleaned every month. (Eu obisnuiam sa am casa curatata in fiecare luna.)

Pentru ordine si imperative se poate folosi o constructie cu GET: S + GET + OBJECT + VB. III/-ED -> orders and
imperatives

Eg. Get your clothes washed! (Da-ti hainele la spalat!)

Get your hair cut! (Tunde-ti parul!)

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! Exista trei verbe care pot sa fie inlocuite in felul urmator:

Insist => make : He insisted that I stay. -> Hemade me stay. (Make + Infinitiv Scurt)

(El a insistat ca eu sa stau.)

Ask => have: He asked me to stay. -> Hehad me stay. (Have + Infinitiv Scurt)

(El m-a rugat sa stau.)

Persuade => get: He persuaded me to work.->He got me to work. (Get + Infinitiv Lung)

(El m-a convins sa muncesc.)

My sister insisted that I clean all the dishes. (Sora mea a insistat sa spal vasele.)

a) My sister had me clean all the dishes.

b) My sister made me to clean all the dishes.

c) My sister got me to clean all the dishes.

d) My sister made me clean all the dishes. (Sora mea a insistat sa spal vasele.)

11. IF Clauses

Type I PRESENT – FUTURE

Vb. Short Inf. Will + vb.Inf.

Type II PAST – PRESENT CONDITIONAL

Vb.II/-ed should/ would + vb.Inf.

Type III PAST PERFECT – PAST CONDITIONAL

Had + vb. III/-ed should/ would+have+vb.III/-ed

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Type I. IF PRESENT , FUTURE (tipul I se refera la viitor)

If I have time , I will go to the party.

Daca voi avea timp, voi merge la petrecere.

PRESENT , PRESENT (se folosesc atunci cand vorbim despre ceva adevarat in prezent)

If you burn yourself , it hurts.

Daca te arzi, te doare.

PRESENT PERFECT , IMPERATIVE/ CAN/ MAY (se foloseste Present Perfect cand actiunea s-a terminat si are
efect in prezent)

If you have finished eating, clean the table.

Daca ai terminat de mancat, curata masa.

E.g. If she ... me, I will be shocked. (Daca ma va suna, voi fi socat.)

a) called

b) will call

c) calls (daca avem viitor in principala atunci alegem prezent in secundara)

d) would call

Type II. IF PAST , PRESENT CONDITIONAL (tipul II se refera la prezent)

(should/would/could/might + Vb. Inf)

If I had money , I would/could/might buy a new PC.

Daca as avea bani , as cumpara un computer nou.

PAST , PAST (se folosesc pentru a vorbi de un adevar in trecut)

If you had a job in the past, you were happy.

(Daca aveai o slujba in trecut, erai fericit.)

E.g. If she ... dogs, she ... five. (Daca nu ar iubi cainii, nu ar avea cinci.)

a) didn't love/ won't have

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b) didn't love/ wouldn't have

c) wouldn't love/ wouldn't have

d) hadn't loved/ won't have

Type III . IF PAST PERFECT , PAST CONDITIONAL (tipul III se refera la trecut)

(Had + Vb. III/ -ed) (should/would/could/might + HAVE + Vb. III/-ed)

If I had known , I would/could/might have come to help you.

Daca as fi stiut , as fi venit sa te ajut.

E.g. Daca ar fi fost bogat, el ar fi cumparat un Ferrari. (pentru ca se refera la trecut, se traduce prin tipul III de
conditionala)

a) If he were rich, he would buy a Ferrari. (aici avem tipul II de conditionala care se traduce: Daca ar fi bogat, ar cumpara
un Ferrari.)

b) If he had been rich, he would have bought a Ferrari. (tipul III de conditionala -> Past Perfect + Past Conditional)

c) He will buy a Ferrari if he is rich. (aici avem tipul I de conditionala care se traduce: El va cumpara un Ferrari daca va fi
bogat.)

d) If he would have been rich, he would have bought a Ferrari. (nu se foloseste would dupa IF)

Inversiuni in Conditionale - se folosesc pentru a accentua pe idee:

In Conditionale inversiunea se face inlocuind IF cu SHOULD la tipul I si WERE la tipul II si III. Tipul III mai poate inlocui IF cu
HAD.

Type 1. IF + S + SHOULD + VB. INF. ... => SHOULD + S + Vb. INF. ...

If I should meet him, I will tell him the news. (Daca se intampla sa il intalnesc, ii voi spune vestile.) =>

Should I meet him, I will tell him the news. (Daca se intampla sa il intalnesc, ii voi spune vestile.)

E.g. If you happen to see Sarah, give her my love. (Daca se intampla sa o vezi pe Sarah, transmite-i dragostea mea.)

a) If you will see Sarah, you will give her my love. (nu se pune will dupa IF)

b) Should you see Sarah, give her my love.

c) If you were to see Sarah, you would give her my love. (tipul II de conditionala)

d) Will you see Sarah, give her my love. (nu se inlocuieste IF cu WILL ci cu SHOULD)

Type 2. IF + S + PAST SIMPLE + ... => WERE + S + LONG INFINITIVE + ...

If I saw her there, I would be surprised. (Daca as vedea-o acolo, as fi surprins.)

If I were to see her there, I would be surprised. (PAST SIMPLE se transforma in WERE + Long Inf.)

Were I to see her there, I would be surprised.

!!! Atentie: nu se foloseste WAS in tipul II de conditionala ci se foloseste WERE pentru toate persoanele.

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E.g. If I met him, I wouldn’t say that . (Daca l-as intalni, nu as spune asta .)

a) Were I to meet him, I wouldn’t say that.

b) Would I meet him, I wouldn’t say that. (nu se inlocuieste IF cu WOULD ci cu WERE)

c) Were I to met him, I wouldn’t have said that. ( constructia corecta este WERE + to Infinitiv, nu exista to met)

d) Were I to have met him, I wouldn’t say that. (WERE + Perfect Infinitive se foloseste la tipul III de conditionala)

!!! Pentru expresia: If I were you/ if I were in your place (daca as fi tu/ daca as fi in locul tau), inversiunea este: Were I you/
Were I in your place

Tipul III de conditionala face inversiunea in doua feluri:

Type 3. IF + S + PAST PERFECT + ... => HAD + S + Vb. III/ -ED + ...

If I had seen him, I would have talked with him. (Daca l-as fi vazut, as fi vorbit cu el.)

Had I seen him, I would have talked with him.

E.g. If he had found out the truth, he would have been upset . (Daca el ar fi aflat adevarul, ar fi fost suparat .)

a) Were he to find out the truth, he would have been upset. (WERE + Vb. Infinitiv lung se foloseste pentru tipul II de
conditionala)

b) Had he to have found out the truth, he would have been upset. (nu se pune HAD ci WERE in loc de IF daca avem
constructie cu infinitiv)

c) Had he found out the truth, he would have been upset.

d) Were he to have found out the truth, he would be upset. (nu avem timpul corect in principala, would + VB. INF. se
foloseste in tipul II de conditionala)

IF + S + PAST PERFECT + ... => WERE + S + PERFECT INFINITIVE (to have + Vb. III/ -ed) + ...

If I had seen him, I would have talked with him. (Daca l-as fi vazut, as fi vorbit cu el.)

If I were to have seen him, I would have talked with him. (Past Perfect se transforma in WERE +TO HAVE + Vb. III/
-ED)

Were I to have seen him, I would have talked with him.

E.g. If she had learned more, she would have passed the exam. (Daca ar fi invatat mai mult, ar fi trecut examenul.)

a) Were she to learn more, she would have passed the exam. (were + Infinitive se foloseste la tipul II de conditionala)

b) Were she to have learned more, she would have passed the exam.

c) Should she learn more, she would pass the exam. (Should + Infinitive se foloseste pentru tipul I de conditionala)

d) Were she to had learned more, she would have passed the exam. (Infinitivul Perfect are forma TO HAVE + Vb. III/ -ED si
nu TO HAD)

De asemenea exista doua expresii pentru tipul II si III de conditionala care formeaza inversiuni in felul urmator:

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If it were not for (de n-ar fi) her, they’d be in trouble.

Type II Were it not for (de n-ar fi) her, they’d be in trouble.

But for (de n-ar fi) her, they’d be in trouble.

De n-ar fi ea, ei ar avea probleme. (dupa aceste expresii se foloseste un pronume sau un substantiv)

If it hadn’t been for (de n-ar fi fost) her, I would have died.

Type III Had it not been for (de n-ar fi fost) her, I would have died.

But for (de n-ar fi fost) her , I would have died.

De n-ar fi fost ea, as fi murit. (dupa aceste expresii se foloseste un pronume)

IF poate fi inlocuit cu:

UNLESS (daca nu), ON CONDITION THAT (cu conditia), SO LONG AS (atata timp cat), AS LONG AS (atata timp cat),
PROVIDING (cu conditia), PROVIDED (cu conditia), SUPPOSE (sa presupunem), SUPPOSING (sa presupunem),
OTHERWISE (altminteri), ONLY IF (doar daca), WHAT IF (ce ar fi daca), EVEN IF (chiar daca), IN CASE (in caz ca)

I won’t help you if you don’t give me money. (Nu te voi ajuta daca nu imi vei da bani.)

I won’t help you unless you give me money. (Nu te voi ajuta daca nu imi vei da bani.)

If I have time, I will come. (Daca voi avea timp, voi veni.)

I will come provided I have time. (Voi veni cu conditia sa am timp.)

!!! Atentie:

Daca incepem cu secundara si avem ONLY IF la inceput, atunci se face inversiune intre WILL si Subiect in principala:

I will come only if I have time. (Voi veni numai daca voi avea timp.)

Only if I have time, WILL I come. (Numai daca voi avea timp, voi veni.)

Daca avem Prezent sau Imperativ sau Viitor in principala atunci dupa in case se foloseste present sau may:

Take your umbrella in case it rains/ may rain/ should rain/ will rain/ would rain. (Ia umbrela in caz ca ploua.)

Daca avem Trecut in principala atunci dupa in case se foloseste past sau might:

I took my umbrella in case it rained/ might rain/ would rain. (Mi-am luat umbrela in caz ca ploua.)

!!!!! Dupa unless (daca nu) nu se folosesc negatii, will sau would:

UNLESS: Negative

WILL

WOULD

E.g. Unless she ... us, we won’t give her money. (Daca nu ne ajuta, nu o sa ii dam bani.)

a) will help

b) won’t help

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c) doesn’t help

d) helps

Folosirea lui WILL ca Verb Modal in Conditionala de tip I

In tipul I de conditionala se poate folosi WILL dupa IF DACA WILL este Verb Modal si exprima:

1. willingness (vointa)

E.g. If you want to come to the party, I’ll be glad. (Daca vrei sa vii la petrecere, voi fi bucuros.)

If you will come to the party, I’ll be glad. (Daca vrei sa vii la petrecere, voi fi bucuros.)

2. refusal (refuz)

E.g. If you refuse to help us, I’ll get upset. (Daca refuzi sa ne ajuti, ma voi supara.)

If you won’t help us, I’ll be upset. (Daca refuzi sa ne ajuti, ma voi supara.)

3. polite request (cerere politicoasa)

E.g. If you are kind enough to wait here, I’ll announce you. (Daca sunteti dragut sa asteptati aici, va voi anunta.)

If you will wait here, I’ll announce you. (Daca sunteti dragut sa asteptati aici, va voi anunta.)

4. habit/insistence (obicei/ insistenta)

E.g. If you insist on/ keep on smoking so much, you’ll get lung cancer. (Daca insisti sa fumezi/ continui sa fumezi atat
de mult, o sa faci cancer la plamani.)

If you will smoke so much, you’ll get lung cancer. (Daca insisti sa fumezi/ continui sa fumezi atat de mult, o sa faci
cancer la plamani.)

Folosirea lui WOULD ca Verb Modal in Conditionala de tip II

In tipul II de conditionala se poate folosi WOULD dupa IF DACA WOULD este Verb Modal si exprima:

1. Willingness (vointa)

E.g. If you wanted to give me money, I’d be grateful. (Daca ai vrea sa imi dai bani, ti-as fi recunoscator.)

If you would give me money, I’d be grateful. (Daca ai vrea sa imi dai bani, ti-as fi recunoscator.)

2. Refusal (refuz)

E.g. If you refused to help them, they’d be annoyed. (Daca ai refuza sa ii ajuti, ei ar fi enervati.)

If you wouldn’t help them, they’d be annoyed. (Daca ai refuza sa ii ajuti, ei ar fi enervati.)

3. polite request (cerere politicoasa)

E.g. If you were kind enough to wait here, I would announce you. (Daca ati fi dragut sa asteptati aici, v-as anunta.)

If you would wait here, I would announce you. (Daca ati fi dragut sa asteptati aici, v-as anunta.)

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MIXED CONDITIONALS (Conditionalele mixate)

If Clause Main Clause

Type III ------------------------Type II

Past Perfect Present Conditional

(had + Vb. III/ -ed) (should/ would + Infinitiv Scurt)

If you had helped me then, I wouldn’t be in trouble now. (Daca m-ai fi ajutat atunci, nu as avea probleme acum.)

Aceasta combinatie se foloseste atunci cand o actiune dintrecut are efect in prezent. (trebuie sa avem un cuvant care sa
arate ca suntem in prezent -> NOW)

E.g. Ea nu ar fi faimoasa acum daca nu ar fi castigat la loto.

a) She wouldn’t have been famous if she hadn’t won the lottery. (Type III)

b) She wouldn’t be famous now if she hadn’t won the lottery. (Type III –then + Type II - now) (trebuie sa avem un cuvant
care sa arate ca suntem in prezent -> NOW)

c) She wouldn’t be famous now if she didn’t win the lottery. (TypeII:Pres.Cond.+Past S)

d) Had she not won the lottery, she won’t be famous now. (Type III + Type I)

Type II .................................. Type III

Past Simple Past Conditional

(Vb. II/ -ed) (should/ would + have + Vb. III/ -ed)

If I were you, I wouldn’t have married her. (Daca eram in locul tau, nu m-as fi casatorit cu ea.)

Type II ................................. Type I

Past Simple Future

(Vb. II/ -ed) (shall/ will + Verb Infinitiv Scurt)

If he trained hard, he will win the contest. (Daca s-a antrenat din greu, va castiga concursul.)

Rephrase with IF Clauses:

If it is necessary, I will tell a lie. => If necessary, I will tell a lie. (Daca este necesar, voi spune o minciuna.)

If you are in need, call the help line. => If in need, call the help line. (Daca esti la nevoie, suna linia de urgenta.)

If you are in trouble, give me a call. => If in trouble, give me a call. (Daca ai probleme, suna-ma.)

If the weather permits/ allows it, we will go for a picnic. => Weather permitting/ allowing, we will go for a picnic. (Daca vremea
permite, noi vom merge la un picnic.)

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If you are frightened, hold my hand. => If frightened, hold my hand. (Daca esti speriat, tine-ma de mana.)

If I am given the chance, I will do it. => Given the chance, I will do it. (Daca mi se da sansa, o voi face.)

If they ask you/ you are asked, tell them you know nothing. => If asked, tell them you know nothing. (Daca te intreaba/ Daca esti
intrebat, spune-le ca nu stii nimic.)

If you wash the dishes, I will clean the room. => You wash the dishesand I will clean the room. (Daca speli vasele, voi curata
camera. -> Tu spala vasele si eu curat camera.)

The car is beautiful although it is a little expensive. => The car is beautifulif a little expensive. (Masina este frumoasa desi este
putin cam scumpa.)

12. The Subjunctive Mood


Subjonctivul este folosit pentru a descrie lucruri sau actiuni care sunt vazute ca fiind nereale, imaginate sau improbabile.
Se traduce in limba romana prin Conjunctiv.

e.g. I wish I were taller.

(As vrea sa fiu mai inalt. - dar nu sunt mai inalt)

FORMELE SUBJONCTIVULUI SUNT:

Past Simple (vb.II/-ed)/ Past Continuous (WERE + vb. -ing) ATENTIE: la Subjonctiv se foloseste WERE pentru
toate persoanele
Past Perfect Simple (had + vb.III/-ed)

Infinitivul Scurt care este verbul fara TO in fata => to eat (Infinitiv Lung) - eat (Infinitiv Scurt)
Should + Infinitiv

Formele Subjonctivului se folosesc dupa anumite expresii fixe sau dupa anumite verbe si adjective.

GROUP 1:

Past Simple/ Past Continuous


Past Perfect Simple

Aceste forme de trecut se folosesc dupa anumite expresii fixe si verbe pentru a descrie actiuni sau lucruri in prezent, trecut sau
viitor care sunt imaginate sau nu sunt reale.

Expresiile fixe si verbele dupa care se folosesc timpurile trecute ("unreal" past) sunt:

If only (daca/ ce-ar fi daca), Would rather (a prefera), Would sooner (a prefera), It’s time (e timpul), It’s high time (e timpul), It’s
about time (e timpul), As if (de parca), As though (de parca), Suppose (sa presupunem), Supposing (sa presupunem), What if
(ce-ar fi daca), Wish (a dori) (vezi grilele 1 si 3)

PAST SIMPLE se foloseste cand ne referim la ceva imaginar, nereal in PREZENT:

e.g. I wish she gave me more money. (As vrea ca easa imi dea mai multi bani.)

It's time we went to bed now. (E timpul ca noi sa mergem la culcare acum.)

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PAST CONTINUOUS se foloseste cand ne referim la ceva imaginar, nereal in VIITOR:

e.g. I wish you were visiting us tomorrow. (As vrea sa ne vizitezi maine.)

PAST PERFECT se foloseste cand ne referim la ceva nereal din TRECUT:

e.g. I wish I had learned more last year. (As vrea sa fi invatat mai mult anul trecut.)

!!! ATENTIE: nu putem folosi o negatie dupa it's time:

e.g. It's time we didn't stay./ It's time we left. (E timpul sa plecam.)

!!! ATENTIE: in mod normal se foloseste WERE la toate persoanele atunci cand vorbim de situatii formale, DAR se poate
folosi si WAS numai ca in acest caz exprimarea este informala.

e.g. If I were you, I would study more. (Daca as fi in locul tau, as invata mai mult. - formal)

If I was you, I would study more. (Daca as fi in locul tau, as invata mai mult. - informal)

!!! ATENTIE: dupa WISH sau IF ONLY se poate folosi in propozitia secundara WOULD + Verb la Infinitiv Scurt atunci cand
vrem sa criticam sau sa ne plangem de ceva sau cand actiunea ne enerveaza (vezi grila 4):

e.g. I wish she would stop crying because it's getting on my nerves.

(As vrea ca ea sa se opreasca din plans pentru ca ma enerveaza.)

If only the sun would come out. (De-ar iesi soarele.)

I wish they would have told me the truth when I was younger.

(se foloseste WOULD HAVE + VBIII/-ed cand ne referim la trecut)(vezi grila 5)

(As vrea ca ei sa imi fi spus adevarul cand eram mai tanar.)

!!! ATENTIE: nu putem folosi WOULD dupa WISH daca avem acelasi subiect pentru WISH si pentru actiunea din secundara
(vezi grila 6):

e.g. I wish I would be more energetic. (nu se poate pentru ca subiectul luiwish si would este acelasi)

I wish I were more energetic./ I wish I could be more energetic. (As vrea sa fiu/ sa pot sa fiu mai energic.)

I wish he would be more energetic. (se poate folosi would pentru ca avem subiecte diferite pentru wish si pentru would be)

!!! ATENTIE: WOULD RATHER si WOULD SOONER se folosesc pentru a exprima preferinte, pentru a da sau refuza
permisiunea intr-un mod politicos sau pentru a face sugestii.

Daca dupa WOULD RATHER/ WOULD SOONER AVEM UN SUBIECT atunci folosim Past (pentru prezent) sau Past Perfect
(pentru trecut). (vezi grila 2)

S1 + WOULD RATHER/ WOULD SOONER + S2 + PAST SIMPLE (pentru prezent)/ PAST PERFECT (pentru trecut)

e.g. I would rather you didn't smoke in here. (As prefera ca tu sa nu fumezi aici.)

He'd sooner we went to the disco tonight. (El ar prefera ca noi sa mergem la discoteca diseara.)

I'd rather they hadn't made so much noise last night. (As prefera ca ei sa nu fi facut atat de mult zgomot noaptea trecuta.)

Daca dupa WOULD RATHER/ WOULD SOONER NU AVEM UN SUBIECT iar subiectul care exprima preferinta este ACELASI cu
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subiectul preferintei atunci folosim Infinitiv Scurt (pentru prezent) si Infinitiv Perfect Scurt (pentru trecut). (vezi grila 7)

S1 + WOULD RATHER/ WOULD SOONER + Short Infinitive/ Perfect Short Infinitive

I would rather not smoke in here. (As prefera sa nu fumez aici.)

He'd sooner go to the disco tonight. (El ar prefera sa mearga la discoteca diseara.)

I'd rather not have made so much noise last night. (As prefera sa nu fi facut atat de mult zgomot noaptea trecuta.)

Exemple de grile:

1. It's time your brother ... your parents. (E timpul ca fratele tau sa ii ajute pe parintii vostri.)

a) helps

b) will help

c) helped (alegem Past Simple pentru ca avem referire la prezent)

d) must help

2. She would rather her brother ... last month. (Ea ar prefera ca fratele ei sa nu se fi casatorit luna trecuta.)

a) hadn't married (alegem Past Perfect pentru ca avem referire la trecut -> last month)

b) didn't marry

c) hasn't married

d) not have married

3. She behaves as if she ... something I don't know. (Ea se poarta de parca ar sti ceva ce eu nu stiu.)

a) know

b) knew (alegem Past Simple pentru ca avem referire la prezent)

c) will know

d) is knowing

4. She is always talking and I’d like her to stop. (Ea vorbeste mereu si mi-ar placea ca ea sa se opreasca.)

a) I wish she would stop talking. (As vrea ca ea sa se opreasca din vorbit.)

b) I wish she had stopped talking.

c) I wish she should stop talking.

d) I wish she stops talking.

(alegem would pentru ca este o actiune care enerveaza in prezent si avem doua subiecte diferite)

5. I wish they ... teasing me when I was a pupil. (Imi doresc ca ei sa se fi oprit din a ma tachina cand eram elev.)

a) would stop

b) might had stopped

c) would have stopped (alegem would have +vb.III/ -ed pentru ca este actiune care enerva in trecut)

d) stopped

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6. They wish they ... so much because it is a nuisance. (Ei ar dori sa nu studieze atat de mult pentru ca este o bataie de cap.)

a) didn’t study (alegem Past Simple pentru ca avem referire la prezent)

b) wouldn’t study (nu se poate folosi WOULD pentru ca avem ACELASI SUBIECT)

c) hadn’t study

d) not study

7. She would sooner ... on a trip last month. (Ea ar prefera sa nu se fi dus intr-o excursie luna trecuta.)

a) not go

b) didn't go

c) hadn't gone

d) not have gone (alegem Infinitiv Perfect Scurt pentru ca nu avem un al doilea subiect si avem referire la trecut -> last month)

!!!!! ATENTIE: dupa AS IF si AS THOUGH se foloseste Past Simple sau Past Perfect Simple atunci cand vrem sa spunem ca
actiunea NU este reala:

e.g. He talks to the children as though they were stupid. (El le vorbeste copiilor de parca ar fi prosti. - dar nu sunt prosti)

They are acting as if nothing had happened. (Ei se comporta de parca nimic nu s-ar fi intamplat. - dar ceva s-a intamplat)

DAR se folosesc timpuri prezente (incluzand Present Perfect) dupa AS IF si AS THOUGH pentru a arata ca este o posibilitate
ca actiunea sa reflecte ceva REAL:

e.g. He sounds as if he knows what he's talking about. (Suna de parca stie ce vorbeste. - si chiar are idee despre ce vorbeste)

You look as though you haven't eaten for days. (Arati de parca nu ai mancat de zile intregi. - si chiar e posibil sa nu fi mancat)

De aceea la grila urmatoare asemanatoare cu cea care s-a dat in 2016 la sectiunea drept de la
Academia de Politie:

Jane is about to cry. It looks as if Jonathan ... her birthday again. (Jane este pe punctul sa planga. Se pare ca Jonathana uitat de
ziua ei de nastere din nou.)

a) had been forgetting

b) had forgotten

c) has been forgetting

d) has forgotten

raspunsul corect este d) si nu b). Actiunea de a uita s-a intamplat in realitate si de aceea Jane este pe punctul sa planga. a) si c)
nu sunt corecte pentru ca verbul to forget este un verb de gandire si deci nu se pune la aspect continuu. Dar capcana este la grila
b) unde in mod normal s-ar fi folosit Past Perfect dupa AS IF DACA actiunea nu s-a intamplat in realitate.

It looks as if Jonathan had forgotten her birthday again. -> Arata de parca Jonathan ar fi uitat de ziua ei de nastere din nou. (dar
nu a uitat-o)

It looks as if Jonathan has forgotten her birthday again. -> Se pare ca Jonathan a uitat de ziua ei de nastere din nou. (si a uitat-o
in realitate, de aceea Jane e pe punctul sa planga)

GROUP 2:
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Short Infinitive
Should + Short Infinitive

Infinitivil Scurt si Should se folosesc dupa urmatoarele adjective, verbe si substantive pentru a exprima ideea ca ceva
este necesar, important sau dorit.

It’s (este) good (bine)/bad (rau)/ necessary (necesar)/ unnecessary (nenecesar)/ odd (ciudat)/ strange (ciudat)/
amazing (uimitor)/ likely (posibil)/ unlikely (improbabil)/ great (grozav)/ advisable (recomandabil)/ desirable (de
dorit)/ important (important)/ essential (esential)/ vital (vital)/ preferable (preferabil) + THAT + S + Vb. Short Infinitive/
SHOULD + Vb. Short Infinitive (vezi grila 1)

e.g. It's odd that they should say/ say that. (E ciudat ca ei sa spuna asta.) (referire la prezent)

It's odd that they should have had the same name. (E ciudat ca ei sa fi avut acelasi nume.) (referire la trecut)

!!! ATENTIE: se foloseste SHOULD + Vb. Short Infinitive cand ne referim la prezent si SHOULD + HAVE + Vb. III/ -ed cand
ne referim la trecut.

It's a shame/ it's a pity (e pacat)+ THAT + S + Vb. Short Infinitive/ SHOULD + Vb. Short Infinitive

e.g. It's a pity that he should die/ die. (Ar fi pacat ca el sa moara.)

Demand (a pretinde)/ request (a cere)/ suggest (a sugera)/ insist (a insista)/ urge (a indemna)/ propose (a propune)/ ask
(a cere)/ advise (a sfatui)/ recommend (a recomanda) + THAT + S + Vb. Short Infinitive/ SHOULD + Vb. Short Infinitive
(vezi grilele 2 si 4)

e.g. They demand that she tell/ should tell the truth. (Ei cer ca ea sa spuna adevarul.)

Lest (ca nu cumva sa) + S + should vb. Short Inf./ vb. Short Inf./ might vb. Short Inf -> !!! ATENTIE: dupa LEST nu se
foloseste negatie (vezi grila 6)

e.g. She is studying hard lest she should fail/ fail/ might fail the exam for the Police Academy. (Ea studiaza din greu ca nu
cumva sa pice examenul pentru Academia de Politie.)

Substantiv (desire/ wish/ suggestion/ proposal/ dream/ etc.) + THAT + S + Vb. Short Infinitive/ SHOULD + Vb. Short
Infinitive (vezi grila 3)

e.g. My proposal, that he be/should be promoted , was rejected. (Propunerea mea ca el sa fie promovat a fost respinsa.)

Her dream, that they promote/ should promote her, has not become reality. (Visul ei ca ei sa o promoveze nu a devenit
realitate.)

Their demands, that we give/ should give them money, were not met. (Cererile lor ca noi sa le dam bani nu s-au implinit.)

Infinitivul Scurt se foloseste si in cereri (vezi grila 7):

e.g. Somebody help me! (Sa vina cineva sa ma ajute!) (dar nimeni nu vine in realitate)

Somebody helps me every day. (Cineva ma ajuta in fiecare zi.) (daca punem -s atunci verbul este la Indicativ Present Simple
si actiunea se intampla in realitate)

Somebody come and get this! (Sa vina cineva sa ia asta!)

Infinitivul Scurt se mai foloseste intr-o serie de expresii (vezi grila 5):

e.g. Come what may! (Fie ce-o fi!)


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So be it! (Asa sa fie!)

School be hanged! (S-o ia naiba de scoala!)

Far be it from me to want to kiss you. (Departe de mine sa vreau sa te sarut.)

Be that as it may. (Chiar daca e asa.)

God bless you! (Dumnezeu sa te binecuvanteze!)

Long live the king! (Traiasca regele!)

Suffice it to say… (E de ajuns sa spun ...)

May you have a happy life! (Fie sa ai o viata fericita!)

May the Force be with you! (Forta sa fie cu tine!)

Heaven forbid! (Doamne fereste!)

If need be. (Daca este necesar.)

Subjonctivul cu forma de Infinitiv Scurt se foloseste si in If Clauses de tipul I cand avem o conditie formala:

e.g. If he be found guilty, he'll be punished. (Daca e sa fie gasit vinovat, el va fi pedepsit. - dar nu a fost gasit vinovat inca)

Subjonctivul cu forma de Infinitiv Scurt se foloseste si in subordonate temporale:

e.g. The tree will wither long before he fall. (Copacul se va vesteji cu mult inainte ca el sa cada.)

Exemple de grile:

1. In future it will be vital that he ... the truth. (In viitor va fi esential ca el sa spuna adevarul.)

a) tells

b) should tell (alegem SHOULD + Infinitivul Scurt pentru ca avem expresiait will be vital)

c) will tell

d) had told

2. The judge insisted that she ... the questions. (Judecatorul a insistat ca ea sa raspunda la intrebari.)

a) answers

b) answered

c) will answer

d) answer (alegem Infinitivul Scurt pentru ca avem verbul insist)

3. Her wish, that he ... her, did not come true in the end. (Dorinta ei ca el sa se casatoreasca cu ea nu s-a implinit in cele din
urma.)

a) marry (alegem Infinitivul Scurt pentru ca avem un substantiv + THAT iar acesta introduce o atributiva in care actiunea nu este
reala)

b) will mary

c) must marry

d) marries

4. Regulations require that civilians ... without a passport. (Regulamentele cer ca persoanele civile sa nu intre fara pasaport.)

a) not enter (alegem Infinitivul Scurt pentru ca avem verbulrequire)

b) don't enter

c) hadn't entered

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d) won't enter

5. So ...! I will do as you wish. (Asa sa fie! Voi face cum doresti.)

a) it be

b) it may

c) be it (expresia fixa este SO BE IT!)

d) it is

6. They are whispering lest they ... the child. (Ei soptesc ca nu cumva sa trezeasca copilul.)

a) don't wake up

b) shouldn't wake up

c) will wake up

d) should wake up (alegem should wake up pentru ca dupa LEST se pune SHOULD si nu se pune negatie)

7. Someone ... her a helping hand! (Sa ii dea cineva o mana de ajutor!)

a) give (alegem Infinitiv Scurt pentru ca este o cerere - actiunea nu se intampla in realitate)

b) gives

c) will giving

d) gave

!!! ATENTIE: dupa it's a pity/ it's a shame se pot folosi timpuri de la modul Indicativ (de exemplu Present Perfect/ Past Simple/
Present Continuous/ etc. - alegem timpul in functie de adverbul de timp specific) cu conditia ca actiunea sa fie reala si nu o
speculatie:

e.g. It’s a pity that she hasn’t come because she would have enjoyed herself. (avem Present Perfect aici pentru ca nu este
specificat timpul)

(E pacat ca e nu a venit pentru ca s-ar fi distrat.) - (ea nu a venit in realitate)

It’s a pity that she didn't come yesterday because she would have enjoyed herself. (avem Past Simple aici pentru ca timpul
este specificat -> yesterday)

(E pacat ca ea nu a venit ieri pentru ca s-ar fi distrat.) - (ea nu a venit in realitate)

Dupa It’s a pity/ It's a shame se pune SHOULD + Verb Infinitiv Scurt/ Verb Infinitiv Scurt DACA actiunea nu este reala.

e.g. It’s a pity that she should not come/ not come because we would need her help.

(Ar fi pacat ca ea sa nu vina pentru ca am avea nevoie de ajutorul ei.) - (speculatie pentru ceva ce nu s-a intamplat)

Subjonctivul cu may/ might:


Dupa WISH (a dori) , IT'S POSSIBLE (e posibil), WHOEVER (oricine), WHEREVER (oriunde), WHENEVER (oricand),
WHICHEVER (oricare), WHATEVER (orice) se poate folosi may sau might si verbul la Infinitiv Scurt.

e.g. He wishes he might have met you. (El isi doreste sa fi fost posibil sa te intalneasca.) (referire la trecut)

It’s possible that he may see you. (E posibil ca el sa te vada.) (referire la prezent)

No matter what you say, I won’t help you. (Orice ai spune, nu o sa te ajut.)
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a) Whatever you should say, I won’t help you.

b) Whatever you may say, I won’t help you.

c) Whatever you must say, I won’t help you.

d) Whatever you say, I won’t help you.

I prefer sleeping to studying in general. (Vb.-ING + TO + Vb. -ING) (aceasta structura se foloseste atunci cand ne
referim in general)

(Prefer sa dorm decat sa invat./ Prefer dormitul invatatului.)

I’d prefer to sleep rather than study today. (Vb. Long Inf. + RATHER THAN + Vb. Short Inf.) (aceasta structura se
foloseste atunci cand ne referim in particular)

(As prefera sa dorm decat sa invat azi.)

I’d rather sleep than study. (referire la prezent) (Vb. Short Inf. + THAN + Vb. Short Inf.)

(As prefera sa dorm decat sa invat.)

I would rather have slept than (have) studied yesterday. (referire la trecut) (Vb. Perfect Short Inf. + THAN + Vb.
Perfect Short Inf.)

(As prefera sa fi dormit decat sa fi invatat ieri.)

13. Inversions and Emphatic Structures


Inversiunile se folosesc atunci cand vrem sa accentuam o idee sau o actiune.

Intr-o propozitie afirmativa ordinea cuvintelor este:

S + Aux + Adv + Vb. + ... : e.g. I have never seen her. (Eu nu am vazut-o pe ea niciodata.)

Intr-o propozitie interogativa ordinea cuvintelor este:

Wh-word + Aux + S + Vb. + ...?: e.g. Where have I seen her? (Unde am vazut-o?)

Intr-o inversiune ordinea cuvintelor in propozitie este:

Adv + Aux + S + Vb. + ... : e.g. Never have I seen her. (Eu nu am vazut-o pe ea NICIODATA.)

Dupa cum observam topica intr-o inversiune este aceeasi ca cea din intrebari cu singura diferenta ca o inversiune incepe cu un
adverb iar o intrebare incepe cu un cuvant cu WH-.

Inversiunile se pot forma numai cu anumite adverbe si constructii:

Little: He knows little about her. (El stie putin despre ea.) => Little does he know about her. (Putin stie el despre ea.)

Seldom: She seldom spoke. (Ea rareori vorbea.) => Seldom did she speak. (Rareori vorbea ea.)

Rarely: They rarely help us. (Ei rareori ne ajuta.) => Rarely do they help us. (Rareori ne ajuta ei.)

Never: I have never lied in my life. (Eu nu am mintit niciodata in viata mea.) => Never have I lied in my life. (Niciodata nu
am mintit eu in viata mea.)

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In vain: We had tried to help her in vain. (Noi incercasem sa o ajutam in zadar.) => In vain had we tried to help her. (In zadar
incercasem sa o ajutam.)

Hardly + HAD + S + Vb.III/-ed + WHEN + S + P (Past Simple): She had hardly left when the phone rang. => Hardly had
she left when the phone rang.

Scarcely + HAD + S + Vb.III/-ed + WHEN + S + P (Past Simple): She had scarcely left when the phone rang. => Scarcely
had she left when the phone rang.

Barely + HAD + S + Vb.III/-ed + WHEN + S + P (Past Simple): She had barely left when the phone rang. => Barely had
she left when the phone rang.

No sooner + HAD + S + Vb.III/-ed + THAN + S + P (Past Simple): She had no sooner left than the phone rang. => No sooner
had she left than the phone rang.

(Abia a plecat ea ca a sunat telefonul.)

e.g. Little ... during the party. (A vorbit putin in timpul petrecerii.)

a) did she speak (avem inversiune intre auxiliar si subiect)

b) she spoke (nu avem inversiune intre auxiliar si subiect)

c) she did speak (nu avem inversiune intre auxiliar si subiect)

d) she is speaking (nu avem inversiune intre auxiliar si subiect)

She had barely finished writing her letter when a storm broke out. (Abia a terminat de scris scrisoarea ca a izbucnit o furtuna.)

a) Barely she had finished her letter when a storm broke out. (nu avem inversiune intre auxiliar si subiect)

b) No sooner she had finished her letter than a storm broke out. (nu avem inversiune intre auxiliar si subiect)

c) Barely had she finished her letter than a storm broke out. (barely se foloseste cu when si nu cu than)

d) No sooner had she finished her letter than a storm broke out. (este corect pentru ca avem inversiune si no sooner se foloseste
cu than)

So + adj./adv. + Aux + S + Vb.:

She is so nice that everybody likes her. (Ea este atat de draguta ca toata lumea o place.) => So nice is she that everybody likes
her. (Atat de draguta este ea ca toata lumea o place.)

She spoke so well that we were amazed. (Ea a vorbit atat de bine ca am fost uimiti.) =>So well did she speak that we were
amazed. (Atat de bine a vorbit ea ca am fost uimiti.)

Not only + Aux + S + Vb. , but also ... (nu numai... ci si ...)

She is not only nice but also beautiful. (Ea este nu numai draguta ci si frumoasa.) => Not only is she nice but also beautiful.
(Nu numai este ea draguta ci si frumoasa.)

e.g. They are so busy that they have no time for visits. (Ei sunt atat de ocupati ca nu au timp de vizite.)

a) So busy they are that they have no time for visits. (Nu avem inversiune intre auxiliar si subiect)

b) So busy were they that they have no time for visits. (Avem inversiune dar timpul verbului nu este bun)

c) So busy are they that they have no time for visits. (Atat de ocupati sunt ei ca nu au timp de vizite.) (avem inversiune intre
auxiliar si subiect iar verbul este la timpul prezent)

d) So busy have they been that they have no time for visits. (avem inversiune dar timpul verbului nu este bun)

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Expresiile: On no account (sub nici o forma), Under no circumstances (in nici un caz), In no way (in nici un fel) se pot pune in
fata propozitiei si sunt urmate de verbe modale (must, should, can, could, be to) + S + verb

You mustn’t lie under any circumstances. (Nu ai voie sa minti in nici un caz.) =>Under no circumstances must you lie. (In
nici un caz nu ai voie sa minti.)

She shouldn’t come on any account. (Ea nu ar trebui sa vina sub nici o forma.) =>On no account should she come. (Sub nici o
forma nu ar trebui sa vina.)

They should not steal in any way. (Ei nu ar trebui sa fure in nici un fel.) => In no way are they to steal. (In nici un fel nu
trebuie ei sa fure.)

e.g. He shouldn’t swear in front of her under any circumstances. (El nu ar trebui sa injure in fata ei in nici un caz.)

a) Under any circumstances should he swear in front of her.

b) Under no circumstances he should swear in front of her.

c) Under no circumstances should he swear in front of her.

d) Under no circumstances shouldn’t he swear in front of her.

!! Atentie: in propozitia initiala negatia este la verbul modal si expresiile au ANY in ele (e.g. under any circumstances) dar
cand punem expresia in fata, negatia de la verbul modal il inlocuieste pe ANY si astfel avem under NO circumstances, on
NO account, in NO way.

!!! Should poate fi folosit idiomatic cu: "who" (cine), "where" (unde), "what" (ce) in expresii care exprima surpriza:

e.g. I open the door and who should I see there but Tom. (Deschid usa si pe cine vad acolo, pe Tom.)

e.g. And in the middle of the forest … come across but this enormous bear. (Si in mijlocul padurii peste ce dau, peste un urs
imens.)

a) what I should

b) what should I

c) what I might

d) what might I

SUCH urmat de verbul TO BE si apoi de Subiect (exprimat printr-un substantiv) poate fi folosit pentru a accentua pe o
idee:

S + TO BE + SO GREAT+THAT + Clause => SUCH + TO BE + NOUN + THAT + Clause

The power of the storm was so great that all the trees were down. (Puterea furtunii a fost asa de mare, ca toti
copacii erau cazuti.)

Such was the power of the storm that all the trees were down. (Atat de mare a fost puterea furtunii, ca toti
copacii erau cazuti.)

e.g. Her fear of darkness was so great that she always slept with the light on. (Frica ei de intuneric era atat de mare, ca dormea
intotdeauna cu lumina aprinsa.)

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a) Such her fear of darkness was that she always slept with the light on. (nu avem inversiune, trebuie TO BE imediat dupa
SUCH)

b) Such great her fear of darkness was that she always slept with the light on. (nu se punesuch great ci numai SUCH)

c) Such was her fear of darkness that she always slept with the light on. (Atat de mare era frica ei de intuneric, ca dormea
intotdeauna cu lumina aprinsa.)

d) Such was she afraid of darkness that she always slept with the light on. (nu se foloseste subiect si predicat ci TO BE +
substantiv)

Uneori se schimba topica in fraza si propozitia secundara trece inaintea propozitiei principale. In acest caz propozitia
secundara introdusa prin: only when (doar cand)/ only then (doar atunci)/ only after (doar dupa)/ only by + vb.-ing (doar
facand ceva)/ only if (doar daca)/ not until (pana cand) este urmata de o virgula iar INVERSIUNEA apare in PROPIZITIA
PRINCIPALA, adica in a doua parte a frazei.

Main Clause / Secondary Clause Secondary Clause / Main Clause

I will not come /until you ask me to. => Not until you ask me to,/ will I come.

(Nu o sa vin pana nu ma rogi.) -> (Pana nu ma rogi, nu o sa vin.)

They will not leave /if you don’t help them. => Only if you help them, /will they leave.

(Ei nu vor pleca daca nu ii ajuti.) -> (Doar daca ii ajuti, vor pleca ei.)

e.g. You can pass the exam only by studying hard. (Poti trece examenul doar studiind din greu.)

a) Only by studying hard you can pass the exam. (nu avem inversiune intre auxiliar si subiect)

b) Only by studying hard can you pass the exam. (Doar studiind din greu, poti trece examenul.)

c) Only by studying hard can’t you pass the exam. (avem negatie la can)

d) Only by study hard can you pass the exam. (only by este urmat de un verb cu -ing)

AS (ca) este urmat de Verb Auxiliar, care trebuie sa fie la acelasi timp cu verbul din propozitia principala, si Subiect:

S + P + AS + Aux. + S

She was very happy /as were all the others. (Ea era foarte fericita, asa cum erau toti ceilalti.)

He lied to me /as did you. (El m-a mintit, asa cum ai facut-o si tu./ El m-a mintit, ca si tine.)

e.g. She will help you with your homework as ... . (Ea te va ajuta cu tema ca si mine.)

a) Can I (auxiliarul nu este acelasi ca cel al verbului din propozitia principala)

b) I will (nu avem inversiune intre auxiliar si subiect)

c) Would I (auxiliarul nu este acelasi ca cel al verbului din propozitia principala)

d) Will I (avem inversiune si acelasi auxiliar ca cel din PP)

SO (si) este urmat de Verb Auxiliar, care trebuie sa fie la acelasi timp cu verbul din propozitia principala, si Subiect:

S + P + SO + Aux + S
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I love her and so do you. (Eu o iubesc si la fel si tu.)

They have left early and so has she. (Ei au plecat devreme si la fel si ea.)

He hated me and so did his parents. (El ma ura si la fel si parintii lui.)

!!!!! Atentie: daca dupa SO nu avem inversiune ci avem S + P atunci se schimba sensul si inseamna ca esti de acord cu
ceea ce s-a spus.

You are sitting on my hat. (Stai pe palaria mea.)

So am I. (Si eu la fel.) (daca facem inversiune, spunem ca si noi facem acelasi lucru)

So I am. (Asa este, ai dreptate) (daca nu facem inversiune, inseamna ca suntem de acord cu ceea ce s-a spus)

In expresiile cu either si neither ordinea in propozitie este urmatoarea:

S + P + AND + NEITHER + AUX Positive + S (si nici ...)

They didn’t like him and neither did I. (Ei nu il placeau pe el si nici eu.)

S + P + AND + S + AUX NEG. + EITHER (si nici ...)

They didn’t like him and I didn’t either. (Ei nu il placeau pe el si nici eu.)

!! Atentie: Verbul Auxiliar, trebuie sa fie la acelasi timp cu verbul din propozitia principala.

In Conditionale inversiunea se face inlocuind IF cu SHOULD la tipul I si WERE la tipul II si III. Tipul III mai poate inlocui IF
cu HAD.

Type 1. IF + S + SHOULD + VB. INF. ... => SHOULD + S + Vb. INF. ...

If I should meet him, I will tell him the news. (Daca se intampla sa il intalnesc, ii voi spune vestile.) =>

Should I meet him, I will tell him the news. (Daca se intampla sa il intalnesc, ii voi spune vestile.)

Type 2. IF + S + PAST SIMPLE + ... => WERE + S + LONG INFINITIVE + ...

If I saw her there, I would be surprised. (Daca as vedea-o aici, as fi surprins.)

If I were to see her there, I would be surprised. (PAST SIMPLE se transforma in WERE + Long Inf.)

Were I to see her there, I would be surprised.

Tipul 3 de conditionala face inversiunea in doua feluri:

Type 3. IF + S + PAST PERFECT + ... => HAD + S + Vb. III/ -ED + ...

If I had seen him, I would have talked with him. (Daca l-as fi vazut, as fi vorbit cu el.)

Had I seen him, I would have talked with him.

If + S + PAST PERFECT + ... => WERE + S + PERFECT INFINITIVE (to have + Vb. III/ -ed) + ...

If I had seen him, I would have talked with him. (Daca l-as fi vazut, as fi vorbit cu el.)

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If I were to have seen him, I would have talked with him. (Past Perfect se transforma in WERE + TO HAVE + Vb. III/ -
ED)

Were I to have seen him, I would have talked with him.

In limba engleza ordinea cuvintelor in propozitie este fixa si nu se poate schimba. De aceea atunci cand se produce o
schimbare de topica in propozitie, aceasta suna diferit acest lucru fiind folosit pentru accentuarea pe idee.

Daca incepem propozitia cu un adverb de loc urmat de predicat si subiect (lucru numitfronting in limba engleza) atunci
se accentueaza pe idee:

S + P + Adv. de loc => Adv. de loc + P + S

Three policemen came into the room. (Trei politisti au intrat in camera.) => Into the room came three policemen. (In camera
au intrat trei politisti.)

Adverbele se pot folosi pentru accentuare in felul urmator:

Adverbele: in/ out/ up/ down/ round/ over/ back/ forward/ away sunt urmate de Pronume + Predicat

e.g. Away you go! (Du-te!/ Pleaca!)

Off you go! (Du-te!/ Pleaca!)

In he came. (Inauntru a intrat!)

He got tired of the misery in his town, /soaway he went to find a better future. (El s-a saturat de nefericirea din orasul lui asa ca
dus a fost sa gaseasca un viitor mai bun.)

Adverbele: in/ out/ up/ down/ round/ over/ back/ forward/ away sunt urmate de Predicat + Substantiv

e.g. Away went the dog! (Dus a fost cainele!)

In came Tim. (Inauntru a intrat Tim!)

Down fell the apples. (Jos au cazut merele!)

Emphatic Structures

Propozitiile emfatice in limba engleza se folosesc pentru a scoate in evidenta partea de propozitie pe care vrei sa accentuezi. O
propozitie normala cu un subiect si un predicat se divide in doua propozitii, fiecare cu subiectul si predicatul ei.

O propozitie - Doua propozitii

Mary broke the vase. – It was Mary /who broke the vase./

(Mary a spart vaza.) - (A fost Mary cea care a spart vaza.)

!!! Atentie:

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Who (care/ cine) se foloseste pentru oameni

Which (care) se foloseste pentru animale, plante sau lucruri

That (care) se foloseste pentru animale, plante, lucruri sau oameni

Whose (a/ al caruia, careia/ ale carora - genitiv) se foloseste pentru posesie

Where (unde) se foloseste pentru locatie

When (cand) se foloseste pentru timp

Propozitiile emfatice incep intotdeauna cu IT si sunt urmate de verbul TO BE + partea de propozitie pe care vrei sa accentuezi +
who/ which/ whose/ that/ where/ when + restul propozitiei.

IT + TO BE + Cuvant accentuat +THAT/ WHO/ WHICH/ WHOSE/ WHERE/ WHOM + ...

Tim took his sister to a party on Sunday. (Tim a dus-o pe sora lui la o petrecere duminica.)

S P CI CL CT

Accentuare pe Subiect: It was Tim that/who took his sister to a party on Sunday. (A fost Tim cel care a dus-
o pe sora lui la o petrecere duminica.)

Accentuare pe complementul indirect: It was his sister that/who Tim took to a party on Sunday. (A fost sora lui cea pe care Tim
a dus-o la o petrecere duminica.)

Accentuare pe adverbul de loc: It was to a party that/where Tim took his sister on Sunday. (A fost la o petrecere unde
Tim a dus-o pe sora lui duminica.)

Accentuare pe adverbul de timp: It was on Sunday that/when Tim took his sister to a party. (A fost duminica cand Tim a
dus-o pe sora lui la o petrecere.)

!! Atentie: aceasta constructie merge pentru toate partile de propozitie mai putin pentru predicat.

!!Atentie: THAT se poate folosi pentru toate partile de propozitie

Pentru accentuarea pe actiune (predicat) se foloseste o structura care incepe intotdeauna cuWHAT urmat de Subiect si verbul TO
DO + TO BE + Verb Infinitiv (scurt sau lung)

WHAT + S + DO (do sta la acelasi timp cu verbul initial) +TO BE + Vb. INFINITIVE + ...

Accentuare pe predicat: What Tim did was (to) take his sister to a party on Sunday. (Ce a facut Tim a fost sa o duca pe sora lui la
o petrecere duminica.)

(TOOK -> DID)

Alte cuvinte care se pot scoate in fata pentru accentuare suntwhat/ all/ this/ that/ the thing urmate de S + P + verbul TO BE:

What we are /is happy. (Ceea ce suntem noi e ca suntem fericiti.)

What she is /is stupid. (Ceea ce este ea e proasta.)

In aceste doua cazuri se intalnesc doua verbe TO BE. Primul este predicatul pentru prima propozitie care la randul ei devine
subiect pentru a doua propozitie. A doua propozitie are IS/ WAS ca predicat tot timpul.

All we need is love. (Tot ce avem nevoie este dragoste.)

What I want is money. (Ceea ce vreau sunt bani.)

The thing I need is love. (Lucrul de care am nevoie este dragoste.)

SAU: This/ That/ These/ Those + TO BE + WH-word/ the thing(s) + S + P:

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This is what I want. (Asta este ce vreau.)

That is where you fail. (Asta este unde gresesti.)

That is the thing which bothers me. (Acela este lucrul care me deranjeaza.)

Those are the things he loves. (Acelea sunt lucrurile pe care le iubeste.)

Urmatoarele cuvinte se pot folosi emfatic de asemenea: whatsoever (catusi de putin)/ whoever (oricine)/ whatever (orice)/
whyever (oare de ce)

e.g. Whatever happened to her, do you know? (Ce s-o fi intamplat cu ea, sti cumva?)

I am in no mood to help herwhatsoever. (Nu am chef sa o ajut catusi de putin.)

14. The Infinitive, The Gerund & the Participial Constructions


Infinitivul

Formele Infinitivului sunt:

Diateza Activa:

Infinitiv: to ask (a intreba)

Infinitiv Continuu: to be asking (a intreba)

Infinitiv Perfect : to have asked (a fi intrebat)

Infinitiv Perfect Continuu: to have been asking (a fi intrebat)

Diateza Pasiva:

Infinitiv: to be asked (a fi intrebat)

Infinitiv Perfect: to have been asked (a fi fost intrebat)

Infinitivul este folosit:

- pentru a exprima un scop folosind: so as to/ in order to (ca sa), to Infinitiv: e.g. You are studying to pass/ so as to pass/ in
order to pass the exam. (Tu inveti ca sa treci examenul.)

- dupa: happy (fericit), glad (bucuros), sorry (scuze), good (bine), delighted (incantat), loath (potrivnic),etc. e.g. I am glad
to meet you. (Sunt bucuros sa te intalnesc.)

- dupa: would like (mi-ar placea)/ would love (as iubi)/ would prefer (as prefera)pentru a arata o preferinta specifica: eg. I
would prefer to watch TV tonight. (As prefera sa ma uit la televizor diseara.)

- dupa constructii cu too/enough: e.g. I haven’t studied enough to pass this exam. (Nu am invatat destul ca sa trec examenul.)/
This is too difficult to do. (Asta este prea dificil de facut.)

- in constructia: it+be+adjectiv (+ of + substantiv/ pronume): e.g. It was nice of you to help me. (A fost dragut din partea ta sa
ma ajuti.)

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- cu so + adjectiv + as: e.g. Would you be so kind as to tell me the time? (Sunteti atat de amabil sa imi spuneti cat este ceasul?)

- cu “only” pentru a arata un rezultat nesatisfacator: e.g. She worked hard only to realise her life was passing by. (Ea a muncit
din greu doar ca sa-si dea seama ca ii trecea viata.)

- dupa: be + the first/second/next/last/best (a fi primul/ al doilea/ urmatorul/ ultimul/ cel mai bun): e.g. He was the last to
leave. (El a fost ultimul plecat.)

- dupa: to be + superlativ si dupa can't bear (nu pot sa suport): e.g. He is the best man to ever cross my path. (El este cel mai
bun om pe care l-am intalnit. (lit. care mi-a trecut in cale)/ I can't bear to live like that. (Nu pot sa suport sa traiesc asa.)

- in constructia: for + substantiv/pronume + to-Inf.: e.g. This is for you to say. (Asta este pentru tine sa spui.)/It’s timefor her to
go to bed. (E timpul ca ea sa mearga la culcare.)

- in expresii ca: to be honest (sa fiu onest), to tell you the truth (sa-ti spun adevarul), to begin with (sa incep cu)
, etc.: e.g.
To be honest, I don’t like what’s happening here. (Sa fiu honest, nu imi place ce se intampla aici.)

- dupa verbele: appear (a aparea), agree (a fi de acord), decide (a decide), expect (a se astepta), hope (a spera), plan (a
planui), promise (a promite), refuse (a refuza), prove (a dovedi), seem (a parea), turn out (a se dovedi) etc. : She appears
to be healthy. (Ea pare sa fie sanatoasa)/ We were expected to have told a lie. (Se asteptau ca noi sa fi spus o minciuna.)

- dupa TO BE TO (trebuie): e.g. She is to arrive tomorrow. (Ea trebuie sa soseasca maine.)/ She was to have been awarded a
prize, but she refused it. (Urma sa i se fi acordat un premiu, dar l-a refuzat.) !!! Atentie: was/ were to have + Vb. III/ -edeste o
constructie care la fel ca Past Continuous si Past Perfect Simple arata o actiune care nu s-a mai facut/ materializat: e.g. She
was to have phoned me, but she forgot.(Urma sa ma sune, dar a uitat.)/ Shewas phoning me, but she forgot. (Voia sa ma
sune, dar a uitat.)/ She had hoped to phone me, but she couldn't. (Sperase sa ma sune, dar nu a putut.)

-in constructia numita Acuzativ + Infinitiv: S + P + Substantiv/pronume in Acuzativ (me/you/ him/her/ it/ us/ them)+ vb. Infinitiv

e.g. I want her to tell a lie. (Vreau ca ea sa spuna o minciuna.)

Aceasta constructie este ceruta de urmatoarele grupe de verbe:

- verbe de perceptie: feel (a simti), hear (a auzi), notice (a observa), observe (a observa), perceive (a percepe), see (a
vedea), watch (a privi) + Vb. la Infinitiv Scurt

e.g. They watched us clean the room. (Ei ne-au privit cum curatam camera.)

- verbe cauzative: have (a avea), make (a face), set (a lasa/ a pune), force (a forta), put ( a pune), let (a lasa) +Vb. la
Infinitiv Scurt

e.g. They made him take the exam. (Ei au insistat ca el sa dea examenul.)

- verbe care exprima dorinta sau intentia: choose (a alege), desire (a dori), intend (a intentiona), mean (a insemna), wish
(a dori), want (a vrea) +Vb. Infinitiv Lung

e.g. They wanted me to be a teacher. (Ei doreau ca eu sa fiu profesor.)

- verbe de gandire: believe (a crede), consider (a considera), expect (a se astepta), imagine (a imagina), know (a sti),
suppose (a presupune), think (a gandi), understand (a intelege), trust (a avea incredere) + Vb. Infinitiv Lung

e.g. They expect her to arrive soon. (Ei se asteapta ca ea sa soseasca in curand.)

- verbe care exprima sentimente: like (a placea), dislike (a displacea), love (a iubi), prefer (a prefera), hate (a urai) + Vb.
Infinitiv Lung (aceasta constructie arata sentimente pentru actiune particulara)

e.g. I dislike him to drive like this. (Imi displace ca el conduce asa.)

!!! Atentie: daca dupa aceste verbe care arata sentimente punem unverb- ing (Gerund) atunci aratam un sentiment in general
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e.g. I dislike driving. (Imi displace sa conduc - in general)

- verbe care exprima ordine, permisiuni sau cereri: allow (a permite), ask (a intreba/ a ruga), command (a comanda),
demand (a pretinde), order (a ordona), require (a cere), beg (a implora), propose (a propune), urge (a indemna), insist (a
insista), request (a cere) + Vb. Infinitiv Lung

e.g. She allowed him to go to the party. (Ea i-a permis lui sa mearga la petrecere.)

He demanded them ... the truth. (El a cerut ca ei sa spuna adevarul.)

a) to tell

b) should tell

c) tell

d) telling

!!! Atentie: verbele din ultima grupa pot fi folosite si ca verbe care cerSubjonctivul dupa ele, dar atunci ele sunt urmate
de THAT + S + Should + Vb. Inf. Scurt/ Verb Infinitiv Scurt si nu de un pronume + Verb Infinitiv Lung. Comparati:

He demanded THAT she should arrive early. (El a cerut ca ea sa vina devreme.) -> Modul Subjonctiv

He demanded HER to arrive early. (El a cerut ca ea sa vina devreme.) -> Acuzativ + Infinitiv

Gerundul

Gerundul este un verb urmat de terminatia -ing. Formele gerundului sunt:

Diateza Activa:

Indefinite Gerund: Do you mind my smoking ? (Te deranjeaza fumatul meu?/ Te deranjeaza daca fumez?)

Perfect Gerund: I regret having said that. (Regret ca am spus asta.)

Diateza Pasiva:

Indefinite Gerund: I look forward to being given more money by my father. (Astept cu nerabdare sa mi se dea mai muti bani de
catre tatal meu.)

Perfect Gerund: He disliked having been helped by his parents. (I-a displacut faptul ca a fost ajutat de parintii lui.)

!!! Atentie: Gerundul se poate traduce si ca substantiv si ca verb deoarece el poate sa fie precedat de un adjectiv posesiv sau
de un substantiv care arata posesia DAR in acelasi timp un gerund este urmat de un adverb ca toate verbele.

e.g. I dislike Tom's driving. (Imi displace condusul lui Tom./ Imi displace cum conduce Tom.)

I look forward to her coming back. (Astept cu nerabdare intoarcerea ei./ Astept cu nerabdare ca ea sa se intoarca.)

I regret shouting loudly. (Regret ca am strigat tare.)

I. Gerundul este folosit dupa urmatoarele expresii si verbe:

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- to look forward to (a astepta cu nerabdare) + vb. –ing

- in addition to (pe langa asta/ in plus)

e.g. I look forward ... you. (Astept cu nerabdare sa te vad.)

a) to seeing

b) to see

c) seeing

d) to be seen

- to get used to (a se obisnui cu)

- to get accustomed to (a se obisnui cu)

- to be used to (a fi obisnuit cu)

- to be accustomed to (a fi obisnuit cu)

e.g. They are accustomed ... early in the morning. (Ei sunt obisnuiti sa se scoale devreme dimineata.)

a) waking up

b) to waking up

c) to wake up

d) wake up

They used to ... to work by bus. (Ei obisnuiau sa mearga la lucru cu autobuzul.) => used to + Vb. Inf. = obisnuia sa

a) Go

b) Going

c) Having gone

d) Being gone

They are used to ... to work by bus. (Ei sunt obisnuiti sa mearga la lucru cu autobuzul.) => be used to +Vb.-ing = a fi
obisnuit cu

a) Go

b) Going

c) Gone

d) Being gone

- to prevent from (a impiedica sa) e.g. He prevented her from killing herself. (El a impiedicat-o sa se sinucida.)

- to insist on (a insista)

- to go on (a continua)

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- to disapprove of (a dezaproba)

- to approve of (a aproba)

- to accuse of (a acuza de)

- with the aim of (cu scopul)

- with a view to (cu scopul)

- what’s the use of (ce rost are) e.g. What’s the use of studying so much? (Ce rost are sa inveti atat de mult?)

- to be afraid of (a-i fi teama de)

- to be prone to (a avea tendinta sa)

- to be mistaken in (a gresi)

- to be wrong in (a nu avea dreptate)

- to have difficulty (in) (a avea dificultati/ probleme sa) e.g. They have difficulty (in) learning poems. (Ei au
dificultate sa invete poezii.)

- there is no point in (nu are rost sa)

- to succeed in (a reusi)

- to take pride in (a se mandri cu)

- to be good at (a fi bun la ceva)

- to be bad at ( a nu fi bun la ceva)

- to be worth (a merita) e.g. This book is really worth reading. (Cartea chiar merita sa fie citita.)

- to be busy (a fi ocupat)

- can’t stand (nu pot sa suport) e.g. I can’t stand looking at you. (Nu pot sa suport sa ma uit la tine.)

- can’t help (nu pot sa ma abtin)

- do you fancy (ai chef sa)

- how about (ce-ar fi sa) e.g. How about going in the park tomorrow? (Ce-ar fi sa mergem in parc maine?)

- what about (ce-ar fi sa)

- it’s no use (nu are rost)

- there is no (nu se poate ...) e.g. There is no telling what will happen. (Nu se poate spune ce se va intampla.)

- as well as (ca si)

- feel like (a avea chef sa)

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- to object to (a obiecta)

- to admit to (a recunoaste/ a admite) e.g. He admitted to stealing her bag. (El a admis ca i-a furat geanta.)

- to take to doing something (a se apuca de) e.g. My sister has taken to smoking. (Sora mea s-a apucat de fumat.)

My sister has taken ... to the cinema every weekend. (Sora mea a inceput sa se duca la cinema in fiecare weekend.)

a) Going

b) To go

c) To going

d) Go

- have trouble (a avea probleme)

- have a hard time (a-i fi greu sa) e.g. She had a hard time learning at history. (Ei i-a fost greu sa invete la
istorie.)

- have a difficult time (a-i fi greu)

- anticipate (a anticipa)

- appreciate (a aprecia)

- avoid (a evita)

- allow (in general - a permite) e.g. They don’t allow smoking in the public places. (Ei nu permit sa se fumeze in locuri
publice.)

- consider (a considera) e.g. Would you consider coming for dinner? (Ai lua in considerare sa vii la cina?)

- continue (a continua)

- delay (a intarzia)

- deny (a nega) e.g. He denied seeing her in town. (El a negat ca a vazut-o in oras.)

- discuss (a discuta)

- detest (a detesta)

- escape (a scapa)

- excuse (a se scuza) e.g. Please excuse my being late. (Va rog sa ma scuzati ca am intarziat.)

- explain (a explica)

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- fancy (a avea chef)

- finish (a termina)

- forgive (a ierta) e.g. If you’d forgive my interrupting you, I’d like to say a few words. (Daca ma iertati ca va intrerup,
as vrea sa spun cateva cuvinte.)

- imagine (a-si imagina)

- involve (a implica) e.g. She kept telling him what to do. (Ea a continuat sa ii spuna ca sa faca.)

- keep (a continua)

- mean (a insemna)

- mention (a mentiona)

- mind (a deranja)

- miss (a-i lipsi/ a-i fi dor)

- need (a avea nevoie) e.g. The roof needs mending. (Acoperisul are nevoie sa fie reparat.)

!!! Atentie: need + verb-ing se poate reformula cu o constructie la Diateza Pasiva la Infinitiv:to be + Vb. III/ -ed

The roof needs mending. (Acoperisul are nevoie de reparatie.) => The roof needs to be mended. (Acoperisul are
nevoiesa fie reparat.)

- pardon (a ierta)

- postpone (a amana) e.g. They postponed paying us a visit last week. (Ei au amanat sa ne faca o vizita saptamana
trecuta.)

- put off (a amana)

- practise (a exersa)

- quit (a renunta)

- recall (a-si aminti)

- recollect (a-si aminti)

- report (a raporta)

- resent (a detesta)

- resist (a rezista)

- risk (a risca) e.g. I would never risk being killed. (Nu as risca niciodata sa fiu ucis.)

- save (a salva/ a economisi)

- stand (a sta)

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- suggest (a sugera)

- spend (a petrece) e.g. You spend too much time sleeping. (Petreci prea mult timp dormind.)

- understand (a intelege)

- waste (a risipi)

- like (a placea), detest (a detesta), enjoy (a se bucura), dislike (a displacea), hate (a uri), love (a iubi), loathe (a
dispretui), dread (a-i fi groaza): aceste verbe se folosesc cu Gerund atunci cand vorbim in general.

e.g. I dislike her to take my clothes for this party. (referire in particular -> Imi displace ca ea imi ia hainele pentru
petrecerea asta.)

I dislike others/ people/ my sisters/ her taking my clothes. (referire in general -> Imi displace ca altii/ oamenii/
surorile mele/ ea sa imi ia hainele.)

II. Gerundul se foloseste dupa prepozitii: after (dupa), without (fara), as (ca), since (din/ de), upon (cand), on (pe/ cand),
before (inainte), by + vb. -ing (facand o actiune), etc.

After his leaving, I called my mother. ->After he left, I called my mother. (Dupa ce a plecat, am sunat-o pe mama.)

On seeing that, he laughed. -> When he saw that, he laughed. (Cand a vazut asta, el a ras.)

After meeting her, I decided to tell her the truth. (Dupa ce am intalnit-o, am decis sa ii spun adevarul.)

By studying hard, you will pass the exam. (Studiind din greu, vei trece examenul.)

Upon realizing there was no one at home, she left. (Realizand ca nu era nimeni acasa, ea a plecat.)

I said that without realising he was present. (Am spus asta fara sa imi dau seama ca el era prezent.)

Daca dupa verbele de perceptie (see, hear, watch, etc.) folosim constructia Acuzativ + Inf., atunci inseamna ca toata actiunea
a fost vazuta/ auzita, etc.

I saw her cry. (Am vazut-o plangand. - de la inceput pana cand s-a oprit din plans)

Daca dupa verbele de perceptie (see, hear, watch, etc.)folosim un verb -ing, atunci inseamna ca doar o parte din actiune a
fost vazuta/ auzita, etc.

I saw her crying. (Am vazut-o plangand. - doar o parte din actiune)

I was there and I saw her ... the ring and put it in the bag. (Am fost acolo si am vazut-o cand a furat inelul si l-a pus in geanta. - am
vazut toata actiunea de a fura)

a) Stealing

b) Steal

c) To steal

d) Stolen

Exista o serie de verbe care sunt urmate si de Gerund si de Infinitiv dar cu schimbare de sens:

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REMEMBER (a-si aminti)

Daca dupa remember se pune Gerund atunci inseamna ca iti aduci aminte de ceva din trecut:

e.g. I remember seeing her yesterday. (Imi amintesc ca am vazut-o ieri.)

Daca dupa remember se pune Infinitiv atunci inseamna ca trebuie sa iti amintesti sa faci ceva in viitor:

e.g. I have to remember to buy her flowers tomorrow. (Trebuie sa imi amintesc sa ii cumpar flori maine.)

e.g. I must remember ... some cake next week. (Trebuie sa imi amintesc sa aduc niste prajitura saptamana viitoare.)

a) bringing

b) to bringing

c) to bring

d) having brought

FORGET (a uita)

Daca dupa forget se pune Gerund atunci inseamna ca ai uitat de ceva din trecut:

e.g. I won't forget talking to him for the first time. (Nu voi uita ca i-am vorbit pentru prima oara.)

Daca dupa forget se pune Infinitiv atunci inseamna ca uiti ceva ce urmeaza in viitor:

e.g. I forgot to talk to him the next day. (Am uitat sa vorbesc cu el ziua urmatoare.)

e.g. Oh, I forgot ... bread, now I have to go out again. (Oh, am uitat sa cumpar paine, acum trebuie sa ies iar.)

a) to buy

b) buying

c) having bought

d) to buying

GO ON (a continua)

Daca dupa go on se pune Gerund atunci inseamna ca actiunea continua fara intrerupere:

e.g. She went on talking for hours on end. (Ea a continuat sa vorbeasca ore in sir.)

Daca dupa go on se pune Infinitiv atunci inseamna ca actiunea continua dupa o intrerupere sau ca ceva s-a terminat si se
continua cu altceva:

e.g. First she talked about America and then she went on to talk about England. (La inceput a vorbit despre America si apoi a
continuat sa vorbeasca despre Anglia.)

I finished writing one letter and then Iwent on to write another. (Am terminat de scris o scrisoare si apoi am continuat sa
scriu alta.)

e.g. After a 10-minute break the committee went on ... the day’s agenda. (Dupa o pauza de zece minute comitetul a continuat
sa discute agenda zilei.)

a) discussing

b) to discuss

c) being discussed
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d) to have discussed

REGRET (a regreta)

Daca dupa regret se pune Gerund atunci inseamna ca regreti ceva facut in trecut:

e.g. I regret talking like that to you yesterday. (Regret ca ti-am vorbit asa ieri.)

Daca dupa regret se pune Infinitiv atunci inseamna ca dai o veste proasta:

e.g. I regret to tell you that you have failed the exam. (Regret sa iti spun ca ai picat examenul.)

e.g. Now I regret ... her all my secrets. (Acum regret ca i-am spus toate secretele mele.)

a) to tell

b) to have told

c) being told

d) telling

STOP (a se opri)

Daca dupa stop se pune Gerund atunci inseamna ca actiunea a incetat sa mai fie facuta total:

e.g. I stopped smoking 5 years ago. (M-am lasat de fumat acum cinci ani.)

Daca dupa stop se pune Infinitiv atunci inseamna ca te opresti cu scopul de a face ceva:

e.g. I stopped to smoke and then I continued my work. (M-am oprit ca sa fumez si pe urma mi-am continuat munca.)

e.g. We stopped ... food on the way home and then we called you. (Ne-am oprit ca sa cumparam mancare in drum spre
casa si pe urma te-am sunat.)

a) buying

b) to buy (cu scopul sa cumparam)

c) having bought

d) to buying

TRY (a incerca)

Daca dupa try se pune Gerund atunci inseamna ca faci o incercare sau un experiment:

e.g. I tried taking an aspirin for the headache to see if it would pass. (Am incercat sa iau o aspirina pentru durerea de cap sa
vad daca o sa treaca.)

Daca dupa try se pune Infinitiv atunci inseamna ca faci un efort:

e.g. I tried to talk to her but in vain. (I made an effort) (Am incercat sa vorbesc cu ea/ Am facut un efort sa vorbesc cu ea, dar
in zadar.)

e.g. The flashlight won’t work anymore. Try ... new batteries, maybe it will work then. (Lanterna nu mai merge. Incearca sa
pui baterii noi, poate o sa mearga atunci.)

a) putting in

b) to put in

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c) to putting in

d) having to putting in

MEAN (a insemna)

Daca dupa mean se pune Gerund arati ce implica/ presupune situatia:

e.g. Being accepted at the Police Academy means studying a lot. (Sa fi acceptat la Academia de Politie inseamna/
presupune sa inveti mult.)

Daca dupa mean se pune Infinitiv arati o intentie sa faci ceva:

e.g. I meant to call you. (Am intentionat sa te sun.)

e.g. We need more money which means ... extra hours. (Avem nevoie de mai multi bani ceea ce inseamna/ presupune sa
muncim mai multe ore.)

a) to work

b) having worked

c) working

d) to have been working

HATE (a uri)

Daca dupa hate se pune Gerund arati ca iti pare rau pentru ceea ce faci pe moment:

e.g. I hate causing you so much trouble. (Urasc ca iti cauzez atatea probleme.)

Daca dupa hate se pune Infinitiv arati ca urasti ceea ce urmeaza sa faci:

e.g. I hate to interrupt you, but could you give me a hand with this? (Urasc ca trebuie sa te intrerup, dar ai putea sa ma ajuti
cu asta?)

e.g. I hate ... you this, but you are bad at math. (Urasc sa iti spun asta, dar nu esti bun la matematica.)

a) telling

b) having told

c) to be told

d) to tell

WANT (a vrea)

Daca dupa want se pune Gerund arati ce este nevoie sa fie facut (are nuanta de Diateza Pasiva):

e.g. This house wants painting. (Casa aceasta are nevoie sa fie vopsita.)

Daca dupa want se pune Infinitiv arati ce vrei sa faci:

e.g. I want to stop playing computer games. (Vreau sa ma opresc sa mai joc jocuri pe calculator.)

e.g. Your room wants ... . (Camera ta are nevoie sa fie ordonata.)

a) tidying up

b) to tidy up

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c) tidy up

d) to be tidying up

BE SORRY (a-i parea rau)

Daca dupa be sorry se pune Gerund inseamna ca iti ceri scuze pentru ceva sau iti pare rau de ceva ce ai facut:

e.g. She was sorry for being so mean to you. (Ea s-a scuzat/ Ei i-a parut rau pentru ca a fost asa de rea cu tine.)

Daca dupa be sorry se pune Infinitiv exprimi regret pentru ceva rau care s-a intamplat:

e.g. I am sorry to tell you that your request has been declined. (Regret sa va spun ca cererea dumneavoastra a fost
respinsa.)

e.g. We are sorry ... you that your flight has been cancelled. (Ne pare rau sa va anuntam ca zborul dumneavoastra a fost
anulat.)

a) for announce

b) to announce

c) announcing

d) to be announced

Urnatoarele verbe pot fi urmate si de to-infinitive si de gerund fara schimbare de sens:

-Begin (a incepe), continue (a continua), intend (a intentiona), start (a incepe):

e.g. He began speaking/ to speak. (El a inceput sa vorbeasca.)

!!! Atentie: nu folositi doua forme cu -ing impreuna: He is beginning speaking beginning to speak. (El incepe sa vorbeasca.)

-Advise (a sfatui), allow (a permite), encourage (a incuraja), permit (a permite), require (a cere)
:

e.g. She doesn’t allow them to talk during the exam. (Ea nu le permite sa vorbeasca in timpul examenului.)

She doesn’t allow talking during the exam. (Ea nu permite sa se vorbeasca in timpul examenului.)

Constructii cu Infinitivul si Gerundul:

I prefer sleeping to studying in general. (Vb.-ING + TO + Vb. -ING) (aceasta structura se foloseste atunci cand ne referim in
general)

(Prefer sa dorm decat sa invat./ Prefer dormitul invatatului.)

I’d prefer to sleep rather than study today. (Vb. Long Inf. + RATHER THAN + Vb. Short Inf.) (aceasta structura se
foloseste atunci cand ne referim in particular)

(As prefera sa dorm decat sa invat azi.)

I’d rather sleep than study. (referire la prezent) (Vb. Short Inf. + THAN + Vb. Short Inf.)

(As prefera sa dorm decat sa invat.)

I would rather have slept than (have) studied yesterday. (referire la trecut) (Vb. Perfect Short Inf. + THAN + Vb. Perfect
Short Inf.)

(As prefera sa fi dormit decat sa fi invatat ieri.)

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Participiul si Constructiile Participiale

Participiul Prezent (verb -ing) arata o actiune sau stare continua si are urmatoarele forme:

Diateza Active:

Participliul Indefinit: asking (intreband)

Participiul Perfect: having asked (intreband)

Diateza Pasiva:

Participliul Indefinit: being asked (fiind intrebat)

Participiul Perfect: having been asked (fiind intrebat)

Participiul Trecut arata actiunea ca rezultat si are formele:

Verb la forma a III-a pentru verbele neregulate:

To eat – ate – eaten (mancat)

Verb cu terminatia -ed pentru verbe regulate:

To work – worked - worked (muncit)

Participiul se foloseste in constructia Acuzativ + Participiu:

S + P + substantiv/ pronume in Acuzativ + vb. Participiu Prezent/ Participiu Trecut

e.g. I can see him coming on the alley. (Pot sa il vad pe el venind pe alee.) (Acuzativ + Participiu Prezent)

I can see him hidden behind the door. (Pot sa il vad pe el ascuns dupa usa.) (Acuzativ + Participiu Trecut)

Aceasta constructie se foloseste dupa:

1. verbele de perceptie: feel (a simti), look at (a privi la), notice (a observa), observe (a observa), perceive (a
percepe), see (a vedea), smell (a mirosi)

e.g. I saw smoke coming through the windows. (Am vazut fum iesind pe ferestre. -> actiune in progres - am vazut parte din
actiune)

She felt her secret revealed to everybody. (Ea a simtit secretul dezvaluit la toata lumea.)

!!! ATENTIE: daca avem Acuzativ + Participiu Prezent atunci inseamna ca numai o parte din actiune este vazuta/ facuta/
auzita, etc.

e.g. I sawsmoke coming through the windows. (Am vazut fum iesind pe ferestre. -> actiune in progres - am vazut
parte din actiune)

daca avem Acuzativ + Infinitiv atunci inseamna ca toata actiunea este vazuta/ facuta/ auzita, etc.

e.g. I saw smoke come through the windows. (Am vazut ca a iesit fumul pe ferestre. -> am vazut toata actiunea, de

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cand a inceput sa iasa fum pana cand s-a oprit)

2. verbele: find (a gasi), keep (a tine), leave (a pleca), catch (a prinde), send (a trimite), spot (a repera), discover
(a descoperi):

e.g. They caught me eating their ice cream. (Ei m-au prins mancandu-le inghetata.)

He found his clothes worn by his brother. (El a gasit hainele purtate de fratele lui.)

3. verbele cauzative: have, get, set, start

e.g. She will get things going eventually. (Ea va face lucrurile sa mearga in cele din urma.)

I will have her calling you. (Am sa o rog sa te sune.)

You should have your car repaired. ( Ar trebui sa ai masina reparata. - constructie cauzativa)

I got my finger caught in the door. (Mi-am prins degetul in usa.)

4. verbe care exprima dorinta: wish (a dori), want (a vrea), prefer (a prefera), like (a placea)

e.g. They wanted her killed. (Ei o voiau pe ea ucisa.)

He prefers her dressed in red. (El o prefera pe ea imbracata in rosu.)

Daca pasivizam aceste forme obtinem constructia numita Nominativ + Participiu:

Pronume/ Substantiv in Nominativ + Verb Diateza pasiva + Participiu Prezent/ Participiu Trecut

They saw him running down the street. (Ei l-au vazut alergand de-a lungul strazii.) ->He was seen running down the street. (El a
fost vazut alergand de-a lungul strazii.)

They kept the girls hidden in the basement. (Ei au tinut fetele ascunse la subsol.) ->The girls were kept hidden in the
basement. (Fetele au fost tinute ascunse la subsol.)

They have caught Tom drinking beer. (Ei l-au prins pe Tom band bere.) -> Tom has been caught drinking beer. (Tom a fost
prins band bere.)

Expresii Participiale:

Subiectul nu este mentionat, dar este acelasi ca cel din propozitia principala:

e.g. Singing loudly, Ramona entered the room . (Cantand tare, Ramona a intrat in camera.)
Being popular, he will win the election for sure. (Fiind popular, el va castiga alegerile cu siguranta.)
Tired from work, Mary went to bed very early. (Obosita de la munca, Mary s-a dus la culcare devreme.)
Having read the book, she returned it to the library the next day. (Citind cartea/ Pentru ca citise cartea, ea a returnat-o la
biblioteca ziua urmatoare.)
Disappointed in love, he decided to kill himself. (Dezamagit in dragoste, el a decis sa se sinucida.)

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Constructia Participiala Absoluta:

Aceasta constructie are doua subiecte diferite, unul pentru constructia participiala si unul pentru propozitia principala:

e.g. Everybody having arrived, they started the meeting. (Toata lumea sosind, ei au inceput intalnirea.)

It being too late, they stopped watching films. (Fiind prea tarziu, ei nu au mai privit filme.)

The party being over, the guests started leaving. (Petrecerea fiind terminata, oaspetii au inceput sa plece.)

15. Modal Verbs


Can/could Need/ be to/ dare

May/might

Must/ought to

Shall/should

Will/would

Verbele Modale au urmatoarele caracteristici:

1. Nu primesc –S la persoana a III-a singular:

he cans / she wills

he can / she will/ he must

2. Sunt urmate de un verb la Infinitiv Scurt, cu exceptia lui OUGHT TO si HAVE TO

(e.g. You ought to study more. - Trebuie sa inveti mai mult.)

She must go to school now. (Ea trebuie sa se duca la scoala acum.)/ Ican tell lies if I wish. (Pot sa spun minciuni daca
vreau.)

3. Isi formeaza singure negatia si interogatia la fel ca verbele auxiliare:

e.g. Can you speak louder, please ? No, I cannot/ can’t speak louder. (Poti vorbi mai tare te rog? Nu, nu pot sa vorbesc mai
tare.)

4. Un Verb Modal poate exprima mai multe lucruri in functie de context:

e.g. I can read in German. (ability) (Pot sa citesc in limba germana.)

Everybody can make mistakes. (possibility) (Toata lumea poate sa faca greseli.)

Can I help you? (offer) (Pot sa te ajut?)

Can I come in? (asking for permission-informal) (Pot sa intru?)


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We can go in the park today if you wish. (suggestion) (Putem sa mergem in parc azi daca vrei.)

5. Verbele Modale nu primesc terminatii ca -ed sau -ing, prin urmare nu au forma de trecut sau viitor. Nu se pot folosi ca
atare la alte timpuri decat la prezent.

e.g. I will can go.

He musted learn.

They canning read.

DACA vrem sa folosim Verbele Modale la alte timpuri atunci exista doua posibilitati: pot fi inlocuite cu o expresie
echivalenta sau pot fi folosite in structuri fixe.

I. Folosirea unei expresii echivalente:

a) CAN cand exprima abilitate se poate inlocui cu -> to be able to

e.g. Prezent: I can drive a car. (Pot sa conduc o masina.)

I am able to drive a car. (Pot sa conduc o masina.)

Trecut: I was able to = managed to drive a car when I was 13. (Am fost in stare/ am putut sa conduc o masina cand aveam
13 ani.) (eveniment realizat cu succes)

I could drive a car when I was 18. (Puteam sa conduc o masina cand aveam 18 ani.) (abilitate in general in trecut)

Prezent Perfect: I have been able to drive a car. (Am putut sa conduc o masina.)

Viitor: I will be able to drive a car. (Voi putea sa conduc o masina.)

!!! ATENTIE: Atunci cand folosim was able to inseamna ca actiunea s-a realizat cu succes iar daca folosim could atunci
inseamna ca exista abilitatea de a face ceva in general dar actiunea nu s-a realizat neaparat in realitate.

e.g. She ... this mountain two years ago and now she boasts about it all the time. (Ea a fost in stare sa urce acest munte
acum doi ani si acum se lauda tot timpul.)

a) was able to climb

b) could climb

c) has been able to climb

d) can climb

He ... mountains when he was younger, that's how fit he was. (El putea sa urce munti cand era mai tanar, atat era de in
forma.)

a) was able to climb

b) could climb

c) has been able to climb

d) can climb

He ... Japanese fluently. (El poate sa vorbeasca japoneza fluent.)

a) cans speak

b) can speak

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c) might speaking

d) can to speak

He ... very fast if it is quiet. (El poate sa citeasca foarte repede daca este liniste.)

a) may read

b) must read

c) can read

d) ought to read

!!! ATENTIE: can poate face negatia in doua feluri: can't sau cannot scris intr-un singur cuvant. "can not" nu este
corect!!!

b) MAY cand exprima permisiune se poate inlocui cu –> be allowed to

e.g. Prezent: I may go to the party. (Am voie sa merg la petrecere.)

I am allowed to go to the party. (Am voie sa merg la petrecere.)

Trecut: I was allowed to go to the party. (Am avut voie sa merg la petrecere.)

Viitor: I will be allowed to go to the party. (Voi avea voie sa merg la petrecere.)

e.g. I ... on the trip if I get good grades at school. (Am voie/ pot sa merg in excursie daca iau note bune la scoala.)

a) will allow to go

b) was allowed to go

c) may go

d) will may go

c) MUST cand exprima obligatie se poate inlocui cu –> to have to

e.g. Prezent: I must help her (Trebuie sa o ajut - pentru ca asa consider eu) - cand folosim MUST la prezent inseamna ca este o
obligatie interna.

I have to help her because my parents asked me to. (Trebuie sa o ajut pentru ca m-au rugat parintii mei.). - cand
folosim HAVE TO inseamna ca este o obligatie externa.

Trecut: I had to help her. (A trebuit sa o ajut.)

Viitor: I will have to help her. (Va trebui sa o ajut.)

e.g. They ... more or their parents will get upset. (Ei trebuie sa invete mai mult sau parintii lor sa vor supara.)

a) must study

b) have to study

c) must be studying

d) had had to study

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II. Folosirea unei structuri fixe:

Daca vrem sa exprimam ceva la Prezent Simplu sau Viitor Simplu folosim structura: Modal Verb + Vb. Short Infinitive

e.g. O propozitie la Prezentul Simplu fara verb modal: She cooks every day. (Ea gateste in fiecare zi.)

O propozitie la Prezentul Simplu cu Verb Modal: She can cook every day. (Ea poate sa gateasca in fiecare zi.)

She may cook every day. (Este posibil ca ea gateste in fiecare zi.)

She must cook every day. (Ea probabil ca gateste in fiecare zi.)

She should cook every day. (Ea ar trebui sa gateasca in fiecare zi.)

O propozitie la Viitorul Simplu fara verb modal: She will arrive tomorrow. (Ea va sosi maine.)

O propozitie la Viitorul Simplu cu Verb Modal: She may arrive tomorrow. (E posibil ca ea sa soseasca maine.)

She must arrive tomorrow. (E probabil ca ea sa soseasca maine.)

She should arrive tomorrow. (Ea ar trebui sa soseasca maine.)

Daca vrem sa exprimam ceva la Prezent Continuu sau Viitor Continuu folosim structura: Modal Verb + BE + VB-ing

e.g. O propozitie la Prezentul Continuu fara verb modal: She is sleeping now. (Ea doarme acum.)

O propozitie la Prezentul Continuu cu Verb Modal: She may be sleeping now. (E posibil ca ea sa doarma acum.)

She must be sleeping now. (Probabil ca ea doarme acum.)

O propozitie la Viitorul Continuu fara verb modal: She will be sleeping at 5 tomorrow. (Ea va dormi maine la 5.)

O propozitie la Viitorul Simplu cu Verb Modal: She may be sleeping at 5 tomorrow. (E posibil ca ea va dormi maine la
5.)

She must be sleeping at 5 tomorrow. (Probabil ca ea va dormi maine la 5.)

Daca vrem sa exprimam ceva la Trecut Simplu, Prezent Perfect Simplu sau Trecut Perfect Simplu folosim structura: Modal
Verb + HAVE + VB III/-ed

e.g. O propozitie la Trecutul Simplu fara verb modal: She was there yesterday. (Ea a fost acolo ieri.)

O propozitie la Trecutul Simplu cu Verb Modal: She may have been there yesterday. (E posibil ca ea sa fi fost acolo ieri.)

She must have been there yesterday. (Probabil ca a fost acolo ieri.)

Daca vrem sa exprimam ceva la Trecut Continuu, Prezent Perfect Continuu, Trecut Perfect Continuu folosim structura:
Modal Verb + HAVE + BEEN + VB– ing

e.g. O propozitie la Trecutul Continuu fara verb modal: She was sleeping when you called. (Ea dormea cand ai sunat.)

O propozitie la Trecutul Continuu cu Verb Modal: She may have been sleeping when you called. (E posibil ca ea dormea
cand ai sunat.)

She must have been sleeping when you called. (Probabil ca ea dormea
cand ai sunat.)

Perhaps they were watching TV. (Poate ca se uitau la televizor.)

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a) They may be watching TV. (Verb Modal + BE + vb.-ing => Prezent Continuu sau Viitor Continuu)

b) They may have been watching TV. (Trecut Continuu => Modal Verb + HAVE + BEEN + VB– ing)

c) They may have watched TV. (Verb Modal + HAVE + Vb. III/ -ed => Trecut Simplu, Prezent Perfect Simplu sau Trecut Perfect
Simplu)

d) They may watch TV. (Verb Modal + Vb. Infinitiv Scurt => Prezent Simplu sau Viitor Simplu)

Functii ale Verbelor Modale si expresii/ cuvinte modale echivalente

Verbele modale pot exprima urmatoarele lucruri:

Ability/ Abilitate

- can (prezent): I can speak German well./ I am able to speak German well. (Eu pot sa vorbesc germana bine.)

- could (trecut): I could speak German well. (Puteam sa vorbesc germana bine.)

I was able to (managed to) go on a trip last year. (Am reusit/ am fost in stare sa ma duc intr-o excursie anul
trecut.)

e.g. My sister ... very beautifully. (Sora mea poate sa deseneze foarte frumos.)

a) must draw b) can draw c) may draw d) mustn’t draw

Possibility/ Posibilitate

-Can (90% certain): Everybody can make mistakes. (Toata lumea poate face greseli.)

-Could (50% certain): She could be at home. (E posibil ca ea sa fie acasa.)

-May (50% certain): She may be at home. (E posibil ca ea sa fie acasa.)

-Might (30% certain): She might be at home. (E posibil ca ea sa fie acasa, dar nu este sigur.)

Posibilitatea se poate exprima si prin cuvinte sau expresii care pot inlocui verbul modal. Sensul ramane acelasi.

-it is likely: It’s likely she is at home.=> She may/could be at home. (E posibil ca ea sa fie acasa.)

-it is possible: It’s possible she is at home.=> She may/could be at home. (E posibil ca ea sa fie acasa.)

-Perhaps: Perhaps she is at home..=> She may/could be at home. (E posibil ca ea sa fie acasa.)

-Maybe: Maybe she is at home. => She may/could be at home. (E posibil ca ea sa fie acasa.)

!!! ATENTIE: Atunci cand avem intrebari, posibilitatea se exprima cu might, could sau will, DAR NU CU MAY:

-Will/ could/ might: May/ Will/ Could/ Might it rain later? = Is it possible to rain later? (E posibil sa ploua mai tarziu?)

!!! ATENTIE: atunci cand exprimam posibilitatea in limba engleza, trebuie sa tinem cont de gradul de certitudine. Unele verbe
modale exprima un grad de certitudine mai mare decat altele si deci sunt folosite in functie de cat de siguri suntem ca actiunea
este posibila sau nu. De aceea avem gradul de certitudine aratat in paranteza dupa fiecare verb modal care exprima posibilitatea.

!!! ATENTIE: could/ couldn't se folosesc cu adjective la comparativ pentru a exprima posibilitate sau imposibilitate:

e.g.

e.g. She is the nicest girl I’ve ever met. (Ea este cea mai draguta fata pe care am intalnit-o vreodata.)

a) The girl couldn’t be nicer.

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b) The girl may not be nicer.

c) The girl might be nicer.

d) The girl shouldn’t be nicer.

e.g. They ... be sleeping, but I am not so sure. (E posibil ca ei sa doarma, dar nu sunt sigur.)

a) may b) must c) ought to d) might

It’s possible he likes her. (E posibil ca el o place.)

a) He must like her.

b) He will like her.

c) He may like her.

d) He should like her.

... it rain tomorrow, do you think? (Crezi ca e posibil sa ploua maine?)

a) May b) Can c) Will d) Must

Probability/ Probabilitate

- Will (100% certain): He will be on the plane by now. (El este in avion acum cu siguranta.)

- Should (90% certain): He should be there. (El trebuie sa fie acolo.)

- Ought to (90% certain): She ought to be at work now. (Ea trebuie sa fie la munca acum.)

- Should have +vb.III/-ed: He should have arrived by now. (El ar fi trebuit sa soseasca de acum.)

- Ought to have + vb.III/-ed: The course ought to have started by now. (Cursul ar fi trebuit sa inceapa pana acum.)

!!! ATENTIE: probabilitatea tine de asemenea cont de gradul de certitudine.

e.g. It’s 9:30 so my parents ... at work by now since they always start at 9. (E 9:30 asa ca parintii mei sunt la munca de
acum din moment ce intotdeauna incep la 9.)

a) may be b) can be c) might be d) will be

Logical assumption; deduction/ Presupuneri logice sau deductii

-Must (positive) = I’m sure/certain +vb. positive:

I’m sure you are tired after working all day. (Sunt sigur ca esti obosit dupa ce ai muncit toata ziua.)

You must be tired after working all day. (Probabil ca esti obosit dupa ce ai muncit toata ziua.)

!!! Expresia I'm sure/ certain urmata de un verb pozitiv se poate reformula cu verbul modal MUST.

-Can’t (negative) = I’m sure/certain + vb. negative:

I’m sure she isn’t serious. (Sunt sigur ca ea nu este serioasa.)

She can’t be serious. (Ea nu se poate sa fie serioasa.)

!!! Expresia I'm sure/ certain urmata de un verb negativ se poate reformula cu verbul modal CAN'T.

-Couldn’t (negative) = I don’t think/ believe:

I don’t think they are on a trip. (Nu cred ca ei sunt intr-o excursie.)

They couldn’t be on a trip. (Nu se poate ca ei sa fie intr-o excursie.)

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!!! Expresia I don't think/ I don't believe urmata de un verb negativ se poate reformula cu verbul modal COULDN'T.

e.g. That ... Mary because she hasn’t returned from her holiday abroad yet. (Nu se poate sa fie Mary pentru ca nu s-a
intors inca din vacanta din strainatate.)

a) mustn’t be b) shouldn’t be c) will be d) can’t be

You’ve been yawning for the last 10 minutes. You ... very tired. (Casti de 10 minute. Probabil ca esti obosit.)

a) can’t be b) must be c) may be d) could be

I’m sure she is driving that car. (Sunt sigur ca ea conduce masina aceea.)

a) She must have driven that car.

b) She must be driving that car. (Probabil ca ea conduce masina aceea.)

c) She must have been driving that car.

d) She must drive that car.

Permission/ Premisiune (giving or refusing permission) -> atunci cand exprimam permisiunea se tine cont de gradul de
formalitate

- Can (informal, giving permission): You can go to that party. (Poti sa mergi la petrecerea aceea.)

- Could (more polite, asking for permission): Could I be excused? (As putea sa fiu scuzat?)

- May (formal, giving permission): You may come in. (Puteti intra.)

- Might (more formal, asking for permission): Might I inconvenience you with a question? (As putea sa va inoportunez cu o
intrebare?)

- Can’t/ mustn’t (informal, refusing permission): I’m afraid you can’t stay out after ten./ You mustn’t go there.(Ma tem ca nu poti sa
stai in oras dupa ora 10./ Nu ai voie sa te duci acolo.)

- May not (formal, refusing permission): Customers may not smoke in the public areas. (Clientii nu au voie sa fumeze in locurile
publice.)

- Was/were not allowed to (past, refusing permission): He wasn’t allowed to enter. (Lui nu i s-a permis sa intre.)

- Was/were allowed to (past, giving permission): He was allowed to enter. (Lui i s-a permis sa intre.)

e.g. Mom, ... I go out with my friends tonight? (Mama, pot sa ies cu prietenii mei?)

a) can b) should c) might d) will

Obligation/ Obligatie

- Must (obligatie interna): I must eat less or I’ll gain weight. (Trebuie sa mananc mai putin sau o sa ma ingras.)

- Have to (obligatie externa): I have to do my homework or I’ll get a four. (Trebuie sa imi fac tema sau o sa iau un 4.)

- Ought to (folosit cand vrem sa spunem ca este lucrul corect de facut, dar nu il facem intotdeauna): You ought to help the poor
more. (Ar trebui sa ii ajuti pe saraci mai mult.)

- Had to (past): I had to get more exercise because I was out of shape. (A trebuit sa fac mai multa miscare pentru ca nu mai eram
in forma.)

e.g. I think I ... her the truth as she is my sister. (Cred ca trebuie sa ii spun adevarul pentru ca este sora mea.)

a) have to tell b) must tell c) must have told d) would tell

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Necessity/ Necesitate

- Must: I must read this book. (Trebuie sa citesc cartea asta - pentru ca asa consider eu)

- Have to: I have to read the book for the test. (Trebuie sa citesc cartea pentru test- sunt obligat de circumstante externe)

- Need: The flowers need watering/ to be watered./ The flowers needed watering/ to be watered. (Florile au nevoie/ aveau
nevoie sa fie udate.)

- (Don’t) Doesn’t have to/ doesn’t need to (folosit cand altii spun ca nu e nevoie)/ needn’t (folosit cand tu spui ca nu e
nevoie):

She doesn’t have to/ doesn’t need to be there at five. (others say so, I just give the information)(Ea nu trebuie sa fie acolo la 5 -
altii spun asta, eu doar dau informatia)

She needen’t be there at five. (I say so, I made the rule/ decision) (Ea nu trebuie sa fie acolo la 5 - eu spun asta, eu am facut
regula sau am luat decizia)

- Ought to: We ought to reply to her invitation. (Noi trebuie sa raspundem invitatiei ei.)

- Didn’t have to/ didn’t need to (folosite cand nu era nevoie sa facem ceva si deci NU AM FACUT acea actiune): She didn’t
have to work on Sunday. (Nu a trebuit sa munceasca duminica - si nu a muncit.)

- Needn’t have +vb. III/-ed (folosit cand nu era nevoie sa faci ceva, DAR AM FACUT acea actiune): You needn’t have helped
me but thank you. (Nu era nevoie sa ma ajuti, dar multumesc.)

e.g. You ... to help us, but thank you. (Nu era necesar/ nu era nevoie sa vii sa ne ajuti, dar multumesc.)

a) mustn’t have come

b) didn’t need to come

c) needn’t have come

d) needn’t have to come

Advice/ Sfat

- Must (strong advice): You must try this pie. It is delicious. (Trebuie sa incerci aceasta placinta. Este delicioasa.)

- Should (general advice): You should try and study more. (Ar trebui sa incerci sa inveti mai mult.)

- Ought to (most people believe this): You ought to respect the traffic signs. (Trebuie sa respecti semnele de circulatie.)

- Had better (advice on a specific situation): You had better take the pill. (Mai bine ai lua pastila.)

- Shall (asking for advice): Shall I take this road? (Sa iau drumul asta?)

- Should have + vb. III/-ed (advice in the past): You should have read the book. (Ar fi trebuit sa citesti cartea.)

- Ought to have + vb.III/-ed (advice in the past): She ought to have booked earlier. (Ea ar fi trebuit sa rezerve mai devreme.)

- Would have been better (advice in the past): It would have been better if you hadn’t said that. (Ar fi fost mai bine daca nu ai fi
spus asta.)

e.g. We think you ... more if you wish to pass the exam. (Credem ca ar trebui sa inveti mai mult daca vrei sa treci
examenul.)

a) may study b) can study c) ought study d) should study

Criticism/ Critica

- Could (present): She could at least help me. (Ar putea macar sa ma ajute.)

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- Should (present): They should tell us the truth. (Ar trebui sa ne spuna adevarul.)

- Ought to (present): He ought to be more polite. (Ar trebui sa fie mai politicos.)

- Could have + vb. III/-ed (past): You could have told me the truth. (Ai fi putut sa imi spui adevarul.)

- Should have + vb. III/-ed (past): You should have learned more. (Ar fi trebuit sa inveti mai mult.)

- Ought to have + vb. III/-ed (past): You ought to have been more polite. (Ar fi trebuit sa fi mai politicos.)

e.g. You know, you ... a longer skirt. What you have on is a disgrace. (Sti, ai putea sa porti o fusta mai lunga. Ce ai pe
tine e o rusine.)

a) could be wearing b) may wear c) must be wearing d) can be wearing

Requests/ Cereri - se tine cont de gradul de formalitate

- Can I use your cellphone? (informal) (Pot sa iti folosesc celularul?)

- Could I use your cellphone? (polite) (As putea sa folosesc celularul dumneavoastra?)

- May I use your cellphone? (formal) (As putea sa folosesc celularul dumneavoastra?)

- Might I use your cellphone? (very formal) (Ar fi cumva posibil sa folosesc celularul dumneavoastra?)

- Will you give me a helping hand? (very friendly) (Imi dai o mana de ajutor?)

- Would you mind helping us? (polite) (V-ar deranja daca ne-ati ajuta?)

Offers/ Oferte - se tine cont de gradul de formalitate

- Can I do anything for you? (informal) (Pot sa fac ceva pentru tine?)

- Shall I help you? (informal) (Sa te ajut?)

- Would you like me to help you? (more polite) (Ati dori sa va ajut?)

- Will you have some more pie? (Ati dori mai multa placinta?)

e.g. ... we give you a hand with that? (Sa te ajutam cu asta?)

a) May b) Shall c) Must d) Need

Suggestions/ Sugestii

- Shall we see a movie? (Ce-ar fi sa vedem un film?)

- We can see a movie if you wish. (Putem vedea un film daca vrei.)

- We could see a movie if you wished. (Am putea vedea un film daca ai vrea.)

Alte expresii care exprima sugestii sunt:

- Let’s see a movie! (Hai sa vedem un film!)

- How about seeing a movie? (Ce-ar fi sa vedem un film?)

- What about seeing a movie? (Ce-ar fi sa vedem un film?)

- Why don’t we see a movie? (De ce n-am vedea un film?)

e.g. How about going in the park? (Ce-ar fi sa mergem in parc?)

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a) Should we go in the park?

b) Must we go in the park?

c) We could go in the park.

d) Can we go in the park?

Prohibition/ Interdictie

- Can’t: You can’t wear jeans at the office. (you are not allowed to) (Nu poti/ nu ai voie sa porti jeansi la birou.)

- Mustn’t: You mustn’t light a match near gas. (it’s forbidden = este interzis) (Nu ai voie/ e interzis sa aprinzi un chibrit lianga
gaz.)

- May not: You may not cheat during the exam. f(ormal) (Nu aveti voie sa copiati in timpul examenelor.)

- Could not (past): We couldn’t go because we were too young. (Nu am avut voie sa ne ducem pentru ca eram prea tineri.)

e.g. Pupils ... during exams. (Elevii nu au voie sa copieze in timpul examenelor.)

a) shan’t cheat b) mustn’t cheat c) oughtn’t cheat d) may cheat

Reproach/ Repros

- Might have +vb. III/-ed: You might have told me the party started earlier. (Ai fi putut sa imi spui ca petrecerea a inceput mai
devreme.)

- Could have +vb. III/-ed: You could have told me the party started earlier. (Ai fi putut sa imi spui ca petrecerea a inceput mai
devreme.)

e.g. She ... me that my boyfriend was cheating on me since she was my best friend.

(Ar fi putut sa imi spuna ca prietenul meu ma insela din moment ce era peietena mea ce mai buna.)

a) must have told b) may have told me c) should have telld) might have told

Habit/ Obicei

- in the present - Will: She will break things all the time. (=she is in the habit of + vb.-ing) (Are obiceiul sa strice lucruri tot timpul.)

- in the past - Would: He would bring flowers every day. (= he used to) (Obisnuia sa aduca flori in fiecare zi.)

e.g. They are in the habit of going to parties.(Ei au obiceiul sa meraga la petreceri.)

a) They would go to parties.

b) They will go to parties.

c) They shall go to parties.

d) They can go to parties.

We used to ride in the park when we had horses. (Obisnuiam sa calarim in parc atunci cand aveam cai.)

a) We would ride in the park when we had horses.

b) We could ride in the park when we had horses.

c) We should ride in the park when we had horses.

d) We will ride in the park when we had horses.

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Moral duty/ datorie morala

-Ought to: Children ought to listen to their parents. (Copiii trebuie sa asculte de parintii lor.)

Assumptions/ Presupuneri

-Will (must/ should) (in the present):

The telephone rings: - That'll be Frank./ That must be Frank./ That should be Frank./That could be Frank./ That might be Frank./
That may be Frank.

(Suna telefonul: trebuie sa fie Frank.)

-Would have + vb.III/-ed (in the past):

Someone was here an hour ago. (A fost cineva aici acum o ora.)

That would have been Sally. (Trebuie sa fi fost Sally.)

Willingness/ Vointa

- Will (present): The doctor will see you in a minute. (Doctorul va va vedea intr-un minut.)

- Would (past): He said he would help us. (El a spus ca ne va ajuta.)

Typical action/ Actiune tipica

- Would: It's typical of her to lie. => She would lie. (E tipic pentru ea sa minta.)

Refusal/ Refuz

-Won’t (present): The car won’t start. (Masina nu vrea sa porneasca.)

-Wouldn’t (past): He said he wouldn’t do it for me. (El a spus ca nu vrea sa faca asta pentru mine.)

e.g. He refused to help me. (El a refuzat sa ma ajute.)

a) He won’t help me

b) He can’t help you.

c) He wouldn’t help me.

d) He couldn’t help me.

Threat/ Amenintare

- Shall (2nd and 3rd person pronouns): You shall be sorry. (O sa iti para rau.)

e.g. You ... sorry if you don’t obey me. (O sa iti para rau daca nu ma asculti.)

a) will be b) may be c) should be d) shall be

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Rules and regulations; orders and instructions/ Reguli, ordine si instructii

- Shall: The referee’s decision shall be final. (Decizia arbitrului este finala.)

e.g. You ... kill! That is one of God’s commandments. (Nu ai voie sa ucizi! Aceasta este una din poruncile lui Dumnezeu.)

a) will not b) shall not c) cannot d) may not

Surprise/ Surpriza

- Should: se foloseste idiomatic cu "who", "where", "what" in expresii care exprima surpriza: (trebuie sa avem o
INVERSIUNE)

e.g. I open the door and who should I see but Tom. (Am deschis usa si pe cine vad, pe Tom.)

e.g. And in the middle of the forest … come across but this enormous bear. (Si in mijlocul padurii peste ce dau, peste
ursul asta enorm.)

a) what I should

b) what should I

c) what I might

d) what might I

Irony/ Ironia

- Might have + known/ imagined/ thought/ realized + S + WOULD (se foloseste cand vrem sa exprimam in mod ironic
actiuni tipice)

e.g. I might have known that he would tell a lie. (Ar fi trebuit sa stiu ca va spune o minciuna.)

Urmatoarele expresii se pot reformula cu verbele modalemay (daca avem prezent) si might (daca avem trecut):

Although I try hard => Try as I may (Desi incerc din greu => Oricat incerc)

Although I tried hard => Try as I might (Desi am incercat din greu => Oricat am incercat)

e.g. Although I tried hard, I couldn't smile. (Desi am incercat din greu, nu am putut sa zambesc.)

a) Try as I might, I couldn't smile.

b) Try as I may, I couldn't smile.

c) Try as I could, I couldn't smile.

d) Try as I should, I couldn't smile.

It would be all the same => May (as) well/ Might (as) well (Imi este egal/ Tot aia e)

e.g. It would be all the same if you left. => You might as well stay. (Poti la fel de bine sa stay.)

To be sure/ to be certain => to be bound to (E sigur sa se intample)

e.g. It’s sure to rain tomorrow. (E sigur ca va ploua maine.)

a) It’s bound to rain

b) It may rain tomorrow.

c) It must rain tomorrow.

d) It should rain tomorrow.


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!!! ATENTIE: SHOULD se foloseste in fata verbelor de gandire - think, imagine, believe, etc.

e.g. I should imagine she is very rich. (Imi imaginez ca ea este foarte bogata.)

!!! ATENTIE: may/ might se folosesc in Concesive:

e.g. Although she is nice, I don't like her. => She may be nice, but I don't like her. (Desi este draguta, nu o plac.)

She ... your mother, but this doesn’t mean she can order you when you are 40.(O fi ea mama ta, dar asta nu inseamna ca
poate sa iti ordone cand ai 40 de ani.)

a) can be b) will be c) may be d) must be

16. The Article


I. The Indefinite Article: A/ AN (Articolul nehotarat)

A este folosit:

- inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu oconsoana: e.g. a book (o carte)

- inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu sunetul [ju]: e.g. a uniform (o uniforma)/ a university (o universitate)/ a U.F.O. (un OZN)/ a
European committee (un comitet european)

- inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu un diftong: e.g. a year (un an)

An este folosit:

- inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu o vocala: e.g. an apple (un mar)

- inaintea cuvintelor care incep cu “h” mut: e.g. an hour (o ora)/ an heir (un mostenitor)/ an heiress (o mostenitoare)/ an honour
(o onoare)

- inaintea literelor si numerelor pronuntate sau scrise cu o vocala: e.g. an M [em] (un m), an N [en] (un n), an S [es] (un s), an 8
(eight) (un opt)

FOLOSIRE:

1. se foloseste cu substantive numarabile la singular:

e.g. a coat (o haina)

2. articolul nehotarat, a/an, se foloseste pentru a introduce un element nou dupa care se foloseste articolul hotarat,
the:

e.g. A boy and a girl were waiting at the door. The boy was smiling while the girl looked nervous.

(Un baiata si o fata asteptau la usa. Baiatul zambea in timp ce fata arata nervoasa.)

3. folosit cu sensul de “one”, “any”, “it doesn’t matter which” (unul/ una, oricare, nu conteaza care):

e.g. My sister has a black dress. (Sora mea are o rochie neagra.)

4. folosit cu sensul de “a certain” (un anumit/ o anumita):

e.g. A Mr. James is asking about you. (Un {oarecare} domn James intreaba de tine.)

5. folosit cu sensul de “the same” (acelasi):

e.g. Birds of a feather flock together./ We are of an age. (Cine se aseamana se aduna./ Noi avem aceeasi varsta.)

6. folosit pentru a exprima un exemplu dintr-o clasa de lucruri:

e.g. An elephant never forgets. (Un elefant nu uita niciodata.)

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7. folosit pentru a exprima masuratori:

e.g. a hundred (o suta), a thousand (o mie), a minute (un minut), a mile (o mila), a couple (o pereche), a score (un grup de
20)

8. folosit dupa “not”:

e.g. not a word (nici un cuvant), not a trace (nici o urma), not a thought (nici un gand)

9. folosit in expresii:

e.g. one at a time (unul odata), at a draught = in one gulp (dintr-o inghititura)

10. flosit pentru a exprima distributie:

e.g. once a month (o data pe luna), twice a year (de doua ori pe an), three times a week (de trei ori pe saptamana), 40 miles
an hour (40 de mile pe ora), 5 euro a kilo (5 euro pe kg)

11. folosit inaintea substantivelor care denota o profesie, nationalitatea, sexul, functia, religia, etc.

e.g. She is a singer. (Ea este o cantareata.)/ He is a man. (El este un barbat.)/ I am an Orthodox. (Sunt Ortodox.)

!!! Dupa verbele “to elect (a alege), to appoint (a desemna), to name (a numi)” se foloseste articolul zero atunci cand
substantivul denota o functie detinuta de o singura persoana la un moment dat:

e.g. He was appointed president of the company. (El a fost numit presedintele companiei.)

!!! Dupa verbul “to turn (a deveni) ” se foloseste articolul zero:

e.g. She started out as a teacher, but turned dancer. (Ea a inceput ca profesoara, dar [si-a schimbat meseria si] s-a facut/ a
devenit dansatoare.)

12. se foloseste in fata lui “few” si “little” care obtin un inteles pozitiv:

e.g. Few (folosit cu substantive numarabile) pupils (insemnand nu multi) want to learn more nowadays. (Putini elevi vor sa
invete mai mult in zilele noastre.)

Quite a few pupils (many pupils) want to study to become doctors nowadays. (Chiar multi elevi vor sa invete ca sa
devina doctori in zilele noastre.)

Little (folosit cu substantive nenumarabile - inseamnand nu mult) is known about UFOs. (Nu mult/ Putin este stiut despre
O.Z.N.-euri.)

I know a little (mult/ destul) about what happened that night. (Stiu ceva despre ce s-a intamplat in acea noapte.)

13. folosit cu “quite” si “rather” + a/an +adj. + substantiv

e.g. She is quite a nice person. (Ea chiar este o persoana draguta.) / It is rather a bad idea. (Este o idee cam rea.)

14. folosit in urmatoarele constructii: a lot of (o multime de)/ a plethora of/ a flurry of/ a wealth of/ a great deal of/ an
amount of/ a great many + noun plural/ many a + noun singular ( toate inseamana o multime de)

e.g. She has a plethora of friends/ a lot of friends/ many a friend/ a great many friends. = Ea are multi prieteni.

II. The Definite Article: THE (Articolul hotarat)


FOLOSIRE:

Articolul hotarat este folosit:

1. inaintea unui substantiv care a fost introdus cu a/ an initial:

e.g. Mary has bought a puppy. The puppy is black. (Mary a cumparat un catelus. Catelusul este negru.)

2. inaintea unui substantiv care este vazut ca unic sau nume de cladiri, monumente sau locuri asociate cu ideea
de unicitate (acestea includ si referirile istorice):

e.g. the Sun (soarele), the Earth (Pamantul), the Moon (luna), the air (aerul), the Bible (Biblia), the Lord (Dumnezeu),
the universe (universul), the Milky Way (Calea Lactee), the French Revolution (Revolutia franceza), the Second World
War (BUT: World War II) (Al doilea Razboi Mondial),the Ice Age (Epoca de Gheata), the Renaissance

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(Renasterea), the Sphinx (Sfinxul), the Acropolis, the Taj Mahal, the equator (ecuatorul), the Anctartic (Anctartica), the
South (Sudul), the North (Nordul), etc.

3. inaintea lui “one (unul), other (altul), rest (restul), last (ultimul), first (primul), only (singurul), next
(urmatorul)”:

e.g. Leave the new ones here, but bring the rest with you. (Lasa-le pe cele noi aici, dar adu-le pe restul cu tine.)

The first to enter the room was Tom. (Primul care a intrat in camera a fost Tom.)

4. inaintea adjectivelor la gradul superlativ relativ:

e.g. She was by far the best at English. (Ea este de departe cea mai buna la engleza.)

5. inaintea numeralelor ordinale:

e.g. The second thing we did was eat. (Al doilea lucru pe care l-am facut a fost sa manancam.)

6. inaintea numelor de vapoare, trenuri si avioane:

e.g. the Queen Mary, the Titanic, the Orient Express, the Comet

7. inaintea numelor de ziare si reviste:

e.g. the Sun, the Times, the Guardian BUT: Time

8. inaintea numelor de teatre, muzee, opere, cinematografe, cluburi, hoteluri, galerii de arta:

e.g. The Odeon, The British Museum, the Tate (Gallery), The Patria, the Ritz Hotel, etc.

9. inaintea denumirilor geografice de:

- oceane, mari, rauri, canale, lacuri care il au pe OF in denumire, golfuri care il au pe OF in denumire:

e.g. the Atlantic Ocean (Oceanul Atlantic), the Black Sea (Marea Neagra), the Danube (Dunarea), the Suez Canal
(Canalul Suez), the Lake of Constance (lacul Constanta)

- deserturi:

e.g. the Sahara (Sahara), the Gobi Desert (desertul Gobi)

- lanturi muntoase (DAR NU DENUMIRILE DE MUNTI INDIVIDUALI: e.g. Mount Everest - Muntele Everest):

e.g. the Pyrenees, the Alps, the Himalayas, the Carpathians, the Rocky Mountains

!!!!!!! EXCEPTII PENTRU MUNTI INDIVIDUALI: THE MATTERHORN, THE JUNGFRAU

- groupuri de insule (DAR NU DENUMIRILE PENTRU O SINGURA INSULA: e.g. Easter Island - Insula Pastelui):

e.g. the Bahamas, the Caribbean, the Orkney Islands, etc.

- stramtorile:

e.g. the Bering Strait (Stramtoarea Bering), the Bosphorus Strait (Stramtoarea Bosfor), the Strait of Gibraltar
(Stramtoarea Gibraltar), etc.

- paduri

e.g. the Black Forest (Padurea Neagra), the Coronado National Forest, etc.

- nume de tari la plural, nume de tari care il au pe OF in denumire si uniuni de state mai mici:

e.g. The Netherlands (Olanda), The Republic of Indonesia (Republica Indonezia), The United States of America
(Statele Unite ale Americii)

- unele nume de tari si orase:

e.g. The Sudan (Sudanul), The Congo (Congo), The Argentine (Republic) (Argentina), The Vatican (Vaticanul),
The Hague (Haga)

10. inaintea instrumentelor muzicale si dansurilor:

e.g. to play the clarinet/ the piano/ the harp (A canta la clarinet/ pian/ harpa)

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to dance the tango/ the rumba/ the waltz (a dansa tango/ rumba/ vals)

11. inaintea substantivelor la singular pentru a exprima ceva in general despre o specie:

e.g. The rose is a beautiful flower. (Trandafirul este o floare frumoasa.)

12. inaintea adjectivelor folosite ca substantive:

e.g. The rich should help the poor. (Bogatii ar trebui sa ii ajute pe saraci.)

13. inaintea numelor de familie pentru a se referi la intreaga familie - numele de familie trebuie sa primeasca un
-s la final:

e.g. The Browns are very rich. (Familia Brown este foarte bogata.)

14. inaintea numelor de limbi pentru a denumi o nationalitate + s la final sau inaintea nationalitatilor care se
termina in –sh, -ch si –ese:

e.g. The Romanians (romanii), the Russians (rusii), the Welsh (galezii), the Dutch (olandezii), the Chinese (chinezii)

15. inaintea titlurilor (DAR NU DACA UN NUME PROPRIU ESTE FOLOSIT DUPA TITLU: e.g. Queen Mary (regina
Maria), King John (Regele John), President Regan (Presedintele Regan), Professor Brown (Profesorul Brown)):

e.g. the King (Regele), the Queen (Regina), the President (Presedintele), the Prince of Wales (Printul de Wales)

16. !!!!! in constructii cu OF:

e.g. the top of the mountain (varful muntelui), the edge of the cliffs (marginea stancilor)

17. dupa prepozitii:

e.g. in the house (in casa), at the table (la masa), to the cinema/ theatre (la cinema/ teatru), in the sky (pe cer), at the
radio (la radio), in the village (in sat), in the morning (dimineata), etc.

DAR NU: on TV (la televizor), at sea (pe mare), at work (la munca), at home (acasa), at dawn (in zori), at dusk (la
apus), at noon (la pranz), at night (noaptea), at midnight (la miezul noptii), by day/ night (ziua/ noaptea), at 5 o’clock (la 5
fix), on holiday (in vacanta), by car/ bus/ train (cu masina/ trenul/ autobuzul), on foot (pe jos)

18. INAINTEA ORICARUI SUBSTANTIV ATUNCI CAND VREM SA IL PARTICULARIZAM:

e.g. This is the Jane I told you about. (Aceasta este acea Jane de care ti-am spus.) - DAR:Jane is nice. (Jane este
draguta.)

The lunch I had with you was very good. (Pranzul pe care l-am luat cu tine a fost foarte bun.) - DAR;Lunch is my
favourite meaL. (Pranzul este masa mea preferata.)

NOTA: "THE" ESTE OPTIONAL CU DENUMIRILE DE ANOTIMPURI: summer/ the summer (vara)

e.g. I was at the seaside in (the) summer. (Am fost la mare vara.)

III. The Zero Article (Articolul zero)


FOLOSIRE:

Articolul zero este folosit:

1. daca substantivul denota un titlu sau o functie detinuta de o singura persoana la un moment dat:

E.g. James Thompson was chairman of the Committee. (James Thompson era presedintele comitetului.)

2. dupa substantivele “rank (rang)” and “title (titlu)” si dupa “to turn”(a deveni), “to elect (a alege)”, "to
appoint (a desemna)", "to name (a numi)"

e.g. He gained the rank of captain. (El a castigat rangul de capitan.)

I used to be a teacher, but then I turned interior designer. (Obisnuiam sa fiu profesor, dar pe urma am devenit
designer de interioare.)

3. cand substantivul denota o relatie si accentul se pune pe pozitia sociala:

e.g. She was daughter of the PM. (Ea era fiica Primului Ministru.)
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James Smith, father of twins, was here today. (James Smith, tata de gemeni, a fost aici azi.)

4. in subordonate concesive dupa “though” si “as” (Substantiv + THOUGH/ AS + S + P = desi ...):

e.g. Child though she was, she knew a lot of things. (Desi era copil, stia multe lucruri.)

5. cu substantivele “man” si “woman” luate in general:

e.g. Man is mortal. (Omul este muritor.)

6. cu : father (tata), mother (mama), aunt (matusa), uncle (unchi), grandmother (bunica), grandfather (bunic),
cook (bucatar) folosite ca nume proprii:

e.g. Where is Father? (Unde este Tata?)

7. cu nume de institutii ca: Congress, Convocation, Parliament:

e.g. Parliament is in session. (Parlamentul este in sesiune.)

8. cu substantive colective ca “humanity (umanitate), mankind (omenire), posterity (posteritate), society


(societate)”:

e.g. Mankind is on the brink of destruction. (Omenirea este pe punctul sa fie distrusa.)

9. in expresii:

e.g. by hand (de mana), at hand (la indemana), on foot (pe jos), from head to foot (din cap pana in picioare),
from top to toe (din cap pana in picioare), by chance (din intamplare), by mistake (din greseala), at present (in
prezent), at first sight (la prima vedere), for ages (de veacuri), hand in hand (mana in mana), day by day (zi de zi),
arm in arm (brat la brat), from cover to cover (din scoarta in scoarta), from corner to corner (din colt in colt), face
to face (fata in fata), from dawn to dusk (din zori pana la asfintit), from beginning to end (de la inceput pana la
sfarsit), from right to left (de la dreapta la stanga), from west to north (de la vest la nord), husband and wife (sot si
sotie), cheek to cheek (obraz langa obraz), on deck (pe punte) etc.

10. in constructia nominativala absoluta (sta intre virgule si este o apozitie):

e.g. He entered the room with the cigar in the mouth, looking very displeased. (El a intrat in camera cu trabucul in
gura, aratand foarte nemultumit.) =>

He entered the room, cigar in mouth, looking very displeased. (El a intrat in camera, trabuc in gura, aratand
foarte nemultumit.)

11. inaintea substantivelor abstracte si a substantivelor nenumarabile la singular folosite cu sens general:

e.g. Love is wonderful when there is still hope. (Dragostea este minunata cand mai este inca speranta.)

Chinese literature can be fascinating. (Literatura chineza poate sa fie fascinanta.)

Advice is not always welcome. (Sfaturile nu sunt intotdeauna binevenite.)

12. cu substantive concrete la plural folosite cu sens general:

e.g. Cats hate water. (Pisicile urasc apa.)

Lions live in prides. (Leii traiesc in grupuri.)

13. cu nume proprii. DACA numele proprii au adjective descriptive in fata cu care formeaza o unitate compactaold
(batran), young (tanar), dear (drag), poor (sarac), honest (onest) atunci se pune tot articolul zero: :

e.g. I know George from school. (Il stiu pe George din scoala.)

Poor, old John always talks too much. (Saracul batranul John intotdeauna vorbeste prea mult.)

14. daca numele propriu este precedat de un titlu:

e.g. Professor Smith will replace Dean Mitchel. (Profesorul Smith il va inlocui pe decanul Mitchel.)

15. cu nume de universitati si colegii:

e.g. Oxford University, Harvard University, Trinity College

DAR: The University of London (daca au OF in denumire se foloseste THE)

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16. cu nume de jocuri:

e.g. to play tennis/ football/ volleyball (a juca tenis/ fotbal/ volei)

17. cu nume de limbi:

e.g. English (engleza), French (franceza), Spanish (spaniola)

DAR DACA SUNT URMATE DE CUVANTUL LANGUAGE ATUNCI SE FOLOSESTE THE IN FATA: the English
language (limba engleza)

18. cu nume de culori:

e.g. My favourite colour is red. (Culoarea mea preferata este rosu.)

19. cu nume de sarbatori:

e.g. Easter (Paste), Christmas (Craciun)

20. cu mesele zilei, zilele saptamanii si lunile anului:

e.g. We always have lunch together on Monday. (Noi intotdeauna luam pranzul impreuna lunea.)

May is a wonderful month to get married. (Mai este o luna minunata in care sa te casatoresti.)

21. cu anumite denumiri geografice:

- continente, tari, regiuni/ judete, orase chiar daca au adjective in fata:

e.g. (eastern) Europe (Europa - de Est), (central) France (Franta - Centrala), Kent, London (Londra)

EXCEPTII: The Sudan, The Congo, The Vatican, The Argentine (Republic), The Hague, The Netrerlands, The
Republic of Indonesia, The Bronx

- Nume de munti individuali si insule individuale:

e.g. Elbrus, Vesuvius, Mont Blanc, Everest, Cyprus, Rhodes, Corfu, Easter Island, Hawaii

EXCEPTII: The Matterhorn, The Jungfrau, The Mount of Olives

- Nume de lacuri si golfuri:

e.g. Lake Ontario, Lake Superior, Loch Lamond (Loch = Lake), Hudson Bay (Golful Hudson)

DAR: The Lake of Constance pentru ca include OF in combinatie

- Nume de strazi, parcuri si piete (!!! daca sunt dintr-o tara straina atunci primesc THE: e.g. The Rue de Rivoli in
Paris):

e.g. Oxford Street, Pall Mall, Hyde Park, Russell Square, Washington Square

EXCEPTIi: The High Street, The Strand

- Nume de poduri si gari:

e.g. Tower Bridge, Waterloo Bridge, Victoria Station

EXCEPTII PENTRU PODURI: The Golden Gate Bridge, The Severn Bridge

22. cu numere de autobuze, porti si capitole de carti:

e.g. I have to take bus 23. (Trebuie sa iau autobuzul numarul 23.)

Please procede to gate 4. (Va rog mergeti la poarta 4.)

I am at chapter 3 of the book. (Sunt la capitolul 3 din carte.)

23. atunci cand cuvintele: bed (pat), church (biserica), college (colegiu), university (universitate), school
(scoala), court (judecatorie), hospital (spital), prison (inchisoare), sea (mare) sunt folosite cu scopul pentru care au
fost create se foloseste Articolul Zero.

e.g. He went to prison. (because he had committed a crime) (El a mers la inchisoare/ a fost inchis - pentru ca a comis
o crima.)

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He goes to church on Sundays to pray. (El se duce la biserica duminicile ca sa se roage.)

My mother is very sick, so we are taking herto hospital. (Mama mea este foarte bolnava asa ca o ducem la
spital.)

We are going to bed because we are tired. (Noi ne ducem la culcare pentru ca suntem obositi.)

He is at sea. (because he is a sailor.) (El este pe mare/ navigheaza pe mare. - pentru ca este marinar)

DAR daca punem THE in fata acestor cuvinte, inseamna ca ele suntfolosite cu alt scop decat cel initial:

e.g. She went to the prison to visit her husband. ( who was there because he had committed a crime)(Ea s-a dus la
inchisoare sa il viziteze pe sotul ei - care era acolo pentru ca a comis o crima.)

He goes to the church on Monday to talk with the priest. (El se duce la biserica lunea ca sa vorbeasca cu preotul.)

We are going to the hospital to visit our mother who is there because she is sick. (Noi ne ducem la spital sa o
vizitam pe mama noastra care este acolo pentru ca este bolnava.)

I am going to the bed to get the coat on it and then we can leave. (Ma duc pana la pat sa iau haina de pe el si pe
urma putem pleca.)

We are going to the sea(side) as tourists. (Noi ne ducem la mare ca turisti.)

24. cu boli atat articolul zero cat si articolul hotarat sunt folosite:

e.g. She has flu/ the flu. (Ea are gripa.)

DAR: He’s got pneumonia./ He's got malaria. (El are pneumonie./ El are malarie.)

Articolul nehotarat este folosit in expresii ca:

e.g. to have a cough (a avea o tuse)/ a headache (o durere de cap)/ a sore throat (un gat dureros)

exista cazuri cand articolul nehotarat se poate folosi sau omite:

e.g. to catch (a) cold (a raci), to have (a) toothache (a avea o durere de dinti), to have (a) stomach-ache (a durea
stimacul) , to have (a) backache (a avea o durere de spate)

Articolul hotarat este folosit cu: THE PLAGUE (ciuma)

Nu se foloseste articol cu nume de boli ca: measles (pojar), mumps (oreion), shingles (zona zoster), high blood
pressure (tensiune), gout (guta), hepatitis (hepatita), influenza (gripa), rheumatism (reumatism).

25. cu nume de puburi, restaurante, magazine, banci si hoteluri care au numele fondatorului in ele (nume
propriu) sau numele unui loc in ele sau se termina in –s sau –‘s se foloseste articoulu zero:

e.g. Jim’s Cafe, Harrods, Lloyds Bank, Glasgow Airport, Edinburgh Castle, Windsor Castle

DAR daca denumirea nu are nume propriu in ea atunci se foloseste articolul hotarat in fata:

e.g. The Puss in Boots (pub) (Motanul Incaltat)

The Prancing Pony (inn = han) (Poneiul in Doua Picioare)/ The Inn of the Prancing Pony (Hanul Poneiul in
Doua Picioare)

... Prancing Pony was ... inn in ... village of Bree, where ... Frodo and his friends first met ... Strider.

a) The/ an/ the/ -/ -

(The Prancing Pony pt. ca este nume de han care nu are nume propriu in el/an pt. ca vorbim de han pentru prima oara
si cuvantul INN (han) incepe cu o vocala/ the pentru ca avem OF in constructie/ si zero pentru Frodo si Strider pt. ca
sunt nume proprii)

b) -/ the/ the/ the/ the

c) The/ an/ -/ -/ the

d) -/ a/ the/ -/ -

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17.00 The Noun
17.01 The plural of countable nouns

17.02 Uncountable nouns in the singular

17.03 Uncountable nouns in the plural

17.04 The gender and case of nouns

17.01 The plural of countable nouns


Pluralul substantivelor numarabile se formeaza adaugand -s la final:

dog (caine) – dogs (caini)

cat ( pisica) - cats (pisici)

flower (floare) - flowers (flori)

Substantivele numarabile se folosesc cu: few/ many/ some/ a lot of/ lots of

e.g. I have many cats. (Am multe pisici.)

Diferenta dinte FEW si A FEW:

few inseamna ca nu ai de ajuns, apropape ca nu ai nimic: I havefew freinds, so that's why I am lonely. (Am putini prieteni,
de aceea sunt singur.)

a few inseamna ca ai de ajuns, ai mult: I havea few friends, so I can't complain. (Am ceva prieteni/ destui prieteni, asa ca
nu ma pot plange.)

Ortografia pluralului:
Daca substantivul se termina in -s, -ss, -z, -zz, -sh, -ch, -x atunci se adauga -es:

bus (autobuz) – buses, kiss (sarut) – kisses, box (cutie) – boxes, bush (tufa) - bushes, church (biserica) - churches

Daca substantivul se termina in -o precedat de o vocala atunci se adauga -s:

radio (radio) – radios, embryo (embrion) - embryos

Daca substantivul se termina in -o precedat de o consoana atunci se adauga -es:

potato (cartof)– potatoes, tomato (rosie) - tomatoes, Negro (negru)– Negroes

!!! EXCEPTII: grotto (grota) – grottos, proviso(s) (clauza), canto(s) (canto), tango(s) (tango), tabacco(s) (tutun), memento(s)
(amintire), piano(s) (pian), solo(s) (solo), soprano(s) (soprana), concerto(s) (concert)

!!! ATENTIE: abrevierile terminate in -o adauga -s indiferent de ce litera este inaintea lui -o: photograph (fotografie) – photo
– photos, kilogram (kilogram) – kilo - kilos

Daca substantivul se termina in -f(e) atunci f se schimba in v si adauga -es:

wife (sotie) – wives, wolf (lup) – wolves, life (viata) - lives

!!! EXCEPTII: roof (acoperis)– roofs, chief (sef) - chiefs, belief (credinta) - beliefs, cliff (stanca) - cliffs, proof (dovada) -
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proofs, safe (seif) - safes, strife (incaierare) - strifes, fife (flaut mic) - fifes, still life - still lifes (natura moarta – in tablouri)

!!! ATENTIE: unele substantive care se termina in -f(e) pot face pluralul atat in -ves cat si in –s:

Wharf – wharves/wharfs (debarcader)

Hoof – hooves/hoofs (copita)

Scarf – scarves/scarfs (esarfa)

Staff – staves/staffs (toiag)

Handkerchief – handkerchieves/handkerchiefs (batista)

Dwarf – dwarves/dwarfs (pitic)

Daca substantivul se termina in -y precedat de vocala atunci se adauga -s:

boy (baiat)– boys, toy (jucarie) - toys

Daca substantivul se termina in -y precedat de o consoana atunci y se schimba in i si adauga -es:

puppy (catelus)– puppies, daisy (margareta) - daisies

!!! ATENTIE: numele proprii primesc un -s chiar daca -y este precedat de o consoana: Mary – Marys

!!! ATENTIE: daca substantivul se termina in -quy acesta se transforma in -quies: e.g. colloquy (colocviu) - colloquies

Pluralul substantivelor neregulate:

Sg. Pl.

Man (barbat) men (barbati)

Woman (femeie) women (femei)

Tooth (dinte) teeth (dinti)

Foot (picior) feet (picioare)

Goose (gasca) geese (gaste)

Louse (paduche) lice (paduchi)

Mouse (soarece) mice (soareci)

Ox (bou) oxen (boi)

Child (copil) children (copii)

Die (zar) dice (zaruri)

Pluralul zero: pluralul are aceeasi forma ca la singular

Fish (peste) – fish (pesti)

carp ( crap) - carp

trout (pastrav) - trout

pike (stiuca) - pike

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cod (cod) - cod

salmon (somon) - salmon

!!! ATENTIE: daca punem -es la fish -> fishes atunci insemna specii de pesti

Fruit (fruct) – fruit

!!! ATENTIE: daca punem -s la fruit -> fruits atunci inseamna sortimente de fructe

Sheep (oaie) - sheep (oi)

Deer (caprioara) - deer

Swine (porc) - swine

Species (specii) - species

Series (serie) - series

Means (mijloc) - means e.g. A car is a means of transport. (O masina este un mijloc de transport.)

Aircraft (avion) - aircraft

Homework (tema) - homework

Substantive cu doua forme de plural:

Brother (frate) - brothers (frati care au aceeasi mama/ tata)

-brethren (frati intr-o fratie/ membrii intr-o colectivitate)

Cloth (material) - cloths (bucati de material)

-clothes (haine)

Cow (vaca) -cows (vaci)

kine
- (vite)

Penny (peni) - pence (moneda britanica)

pennies
- (monedele individuale)

Staff (personal/ toiag) - staffs (departamente in armata)

- staves (toiage)

PLURALUL SUBSTANTIVELOR DE ORIGINE GREACA SI LATINA:

Sg. Pl.

-us -i

Bacillus (bacil) – bacilli

Cactus (cactus) – cacti/ cactuses

Focus (epicentru) – foci/ focuses

Fungus (ciuperca) - fungi

Radius (raza) – radii

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Terminus (terminal) – termini

Nucleus (nucleu) – nuclei

Stimulus (stimul) – stimuli

Genius (geniu) – genii (spirit)/ geniuses (genii)

DAR: bonus (bonus) – bonuses, virus (virus) - viruses

-on -a

Phenomenon (fenomen) – phenomena

Criterion (criteriu) – criteria

DAR: demon (demon) – demons, neurone (neuron) – neurones, proton (proton) – protons, ganglion (ganglion) - ganglions

-is -es

Analysis (analiza) – analyses

Axis (axa) - axes

Basis (baza) – bases

Crisis (criza) – crises

Diagnosis (diagnostic) - diagnoses

Thesis (teza) – theses

Paranthesis (paranteza) – parantheses

Hypothesis (ipoteza) – hypotheses

-um -a

Addendum (adenda/ adaos) - addenda

Bacterium (bacterie) – bacteria

Datum (data) – data

Medium (mediu) – media

Memorandum (memorandum) - memoranda

Stratum (strat) – strata

Symposium (simpozion) – symposia

DAR: museum (muzeu) – museums, asylum (azil) – asylums, stadium (stadion) - stadiums

-a -ae

Alga (alga) – algae

Larva (larva) – larvae

Formula (formula) – formulae/ formulas

Antenna (antena) – antennae/ antennas

Vertebra (vertebra) – vertebrae/ vertebras

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DAR: arena (arena) – arenas, dilemma (dilema) – dilemmas, diploma (diploma) – diplomas, encyclopaedia (enciclopedie) –
encyclopaedias, era (era) – eras, retina (retina) – retinas, villa (vila) - villas

-x -ces

Index (index) – indices (indici)/ indexes (tabela de continuturi)

Appendix (apendice) – appendices (apendice in carti)/ appendixes (apendice - anatomie)

Matrix (matrice) – matrices

ALTE SUBSTANTIVE: genus (gen) – genera, stamen (energie) – stamena

Italian: bandit – banditti/ bandits, virtuoso – virtuosi/ virtuoso, confetto - confetti

French: beau (barbat) – beaux, bureau (birou) - bureaux

Pluralul substantivelor compuse:

Pluralul in primul element:

Adaugam –s la cuvantul principal care primeste intrebarea "ce fel de?":

e.g.mother-in-law - mothers-in-law (soacra - soacre)

father-in-law - fathers-in-law (socru - socrii)

man-of-war - men-of-war (vas de razboi/ nava militara)

court-martial - courts-martial (curte martiala)

Plural in ambele elemente:

Knight-Templar - Knights-Templars (cavaler templier)

Lord Lieutenant - Lords Lieutenants (guvernator)

Lord Chancellor - Lords Chancellors (cancelar)

Lord Justice - Lords Justices (judecator)

Plural in elementul final:

step-son - step-sons (fiu vitreg)

fountain pen – fountain pens (stilou)

workman – workmen (muncitor)

footstep – footsteps (urma)

goldsmith – goldsmiths (aurar)

trade-union - trade-unions (sindicat)

boyfriend - boyfriends (prieten)

attorney-general - attorney-generals (procuror)

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Substantive compuse care primesc –s la final:

Merry-go-round – merry-go-rounds (calusei)

Forget-me-not – forget-me-nots (floare de nu ma uita)

Gin-and-tonic - gin-and-tonics (bautura alcolica)

Grown-up – grown-ups (adult)

Close-up - close-ups (cadru)

Take-off - take-offs (decolare)

On-looker – on-lookers (privitor)

Frying pan – frying pans (tigaie)

Castaway - castaways (exilat)

Handful – handfuls (mana plina)

Spoonful - spoonfuls (lingura plina)

Touchdown – touchdowns (atingere)

Breakdown – breakdowns (cadere nervoasa)

!!! Passer-by – passers-by (trecator)

Pluralul substantivelor compuse cu –MAN si –WOMAN:

(se pune plural in ambele elemente atunci cand man si woman indica genul)

Woman doctor –> women doctors (doctorita)

Man doctor –> men doctors (doctor)

Manservant –> menservants (servitor)

Woman servant –> women servants (servitoare)

Woman-cook –> women-cooks (bucatareasa)

Man-cook -> men - cooks (bucatar)

DAR: man-eater (canibal) - man-eaters/ woman hater (misogin) – woman haters (man si woman aici nu indica genul)

-man -> -men/ -woman -> -women:

Postman – postmen (postas)

Fireman – firemen (pompier)

Gentleman – gentlemen (domn)

Policewoman -> policewomen (politista)

Daca avem un titlu urmat de nume pluralul se poate pune si la titlu si la nume:

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The Misses Brown / the Miss Browns (Domnisoarele Brown)

Pluralul abrevierilor, numerelor si literelor alfabetului:


Dot your i’s (pune punctele pe i-uri)

Two and’s too many (ai doi de "si")

Cancel your 4’s (anuleaza cifrele patru)

In the 1990s (in anii 90)

Bro. (brother) – bros. (brothers)

Dr. (doctor) – drs. (doctors)

Lb. (pound) – lbs. (pounds)

Ms. (manuscript) – mss. (manuscripts)

M.P. (Member of Parliament) – MP’s or MPs (members)

PhD (doctor) – PhD’s or PhDs (doctors)

Substantive cu sensuri diferite la plural si singular:

Air (aer) – airs (infumurare): to put on airs (a-si da aere/ a fi infumurat)

Compass (compas) – compasses (busole)

Copper (cupru) – coppers (banuti din cupru)

Force (forta/ putere) – forces (armata)

Good (beneficiu) – goods (bunuri)

Return (intoarcere) – returns (statistici)

Substantive cu doua sensuri la plural:

Colour (culoare) – colours (culori/ steagul unui regiment)

Custom (obicei) – customs (obiceiuri/ vama)

Effect (efect/ rezultat) – effects (rezultate/ bunuri)

Glass (pahar) – glasses (pahare/ ochelari)

Scale (scala) – scales (scale/ cantar)

Paper (hartie) – papers (hartii/ documente)

Wood (lemn) – woods (lemne/ padure)

Work (munca) – works (opere de arta/ fabrica)

Rain (ploaie) – rains (anotimp ploios/ ploi)

Experience (experienta) – experiences (experiente/ aventuri)

Minute (minut) - minutes (minute/ notite)


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Spirit (spirit) - spirits (spirite/ bauturi alcolice)

Substantive cu doua sensuri la singular:

Abuse (wrong use/ reproaches) – abuses (wrong uses)

Foot (part of the body/ infantry) – feet (parts of the body)

Horse (cavalry/ a quadruped) – horses (quadrupeds)

People (a nation/ persons) – peoples (nations)

17.02 Uncountable nouns in the singular


Substantivele nenumarabile la singular au urmatoarele caracteristici:

- NU SE NUMARA si NU PRIMESC -S la plural:

e.g. an information, two informations, three informations

- Au forma invariabila si DACA vrem sa le numaram folosim un partitiv care se numara in locul substantivului:

e.g. information (informatii in general) -> I need information from you. (Am nevoie de informatie de la tine.)

a piece of information (o informatie)

two pieces of information (doua informatii) -> I have two pieces of information for you. (Am doua informatii pentru tine.)/ I
have two informations -> NU SE POATE

three pieces of information (trei informatii)

ATENTIE: a piece of (o bucata de) este un partitiv care se foloseste cu foarte multe substantive nenumarabile darexista si alte
partitive specifice pentru anumite substantive care trebuie invatate pe dinafara: e.g. a loaf of bread (o paine), a tuft/ blade of
grass (un fir de iarba), a stretch of road (o bucata de drum), etc.

- Se folosesc numai cu verbul la SINGULAR:

e.g. Money is dirty. (Banii sunt murdari.)

- Sunt inlocuite cu pronumele IT:

e.g. Where is my money? It is in the wallet. (Unde sunt banii mei? Ei sunt in portofel.)

- Se folosesc cu: some/ much/ little:

e.g. I have some information. (Am niste informatii.)

He has much advice to give. (El are multe sfaturi de dat.)

There is little milk left. (Este putin lapte ramas.)

Diferenta dintre LITTLE si A LITTLE:

Cand folosim LITTLE inseamna ca aproape nu mai este deloc sau ca ceva nu este suficient pentru a-l folosi:

e.g. I have little money left, so I can't buy the book. (Am foarte putini bani ramasi/ Nu am suficienti bani ramasi, asa ca nu pot sa
cumpar cartea.)

Cand folosim A LITTLE inseamna ca este destul, suficient pentru a face ceva:

e.g. I have a little money left, so I can buy a car. (Am ceva bani ramasi, asa ca pot sa cumpar o masina.)

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In limba engleza substantivele nenumarabile la singular sunt:

Numele de obiecte de studiu:


economics (economie), physics (fizica), history (istorie), maths (matematica), chemistry (chimie), literature (literatura), etc.

!!! ATENTIE

Substantivele care denumesc nume de stiinte, ocupatii sau arte terminate in –ics

- sunt urmate de verb la singular daca ne referim la ele ca stiinta, ocupatie, arta::

e.g. Economics is a difficult science. (Economia este o stiinta dificila.)

- sunt urmate de verb la plural atunci cand particularizeaza, cand se refera la o aplicatie practica(in acest caz vor avea the,
this, his, her in fata): His mathematics were very bad. (Cunostintele lui de matematica erau foarte proaste.)

Acoustics ... a science which deals with sounds. (Acustica este o stiinta care se ocupa de sunete.)

a) is (este corect sa folosim verb la singular pentru ca acustica este o stiinta aici)

b) are

c) were

d) have been

The acoustics of this room ... very good. (Acustica acestei camere este foarte buna.)

a) is

b) are (este corect sa folosim verb la plural pentru ca aici acustica este particularizata, este vorba doar de acustica
camerei)

c) was

d) has been

Numele de boli:
mumps (oreion), measles (pojar), small-pox (varicela), rickets (rahitism), flu (gripa), pneumonia (pneumonie), chickenpox
(bubat), tuberculosis (tuberculoza), consumption (tuberculoza), etc.

Numele de jocuri:
football, soccer (fotbal), darts, billiards (biliard), dominoes (domino), ninepins (popice), checkers (joc de dame),
backgammon (table), golf, rugby, cricket, etc.

e.g. a game of chess/ a match of football (un joc de sah/ un meci de fotbal)

Limbile:
Spanish, English, French, Japanese, Italian, Chinese, Portuguese, etc.

Mancarea:
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A loaf of bread (o paine -> ATENTIE pluralul de la loaf este loaves: two loaves of bread = doua paini)

A slice of bread (o felie de paine)

A cube/ block of ice (un cub/ bloc de gheata)

A piece/ slice of toast (o bucata/ felie de paine prajita)

A pound of beef/ pork/ mutton (un paund de carne de vita/ carne de porc/ carne de oaie)

A chunk/ roast/ piece of meat (o bucata mare/ friptura/ bucata de carne)

A rasher of bacon (o feliuta de sunca)

A packet of butter (un pachet de unt)

A jar of jam (un borcan de gem)

A slice of cheese (o felie de branza -> ATENTIE cheeses inseamna sortimente de branza)

A bar of chocolate (o ciocolata)

A bowl/ grain of rice (un castron/ bob de orez)

A lump/ pound/ kilogram of sugar (un cub/ pound/ kilogram de zahar)

A pinch of salt (un varf de sare)

A whiff of garlic (o adiere de usturoi)

An ear of corn (un stiulete de porumb)

A pound of flour (un pound de faina)

A packet of biscuits (un pachet de biscuiti)

!!! Atentie: pound-ul este o unitate de masura specific englezeasca echivalentul a0.453 592 37 kilograme

e.g. I have eaten three rashers of bacon and two slices of toast. (Am mancat trei felii de sunca si doua felii de paine
prajita.)

Lichidele si bauturile:

A bottle/glass/ pint/ crate of beer (o sticla/ un pahar/ o halba/ o lada de bere)

A bottle/ glass/ splash of water/liquid (o sticla/ un pahar/ o improscatura de apa/ lichid)

A bucket of water (o galeata de apa)

A drop of blood (o picatura de singe)

A sip/ cup/ pot/ kettle of tea/coffee (o sorbitura/ o ceasca/ o oala/ un ceainic de ceai/ cafea)

A mouthful/ handful/ spoonful/ bucketful of water/ liquid (o gura plina de/ o mana plina de/ o lingura plina de/ o galeata
plina de apa)

A glass/ bottle of wine/ champagne (un pahar/ o sticla de vin/ sampanie DAR wines/champagnes inseamna sortimente de
vinuri si sampanii)

Fenomenele naturii:

A beam of light (o raza de lumina)

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A spell of weather (o vreme)

A clap/ bolt/ roll of thunder (un tunet)

A flash of lightning (un fulger)

A gust of wind (o rafala de vant)

A column/ ribbon/ puff/ wisp of smoke (o coloana/ o panglica/ un puf/ un firicel de fum)

A breath of fresh air (o gura de aer proaspat)

A drop of rain (o picatura de ploaie)

!!! ATENTIE: Nu se pune niciodata A in fata substantivului WEATHER (vreme) What a nice weather we have! dar putem
spune What a spell of nice weather we have! (Ce vreme frumoasa avem!)

Materiale:

A tuft/ blade of grass (un fir de iarba)

A piece/ strip/ acre of land (o bucata/ o fasie/ un acru de pamant)

A stretch of road (o intindere de drum)

A piece/ stick of chalk (o bucata de creta)

A pile of rubbish (o gramada de gunoi)

A block of concrete (un bloc de beton)

A scrap/ sheet/ piece/ pad of paper (o bucatica/ o foaie/ o bucata/ un top de hartie)

A piece of luggage/baggage (un bagaj)

An article of clothing (un articol de imbracaminte)

A tube of toothpaste (un tub de pasta de dinti)

A piece/ set/ an article of furniture (o bucata/ un set/ un articol de mobila)

A piece of equipment (un echipament)

A grain of sand (un bob de nisip)

A stack of hay (o capita de fan)

A ball of string (un ghem de ata)

A lump/ piece of coal (o bucata de carbune)

A bar of soap (o bucata de sapun)

A set of cutlery (un set de tacamuri)

A speck of dust (un fir de praf)

An ounce of gold/ silver (o uncie/ un gram de aur/ argint)

A head/ strand/ lock of hair (un cap/ o fasie/ o bucla de par)

A piece of jewellery (o bijuterie)

Substantive abstracte:

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A(n) piece/ item of news (o stire)

A piece/ word/ bit of advice (un sfat)

A piece/ stroke/ spell of work (o munca)

A burst/ peal/ roar of laughter (o izbucnire de ras)

An attack of nerves (un atac de nervi)

A hint of trouble (o problema)

An attack of fever (un atac de febra)

A course of treatment (un curs de tratament)

An item of business (o afacere)

An ounce of energy (un strop de energie)

A(n) piece/ item of information (o informatie)

A word of abuse (o injuratura)

A piece of evidence (o dovada)

A stroke/ piece of luck (un noroc)

A state of emergency (o stare de urgenta)

A piece/ spot of music (o bucata de muzica)

A wink of sleep (un somn)

A feat of endurance (o rezistenta)

A feat of passion (o pasiune)

A term of imprisonment (un termen de inchisoare)

!!! gallows (spanzuratoare) – se foloseste cu verbul la singular -> The gallows looks menacing. (Spanzuratoarea arata
amentintator.)

17.03 Uncountable nouns in the plural


Substantivele nenumarabile la plural au urmatoarele caracteristici:
- Se folosesc numai cu un verb la plural:

e.g. Your trousers are dirty. (Pantalonii tai sunt murdari.)

- Sunt inlocuite de ponumele THEY:

e.g. Your trousers are dirty. They need washing. (Pantalonii tai sunt murdari. Ei au nevoie sa fie spalati.)

- Daca vrem sa le numaram se foloseste partitivul: a pair of (o pereche de)

e.g. I have bought two pairs of trousers. (Am cumparat doua perechi de pantaloni.)

!!! ATENTIE: nu se pot numara direct:

He has one tongs. -> He has one pair of tongs. (El are un cleste.)

I have three trousers. -> I have three pairs of trousers. (Eu am trei perechi de pantaloni.)

Substantivele nenumarabile la plural sunt:


- substantive care denumesc lucruri formate din doua parti egale unite intre ele:
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breeches (bretele), drawers (lenjerie intima), pantaloons (lenjerie intima), pants (pantaloni/ chiloti), trousers (pantaloni),
overalls (salopeta), shorts (pantaloni scurti), glasses (ochelari), spectacles (ochelari), compasses (compas), scales
(cantar), binoculars (binoclu), tongs (cleste), scissors (foarfeca), shears (foarfeca mare), suspenders (ciorapi cu jartiera/
bretele), pyjamas (pijama), pincers (penseta), tweezers (penseta), pliers (cleste), flannels (lenjerie de flanela), tights
(colanti), braces (bretele) + vb la plural

His scissors ... broken, so he has decided to buy ...scissors. (Foarfeca lui este stricata asa ca a decis sa cumpere doua
foarfece noi.)

a) are/ two new

b) is/ two new pairs of

c) are/ two new pairs of

d) is/ two new

- altele:

Annals (letopiset), arms (arme), alms (pomana), archives (arhiva),ashes (cenusa), bellows (foale), customs (vama),
credentials (recomandari), dregs (sedimente), drys (zat), outskirts (periferie), savings (economii), looks (aspect), premises
(perimetru), clothes (haine), surroundings (imprejurimi), troops (trupe), funds (fonduri), stocks (stalpul rusinii), grafitti,
bowels (intestine), brains (desteptaciune), giblets (maruntaie), amends (compensatie), movables (bunuri mobile), oats
(ovaz), regards (salutari), spirits (bauturi alcolice), slums (mahalale), tropics (tropice), victuals (mancare), banns (of
marriage), contents (continut), cross-roads (intersectie), fireworks (artificii), goods (bunuri), manners (maniere), nuptials
(nunta), odds (sanse), particulars (informatii), headquarters (cartier general), remains (ramasite), spoils (prada de razboi),
valuables (obiecte de valoare), wages (salariu saptamanal), earnings (castiguri), sweepings (resturi), doings (fapte), filings
(pilitura), lodgings (locuinte), going-ons (intamplari), winnings (castiguri), beginnings (inceputuri), tidings (vesti), riches
(bogatii) + vb la plural

- substantive proprii la plural:

The Alps

The Bahamas

The Himalayas

The Pyrenees

The Midlands

The Canaries

The Highlands

The Rockies

The East/West Indies

The U.S.A.

- adjective care arata nationalitatea terminate in –(i)sh, -ch, -ese: British, Irish, Spanish, Welsh, Danish, French, Dutch,
Chinese, Japanese + vb la plural

e.g. The Chinese are a hard-working people. (Chinezii sunt un popor muncitor.)

- substantive colective:

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Police (politie), army (armata), cattle (vite), vermin (daunatori), the clergy (preotii), people (oameni), poultry (pasari de
curte), gentry (nobilime) + vb la plural

e.g. The police ARE coming. (Vine politia.)

The cattle are grazing on the field. (Vitele pasc pe camp.)

These vermin do much harm. (Acesti daunatori fac mult rau.)

- substantive formate din the + adjectiv care exprima o clasa de oameni:

e.g. The young (tinerii), the sick (bolnavii), the poor (saracii), the rich (bogatii), the blind (orbii), the deaf (surzii), the dead
(mortii), etc. + vb la plural

e.g. The rich never understand the poor. (Bogatii nu ii inteleg niciodata pe saraci.)

- substantivele team (echipa), committee (comitet), crew (echipaj), jury (juriu), audience (public), class (clasa), council
(consiliu), crowd (multime), family (familie), government (guvern), press (presa), public (public), staff (personal), etc.

se folosesc cu verb la singular atunci cand vedem grupul ca pe un intreg: The staff works very hard. (Personalul
munceste din greu. -> personalul ca un singur grup)
se folosesc cu verb la plural atunci cand vedem grupul ca indivizi luati fiecare in parte: The staff were given a rise for
Christmas. (Fiecarui membru al personalului i s-a dat o marire de salariu de Craciun.)

Grupurile pot fi numarate cu urmatorii partitivi :

Grupuri de lucruri:

A bunch of grapes (un ciorchine de struguri)

A bouquet of flowers (un buchet de flori)

A pack/ deck of cards (un pachet de carti de joc)

A crate of beer (o lada de bere)

A flight of stairs (un rand de scari)

A clump of trees (un palc de copaci)

A cluster of stars (un manunchi de stele)

A fleet of taxis (o flota de taxiuri)

A fleet of ships (o flota de vapoare)

A bundle of rags (o legatura de carpe)

A string of beads (un sir de margele)

Grupuri de animale:

A gaggle of geese (un card de gaste)


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A plague of locusts (un stol de lacuste)

A pride of lions (un grup de lei)

A colony of ants (un musuroi de furnici)

A swarm of bees (un roi de albine)

A pack of wolves (o haita de lupi)

A pack of hounds/dogs (o haita de caini)

A flock of birds (un stol de pasari)

A flock of sheep (o turma de oi)

A herd of deer/cattle/elephants (o cireada de caprioare/ vite/ elefanti)

A school/shoal of fish (un banc de pesti)

A litter of puppies/ kittens (un grup de catelusi/ pisicute)

A pod of dolphins (un grup de delfini)

A shiver/ frenzy of sharks (un grup de rechini)

A clowder/ glaring of cats (un grup de pisici)

Grupuri de oameni:

A panel of experts (un grup de experti)

A troupe of dancers (o trupa de dansatori)

A staff of teachers (o catedra de profesori)

A bevy of girls (un grup de fete)

A company of actors (o companie de actori)

A gang of thieves (o banda de hoti)

A mob of rioters (o gloata de rasculati)

A board of directors (un consiliu de directori)

A crew of sailors (un echipaj de marinari)

A crowd of people (o multime de oameni)

A tribe of Indians (un trib de indieni)

A desire of suitors (un grup de pretendenti la mana unei femei/ petitori)

17.04 The gender and case of nouns


Genul substantivelor

Limba engleza are trei genuri: masculin (pentru barbati -> he), feminin (pentru femei -> she) si neutru (pentru animale, plante,
lucruri -> it).

Animalele au si ele masculin si feminin pentru mascul si femela, dar mai exista si genul comun folosit pentru un substantiv care

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denumeste atat masculul cat si femela. De exemplu horse (cal) se foloseste si pentru mascul si pentru femela, dar in acelasi
timp pentru mascul avem armasar (stallion/ stud) si pentru femela avem iapa (mare). De asemenea limba engleza are denumiri
diferite pentru puii de animale.

Genul Masculin Feminin Comun Puiul

Stallion/stud (armasar) mare (iapa) horse (cal) colt (m)/filly (f) (manz)

Bull/ox (bou) cow (vaca) cattle (vite) calf (vitel)

Dog (caine) bitch (catea) dog (caine) puppy (catelus)

Tom-cat (motan) Tabby-cat (pisica) cat (pisica) kitten (pisicuta)

Boar (vier) sow (scroafa) pig/ swine (porc) piglet (purcel)

Billy-goat (tap) Nanny-goat (capra) goat (capra) kid (ied)

Ram (berbec) ewe (oaie) sheep (oi) lamb (miel)

Drake (ratoi) duck (rata) duck (rata) duckling (boboc de rata)

Gander (gascan) goose (gasca) goose (gasca) gooseling (boboc de gasca)

Rooster/cock (cocos) hen (gaina) - chicken/ chick (pui)

Cock-pheasant (fazan) hen-pheasant (fazanita) pheasant (fazan) chick (pui de fazan)

Stag (cerb) doe/hind (caprioara) deer (caprioara) fawn (pui de caprioara)

He-wolf (lup) she-wolf (lupoaica) wolf (lup) wolf-cub (pui de lup)

Fox (vulpoi) vixen (vulpe) fox (vulpe) fox-cub (pui de vulpe)

He-bear (urs) she-bear (ursoaica) bear (urs) bear-cub (pui de urs)

Bull-elephant (elefant) cow-elephant (femela elefant) elephant baby-elephant (pui de elefant)

Femininul se poate forma adaugand terminatia -ess la forma de masculin, dar mai exista substantive care au forme diferite pentru
masculin si feminin:

Masculin Feminin

actor actress (actor/actrita)

waiter waitress (chelner/chelnerita)

lion lioness (leu/leoaica)

god goddess (zeu/zeita)

prince princess (print/printesa)

host hostess (barbat gazda / femeie gazda)

adventurer adventuress (aventurier)/aventuriera)

duke duchess (duce/ducesa)

master mistress (stapan/stapana)

emperor empress (imparat/imparateasa)

negro negress (negru/negresa)

marquis marchioness (marchiz/marchiza)

chauffeur chauffeuse (sofer/soferita)

czar czarina (tar/tarina)


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hero heroine (erou/eroina)

aviator aviatrix (aviator/aviatoare)

widower widow (vaduv/vaduva)

groom bride (mire/mireasa)

bachelor spinster (burlac/fata nemaritata)

landlord landlady (proprietar/proprietareasa)

manservant maidservant (servitor/servitoare)

boyfriend girlfriend (iubit/ iubita)

Cazul substantivelor

Genitivul in 'S:

Posesia in limba engleza se exprima adaugand 's dupa substantiv daca acesta este la singular sau doar ' (apostrof) daca
substantivul este la plural:

Sg. Pl.

The girl’s doll (papusa fetei) the girls’ dolls (papusile fetelor)

Daca substantivul este neregulat atunci se foloseste 's si pentru singular si pentru plural:

The man’s dog (cainele barbatului) the men’s dogs (cainii barbatilor)

Genitivul in ‘s este folosit cu:

oameni: the girl’s puppy (catelusul fetei)

nume proprii: Washington’s statue (statuia lui Washington), Dickens’s books (Cartile lui Dickens)

continente: Europe’s future (viitorul Europei)

tari: China’s development (dezvoltarea Chinei)

orase: London’s parks (parcurile Londrei)

universitati: The University of Minnesota’s President (presedintele Universitatii din Minnesota)

institutii: St. Andrew’s Cathedral (Catedrala Sfantului Andrei)/ St. Giles’ Hospital (Spitalul Sfantul Giles)

rauri: the river’s bank (malul raului)

oceane: the ocean’s foam (spuma oceanului)

expresii de timp/ spatiu/ marime/ distanta/ greutate/ cantitate: yesterday’s newspaper (ziarul zilei de ieri)/ a two miles’ walk
(o plimbare de doua mile)/ the week’s pay (plata saptamanii)

substantive abstracte: love’s torments (chinurile dragostei)

nume de anotimpuri/ luni/ zile: summer’s end (sfarsitul verii)/ winter’s day (ziua iernii)

animale: the cat’s paw (laba pisicii)

sarbatori: Guy Fawkes’s Day (ziua lui Guy Fawkes)/ St. Agnes’ Eve (ajunul Sfintei Agnes)

Pentru anybody else (altcineva/ altcuiva), nobody else (nimeni altcineva), no one else (nimeni altcineva), who else (cine

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altcineva), anyone else (altcineva) ’s se pune dupa else:

e.g. Is this somebody else's car? (Este aceasta masina altcuiva?)

‘s poate sa denumeasca:

- Institutii ca restaurante, biserici, teatre, spitale, etc.

e.g. Let’s have lunch at Torelli’s. (Hai sa luam pranzul la [restaurantul] Torelli. -> faptul ca avem un's inseamna ca este un
restaurant)

St. Paul’s was damaged during the war. ([Catedrala] Sfantul Paul a fost deteriorata in timpul razboiului. ->'s arata ca este o
catedrala desi se poate spune si St. Paul's Cathedral)

- O casa:

e.g. Were you at Jim’s (place)? (Ai fost la Jim [acasa]?)

She went to her father’s (home).(A fost la tatal ei [acasa])

- Un magazin: the stationer’s (papetarie), the chemist’s (farmacie), the draper’s (magazin de perdele), the confectioner’s
(cofetarie), the barber’s (frizer), the greengrocer’s (aprozar), the butcher’s (macelarie), the grocer’s (bacanie), the
hairdresser’s (coafor), the fishmonger’s (pescarie), the tabacconist’s (tutungerie), the cleaner’s (curatatorie)

e.g. She is at the dressmaker’s. (Ea este la croitorie.)

I’ll go to the butcher’s (shop) later. (Ma voi duce la macelarie mai tarziu.)

!!! ATENTIE: daca punem 's dupa doua nume: Tom and Mary’s parents, insemana ca cei doi sunt frati (parintii lui Tom si Mary).
Daca punem 's dupa fiecare nume, inseamna ca au parinti diferiti: Tom’s and Mary’s parents (parintii lui Tom si parintii lui Mary).

Genitivul dublu are si apostrof s si of in el:

e.g. A nephew of Aunt Tina’s (un nepot al matusii Tina)

An old colleague of my son’s (un vechi coleg al fiului meu)

Se foloseste cu:

Plural indefinit lyrics of Donne’s (versuri ale lui Donne)

Numeral + OF + NOUN’S two friends of Jack’s (doi prieteni ai lui Jack)

Interogativ indefinit what friend of my father’s (ce prieten al tatalui meu)

Pronume demonstrative that wife of your father’s (acea nevasta a tatalui tau)

A portrait of Rembrandt ( one portraying him - un portret al lui Rembrand, care il are pe Rembrand pictat)

A portrait of Rembrandt’s (one painted by him or belonging to him - un portret al lui Rembrand -> care a fost pictat de el sau care ii
apartine lui)

A criticism of Shaw (opinion about Shaw - critica despre Shaw)

A criticism of Shaw’s (opinions by Shaw - critica exprimata de Shaw)

Genitivul cu “Of” se foloseste cu obicte: the leg of the table (piciorul mesei), the roof of the house (acoperisul casei)

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18.00 The Adjective & the Adverb
The Adjective

The Adverb

18.01 The Adjective


1. Adjectivul in limba engleza sta de obicei IN FATA unui substantiv: a beautiful girl (o fata frumoasa) dar exista cateva
adjective care stau DUPA substantiv:

e.g. galore (mult/ multi/ multe), proper (propriu-zis), designate (desemnat), elect (ales):

We have money galore = We have a lot of money. (Noi avemmulti bani.)

The president elect (Presedintele ales)

The Prime Minister designate (Primul Ministru desemnat)

The town proper (Orasul propriu-zis)

Ordinea adjectivelor in fata unui substantiv este: OSASCOMP

Opinion Size Age Shape Colour Origin Material Purpose Noun

(opinie) (marime) (varsta) (forma) (culoare) (origine) (material) (scop) (substantiv)

A beautiful big new round brown Spanish oak dining table

(o masa mare, noua, rotunda, maro, spaniola, din stejar, pentru cina)

!!!!! Daca avem doua sau mai multe adjective care exprima opinia atunciadjectivul general sta in fata celui specific: e.g. a
kind gentle lady (o doamna buna si blanda)

e.g. They have bought ... mansion. (Ei au cumparat un conac superb, imens, italian, pentru vacanta.)

a) a gorgeous huge Italian holiday

b) a huge gorgeous holiday Italian

c) a gorgeous holiday huge Italian

d) a holiday Italian huge gorgeous

!!!!! Exista o ordine a adjectivelor mult mai detaliata:

Opinion Size Quality or Character Age Shape Colour Participles Origin Material Type Purpose Noun

Fantastic soft grey leather seats (locuri fantastice,


moi, gri, din piele)

Small old French carriage clocks (ceasuri mici,


vechi, frantuzesti, de buzunar)

2. Adjectivul mai poate sta dupa verbe copulative: e.g. She is beautiful. Verbele copulative in limba engleza sunt:

- Be (a fi): e.g. He is smart. (El este destept.)


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- Become (a deveni): e.g. They have become rude. (Ei au devenit obraznici.)

- Turn (a deveni): e.g. Your face has turned red. (Fata ta a devenit rosie.)

- Grow (a deveni): e.g. I am growing old. (Eu imbatranesc/ devin batran.)

- Appear (a parea): e.g. They appear happy. (Ei par fericiti.)

- Seem (a parea): e.g. You seem tired. (Tu pari obosit.)

- Look (a parea) : e.g. She looks pale. (Ea pare palida.)

- Get (a deveni): e.g. I am getting angry. (Eu devin manios.)

- Feel (a simti): e.g. We feel happy about it. (Noi ne simtim fericiti in legatura cu asta.)

- Sound (a suna): e.g. This sounds interesting. (Asta suna interesant.)

- Smell (a mirosi): e.g. Something smells good in here. (Ceva miroase bine aici.)

- Taste (a gusta): e.g. The food tastes delicious. (Mancarea are gust delicios.)

- Stay (a sta/ a ramane): e.g. Children, stay calm! (Copii, ramaneti calmi!)

!!! Atentie: dupa restul verbelor se foloseste un adverb de mod. Adverbele de mod se formeaza de obicei adaugand -ly la
adjectiv.

She is beautiful. (Ea este frumoasa.) (verb copulativ + adjectiv)

She sings beautifully. (Ea canta frumos.) (verb predicativ + adverb de mod)

Present Participle (Participiul Prezent => vb. + -ing) & Past Participle (Participiul Trecut => vb. III/ + -ed) pot fi adjective:

The course was boring. (Cursul era plictisitor. - se refera la cum era cursul)/ I was bored. (Eu eram plictisit. - se refera la cum
simte cineva)

The film is interesting. (Filmul este interesant. - se refera la cum este filmul)/ She is interested in buying. (Ea este interesata sa
cumpere. - se refera la cum simte cineva)

Adjectivele compuse:

1. Adj + Present Participles (vb. -ing): long-lasting relationship (o relatie de durata), long-playing show (un program de
durata), nasty-looking cut (o taietura care arata urat)

2. Past Participles (vb. III/ -ed): cut-off jeans (jeansi taiati), undercooked meat (carne care nu este gatita bine), rolled-up carpet
(covor rulat)

3. Number + noun (sg): a tree-year contract (un contract de trei ani), a two-week course (un curs de doua saptamani), a 5-year-
old child (un copil de cinci ani)

4. Well, badly, ill, poorly (adv) + Past Participle (vb. III/ -ed): a poorly-kept garden (o gradina prost intretinuta), a well-timed joke
(o gluma bine plasata)

5. Adjective + noun + ed: a long-legged woman (o femeie cu picioare lungi), a blue-eyed man (un barbat cu ochi albastri), a fair-
haired girl (o fata blonda)

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6. Noun + Present Participle (vb. -ing): heart-breaking story (o poveste care iti rupe inima), back-breaking work (munca care iti
rupe spatele/ este grea)

7. Noun + Past Participle (vb. III/ -ed): hand-made basket (cos facut de mana), tailor-made suit (costum facut la croitor), home-
made bread (paine facuta in casa)

e.g. They have gone on a ... trip. (Ei s-au dus intr-o excursie de cinci zile.)

a) five-days

b) five day

c) five-day

d) fives-day

Yesterday we saw a beautiful ... girl. (Ieri am vazut o fata frumoasa cu ochi verzi.)

a) green-eyes

b) green-eye

c) green-eyed

d) green-eyeing

Exista o serie de adjective care se pot pune NUMAI dupa verbe copulative. Ele nu stau niciodata in fata unui substantiv.

- afraid (temator)

- alike (asemanator)

- alive (in viata)

- alone (singur)

- aloof (distant)

- ashamed (rusinat)

- asleep (adormit)

- ajar (intredeschis) e.g. The door is ajar. / an ajar door

- askew (stramb/ pe o parte) (Usa este intredeschisa/ crapata.)

- content (multumit)

- glad (bucuros)

- ill (bolnav)

Daca vrem sa folosim adjective care exprima acelasi lucru in fata unui substantiv atunci folosim sinonime ale acestor
adjective:

e.g. an ill child/ a sick child/ the child is ill (Un copil bolnav./ Copilul este bolnav. -> sick = ill)

Exista o serie de adjective care se pot pune NUMAI in fata unui substantiv. Ele nu stau niciodata dupa verbe copulative.

- Chief (principal)

- Eldest (cel mai in varsta)

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- Elder (mai in varsta)

- Former (anterior/ fost)

- Indoor (interior)

- Inner (interior)

- Main (principal)

- Only (doar)

- Outdoor (exterior) e.g. an outdoor swimming pool/ the pool is outdoor

- Outer (exterior) (o piscina exterioara)

- Principle (principal)

- Upper (superior)

Unele adjective se pot folosi metaforic:

Silky skin (skin like silk - piele matasoasa) vs. Silk dress (dress made of silk - rochie
facuta din matase)

Stony look (disapproving look - privire dezaprobatoare) vs. Stone wall (wall made of stone - zid
facut din piatra)

Golden eagle (an eagle with gold like colour - un vultur de culoare aurie) vs. A gold ring (a ring made of gold -
inel facut din aur)

Feathery snowflakes (soft like feathers - fulgi de nea usori ca niste pene) vs. A feather pillow (a pillow with feathers
- o perina facuta cu pene)

Metallic paint (paint which looks like metal - vopsea care are culoare metalizata) vs. Metal box (a box made of metal - o
cutie facuta din metal)

Leathery meat (meat too firm to cut - carne care e foarte tare si greu de taiat) vs. A leather coat (a coat made of leather
- o haina facuta din piele)

A leaden sky (dark sky, the colour of lead - cer innorat/ de culoarea plumbului/ plumburiu) vs. Lead pipes (pipes made of lead -
tevi facute din plumb)

A steely character (strong character - caracter puternic/ otelit) vs. A steel-plated tank (a tank with steel
covering - tanc placat cu otel)

e.g.This plant has soft ... leaves. (Aceasta planta are frunze moi care arata ca niste pene.)

a) feather

b) feathering

c) feathery

d) feathered

My boss’s ... expression showed that something was wrong. (Expresia dezaprobatoare a sefului meu arata ca ceva era in
neregula.)

a) stone

b) stoning

c) stony

d) ston

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I have received ... earrings for my birthday. (Am primit cercei de aur de ziua mea.)

a) golden

b) gold

c) golded

d) golding

Gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor in limba engleza:

I. Positiv:

Adjective monosilabice: eg. big (mare), small (mic)

Adjective plurisilabice: eg. beautiful (frumos), interesting (interesant)

II. Comparativ:

1. de inferioritate: not so/ as + adj. + as e.g. not so/ as big as (nu la fel de mare ca)

less + adj.+ than (pentru adjective plurisilabice) e.g. less beautiful than (mai putin frumos decat)

2. de egalitate: as + adj. + as e.g. as big as/ as beautiful as (la fel de mare ca/ la fel de frumos ca)

3. de superioritate:

a) pentru adjective monosilabice: adj + -er than e.g. bigger than/ smaller than (mai mare decat/ mai mic decat)

b) pentru adjective plurisilabice: more + adj than e.g. more beautiful than (mai frumos decat)

III. Superlativ:

1. Relativ: a) pentru adjective monosilabice: the + adj -est e.g. the biggest (cel mai mare)

b) pentru adjective plurisilabice: the most + adj e. g. the most beautiful (cel mai frumos)

2. Absolut: very + adj e.g. very big/ very beautiful (foarte mare/ foarte frumos)

Formele adjectivelor neregulate

Positiv Comparativ de superioritate Superlativ relativ

Good (bine/ bun) better (mai bine/ bun) the best (cel mai bine/ bun)

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Bad/ill (rau/ bolnav) worse (mai rau/ mai bolnav) the worst (cel mai rau/ cel mai bolnav)

Much/many (mult) more (mai mult) the most (cel mai mult)

Little (putin) less (mai putin) the least (cel mai putin)

Little (putin) lesser (nu atat de important)

Old (batran) older (mai batran) the oldest (cel mai batran)

Old (batran) elder (mai mare - despre frati) the eldest (cel mai mare - despre frati)

(!!! elder/ eldest se folosesc cu "son, daughter, brother, sister" si stau numai in fata substantivului, niciodata dupa verbe
copulative)

Far (departe) farther (mai departe) the farthest (cel mai departe - se folosesc cand vorbim
de spatiu)

Far (departe) further* (aditional/ mai departe in mod figurativ) the furthest (cel mai distant - se folosesc cand
vorbim de ceva abstract)

* I need further information. (Am nevoie de informatii suplimentare.)/ Let's go further with the lesson. (Hai sa mergem mai departe
cu lectia.)

Late (tarziu) later (mai tarziu) the last (ultimul)

Late (tarziu) latter (al doilea din doi) the latest (cel mai recent)

Fore (anterior) former (primul din doi) the foremost (principal/ care este primul)

!!! Atentie:

I have two friends: the former is a pilot and the latter is a doctor. (Am doi prieteni: primul din cei doi este pilot si al doilea din cei
doi este doctor.)

I have three friends: the first is a doctor, the second is a teacher and the last is a pilot. (Am trei prieteni: primul este doctor, al
doilea este profesor si ultimul este pilot.)

!!!!!! Cand comparam DOI termeni folosim THE (de la Superlativ Relativ) si Comparativul de Superioritate al adjectivului:

Of the two girls Mary is the more beautiful. (Dintre cele doua fete Mary este cea care este mai frumoasa.)(THE + MORE +
ADJECTIV PLURISILABIC)

Comparati cu: Of the three girls Mary is the most beautiful. (Dintre cele trei fete Mary este cea mai frumoasa.)

Of the two boys Tom is the taller. (Dintre cei doi baieti Tom este cel care este mai inalt.)(THE + ADJECTIV MONOSILABIC + -
ER)

Comparati cu: Of the three boys Tom is the tallest. (Dintre cei trei baieti Tom este cel mai inalt.)

Constructii cu gradele de comparatie:

1. The + Comparative 1 + S + P, the + Comparative 2 + S + P. (cu cat ..., cu atat ...)

The more you learn, the smarter you become. (Cu cat inveti mai mult, cu atat devi mai destept.)

2. Comparative + AND + Comparative/ Ever + Comparative (din ce in ce mai ...)

This is getting better and better. (pentru adjective monosilabice) (Asta devine din ce in ce mai bine.)

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This is getting ever better. (pentru adjective monosilabice) (Asta devine din ce in ce mai bine.)

She is more and more interesting. (pentru adjective plurisilabice) (Ea este din ce in ce mai interesanta.)

She is ever more interesting. (pentru adjective plurisilabice) (Ea este din ce in ce mai interesanta.)

3. MUCH/ FAR + Comparative (mult mai ...)

She is much/far smarter than I thought. (Ea este mult mai desteapta decat am crezut.)

4. EVEN + Comparative (chiar mai ...)

He is even taller than you. (El este chiar mai inalt decat tine.)

5. Comparative + BY FAR (... de departe)

This situation is better by far. (Situatia aceasta este mai buna de departe.)

6. Twice/Three times/Four times etc./Half + AS + Positive degree + AS (De doua ori/ de trei ori/ de patru ori/ jumatate mai
... ca/ decat)

She speaks twice as much as you. (Ea vorbeste de doua ori mai mult ca/ decat tine)

He is only half as interesting as you are. (El este doar jumatate atat de interesant ca tine.)

Expresii cu adjectivul:

SUCH A/AN +ADJ.+NOUN+THAT: She is such a nice girl that everybody likes her. (Ea este o fata atat de draguta incat
toata lumea o place.)

SO + ADJ. + A/AN + NOUN: She was so beautiful a woman. (Ea era o femeie atat de frumoasa.)

MANY A/AN + NOUN sg.: Many a thing has happened lately. (Multe lucruri s-au intamplat in ultimul timp.)

(merge doar cu substantiv la singular dar se traduce prin plural)

A GREAT MANY + NOUN pl.: I’d like to discuss about a great many things. (Mi-ar placea sa discut despre multe lucruri)

(merge doar cu substantiv la plural si se traduce prin plural)

ADJ. + THOUGH + S + P: Beautiful though she is, I still won’t marry her. (Desi este frumoasa, tot nu o sa ma insor cu ea.)

18.02 The Adverb


Adverbs normally describe VERBS, ADJECTIVES, OTHER ADVERBS or WHOLE
SENTENCES.
(In mod normal adverbele descriu verbe, adjective, alte adverbe sau propozitii intregi.)

e.g. She speaks beautifully. (Ea vorbeste frumos.)

She is extremely smart. (Ea este extrem de desteapta.)

They walk incredibly quickly. (Ei merg incredibil de repede.)

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Fortunately, they were all alive. (Din fericire, ei erau toti in viata.)

There are six types of adverbs (Exista sase tipuri de adverbe):

Adverbs of manner (how?) formed from adjective + ly (adverbe de mod care raspund la intrebarea cum? si se
formeaza adaugand terminatia -ly la adjectiv):

e.g. He walked carefully. (El a mers cu atentie.) careful (adjectiv) + ly => carefully

Adverbs of place (where?)(adverbe de loc care raspund la intrebarea unde?) e.g. here (aici), there (acolo), near
(langa), somewhere (undeva),etc.:

e.g. He is working here. (El munceste aici.)

Adverbs of time (when?)(adverbe de timp care raspund la intrebarea cand? si se folosesc numai la sfarsit sau
inceput de propozitie) e.g. now (acum), then (atunci), soon (curand), tomorrow (maine), etc.:

e.g. They arrived yesterday. (Ei au sosit ieri.)

Adverbs of degree (how much?/to what extent?) (adverbe de grad care raspund la intrebarilecat de mult?/ in ce
masura?) e.g. extremely (extrem de), quite (destul de), just (tocmai), very (foarte), too (prea),enough (destul de/
destul), rather (mai degraba/ cam), etc.:

e.g. He was extremely rude. (El a fost extrem de obraznic.)

!!!!!! ATENTIE: cand este adverb, ENOUGH sta dupa adjectiv: e.g. beautiful enough (destul de frumos); cand este un
determinant, ENOUGH sta in fata unui substantiv: e.g. There are enough apples. (Sunt destule mere.)

Adverbs of frequency (how often?) (adverbe de frecventa care raspund la intrebareacat de des?) e.g. sometimes
(cateodata), often (adesea), monthly (lunar), yearly (anual), etc.:

e.g. She usually studies in the morning. (Ea invata de obicei dimineata.)

!!! ATENTIE: adverbele de frecventa: often (adesea), rarely (rareori), seldom (rareori), usually (de obicei), frequently
(frecvent), occasionally (ocazional), sometimes (cateodata), always (intotdeauna) stau in fata verbului DAR
DUPA VERBUL TO BE

E.g. She often talks on the phone. (Ea adesea vorbeste la telefon.) / E.g. She is often late. (Ea este adesea in
intarziere.)

Attitude adverbs (adverbe de atitudine care exprima atitudinea fata de ceva) e.g. clearly (clar), honestly (cinstit),
obviously (evident): e.g. You’ve obviously eaten too much. (Evident ca ai mancat prea mult.)& Sentence adverbs
(adverbe care descriu intreaga propozitie si care stau de obicei la inceputul sau la finalul propozitiei si sunt
despartite prin virgula) e.g. apparently (aparent), fortunately (din fericire), by the way (apropo), etc.: e.g. Incidentally, I
noticed you looked tired. (Intamplator, am observat ca arati obosit.)

Ordinea adverbelor in propozitie:

(Adv. de timp) + S +Adv.de frecventa + P + Complement Direct + Complement Indirect + Adv. de mod + Adv. de loc + Adv.
de timp

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(Yesterday) He worked hard in the garden
yesterday.

[(Ieri) El a muncit din greu in gradina (ieri).]

S + Adv. de frecventa + P (vb. de miscare) + Adv. de loc + Adv. de mod + Adv. de timp

She usually goes to school on foot in the morning.

(Ea de obicei se duce la scoala pe jos dimineata.)

!!! ATENTIE: daca verbul este de miscare (e.g. go, run, walk, etc.) atunci se pune adverbul de loc inainte de cel de mod.

Adverbs of manner are very flexible and can stay in various positions in the sentence:

(Adverbele de mod sunt foarte flexibile si pot sta in diverse pozitii in propozitie)

- la inceputul propozitiei: Solemnly the minister addressed the congregation. (In mod solemn preotul s-a adresat congregatiei.)

- inainte de verb: The minister solemnly addressed the congregation. (Preotul in mod solemn s-a adresat congregatiei.)

- dupa verb si complementul direct: The minister addressed the congregation solemnly. (Preotul s-a adresat congregatiei in mod
solemn.)

Formarea adverbelor:

Adverbele de mod se pot forma in felul urmator:

-Adj. + -ly: careful -> carefully (atent - cu atentie)

e.g. It was easy to do it. -> I did iteasily. (A fost usor sa fac asta. -> Am facut asta cu usurinta.)

-Adj. + -s: unaware -> unawares (inconstient - in mod inconstient)

e.g. I was unaware of the consequences. -> You caught me unawares. (Am fost inconstient de consecinte. -> M-ai prins nepregatit.)

-Substantiv + -wise/ -fashion/ -ways/ -style: clockwise (in sensul acelor de ceasornic), schoolboy-fashion (moda de elev),
sideways (pe o parte), cowboy-style (in stil de cowboy)

e.g. Turn the arm clockwise. (Intoarce bratul in sensul acelor de ceas.)

Unele adverbe de frecventa se pot forma in felul urmator:

- Substantiv + -ly: Day -> daily (zilnic)

Fortnight -> fortnightly (din doua in doua saptamani)

Hour -> hourly (din ora in ora)

Month -> monthly (lunar)

Week -> weekly (saptamanal)

Year -> yearly (anual)

e.g. He is paid monthly. (El este platit lunar.)

Unele adverbe de loc se pot forma in felul urmator:

- Substantiv + -wards: home -> homewards (catre casa), west -> westwards (catre vest), south -> southwards (catre sud)

e.g. The window faces southwards. (Ferestra da spre sud.)

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Alte adverbe:

- Substantiv + -wise: e.g. price -> price-wise (in ceea ce priveste pretul), health -> health-wise (in ceea ce priveste sanatatea)

!!! Pentru punctele cardinale putem sa punem most dupa adjectiv si obtinem locatia:southernmost (cel mai din sud),
northernmost (cel mai din nord)

Ortografia adverbelor de mod cand adauga -ly:


Adjectivele terminate intr-o consoana + Y schimba pe y in i si adauga ly: - consonant + y -> ily:cosy (comod) -> cosily
(comod), happy (fericit) -> happily (in mod fericit)

DAR: sly -> slyly (in mod siret), coy -> coyly (in mod rusinos), shy -> shyly (in mod timid)

Adjectivele terminate in –ic adauga –ally: drastic -> drastically (in mod drastic), frantic -> frantically (in mod frenetic)

DAR: public -> publicly (in mod public)

Adjectivele terminate in –le schimba pe –le in –ly: horrible -> horribly (in mod oribil), terrible -> terribly (in mod teribil)
Adjectivele terminate in –e adauga –ly si il pastreaza pe e: scarce -> scarcely (abia)

DAR: whole -> wholly (intreg/ total), true -> truly (cu adevarat), due -> duly (in mod corespunzator)aceste
( adverbe nu il
pastreaza pe e)

Participiile trecute adauga terminatia –edly: learned -> learnedly (invatat)


Adjectivele terminate in –ly (friendly - prietenos, lovely - minunat, motherly - mamos, ugly - urat, elderly - in varsta, fatherly -
tatos, lonely - singur, silly - prostut, etc) formeaza adverbul cu: in a(n) ... way/manner. (intr-un mod ...)

e.g. She is very friendly with newcomers. (Ea este foarte prietenoasa cu persoanele nou venite.)

a) She behaves in a very friendlyly way with newcomers.

b) She behaves very friendlily with newcomers.

c) She behaves very friendly with newcomers.

d) She behaves in a very friendly manner with newcomers. (Ea se comporta intr-un mod prietenos cu persoanele nou venite.)

Exista unele adjective si adverbe care au aceeasi forma:


e.g. best (cel mai bun), better (mai bine), cold (rece), daily (zilnic), dead (mort), deep (adanc), direct (direct), dirty (murdar),
early (devreme), easy (usor), far (departe), fast (repede), free (liber/ gratis), further (mai departe), hard (greu/ din greu), high
(inalt), hourly (ora de ora), inside (inauntru), kindly (in mod dragut), last (ultim), late (tarziu), long (mult), low (jos), past
(trecut), right (corect), straight (drept), sure (sigur), thick (gros), tight (stramt), well (bine), wide (larg), wrong (gresit), etc.

You were our last (adj) hope. / You came inlast (adv). (Tu erai ultima noastra speranta./ Tu ai intrat ultimul.)

This is a fast (adj) car. / The car runs fast (adv). (Aceasta este o masina rapida./ Masina merge repede.)

This is the wrong (adj) answer. / You did me wrong (adv). (Acesta este raspunsul gresit./ Tu mi-ai facut rau.)

!!!!! ADVERBUL lui GOOD este WELL


e.g. She is a good girl. - The girl sings well.

(Ea este o fata buna. - Fata canta bine.)

Adverbe cu doua forme si intelesuri diferite:


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English adverbs with two forms are written as those that end in “ly” and those that don’t.

(Adverbele cu doua forme sunt scrise ca cele terminate in -ly si cele care nu sunt terminate in -ly)

e.g. hard versus hardly


“We work hard during the summer.” (Noi muncim din greu in timpul verii.)

Hard este adverb de mod, arata faptul ca actiunea cere mult efort si se folosesteNUMAI DUPA VERB.

“We hardly work during the summer.” (Noi abia muncim in timpul verii.)

Hardly este adverb de frecventa sau grad, arata cat de mult sau cat de des se face actiunea si staNUMAI IN FATA
VERBULUI.

high versus highly

“John is flying high at his new job.” (Lui John ii merge foarte bine la noua lui slujba.)/ "He threw the stonehigh in the sky."
(El a aruncat piatra sus in cer.)

High este adverb de mod care arata cum ii merge lui John sau in al doilea caz arata locatia si este adverb de loc.

“Since starting the new project, the staff have been highly motivated.” (De cand a inceput noul proiect, personalul este
foarte motivat.)

Highly este adverb de grad si arata cat de motivat este personalul.

fine versus finely

“He is doing fine in his new job.” (Lui ii merge bine la noua slujba.)

Fine este adverb de mod si arata cum ii merge cuiva.

“You need to finely detail the contract.” (Tu trebuie sa detaliezi contractul in amanuntime.)

Finely este adverb de grad si arata ca trebuie mult detaliu pentru contract.

late versus lately

“I hate it when people arrive late.” (Urasc cand oamenii sosesc tarziu.)

Late este adverb de timp si arata ca ceva se intampla tarziu.

“What have you been doing lately?” (Ce ai mai facut in ultimul timp?)

Lately este de asemenea un adverb de timp, dar inseamna in ultimul timp.

most versus mostly

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“What do you like most about working here?” (Ce iti place cel mai mult in legatura cu munca aici?)

Most este adverb de grad si exprima ce este cel mai bun din ceva.

“He has lived in many countries, but mostly in Europe.” (El a locuit in multe tari, dar mai ales in Europa.)

Mostly inseamna mai ales/ in general/ pentru cea mai mare parte.

sure versus surely

“Can you come with me to the party?” “Sure I can!” (Poti veni cu mine la petrecere? Sigur ca pot.)

Sure este un adverb folosit pentru a arata ca da, esti de acord cu ceva.

“Surely you can see that this is a bad idea.” (Cu siguranta poti sa vezi ca asta este o idee proasta.)

Surely comenteaza asupra unei situatii si se foloseste pentru a spune ca ceva este evident.

wide versus widely

“Could you tell me why the door to my office iswide open?” (Poti sa imi spui de ce usa biroului meu este larg deschisa?)

Wide arata gradul.

“I am lucky enough to have widely travelled throughout Asia.” (Sunt destul de norocos sa fi calatoritpe scara larga/ extins/
foarte mult prin Asia.)

Widely este adverb de grad si arata cat de mult.

wrong versus wrongly

“This year started well, but then it all went wrong.” (Anul acesta a inceput bine dar apoi totul a mers gresit.)

Wrong este adverb de grad si sugereaza ca ceva rau/ gresit s-a intamplat sise pune numai dupa verb.

“I apologise. I wrongly accused you of being lazy.” (Imi cer scuze. Te-am acuzat pe nedrept ca esti lenes.)

Wrongly este adverb de mod si inseamna din greseala/ pe nedrept sise pune numai in fata verbului.

free versus freely

“He walked free from the courtroom.” (El a iesit liber de la curtea de justitie.)/ "We entered the discofree. (Noi am intrat la
discoteca pe gratis.)

Free este adverb de mod si arata ca cineva este liber si nu e restrictionat in nici un fel sau ca ceva este gratis.

“She married him freely.” (Ea s-a maritat cu el de buna voie.)/ He movedfreely in the room. (El s-a miscat nerestrictionat
prin camera.)

Freely este de asemenea un adverb de mod si arata ca cineva face ceva de buna voie sau fara probleme, nerestrictionat.

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deep versus deeply

“He took the ring deep into the Misty Mountains.” (El a dus inelul adanc in Muntii Cetosi.)

Deep este adverb de loc si arata ca ceva este undeva intr-un loc adanc.

“I am deeply in love with him.” (Sunt extrem de indragostita de el.)

Deeply este adverb de grad si inseamna foarte, extrem de.

easy versus easily


"Take it easy." (Ia-o usor.)

Easy este adverb de mod si arata ca ceva trebuie facut usor sau incet.

"I did it easily." (Am facut asta cu usurinta.)

Easily este tot adverb de mod , dar arata ca ceva este facut fara dificultate.

direct versus directly


"We flew direct to Paris." (Noi am zburat la Paris direct, fara escala.)

Direct este adverb de mod si arata ca o calatorie este facuta fara escale.

"I’ll be there directly." (Voi fi acolo imediat.)/ You’ll be directly responsible for him. (Vei fi raspunzator in mod direct pentru
el.)

Directly este tot adverb de mod si inseamna imediat sau in mod direct, fara altcineva care sa interfereze.

full versus fully


"You know full well I don’t like this." (Sti foarte bine ca nu imi place asta.)

Full este adveb de grad si inseamna foarte, total.

"I am fully aware of the consequences." (Sunt total constient de consecinte.)

Fully este adverb de mod si inseamna complet, total.

last versus lastly


"He came last in the race." (El a iesit ultimul din cursa.)

Last este adverb de mod si arata ca ceva este facut dupa toate celelalte/ toti ceilalti.

"Lastly, I’d like to say that we have the final results." (In sfarsit, as vrea sa spun ca avem rezultatele finale.)

Lastly inseamna in sfarsit se refera la toata situatia.

near versus nearly


"That was a near miss." (Am scapat ca prin urechile acului. / Aproape ca m-a prins.)

Near inseamna aproape si arata ca ceva este evitat in ultima secunda.

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"He nearly killed the bird." (El aproape ca a ucis pasarea.)

Nearly este adverb de mod si arata cat de aproape era actiunea de a fi facuta.

pretty versus prettily


"You know pretty well why I don’t like you." (Stii destul de bine de ce nu te plac.)

Pretty este adverb de grad si inseamna destul de.

"She dresses prettily." (Ea se imbraca dragut/ frumos.)

Prettily este adverb de mod si arata ca ceva este facut in mod frumos.

short versus shortly


"He stopped short./The arrow fell short of its target./ He caught me short./ He cut the meeting short./ He cut me short during
the meeting."

(El s-a oprit deodata./ Sageata a cazut departe de tinta./ El m-a prins nepregatit./ El a scurtat intalnirea./ El m-a intrerupt in
timpul intalnirii.)

Short inseamna deodata/ abrupt, departe de tinta, nepregatit, scurt, din scurt/ intrerupt.

"I’ll see you shortly." (Te voi vedea in curand.)

Shortly este adverb de timp si inseamna in curand.

sharp versus sharply


"Be there at 5 o’clock sharp." (Fi acolo la 5 fix.)

Sharp se foloseste pentru a exprima ore fixe.

"He addressed me sharply." (El mi s-a adresat intr-un ton/ mod dur.)

Sharply este adverb de mod si inseamna intr-un ton dur.

close versus closely


"He came close to winning." (El aproape ca a castigat.)

Close se foloseste pentru a arata ca actiunea aproape ca s-a intamplat.

"The teacher watched the pupils closely." (Profesorul a urmarit elevii cu atentie.)

Closely este adverb de mod si inseamna ca ceva este facut cu atentie marita.

right versus rightly


"Turn right at the crossroads./Try to do it right this time!" (Ia-o la dreapta la intersectie./ Incearca sa faci asta corect de data
aceasta.)

Right arata directia (la dreapta) sau ca actiunea este facuta in mod corect.

"The tribunal rightly condemned the criminal." (Tribunalul l-a condamnat pe criminal pe drept.)

Rightly este adverb de mod si arata ca ceva a fost facut in mod corect/ pe drep in opinia vorbitorului.

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e.g.

They work ... for their money. (Ei muncesc din greu pentru banii lor.)

a) hardly

b) hard

c) hardlier

d) very hardly

The coach watched the swimmers ... . (Antrenorul i-a urmarit pe inotatori cu atentie.)

a) close

b) closely

c) more close

d) closerly

The spring went ... under the mountain. (Izvorul curgea adinc sub munte.)

a) Deeply

b) Deep

c) Deeperly

d) More deeply

!!!!! Adverbele au grade de comparatie la fel ca adjectivele:


Daca adverbul este plurisilabic:

Gradul pozitiv: He drove carefully. (El a condus cu atentie.)

Comparativ de inferioritate: He didn’t drive as carefully as his father. (El nu a condus la fel de atent ca tatal sau.)

Comparativ de egalitate: He drove as carefully as she did. (El a condus la fel de atent ca ea.)

Comparativ de superioritate: He drove more carefully than usual because of the fog. (El a condus cu mai multa atentie decat de
obicei din cauza cetii.)

Superlativ relativ: He drove the most carefully of all. (El a condus cel mai atent dintre toti.)

Superlativ absolut: He drove very carefully. (El a condus foarte atent.)

Daca adverbul este identic ca forma cu adjectivele monosilabice (late, long, quick, high, fast, hard, deep, near):

Gradul pozitiv: He drives fast. (El conduce repede.)

Comparativ de inferioritate: He doesn’t drive as fast as you. (El nu conduce la fel de repede ca tine.)

Comparativ de egalitate: He drives as fast as you. (El conduce la fel de repede ca tine.)

Comparativ de superioritate: He drives faster than you. (El conduce mai repede ca tine.)

Superlativ relativ: He drives the fastest. (El conduce cel mai repede.)

Superlativ absolut: He drives very fast. (El conduce foarte repede.)

!!!! ATENTIE: adjectivele monosilabice devin adverbe plurisilabice atunci cand se adauga terminatia -ly si prin urmare fac
comparativul de superioritate si superlativul relativ ca adverbele plurisilabice:

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e.g. adj. easy -> easier -> the easiest: This is the easiest task. (Aceasta este cea mai usoara insarcinare.)

adv. easily -> more easily -> the most easily: I did this more easily. (Am facut asta mai usor/ cu mai mare usurinta.)

Comparatia unor adverbe neregulate


Pozitiv Comparativ de superioritate Superlativ relativ

Badly worse the worst

Well better the best

Little less/ lesser the least

Far farther/ further the farthest/ the furthest

Much more the most

QUITE
inseamna complet (folosit cu: full, empty, finished, wrong, right, sure, certain, ready, etc): e.g. The bottle was quite
empty. (Sticla era complet goala.)
insemana mai putin decat - less than: e.g. The play wasquite good. (= moderately good) (Piesa a fost moderat de
buna.)
folosit in comentarii favorabile: e.g. He's quite good at Maths. (El este chiar bun la matematica.)

!!! ATENTIE la scriere: QUITE (chiar) si QUIET (liniste)

RATHER
folosit pentru a arata dezaprobare: e.g. The tea israther hot. (too hot for the person who drinks it) (Ceaiul este cam
fierbinte. - prea fierbinte pentru a-l bea)
folosit in comentarii defavorabile: e.g. She is rather bad at Maths. (Ea nu prea e buna la matematica.)
folosit cu sensul "to an unusual degree" (intr-un grad neobisnuit): e.g. The meeting wasrather interesting. (Intalnirea
a fost mai interesanta decat m-am asteptat/ interesanta intr-un grad neobisnuit.)
folosit cu comparatii: e.g. She's rather taller than me. (Ea este mai inalta decat mine.)
folosit cu sensul "foarte": e.g. She is rather clever. (Ea este foarte desteapta.) – folosit cu: good, well, pretty, clever,
amusing, etc.

PRETTY este folosit pentru a arata neutralitatea: e.g. The tea is pretty hot. (Ceaiul
este fierbinte.)

FAIRLY este folosit cu: good, nice, well folosit pentru a exprima un compliment
mai mic decat cel exprimat cu quite:
e.g. “How is her English?” (Cum este engleza ei?)

“Excellent” – very complimentary (Excelenta.)

“Good” – neutral (Buna.)

“Quite good” – complimentary (Chiar buna.)

“Fairly good” – less complimentary (Destul de buna.)

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LIKE se foloseste:
pentru similaritati: e.g. He works like a mule. (He isn't a mule.) (El munceste ca un catar. - dar nu este un catar)
se foloseste dupa: feel, look, smell, sound + noun: e.g. He looks like his father. (El arata ca tatal lui.)
se foloseste cu substantive, pronume sau verbe cu -ing pentru a exprima similaritati: e.g. You look just like your
Mum. (Arati exact ca mama ta.)/ It's like walking on air. (E ca atunci cand mergi prin aer.)/ This fish tastes just like
chicken. (Pestele asta are gust de pui.)

AS se foloseste:
pentru a arata ce face cineva in realitate ca slujba sau ce rol au: e.g. He works as a teacher. (El munceste ca profesor.
- este profesor)
in expresii: as usual (ca de obicei), as ... as (asa ... ca), as much (atat), such as (cum ar fi), the same as (la fel ca): e.g.
You're late as usual. (Ai intarziat ca de obicei.)
dupa verbele: accept, be known, class, describe, refer to, regard, use: e.g. He's regarded as an expert on music. (El e
privit ca expert in muzica.)
cu sensul "IN THE WAY THAT" (in felul in care): e.g. You must write the poem as she has shown you. (Trebuie sa
scrii poezia in felul in care ea ti-a aratat.)

19. The Pronoun

Clasificare:

Personal Pronouns (pronume personale)

Possessive Pronouns (pronume posesive)

Reflexive/“Self”- Pronouns (pronume de intarire)

Reciprocal Pronouns (pronume reciproce)

Demonstrative Pronouns (pronume demonstrative)

Interrogative Pronouns (pronume interogative)

Relative Pronouns (pronume relative)

Indefinite Pronouns (pronume nehotarate)

1. Personal Pronouns

In Nominativ (cand stau in cazul Nominativ sunt subiecte):

I – 1st person sg. (intotdeauna scris cu majuscula oriunde in propozitie) - eu

You – 2nd person sg./ thou (forma veche pentru you) e.g. You are./ Thou are. - tu esti

He - 3rd person sg. (folosit numai pentru persoane de sex masculin) - el

She - 3rd person sg. (folosit numai pentru persoane de sex feminin) - ea

It - 3rd person sg. Folosit:

- pentru animale, plante, obiecte, idei, actiuni, orice altceva in afara de oameni: e.g. I have bought you a rose. It smells
wonderful. (Am cumparat un trandafir. El miroase minunat.)

- pentru “baby, infant, child” un copil in primele luni de viata: e.g. What a cute little baby it is! (Ce copilas dragut este
el!)

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- cu verbele: find out (a afla), forget (a uita), know (a sti), manage (a reusi), mind (a deranja), refuse (a refuza),
remember (a-si aminti), show (a arata), tell (a spune), try (a incerca), understand (a intelege) cand se refera la un
fapt mentionat deja: E.g. It all happened a long time ago. (Totul s-a intamplat cu mult timp in urma.)/ I was angry and
he knew it. (Eram manios si el stia asta.)/ Forget it. (Uita de asta.)

- ca fapt anticipator - anticipeaza o parte din propozitia care urmeaza: e.g. It was unbelievable: they actually
smiled. (Era de necrezut: ei chiar au zambit.)/ I hateit when he says such things. (Urasc [asta], cand el spune astfel
de lucruri.)/ I love it that she’s coming with us. (Iubesc [asta] ca ea vine cu noi.)/ It is a pity to make a fool of
yourself. (Este pacat sa te faci de ras.)

- in constructia: FIND/THINK + IT + (BE): e.g. He thought it (would be) better to keep quiet. (El a crezut ca ar fi mai
bine sa taca.)/ He found it impossible to laugh. (El a gasit [asta] imposibil sa rada./ Lui i-a fost imposibil sa rada.)

- in propozitii care se refera la timp, distanta, vreme, greutate t(ime, distance, weather, weight): e.g. It is raining.
(Ploua.)/ It is Sunday. (Este duminica.)/ It is late. (Este tarziu.)/ It was July. (Era iulie.)/ It was a long way till home. (Era
o cale lunga pana acasa.) / It is heavy. (Este greu.)/ It is 7 o’clock. (Este ora 7 fix.)

- ca subiect pentru verbe impersonale: e.g. It appears. (Se pare.)/ It is said. (Se spune.)/ It seems. (Se pare.)/ It
happens that I know her. (Se intampla sa o cunosc.)/It looks like rain. (Se pare ca o sa ploua.)

- ca demonstrativ “it” in constructia IT + BE + Predicative: e.g. Who is it? It is I/ me. (Cine este? Sunt eu.)/ It was
Tom that told the truth. (A fost Tom cel care a spus adevarul.)/It is today that he arrives. (Este aztazi cand soseste el.)
(cleft sentences).

!!! Diferenta dintre THERE si IT:

- THERE introduce o notiune noua si este folosit pentru a arata locatia, existenta (there is = there exists = se afla/ se
gaseste/ exista) si evenimente. Deci expresiile cu THERE arata existenta a ceva intr-un loc anume:

There [is/are/was/were] [ Noun ] [ Phrase of location ].....

e.g. There is a picture on the wall. (Se afla un tablou pe perete.)

There is (= there exists) a Santa Claus. (Exista un Mos Craciun.)

There are five people waiting for you. (Sunt cinci oameni care te asteapta.)

!!! ATENTIE: nu se poate folosi "it" in loc de "there" atunci cand exprimam existenta:

There is [ ice ] [ on the road ] today. (Se afla/ Este gheata pe drum azi.)

There was [ snow ] [ on the roof ] yesterday. (Era zapada pe acoperis ieri.)

- IT introduce expresii de timp, distanta, greutate sau este folosit in expresii impersonale SAU daca ne referim la ceva
mentionat inainte.

e.g. It is late. (Este tarziu.)/ It’s too far away. (Este prea departe.)/ It is believed that he is rich. (Se crede ca el este
bogat.)

!!! Atentie: atunci cand introducem ceva nou in conversatie se foloseste THERE, dar dupa aceea se foloseste IT
pentru ca situatia este deja cunoscuta:

E.g. There is a blue pen on the table. It is mine. (Se afla un stilou albastru pe masa. El este al meu.)

We – 1st person pl. (folosit si de catre regi/ regine de exemplu, “regalul "noi" = we” e.g. We, the Queen of England ... -
Noi, regina Angliei ...) - noi

You – 2nd person pl. - voi

They – 3rd person pl. (for both masculine and feminine) - ei/ ele
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Formele pentru Acuzativ sau Dativ (in acest caz pronumele sunt complemente directe sau indirecte):

Me - 1st person sg. - pe mine/ mie

E.g. Give me the money. (Da-mi banii. - complement indirect in D - cui? - mie)/ He lovesme. (El ma iubeste pe mine. -
complement direct in A - pe cine? - pe mine)

You – 2nd person sg./ thee (forma veche pentru you) - pe tine/ tie

E.g. I love you/ thee. (Te iubesc pe tine.)

Him - 3rd person sg. (for masculine - only people) - pe el/ lui

Her - 3rd person sg.(for feminine – only people) - pe ea/ ei

It - 3rd person sg.(for animals, plants, objects, anything else BUT people) - pe el/ ea/ lui/ ei

Us - 1st person pl. - pe noi/ noua e.g. She told us everything. (Ea ne-a spus noua totul.)

You - 2nd person pl. - pe voi/ voua

Them - person pl (for both masculine and feminine) - pe ei/ pe ele/ lor

!!! ATENTIE: pronumele in Acuzativ sau Dativ stau numai dupa verb.

!!! ATENTIE: verbele describe (a descrie), mention (a mentiona), propose (a propune), introduce (a introduce),
listen (a asculta), prescribe (a prescrie), announce (a anunta), suggest (a sugera), prove (a dovedi), explain (a
explica) sunt urmate intotdeauna de preopzitia TO:

e.g. Listen to me for a moment. (Asculta-ma un moment.)

Let me introduce you to my aunt, Sarah. (Permite-mi sa te prezint matusii mele, Sarah.)

Prove it to me. (Dovedeste-mi asta.)

!!! ATENTIE: verbele write (a scrie), sing (a canta), read (a citi) and play (a canta la un instrument) primesc perpozitia
TO dupa ele daca nu sunt urmate de complement direct ci numai de un complement indirect:

I wrote to her. (I-am scris ei. - cui? - ei) (avem numai complement indirect deci folosim TO)

DACA avem: VERB + CI + CD nu se foloseste prepozitia TO inainte de complementul indirect:

I wrote her a letter yesterday. (I-am scris ei o scrisoare ieri.)

DACA avem: VERB + CD + TO + CI se foloseste prepozitia TO inaintea complementului indirect:

I wrote a letter to her.

Alte exemple:

Read to me. (Citeste-mi.) – I read her a story. (I-am citit ei o poveste.) DAR I read a story to her. (I-am citit o poveste
ei.)

Sing to me. (Canta-mi.) - I sang them a song. (Le-am cantat lor un cantec.) DAR I sang a song to them. (Le-am cantat
un cantec lor.)

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2. Possessive Pronouns

Pronumele posesiv (sta singur) vs. Adjectivul posesiv (sta in fata unui substantiv)

Mine – 1st person sg. - al meu/ a mea my (cat)- 1st person sg. - meu/ mea

The cat is mine. (Pisica este a mea.) This ismy cat. (Aceasta este pisica mea.)

Yours – 2nd person sg. - al tau/ a ta your (cat)- 2nd person sg. - tau/ ta

His – 3rd person sg. - al lui his (cat)– 3rd person sg. (masculine) - lui

Hers - 3rd person sg. - a ei her (cat)– 3rd person sg. (feminine) - ei

- its (cat)- 3rd person sg. (not for people)- lui/ ei

Ours – 1st person pl. - al nostru/ a nosatra our (cat)- 1st person pl. - noastra/ nostri

Yours – 2nd person pl. - al vostru/ a voastra your (cat)- 2nd person pl. - voastra/ vostri

Theirs – 3rd person pl. - al/ a/ ale lor their (cat)- 3rd person pl. - lor

Expresii cu pronume si adjective posesive:

My best wishes for you and yours from me and mine. (Cele mai bune urari pentru tine si ai tai de la mine si ai
mei.)

I dislike his borrowing money. (Gerund) (Imi displace faptul ca el imprumuta bani.)

Yours sincerely/ faithfully (Al dumneavoastra cu sinceritate - formule de incheiere pentru scrisori formale.)

He lives on his own. (El locuieste singur.)

He is a friend of mine not one of yours. (El este un prieten de-al meu nu unul de-al tau.)

She bought her own house. (Ea si-a cumparat propria casa.)

3. Reflexive/“Self”- Pronouns

Se formeaza din:

Possessive adjective + self (sg.)/ selves (pl.) for 1st and 2nd persons

Object pronoun + self (sg.)/ selves (pl.) for 3rd person

Myself - 1st person sg. - eu insami (feminin)/ eu insumi (masculin)

Yourself – 2nd person sg. - tu insati (feminin)/ insuti (masculin)

Himself – 3rd person sg. - el insusi

Herself – 3rd person sg. - ea insasi

Itself – 3rd person sg. - ea insasi (feminin)/ el insusi (masculin)

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Ourselves - 1st person pl. - noi insene (feminin)/ noi insine (masculin)

Yourselves - 1st person pl. - voi inseva (feminin)/ voi insiva (masculin)

Themselves – 3rd person pl. - ele insele (feminin)/ ei insisi (masculin)

!!! ATENTIE: la plural "self" schimba pe "f" in "v": myself => ourselves

Pronumele de intarire se foloseste:

· reflexiv: e.g. He is washing himself. (El se spala pe sine.)

· emfatic: e.g. He himself went to oversee the project. (El insusi s-a dus sa supervizeze proiectul.)

· cu verbele: absent oneself from (a lipsi), avail oneself of (a se folosi de), betake oneself (a calatori, a se
duce), pride oneself on (a se mandri cu):

e.g. He prides himself on his cars. (El se mandreste cu masinile lui.)

e.g. I availed myself of the house. (M-am folosit de casa.)

· in sens reciproc: e.g. They were arguing among themselves. (Ei se certau intre ei.)

· dupa “as, like, but, except”: e.g. For somebody like myself (me) this is a big surprise. (Pentru cineva ca
mie asta este o mare surpriza.)

Sensuri:

Alone or without help (singur/ fara ajutor): e.g. The girl travelled by herself. (Fata a calatorit de una singura.)

Without help (fara ajutor): ALL + BY + reflexive pronoun: Don’t you feel sad living all by yourself? (Nu te simti
trist sa locuiesti singur fara ajutor?)

Even/ not even (chiar/ nici chiar): Einstein himself could not explain this. (Nici chiar Einstein nu a putut sa
explice asta.)

No less (nu mai putin decat): e.g. It was a portrait that Rembrandt himself (= no less a painter than Rembrandt)
could have painted. (Era un portret pe care Rembrandt insusi l-ar fi putut picta.)

4. Reciprocal Pronouns

EACH OTHER (unul pe altul/ una pe alta - pentru DOUA persoane) and ONE ANOTHER (unii pe altii pentru mai
mult de doua persoane)

The two men greeted each other. (Cei doi barbati s-au salutat unul pe altul.)

The five students helped one another. (Cei cinci studenti s-au ajutat unii pe altii.)

5. Demonstrative Pronouns

This (sg) (acesta/ aceasta)/ these (pl) (acestia/ acestea)/ That (sg) (acela/ aceea)/ those (pl) (aceia/ acelea)

- se folosesc pentru a inlocui un substantiv:

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E.g. Is this (seat) taken? (Este [locul] acesta ocupat?)

- se folosesc pentru a sugera o pozitie: this/ these (aproape), that/ those (departe):

E.g. There is a seat here, near me, and there is that in the first row. (Este un loc aici, langa mine, si este acela in
primul rand.)

- se folosesc in expresii ca: only that/ those (doar acela/ doar aceia)/ those who (aceia care)/ that which (ceea
ce):

E.g. That which annoys me most is his smile. (Ceea ce ma enerveaza cel mai mult este zambetul lui.)

The former (primul din doi)/ the latter (al doilea din doi)

Used when TWO objects are implied (folosit numai cand avem DOUA obiecte/ unitati/ persoane/ etc.):

E.g. I have two evening dresses: the former is blue and the latter is red. (Am doua rochii de seara: prima este
albastra si a doua este rosie.

The first (primul) si the last (ultimul) se folosesc cand ne referim la mai mult de doua lucruri sau persoane:

E.g. I have four good friends: the first is a doctor, the second is a teacher, the third is a dentist and the last is
an engineer. (Am patru prieteni buni: primul este doctor, al doilea este profesor, al treilea este dentist si
ultimul este inginer.)

The same (acelasi/ aceeasi)

Expresii:

I did the same. (Am facut la fel.)

The same boy came yesterday. (Acelasi baiat a venit ieri.)

Same here (Si eu/mie.).

It’s all the same to me. (mi-e egal)

all the same (cu toate acestea)

Such (asa/ asa de)

Expresii:

Such is life. (Asa este viata.)

I have had such a busy day. (Am avut o zi asa de ocupata.)

On such and such a day/ month/ year (in cutare zi/ luna/ an)

A lot of fruit such as oranges and lemons are bad for your stomach. (Multe fructe cum ar fi portocalele si
lamaile sunt rele pentru stomac.)

He gave me his word, such as it was. ( but it wasn’t of much use) (Mi-a dat cuvantul lui, atata cat face.)

So

Folosit dupa verbele say, think, hope, believe, suppose, expect, hear, tell, imagine, fear, be afraid pentru a

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exprima o afirmatie:

“Is she very rich?” “I think so.” (Este bogata? Asa cred./ Cred ca da.)

Folosit pentru a exprima negatii: I don’t think/ believe/ suppose so. (Nu cred asta.)

Folosit cu verbul TO DO pentru a se referi la un verb anterior: I told him to leave and he didso. (I-am spus sa
plece si a facut asa. - a plecat)

Folosit cu TO BE, TO REMAIN, TO SEEM, TO MAKE : It was very useful and I hope it will beso (= useful) in the
future. (A fost foarte folositor si sper ca va fi asa (folositor) in viitor.)

So = also: I love English and so does my sister. (Eu iubesc engleza si asa si sora mea.)

Folosit in idiomuri: Miss so and so (= domnisoara cutare)/ so, so (asa si-asa)

One

Poate fi pronume avand pluralul some : One cannot work so much. (Cineva nu poate munci atat de mult.)/
Some work a lot. (Unii muncesc mult.)

Poate fi un substantiv: Write 102 with one one. (Scrie 102 cu un unu.)

Poate fi numeral: One day was ok, but two days was too much. (O zi era in regula, dar doua zile era prea mult.)

Folosit impersonal: One can’t believe that. (Nu se poate crede asta.)/ One can only do one’s best. (Cineva nu
poate sa faca decat tot posibilul.)

Folosit pentru a inlocui un substantiv anterior: Which dress do you want? The redone or the blue one? (Pe care
rochie o vrei? Pe cea rosie sau pe cea albastra?)

One = only, single (singurul): The one man who could have made me happy has left. (Singurul barbat care m-ar
fi putut face fericita a plecat.)

Folosit pentru a exprima un timp vag: One day he will come back. (Intr-o zi el se va intoarce.)/One of these days
I’ll go to Paris. (Intr-una din zilele asta ma voi duce in Paris.)

Folosit in idiomuri: He can go or he can stay,it’s all one to me. (Poate sa plece sau poate sa stea, imi este
indiferent.)/ He was liked by one and all. (El era placut de toata lumea.)

6. Interrogative Pronouns

WHO (cine - folosit numai pentru fiinte umane si numai in Nominativ): Who is there? (Cine este acolo?)

WHOM (pe cine): Whom did you see? (Pe cine ai vazut?)

WHOSE (a/ al/ ai/ ale cui - posesie): Whose are these gloves? (Ale cui sunt aceste manusi?)

WHICH (care - folosit pentru lucruri, animale si persoane): Which dog do you like? (Care caine iti place?)

!!! ATENTIE: - atunci cand avem de ales dintr-un numar limitat de posibilitati folosimWHICH:

Which will you have: tea or coffee? (Ce doresti: ceai sau cafea?)

Which girls from your class do you like best? (De care fete de la tine din clasa iti place cel mai mult
?)

- atunci cand avem de ales dintr-un numar nelimitat de posibilitati folosimWHAT:

What girls do you like best? (Ce fete iti plac cel mai mult?)

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WHAT (folosit pentru lucruri, o activitate, pentru a intreba despre o profesie sau o nationalitate, in constructii
cu WHAT ... LIKE?, pentru a alege dintr-un numar nelimitat de posibilitati):

What is this? (Ce este aceasta?)

What are you doing? (Ce faci?)

What is that man talking to your mother? He’s Spanish. (Ce este acel barbat care vorbeste cu mama ta? El este
spaniol?)

What is he like? He is tall, blond and gorgeous. (Cum arata el? El este inalt, blond si superb.)

What’s he like as a pianist? He’s not so good. (Cum este el ca pianist? El nu este asa de bun.)

What’s the weather like? Fine. (cum este vremea? Buna.)

What type of beverage do you like? (Ce fel de bautura iti place?)

- se folosesc pentru a introduce intrebari directe: “What happened after that?” (Ce s-a intamplat dupa aceea?)

- se folosesc pentru a introduce intrebari indirecte: He asked mewhat had happened after that. (El m-a intrebat ce s-a
intamplat dupa aceea.)

- se foloseste in expresii idiomatice:

What about a glass of water? (= Would you like? Shall we have?) (Ai dori un pahar cu apa?/ Ce zici de un pahar cu
apa?)

There’s Mr. What’s-his-name (Iata-l pe domnul cum il cheama)

It’s a what-do-you-call-it (Este o/ un ... cum ii zice)

What with high prices and with the economic crisis (ba cu preturile mari si cu criza economica)

It was so dark I couldn’t tellwho was who. (Era intuneric asa ca nu am putut sa imi dau seamacine era cine.)

The twins are so alike that I can’t tellwhich is which. (Gemeni sunt asa de asemanatori ca nu pot sa spuncare este
care.)

There are so many unknown people at this party, you have to tell mewho’s who. (Sunt atatia oameni necunoscuti la
aceasta petrecere, trebuie sa imi spui cine este cine.)

You’ll find his name in Who’s Who. (O sa ii gasesti numele in "Cine este cine". [Who's Who este o carte care contine
informatii despre persoanele proeminente dintr-o tara])

He’s clever, he knows what’s what. (El este destept, el stie cum merg treburile/ stie ce este important.)

What is the English for "cal"? (Cum se spune in limba engleza la cuvantul "cal"?)

What about you? (Dar tu?)

He bought apples, tea, coffee and what not. (El a cumparat mere, ceai, cafea, dar ce nu a cumparat.)

Who on earth is that man? (Cine naiba este acel barbat?)

7. Relative Pronouns

WHO (Nominativ pentru oameni): The man who helped me is here. (Barbatul care m-a ajutat este aici.)

WHOM (complement): The man whom I love. (Barbatul pe care il iubesc.)

WHICH (folosit pentru obiecte, animale, etc. dar NU pentru oameni decat atunci cand inlocuieste un substantiv
colectiv [e.g. team = echipa] si pentru a inlocui o intreaga propozitie):

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The chair which you are sitting on is comfortable. (Scaunul pe care stai este comfortabil.)

The dog which was lost has been found. (Cainele care s-a pierdut a fost gasit.)

The team, which played well, has returned. (Echipa, care a jucat bine, s-a intors.)

He invited us for dinner, which was very nice of him. (El ne-a invitat la cina,ceea ce a fost foarte dragut din partea lui.)

THAT (se foloseste pentru oameni, animale, obiecte, etc.):

The woman that helped you is here. (Femeia care te-a ajutat este aici.)

This is the dog that bit me. (Acesta este cainele care m-a muscat.)

The choice of what relative pronoun to use depends on the RELATIVE CLAUSE (AT) in which it appears (Alegerea
pronumelui relativ depinde de tipul de subordonata atributiva in care apare):

DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE:

- necessary ideas, if left out the sentence does not make complete sense (exprima idei necesare, daca
atributiva este omisa, atunci propozitia nu mai are sensul complet)

e.g. The man [(that/ who) you spoke to] was my brother. (Barbatul c
[ u care ai vorbit] era fratele meu. - Daca
omitem subordonata, obtinem Barbatul era fratele meu. - propozitia pare incompleta, se simte ca lipseste
ceva)

- the pronoun can be omitted if it is in the objective case (pronumele relativ poate fi omis daca este
complement in propozitie):

e.g. The man [(who/ that) you spoke with] is special. (Barbatul [(cu care) tu ai vorbit] este special. - who/ that
se poate omite pentru ca este complement in atributiva/ atributiva are subiectul you)

The man [who/ that spoke with you] is special. (Barbatul [care a vorbit cu tine] este special. - who/ that nu
se poate omite pentru ca este subiectul in atributiva)

NON- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE:

- the ideas could be omitted and the rest of the sentence would still make sense (ideile pot fi omise si restul
propozitiei tot are sens)

- they stay between commas (atributiva sta intre virgule)

- the pronoun is NEVER omitted (pronumele relativ nu este NICIODATA omis)

e.g. Shakespeare[, who that wrote many plays,] died in 1616. (Shakespeare, care a scris multe piese de teatru,
a murit in anul 1616.)

Daca omitem propozitia atributiva obtinem: Shakespeare died in 1616. (Shakespeare a murit in 1616.) -
propozitia are complet sens si fara atributiva

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! NEVER use THAT in a NON- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE (pronumele THAT nu se foloseste
NICIODATA in acest tip de atributiva) e.g The dog[,
which that bit my
sister,] belongs to you. (Cainele, care a muscat-o pe sora mea, iti apartine
tie.)

Cuvintele de mai jos se pot combina cu pronume relative in felul urmator:

Some

Most

Many

Little OF WHICH (pentru animale, obiecte, plante, etc. dar NU oameni)/ WHOSE (al/ a/ ai/ ale
caruia)/ WHOM (pe care/ cu care)

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Few

None

Neither

Either

There are many people some of whose children are smart. (Sunt multi oameni ai caror copii sunt destepti.)

There were many beautiful women there none of whom looked at me. (Erau multe femei frumoase acolo dintre care
nici una nu s-a uitat la mine.)

Expresii cu pronume relative:

He who (cel care)/ she who (cea care)/ the one who (acela care)/ that which (ceea ce)/ those who (aceia care)

e.g. He who laughs last laughs best. (Cel care rade la urma rade mai bine.)

That which does not kill you makes you stronger. (Ceea ce nu te omoara te face mai puternic.)

8. Indefinite Pronouns

Each one (fiecare), everybody (toata lumea), everything (totul), everyone (toti) + vb. Sg.: e.g. Everybody is here.
(Toata lumea este aici.)

Everybody/ everyone sunt inlocuite cu THEY: e.g. Everybody knows that they have to come early. (Toata lumea
stie ca trebuie sa vina devreme.)/ Everyone knew it, didn’t they? (Toti stiau asta, nu-i asa?)

Everything se inlocuieste cu IT: e.g. Everything is fine, isn’t it? (Totul este bine, nu-i asa?)

Every vs. Each:

I. EVERY gathers the separate items into a whole (every aduna obiectele separate intr-un intreg), we think of
things as a group (ne gandim la lucruri ca un grup),every = all (de obicei folosit pentru un numar mare):

e.g. I want to visit every country in the world = all the countries (Vreau sa vizitez fiecare tara din lume - cu
sensul de toate tarile):

e.g. Every sentence must have a verb. ->all sentences (Fiecare propozitie trebuie sa aiba un verb. - cu sensul
de toate propozitiile, este ca o definitie pentru toate propozitiile)

II. EACH disperses the unity and focuses on the items individually , separately, one by one - usually used for a
small number (each desparte unitatea si se axeaza pe obiecte luate individual, separat, unul cate unul - se
foloseste pentru un numar mic de obiecte)

e.g. There were four books on the table. Each book was a different colour. (Erau patru carti pe masa. Fiecare
carte avea o culoare diferita.):

Study each sentence carefully. (one by one) (Studiaza fiecare propozitie cu atentie.)

They were each given a book. (Lor li s-a dat fiecaruia o carte.)

1. ‘Each’ is used when there are two objects; here ‘every’ is not used (each se foloseste atunci cand avem
doua obiecte - every nu se foloseste aici):

e.g. He wore multiple bracelets on each hand (note: singular noun).(El purta mai multe bratati pe fiecare
mana. - atentie, subst. mana este la singular)

There were two of them. They each carried a backpack, and each backpack (note: singular noun)
contained clothes. (Erau doi. Fiecare [din cei doi] cara un rucsac si fiecare rucsac continea haine.)
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!!! In case there are more than two objects, either of the two may be used. (daca avem mai mult de doua obiecte
ambele se pot folosi):

e.g. There is a bathroom in each/every room. (Este o baie in fiecare camera.)

2. ‘Each’ can be used as a pronoun, but ‘every’ cannot. (each poate fi folosi ca pronume, dar every nu poate fi
pronume.)

e.g. The students were waiting for the question sheets to be handed out. (Studentii asteptau ca foile cu
intrebari sa fie inmanate.)

Each was in a state of great nervousness. (Fiecare era foarte nervos.)

The students were waiting for the question sheets to be handed out. (Studentii asteptau ca foile cu
intrebari sa fie inmanate.)

Every student/one of them was in a state of great nervousness. (Fiecarestudent/ Fiecare dintre ei era
foarte nervos.)

(‘each’ inlocuieste substantivul ‘student’. ‘Every’ nu poate inlocui substantivul singur, trebuie sa fie urmat de
un substantiv sau de: ‘one of them’)

3. !!! Cu adverbele (practically, nearly, almost, etc), doar ‘every’ se poate folosi. In urmatoarele propozitii,
‘every’ nu poate fi inlocuit de ‘each’:

e.g. She knew practically every detail of his daily routine. (Ea stia practic fiecare detaliu al programului lui
zilnic.)

Nearly every fruit on the cart was spoilt. (Aproape fiecare fruct din caruta era stricat.)

4. ‘Every’ este folosit pentru a exprima evenimente repetate sau in expresii:

e.g. We meet every so often. (Noi ne intalnim din cand in cand.)

They visit their parents every six months. (Ei isi viziteaza parintii din sase in sase luni.)

I met them every other day/ every two days. (Eu ii intalnesc pe ei din doua in doua zile.)

I see her every now and then. (Eu o vad pe ea din cand in cand.)

This is every bit as good as the real one. (Asta este la fel de buna ca cea adevarata.)

He is every inch a gentleman. (El este un domn din cap pana in picioare.)

You have every right to be angry. (Ai tot dreptul sa fi suparat.)

There is every reason to think he will get upset. (Ai tot motivul sa crezi ca el se va supara.)

All – folosit ca pronume + vb. sg: All is good. (Totul este bine.)

+ vb. pl.: All were present at the meeting. (Toti erau prezenti la intalnire.)

- folosit ca adjectiv + vb. sg.: All the money is spent. (= the whole of) (Toti banii sunt cheltuiti.)

+ vb. pl.: All the pupils were present there. (Toti elevii erau prezenti acolo.)

Either/ neither

Either + vb. sg.= oricare din DOI: “Which one of the two apples do you want?” (Pe care dintre cele doua mere le

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vrei?)

“Either will do.” (Oricare e bun.)

Neither + vb. sg.= nici unul din DOI: I have two friends and neither is here now. (Am doi prieteni si nici unul din
ei nu este aici acum.)

Neither + S1 + nor + S2 + vb. (acordul se face cu S2) = nici ... nici ...

e.g. Neither Tom nor his sister is at home. (Nici Tom nici sora lui nu este acasa.)

Neither Tom nor his sisters are at home. (Nici Tom nici surorile lui nu sunt acasa.)

Either + S1 + or + S2 + vb. (acordul se face cu S2) = ori ... ori ...

e.g. Either Tom or his sister is at home. (Ori Tom ori sora lui este acasa.)

Either Tom or his sisters are at home. (Ori Tom ori surorile lui sunt acasa.)

Neither + positive verb + S: I don’t like him and neither does my sister. (Eu nu il plac pe el si nici sora mea nu il
place.)

S + negative verb + either: I don’t like him and my sister doesn’t either. (Eu nu il plac pe el si sora mea nu il
place de asemenea.)

Both + vb. plural: Both books are interesting. (Amandoua cartile sunt interesante.)

Both + S + and + S + Vb. Pl. = si ... si... : e.g. Both Tom and James are students. (Si Tom si James sunt studenti.)

None (nici unul din mai muti - de la trei in sus)/ nobody (nimeni), nothing (nimic), no one (nimeni)

No – folosit in fata substantivelor: He is no fool. (El nu este prost.)/ Have no fear. (Nu avea teama.)

None este forma pronominala a lui "no" si inlocuieste un substantiv:

e.g. She tried to find some courage. But none came. (No courage came.) (Ea a incercat sa gaseasca curaj. Dar
nici unul nu a venit.)

!!!! When none is the subject, the verb is either singular or plural depending on what it is referring to. (Cand
none este subiect atunci verbul poate sta ori la singular ori la plural depinzand de substantivul la care se
refera):

e.g. I’m always looking for inspiration. None ever comes. (Mereu caut inspiratie. Nici una nu imi vine vreodata.)

She’s always looking for ideas. None ever come. (Ea cauta idei mereu. Nici unele nu ii vin vreodata.)

None of + substantiv/ pronume (this, that, my, your):

e.g. None of his old friends knew what had happened to him. (Nici unul din prietenii lui vechi nu stia ce s-a
intamplat cu el.)

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None of this matters. (Nimic din asta nu conteaza. )

!!! Nu se foloseste none of cand avem deja o negatie la verb (not, n’t):

e.g. She doesn’t remember any of us. (Ea nu isi aminteste de nici unul din noi.)

Not: She doesn’t remember none of us.

Nobody/ no one + vb. sg. este inlocuit cu pronumele THEY: Nobody is here. They all left home. (Nimeni nu este
aici. Ei au plecat toti acasa.)

Nothing + vb. sg. este inlocuit cu pronumele IT: Nothing is forever, is it? (Nimic nu este pentru totdeauna, nu-i
asa?)

Somebody (cineva), something (ceva), someone (cineva)

Some (niste)

- folosit cu substantive nenumarabile: Some advice is good.

- folosit in intrebari cand avem o invitatie, o cerere sau cand ne asteptam ca raspunsul sa fie afirmativ: Will you
have some more tea? (Mai doresti niste ceai?)/ Would you like some coffee? Yes, please. (Ati dori niste cafea?
Da, va rog.)

- folosit cu persoane + vb. pl. : Some boys were early. (Unii baieti au venit devreme.)

Somebody/ someone + vb. sg. dar este inlocuit cu pronumele THEY: Somebody is asking about you. They
won’t tell their name. (Cineva intreaba de tine. Ei nu vor sa isi spuna numele.)

Something + vb. sg. inlocuit cu pronumele IT: Something is there, isn’t it? (Ceva este acolo, nu-i asa?) Se
foloseste ca si comparatie: He is something like his father. (El este ca tatal lui.)

Somewhat + of: He is somewhat of a wizard. (El este un fel de vrajitor.)

!!! ATENTIE: some si compusii lui se folosesc in propozitii afirmative. In propozitii negative si interogative este
inlocuit de any si compusii lui.

I have some free time. (Am ceva timp liber.)

I don't have any free time. (Nu am nici un timp liber.)

Do you have any free time? (Ai ceva timp liber?)

Anybody (oricare/ oricine), anything (ceva), anyone (oricine) (folosite de obicei in propozitii negative si
interogative)

Any – cu persoanes + vb. pl. : Any who cheat will be punished. (Oricine care inseala va fi pedepsit?)

Any + adjectiv/ too: He isn’t any different from you. (El nu este foarte diferit de tine.)/ I am notany too eager to
go there. (Nu sunt prea nerabdator sa ma duc acolo.)

Hardly/ scarcely/ barely + any (aproape deloc/ mai nimic): I have hardly any time to waste. (Nu am aprope deloc
timp de pierdut.)

Any = no particular one/ practically every (oricine/ orice/ oricare): Any woman knows that. (Orice femeie stie
asta.)

Any of: Any of these men would help you. (Oricare dintre acesti barbati te-ar ajuta.)

Anybody/ anyone + vb. sg. dar inlocuit cu pronumele THEY: Anybody knows that, but they don't talk about it.
(Oricine stie asta, dar ei nu vorbesc despre asta.)
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Anything of: Have you seen anything of Mary lately? (Ai vazut-o pe Maria in ultimul timp?)

Much/ many/ less/ (a) few/ (a) little

Many and few -> folosite cu substantive numarabile la plural: I have many/ few books. (Am multe/ putine carti.)

Much and little -> folosite cu substantive nenumarabile (vb. sg.): I haven’t got much money. (Nu am multi bani.)

Few (the lack of something - folosit cand ceva nu este deajuns, lipseste)vs. A few (something still remains -
folosit cand ceva este deajuns sau destul) + substantive numarabile:

There are few sweets left in the jar. (We should be careful not to eat them too quickly because they are almost
gone.)

Mai sunt putine dulciuri ramase in borcan. (Trebuie sa fim atenti sa nu le mancam prea repede pentru ca sunt
aproape terminate.)

We have a few minutes left in class. Do you have any questions? (We still have time so we should use it.)

Mai avem cateva minute ramase din ora. Aveti intrebari? (Inca mai avem timp asa ca ar trebui sa il folosim.)

Little (the lack of something - folosit cand ceva lipseste/ nu este destul)vs. A little (something still remains -
folosit cand ceva inca mai este/ este destul) + substantive nenumarabile:

I have little money left, I can’t buy that book. (There isn’t enough money to buy the book)

Am putini bani ramasi, nu pot sa cumpar acea carte. (Nu sunt destui bani sa cumpar cartea.)

I have a little money so we can go to the restaurant. (There isn’t very much money, but enough to go to the
restaurant)

Mai am ceva bani asa ca putem merge la restaurant. (Nu sunt foarte multi bani, dar destui cat sa mergem la
restaurant.)

Another (un altul/ o alta)/ other (altul/ alta/ altii/ altele)

Another + substantiv (sg.): She became another woman. (Ea a devenit o alta femeie.)

Another ca pronume: One girl was singing, another was playing the piano. (O fata canta, o alta canta la pian.)

Other + substantiv sg. ori pl.: Other women saw this, too. (Alte femei au vazut asta de asemenea.)/ The other
boy was happy. (Celalalt baiat era fericit.)

Other than: He never forced me to lie other than I wished. (El nu m-a fortat niciodata sa mint decat cat am vrut.)

Every other: They meet every other week. (Ei se intalnesc din doua in doua saptamani.)

Other + -s: Others have seen this film. (Altii au vazut acest film.)

Enough (destul)/ several (cativa/ cateva)

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Enough + substantiv (pl.)/ substantiv nenumarabil (sg.):

e.g. There are enough people here. (Sunt destui oameni aici.)

We have enough good food. (Noi avem destula mancare buna.)

Adjectiv + enough: She is beautiful enough. (Ea este destul de frumoasa.)

Several + substantiv (pl.): He has made several mistakes. (El a facut cateva greseli.)

One = oameni in general (pronume nehotarat - cineva in general, folosit impersonal):

e.g. One would think they’d have more patience. (S-ar crede [de catre cineva] ca ei ar avea mai multa rabdare.)

One of + substantiv/ pronume + pronume relativ:

e.g. He is one of the few teachers I know who can teach you this. (El este unul dintre putinii profesori pe care ii
stiu care te poate invata asta.)

One of + Adjectiv la gradul superlativ + substantiv pl.:

e.g. She is one of the most beautiful girls I know. (ea este una dintre cele mai frumoase fete pe care le cunosc.)

One of -> he, she, it: One of my friends said he enjoyed himself at the party. (Unul dintre prietenii mei a spus ca
s-a distrat la petrecere.)

One (impersonal) -> one’s, oneself:

e.g. One can never know oneself/ one’s soul. (Nu te poti cunoaste pe tine insuti./ Nu poti sa iti cunosti niciodata
propriul suflet.)

Subject Object Possessive Possessive Reflexive

Pronouns Pronouns Adjectives Pronouns Pronouns

I me my mine myself

You you your yours yourself

He him his his himself

She her her hers herself

It it its - itself

We us our ours ourselves

You you your yours yourselves

They them their theirs themselves

20. The Numeral

1. The cardinal numeral (Numeralul cardinal)

0 – zero/ nil (folosit in football, ice hockey, etc.)/ love (folosit in tenis)/ duck (folosit in cricket)/ naught (nought)

1 – one

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2 – two

3 – three

4 – four

5 – five

6 – six

7 – seven

8 – eight

9 – nine

10 – ten

11 – eleven

12 – twelve

13 – thirteen (intre 13 si 19 se adauga terminatia -teen)

14 – fourteen

15 – fifteen

16 – sixteen

17 – seventeen

18 – eighteen

19 – nineteen

20 – twenty

21 - twenty-one (se pune cratima)

30 – thirty

40 – fourty -> forty (40 se formeaza din four si terminatia -ty dar il pierde pe "u")

50 – fifty -> five se schimba in fif + -ty

60 – sixty

70 – seventy

80 – eighty

90 – ninety

100 – one hundred / two hundred/ three hundred (nu se pune -s daca avem numar in fata)

1,000 – one thousand/ two thousand

1,000,000 – one million/ two million (no –s)

Hundreds of people (se foloseste –s daca nu este numar in fata) -> sute de oameni

You have to write ... words for this essay.

a) three hundreds

b) three hundred

c) threehundred

d) threes hundred

Two of them (number + of + pronoun/ noun) (doi dintre ei)

They came in tens, but then in hundreds of thousands. (Ei au venit cu zecile, dar apoi cu sutele de mii.)

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They entered in twos. (insemnand grupuri cuprinzand numarul dat) (Ei au intrat cate doi.)

She seems to be in her early thirties. (Ea pare sa fie la inceputul varstei de 30 de ani. - adica are 31, 32, 33 sau 34
de ani.)

She seems to be in her mid thirties. (Ea pare sa fie la mijlocul varstei de 30 de ani. - adica are 35 de ani.)

She seems to be in her late thirties.(Ea pare sa fie la finalul varstei de 30 de ani.-adica are 36, 37, 38 sau 39 de ani)

Your 4’s are very well written. (pluralul numerelor se face: numar+’s) (Cifrele tale de patru sunt bine scrise.)

Gate three/ chapter five/ bus 23 (numeralul cardinal se foloseste pentru porti, capitole si autobuze.)

Expresii :

He went down on all fours. (El a mers in patru labe.)

This crew are all at sixes and sevens (= confused) (Tot acest echipaj este confuz.)

They were dressed up to the nines (= smartly/ elegantly) for the party. (Ei erau imbtacati foarte elegant pentru
petrecere.)

He is ten times better than you. (El este de zece ori mai bun ca tine.)

She was talking nineteen to the dozen. (= talk rapidly and energetically) (Ea vorbea foarte repede.)

He was having his forty winks.(=sleeping) (El dormea.)

The hundred and one problems of the company were solved. (Cele o suta unu probleme ale companiei au fost
rezolvate.)

I have a thousand and one things to look after. (Trebuie sa am grija de foarte multe lucruri.)

Send a thousand thanks to Mary. (Trimite-i mii de multumiri lui Mary.)

All five of us were afraid. (Ne era teama la toti cinci dinte noi.)

A boy of seven (a 7-year-old boy) was playing outside. (Un baiat de 7 ani se juca afara.)

I am twenty-one/ twenty-one years old/ one and twenty. (Am 21 de ani.) -> in limba engleza varsta se poate exprima
spunand doar cifra sau adaugand la cifra years old sau punand revers, DAR nu se poate spune doar cu years fara
old. I am twenty-one years)

Cut the cake in four. (Taie prajitura in patru.)

She was a lovely girl in her teens (in her aloscence). (Ea era o fata draguta in adolescenta.)

A four (= a boat rowed by four) (O barca vaslita de patru oameni.)

There is a 32 (= a bus 32) (Iata ca vine {autobuzul} 32.)

The two of trumps (in card games) (Doiul de trefla.)

He hit a four (in cricket) (A inscris patru puncte.)

!! Ten dollars is a lot of money for a child. (folositi verbul la singular pentru a va referi la intregul numar)

!! Pentru a exprima aproximatia se foloses cuvintele “about”, “or so”, “some”, “odd”:

e.g. I want about twenty kilos. (Vreau cam douazeci kg.)

There was a theft some three years ago. (A fost un furt cam acum trei ani.)

The book has two hundred odd pages. (Cartea avea in jur de 200 de pagini.)

I will be busy in the next four hoursor so. (Voi fi ocupat in urmatoarele patru ore sau cam asa ceva.)

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2. The Ordinal Numeral (Numeralul ordinal)

The first – 1st (primul)

The second – 2nd (al doilea)

The third – 3rd (al treilea)

The fourth – 4th (al patrulea)

The fifth – 5th

The sixth – 6th

The seventh – 7th

The eighth – 8th

The ninth – 9th

The twelfth – 12th

The twentieth – 20th

The twenty-first – 21st

The thirty-second – 32nd

The forty-third – 43rd

The fifty-fourth – 54th

Expressing dates:

7th February 2014/ the 7th of February 2014/ February 7th, 2014/ February the 7th, 2014

Expressions:

Every second day/ every third day (din doua in doua zile/ din trei in trei zile.)

After the twenty- somethingth attempt I decided to give up. (Dupa a nu stiu cata incercare am decis sa renunt.)

For the umpteenth time she did “Swan Lake”. (very many) (Pentru a nu stiu cata oara ea a jucat in "Lacul lebedelor".)

To have a second sight (clairvoyance) (A fi clarvazator.)

To have a sixth sense (A avea al saselea simt.)

I know it from a third party. (Stiu asta de la altcineva.)

To be in the seventh heaven. (A fi in al saptelea cer.)

He is the second youngest son. (El este al doilea cel mai tanar fiu/ penultimul fiu.)

It is the third largest city in the world. (Este al treilea mare oras din lume.)

India is the second most popular tourist attraction. (India este a doua dintre cele mai populare atractii turistice.)

At the eleventh hour = at the last possible moment. (Just before the last clock hour, 12) (in ultimul moment posibil)

e.g. She always turned her term papers in at the eleventh hour. (Ea intotdeauna isi inmana lucrarile in ceasul al 12-lea.)

3. Numeral adverbial

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Once (odata)

Twice (de doua ori)

Three times/ thrice (de trei ori)

Four times (de patru ori)

Five times (de cinci ori)

Expressions: She will pay four or five times more if she has to. (Ea va plati de patru sau cinci ori mai mult daca trebuie.)

Two times three is six. (2X3=6)

They do this twice a week. (Ei fac asta de doua ori pe saptamana.)

4. Fractiile

Numeralul cardinal -> numerator SI Numeralul ordinal -> denominator + (s)

E.g. Two thirds (dua treimi)/ three eights (trei optimi)/ one third (o treime)/ one tenth (o zecime)

A quarter (un sfert) = one fourth (o patrime)

Half = 1/2 (jumatate)

!! Expresii:

Half naked (jumtate dezbracat)

Half a gale (masuratoare pentru vant)

Half baked (jumatate copt)

A two-thirds majority ( fractions keep the plural when used as adjectives) (O majoritate de doua treimi.)

A three-quarter majority (quarter is not in the pl.) (O majoritate de trei sferturi.)

Two miles and a half/ two and a half miles (2 mile si jumatate)

5. Numerele colective:

They express the numerical idea of plural under the form of singular (exprima ideea numerica de plural sub forma
de singular):

!!! ATENTIE: se considera ca sunt numere si ca atare nu primes -s atunci cand au cifra in fata

E.g.

- couple = 2 – a couple of hours (doua ore)

- pair = 2 – a pair of shoes (o pereche de pantofi)

- brace = 2 two brace of duck (patru rate) (a brace of quail - doua potarnichii) -> folosit cu pasari

- dozen = 12 -> I want to buytwo dozen eggs. (Vreau sa cumpar doua duzini de oua.)

- score = un grup de 20 - folosit adesea cu un numeral cardinal: fourscore–> There were four score of people in the
yard. (Erau 80 de oameni in curte.)

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- yoke = 2 – a yoke of oxen(o pereche de boi)

- span = 2 - o pereche de animale (de exemplu: mules = catari, horses = cai) care arata la fel: e.g. a span of horses
(doi cai)

!!! A baker’s dozen = 13 (Bakers often added an extra item to an order for a dozen. - este o expresie care are explicatia in
faptul ca in trecut brutarii adesea adaugau o bucata extra pentru o comanda de o duzina)

e.g. We ended up with a baker's dozen each of socks on our shopping trip. (Am sfarsit prin a avea fiecare13 sosete
cand am facut cumparaturi.)

6. Numeralul multiplicativ/ distributiv

- exprima de cate ori ceva este facut sau de cate ori ceva s-a marit:

E.g. fourfold (impatrit), tenfold (inzecit), single (singur), double (dublu), triple (triplu)

- Numeralele distributive exprima distributia in grupuri egale:

E.g. One at a time (unul odata)

By tens (cu zecile)

Two by two/ three by three (doi cate doi/ trei cate trei)

By the dozen (cu duzina)

In twos/ in fours/ in tens (cate doi/ cate patru/ cate zece)

Expresii: Let’s try to solve the problems one at a time. (Hai sa incercam sa rezolvam problemele una cate una.)

First they came in twos, but later in tens. (La inceput au venit cate doi, dar mai tarziu cate zece.)

Folosirea semnelor de punctuatie:

- se foloseste o virgula atunci cand avem numere mari de la o mie in sus (spre deosebire de limba romana unde
se pune un punct):

1,000,000/ 2,000/ 1,500/ 1,450 -> in romana se scriu cu punct: 1.000.000/ 2.000/ 1.500/ 1.450

- se foloseste punct atunci cand avem numere cu virgula in romana:

5.50/ 1.25/ 0.58 -> in romana se scriu cu virgula: 5,50/ 1,25/ 0,58/ etc.

- se foloseste apostrof pentru contragerea anilor sau pentru a pune anii la plural:

1974 -> ’74 (in '74 -> in anul 1974)

I was born in the early 1970’s. (M-am nascut in prima parte a anilor '70) (se poate face plural pentru ani si fara
apostrof: 1970s)

- se foloseste cratima de la 20 la 100:

Twenty-one = 21

Concordanta verbului:
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- Termeni de masura la plural se folosesc cu verbul la singular:

Nearly thirty pounds was paid for a bag. (Aproape 30 de lire s-a platit pentru o geanta.)

Four years seems a long time. (patru ani pare un timp lung.)

Here is five shillings. (It refers to the amount) (cu verbul la singular cand se refera la cantitate)

Here are five shillings. (It refers to the coins) (cu verbul la plural cand se refera la monede luate in parte)

Twenty divided by five equals four. (20 impartit la 5 este egal cu 4.)

Three plus three equals (are) six.(3 plus 3 este egal cu 6.)

Three times three is (are) nine. (3 x 3 = 9)

21. Tag Questions


Intrebarile disjunctive se traduc cu "nu-i asa" in limba romana.

Daca in Propozitia Principala avem verb pozitiv atunci se foloseste auxiliarul timpului din Propozitia Principala lanegativ:

She is nice, isn’t she? (Ea este draguta, nu-i asa?)

Daca in Propozitia Principala avem verb negativ atunci se foloseste auxiliarul timpului din Propozitia Principala lapozitiv:

She isn’t nice, is she? (Ea nu este draguta, nu-i asa?)

Present Simple: We love Star Wars, don’t we?/ We don’t like Star Trek, do we? (Noi iubim filmul Razboiul Stelelor, nu-i asa?/ Noi
nu iubim filmul Star Trek, nu-i asa?)

Present Simple: He loves girls, doesn’t he?/ He doesn’t like fish, does he? (El iubeste fetele, nu-i asa?/ Lui nu-i place pestele, nu-i
asa?)

Present Simple: !!! I am happy, aren’t I/ am I not?/ I am not satisfied, am I? (Eu sunt fericit, nu-i asa?/ Eu nu sunt satisfacut, nu-i
asa?)

(La persoana I singular pentru verbul TO BE se foloseste ARE la negatie. Se poate folosi si forma lunga AM I NOT)

Present Continuous: I am talking now, aren't I?/ am I not? (Eu vorbesc acum, nu-i asa?)

Present Continuous: They are coming tomorrow, aren’t they? (Ei vin maine, nu-i asa?)

Present Continuous: She is talking on the phone, isn’t she?/ She isn’t playing the computer, is she? (Ea vorbeste la telefon, nu-i
asa?/ Ea nu se joaca la calculator, nu-i asa?)

Present Perfect Simple: You have seen her already, haven’t you?/ You haven’t eaten yet, have you? (Tu ai vazut-o deja, nu-i
asa?/ Tu nu ai mancat inca, nu-i asa?)

Present Perfect Simple: She has already left, hasn’t she?/ She hasn't eaten, has she? (Ea a plecat deja, nu-i asa?/ Ea nu a
mancat, nu-i asa?)

Past Simple: They saw her yesterday, didn’t they?/ They didn’t eat lobster, did they? (Ei au vazut-o pe ea ieri, nu-i asa?/ Ei nu au
mancat homar, nu-i asa?)

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Past Continuous: They were running, weren't they?/ I wasn't sleeping, was I? (Ei alergau, nu-i asa?/ Eu nu dormeam, nu-i asa?)

Past Continuous Passive Voice: They were being followed, weren’t they? (Ei erau urmariti, nu-i asa?)

Past Perfect Simple: They had left, hadn't they?/ They hadn't arrived, had they? (Ei plecasera, nu-i asa?/ Ei nu sosisera, nu-i
asa?)

Future Simple: She will help you tomorrow, won’t she?/ She won’t come early, will she? (Ea te va ajuta maine, nu-i asa?/ Ea nu va
veni devreme, nu-i asa?)

Future Simple: I shall be there, shan’t I?/ I shall not/ shan’t see to it, shall I? (Eu voi fi acolo, nu-i asa?/ Eu nu ma voi ocupa de
asta, nu-i asa?)

!!! HAVE TO si HAS TO fac negatia cu DO si respectiv DOES:

You have to be more careful, don’t you? (Tu trebuie sa fi mai atent, nu-i asa?)

You don’t have to be more careful, do you? (Tu nu trebuie sa fi mai atent, nu-i asa?)

She has to come early, ...? (negatia este: She doesn’t have to come) (Ea trebuie sa vina devreme, nu-i asa)

a) Doesn’t she

b) Does she

c) Hasn’t she

d) Didn’t see

!!! Atentie: daca avem Prezent Perfect atunci folosim auxiliarele HAVE si respectiv HAS:

She has arrived late, ...? (negatia este: She hasn’t arrived late.) (Ea a sosit tarziu, nu-i asa?)

a) Has she

b) Hadn’t she

c) Hasn’t she

d) Doesn’t she

We have arrived, haven't we? (Noi am sosit, nu-i asa? -> Present Perfect Simple)/ Wehave to arrive, don't we? (Noi trebuie sa
sosim, nu-i asa? -> Constructie cu have to)

She has arrived, hasn't she? (Ea a sosit, nu-i asa? -> Present Perfect Simple)/ Shehas to arrive, doesn't she? (Ea trebuie sa
soseasca, nu-i asa? -> Constructie cu have to)

!!! HAD TO face negatia cu DIDN'T:

I had to leave earlier, didn’t I? (A trebuit sa plec mai devreme, nu-i asa?)

I didn’t have to leave earlier, did I? (Nu a trebuit sa plec mai devreme, nu-i asa?)

Nu confundati cu Past Perfect unde negatia se face cu auxiliarul HAD:

I had seen her before she left, hadn’t I?

!!!!!!! USED TO face negatia cu DID:

I used to walk in the park, didn’t I? (Eu obisnuiam sa ma plimb prin parc, nu-i asa?)

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I didn’t use to walk a lot, did I? (Eu nu obisnuiam sa merg mult, nu-i asa?)

!!!!!! Expresiile HAD BETTER si WOULD RATHER/ WOULD SOONER fac prescurtarea in acelasi fel, 'D, ceea ce poate crea
confuzii:

You’d better leave, ... (Mai bine ai pleca, nu-i asa?)

a) hadn’t you? (You’d better = you had better = tu mai bine ai ...)

b) wouldn’t you? (there is NO would better BUT would rather)

c) haven’t you?

d) had you?

You’d rather stay, ... (tu ai prefera sa stai, nu-i asa?)

a) wouldn’t you? (I’d rather = I would rather/ would sooner=eu as prefera)

b) hadn’t you?(there is NO had rather BUT would rather)

c) would you?

d) had you?

!!!! MUST poate exprima deductie, obligatie sau interdictie. In functie de ce exprima se alege auxiliarul.

1. Daca MUST exprima DEDUCTIE atunci se ia in considerare verbul de dupa MUST si se pune auxiliarul BE sau DO in
functie de verb :

You must be happy, aren’t you? (deduction/ assumption) (Tu trebuie sa fi fericit, nu-i asa?) - aici verbul BE urmeaza dupa
MUST deci este YOU ARE si folosim ARE in intrebare

She must be the new teacher, isn't she? (deduction/ assumption) (Ea trebuie sa fie noua profesoara, nu-i asa?) - aici verbul BE
urmeaza dupa MUST deci este SHE IS si folosim IS in intrebare

I must be crazy to like him, aren’t I? (deduction/ assumption) (Trebuie ca sunt nebun sa il plac, nu-i asa?) - aici verbulBE
urmeaza dupa MUST deci este I AM si folosim ARE pt. negatiein intrebare

Wow, Robert is a flight attendent, he must fly a lot, doesn't he? (deduction/ assumption) (Wow Robert este stuadez, trebuie ca
zboara mult, nu-i asa?)- aici verbul FLY urmeaza dupa MUST deci avem HE FLIES si folosim DOES la negatie

They must like children since they have so many, don’t they? (deduction/ assumption) (Trebuie ca le plac copiii daca au asa de
multi, nu-i asa?) - aici verbul LIKE urmeaza dupa MUST deci avem THEY LIKE si folosim DO la negatie

2. Daca MUST exprima obligatie atunci se foloseste MUSTN'T:

She must come tomorrow, mustn’t she? (obligation) (Ea trebuie sa vina maine, nu-i asa?)

3. Daca MUST exprima interdictie atunci se foloseste MUST:

You mustn’t leave, must you? (prohibition) (Tu nu au voie sa pleci, nu-i asa?)

Daca avem OUGHT TO putem face negatia in intrebare cu SHOULDN'T sau OUGHTN'T:

She should be ok, shouldn’t she?/ She shouldn’t be OK, should she? (Ea ar trebui sa fie OK, nu-i asa?/ Ea nu ar trebui sa fie OK,
nu-i asa?)

You ought to listen to him, oughtn’t you/ shouldn’t you? (Tu trebuie sa il asculti, nu-i asa?)

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MAY face negatia in intrebarile disjunctive cu MIGHTN'T sau MAY ... NOT:

She may be ill, mightn’t she?/ may she not? (E posibil ca ea sa fie bolnava, nu-i asa?

They might come sooner, mightn’t they? (Ei s-ar purea sa vina main devreme, nu-i asa?)

!!!ATENTIE: daca avem o negatie intr-o propozitie din fraza atunci toata fraza se considera negativa si se pune auxiliar pozitiv in
intrebarea disjunctiva:

I don’t think / that she was happy, was she? (Nu cred ca era fericita, nu-i asa?)

I think / that she wasn’t happy, was she? (Cred ca ea nu era fericita, nu-i asa?)

Urmatoarele cuvinte sunt considerate negative si deci cand sunt folosite in propozitie se iaverb pozitiv in intrebarea disjunctiva:
hardly, scarcely, barely, little, few, rarely, never

I can hardly (-) talk, (+) can I? (Abia pot sa vorbesc, nu-i asa?)

I have little (-) sugar left, (+) do I? (Am putin zahar ramas, nu-i asa?)

They like few (-) films, (+) do they? (Lor le plac putine filme, nu-i asa?)

!!!!!!!!!! LET'S (hai sa) sau LET US (hai sa) vor folosi SHALL WE in intrebarea disjunctiva:

Let’s go to the cinema, shall we?/ Let us procede, shall we? (Hai sa mergem la cinema!/ Hai sa incepem!)

Let us adjourn the meeting, ...? (let us = let’s) (Hai sa incheiem intalnirea!)

a) Shan’t we

b) Will we

c) Shall we

d) Can we

Daca avem alte pronume decat us dupa let (de ex. her/ him/ them) atunci se considera ca este un ordin si pentru ordine
se foloseste WILL:

Let her go out, ...? (let her = allow her) (Las-o sa plece, te rog!)

a) Will you (order)

b) Shall you

c) Can you

d) Won’t you

Have a cake, won’t you? (invitation) (Pentru invitatii se foloseste WON'T)

Give me a hand, could you? (request) (Pentru cereri se foloseste COULD)

Go away, will you? (order) (Pentru ordine se foloseste WILL)

Close the door, would you? (polite request) (Pentru cerere politicoasa se foloseste WOULD)

Don’t do that again, will you? (polite request) (Pentru cerere politicoasa se foloseste WILL)

Give Jill a lift, can you? (informal request) (Pentru cerere informala se foloseste CAN)

Keep quiet, can’t you? (informal request) (Pentru cerere informala se foloseste CAN'T)

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!!! Atentie sa nu confundati HAD cu WOULD pentru ca ambele fac prescurtarea in'D, dar dupa HAD se foloseste Verb III sau
cu - ed si dupa WOULD se foloseste Verb la Infinitiv:

I’d left already, hadn’t I? (I had left) had + vb.III/-ed (Eu plecasem deja, , nu-i asa?)

I’d like to see her, wouldn’t I? (I would like) would +vb. Inf. (Mi-ar place sa o vad, nu-i asa?)

!!! Daca avem somebody (cineva), someone (cineva), everybody (toata lumea), everyone (toata lumea), nobody
(nimeni), no-one (nimeni) (care se folosesc cu verb la singular) atunci se foloseste pronumelethey in intrebarea disjunctiva:

Somebody told you the answer, didn't they? (Cineva ti-a spus raspunsul, nu-i asa?)

Somebody tells you how to do it, don't they? (Cineva iti spune cum sa faci asta, nu-i asa?)

No-one called while I was out, did they? (Nimeni nu a sunat cat timp am fost placat, nu-i asa?)

Everyone has a dreadful day, don't they? (Toata lumea are o zi groaznica, nu-i asa?)

!!! Daca avem nothing sau that/this, atunci se foloseste pronumele it in intrebarea disjunctiva:

Nothing is wrong, is it? (Nimic nu e gresit, nu-i asa?)

That was a nice show, wasn’t it? (Acela a fost un spectacol frumos, nu-i asa?)

!!! Daca folosim there is (exista/ se afla/ se gaseste), there are (exista/ se afla/ se gasesc), there was (exista/ se afla/ se
gasea), there were (existau/ se aflau/ se gaseau) etc, pronumele este there:

There are two TV's, aren't there? (Exista doua televizoare, nu-i asa?)

There is a man in the garden, isn’t there? (Se afla un barbat in gradina, nu-i asa?)

There was little (-) milk left, (+) was there? (Este putin lapte ramas, nu-i asa?)

The noun is replaced by a pronoun in Tag Questions (Substantivul este inlocuit de un pronume in intrebarile disjunctive):

Mary was cleaning the room, wasn’t she? (Maria curata camera, nu-i asa?)

22. Word Order and Subordinate Clauses


I. ORDINEA CUVINTELOR IN PROPOZITII AFIRMATIVE

(Adv.Time) + S +Adv.Frequency + P + DO + IO + Adv. of Manner + Adv. of Place + Adv.of Time

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(Yesterday) He worked with his father hard in the garden yesterday.

S + Adv.Frequency + P (vb of movement) + Adv. of Place + Adv. of Manner + Adv.of Time (if we have a verb of movement
then the place comes before the manner)

She usually goes to school on foot in the morning.

Adverbs of manner are very flexible and can stay in various positions in the sentence:

- Solemnly the minister addressed her congregation. (at the beginning)

- The minister solemnly addressed her congregation. (before the verb)

- The minister addressed her congregation solemnly. (after the verb and the Direct Object)

II. ORDINEA CUVINTELOR IN PROPOZITII INTEROGATIVE

Wh-word + Aux + S + Vb + DO + IO + Adv. of Manner + Adv. of Place + Adv. of Time + Preposition?

Why did I see her with her father in the garden yesterday morning?

What are you looking at?

Aux + S + + Adv. of Frequency + Vb + DO + IO + Adv. of Manner + Adv. of Place + Adv. of Time +


Preposition?

Does she usually work hard in the morning?

III. ORDINEA CUVINTELOR IN EXCLAMATII

What + A/AN + Adjective + Noun + S + P!

What a wonderful day it is! (Ce zi frumoasa este azi!)

What a cute dog you have! (Ce caine dragut ai!)

What + Adjective + A/An + Noun + S + P!

What interesting a story she told! (Ce poveste interesanta a spus ea!)

How + Adjective + S+ P!

How interesting she is! (Cat este de interesanta!)

How wonderful the day has been! (Ce minunata a fost ziua!)

IV. ORDINEA CUVINTELOR IN INVERSIUNI

Adverb +Aux + S + Vb + DO + IO + Adv. of Manner + Adv. of Place + Adv. of Time

Never have I seen her in the park before.

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Seldom do we talk with strangers in the street.

SUBORDINATE CLAUSES

A sentence is made of main and subordinate clauses. Subordinate clauses can be:

Relative Clauses: e.g. Give me the book which you took.

Adverbial clauses:

Of time: e.g. I will see you when you arrive tomorrow. (O sa te vad cand sosesc maine.)

Of manner: She treats me as if she were my mother. (Ma trateaza de parca as fi mama ei.)

Of reason: e.g. I didn’t go there because I was afraid of him. (Nu m-am dus acolo pentru ca imi era teama de el.)

Of result: e.g. It is such a nice dress that I’d like to buy it. (Este o rochie atat de frumoasa incat as vrea sa o cumpar.)

Of purpose: e.g. They are studying so that they may pass the exam. (Ei invata ca sa treaca examenul.)

Of concession: e.g. She bought the car although it was expensive. (Ea a cumparat masina desi era scumpa.)

Of condition: e.g. I will give you money if you help me. (see If Clauses) (Iti voi da bani daca ma vei ajuta.)

RELATIVE CLAUSES (Atributivele)

Sunt introduse prin:

WHO (used for people): e.g. The man who helped me is here. (Barbatul care m-a ajutat este aici.)

WHOM (Objective): e.g. The man whom I love. (Barbatul pe care il iubesc.)

WHICH (used for objects, animals, etc but NOT people unless it’s a collective noun, or used to replace a whole
sentence):

e.g. The dog which was lost has been found. (Cainele care a fost pierdut a fost gasit.)

The team, which played well, has returned. (Echipa, care a jucat bine, s-a intors.)

He invited us for dinner, which was very nice of him. (El ne-a invitat la cina, ceea ce a fost foarte dragut din
partea lui.)

THAT (used for both persons and things, it can replacewho, whom or which but it is never used after commas
or prepositions):

e.g. The woman that/who helped you is here. (Femeia care te-a ajutat este aici.)

This is the dog that/which bit me. (Acesta este cainele care m-a muscat.)

WHOSE (used for possession): This is the woman whose dog bit me. (Aceasta este femeia al carei caine m-a
muscat.)

WHEN (used for time): e.g. 1990 is the year when she was born. (1990 este anul cand ea s-a nascut.)

WHERE (used for place): e.g. That’s the house where she lived for a while. (Aceea este casa unde ea a locuit
pentru o vreme.)

WHAT (used to mean the thing which): e.g. I haven’t forgotten what you told me. (Nu am uitat ce mi-ai spus.)

WHY (used for reason): e.g. That’s the reason why I called you. (Acela este motivul pentru care te-am sunat.)

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DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

- it gives necessary information (if left out of the sentence it does not make complete sense)

-It is NOT put between commas

-the pronoun can be omitted if it is in the objective case (Direct Object, Indirect Object):

e.g. The man [(that/ who) you spoke to] was my brother. (the information seems incomplete if you stop atto:
The man who you spoke to ...)

Barbatul [cu care (complement indirect) tu (Subiect) ai vorbit (Predicat)] era fratele meu.

!!! that/ who can be omitted because it is an Indirect Object: The man [you spoke to] was my brother.

The man [who/ that spoke with you] is special.(here who/that is the subject for spoke so it cannot be
omitted)

NON- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

- the ideas could be omitted and the rest of the sentence would still make sense

- they stay between commas

- the pronoun is NEVER omitted:

e.g. Shakespeare[, who that wrote many plays,] died in 1616. (the sentence still makes sense even if you
omit the Relative Clause) => Shakespeare died in 1616.

The dog[, which that bit my sister,] belongs to you.

Our garden, which that catches the morning sun, is delightful to look at.

!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! NEVER use THAT in a NON- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSE

Non-defining Realtive Clauses can also be formed as follows:

Some

Most

Many OF WHOM/ WHICH/ WHOSE

None

Neither

Either

Half

All

One

Several

Two

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There are many people in the house, all of whom I dislike. (Se afla multi in oameni in casa, dintre care toti imi displac.)

There were about twenty women, all of whom were gorgeous. (Erau in jur de 20 de femei, dintre care toate erau
superbe.)

The trees, several of which had apples, were a pleasant sight. (Copacii, dintre care cativa aveau mere, erau placuti la
vedere.)

Prepositions in Relative Clauses

!! Normally prepositions are not used before Relative Clauses:

The house in which she lives is downtown. (formal – not usual) (Casa in care ea locuieste este in centru.)

The house which she lives in is downtown. (Casa in care ea locuieste este in centru.)

The house she lives in is downtown. (Casa in care ea locuieste este in centru.)

CLAUSES OF TIME

They are introduced by:

AFTER

I will call you AFTER I will finish/ have finished here.(Eu te voi suna dupa ce termin aici.)

AS (+Past C/ Present C)

I saw Mary AS I was crossing the street. (Am vazut-o pe Mary pe cand traversam strada.)

AS LONG AS

I will help you AS LONG AS you will help me. (Te voi ajuta atata timp cat ma ajuti si tu.)

JUST AS (+Past C/ Present C))

She called me JUST AS I was getting in the house. (Ea m-a sunat tocmai cand intram in casa.)

ONCE

Do the laundry ONCE you have done the dishes. (Spala rufele odata ce ai treminat cu spalatul vaselor.)

WHEN

I will give you the money WHEN you ask for it. (Iti voi da baniii cand ii vei cere.)

(EVER) SINCE

S + P (Present Perfect) + (EVER) SINCE + S + P (Past Simple – the action happened once in the past)

I haven’t eaten SINCE I left home. (Nu am mancat de cand am plecat de acasa.)

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SINCE I left home, I haven’t eaten. (De cand am plecat de acasa, nu am mancat.)

S + P (Present Perfect) + (EVER) SINCE + S + P (Present Perfect – the action is still happening)

I have liked him SINCE I have known him. (Il plac pe el de cand il cunosc.)

SINCE he has had this car, he has liked it. (De cand are masina asta, ii place de ea.)

BEFORE (+ Past Perfect S)

WILL/ WOULD They had already left BEFORE we arrived. (Ei deja plecasera inainte ca noi sa sosim.)

BY THE TIME (+ Future Perfect)

He will have finished his work BY THE TIME we visit him. (El va fi terminat munca pana il vom vizita noi.)

WHILE (+Past C/ Present C)

He was listening to music WHILE he was driving. (El asculta muzica in timp ce conducea.)

UNTIL/TILL

I won’t come to your placeUNTIL I have finished here. (Nu voi veni la tine pana nu termin aici.)

THE MOMENT THAT

I will jump into action THE MOMENT you tell me. (Voi actiona in momentul in care imi vei spune.)

WHENEVER

She is going to ask for money WHENEVER she sees you. (Ea o sa ceara bani oricand te va vedea.)

EVERY TIME

I will give you money EVERY TIME you ask for it. (Iti voi da bani de fiecare data cand imi vei cere.)

IMMEDIATELY

I talked to her IMMEDIATELY I saw her. (Am vorbit cu ea imediat ce am vazut-o.)

!!!!!!! NEVER USE WILL or WOULD in TIME CLAUSES.

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!!!!!!! (EVER) SINCE is always used with Present Perfect Simple or Continuous/ Past Perfect Simple or Continuousin the
Main Clause

e.g. I have known him (ever) since he moved here.

I have been waiting here since you left.

They had known each other (ever) since they were kids.

She had been watching TV since her parents left for work.

!!!!!! BY THE TIME is always used with Future Perfect for future reference

e.g. I will have finished here by the time you call. (Eu voi fi terminat aici pana cand tu vei suna.)

By the time you arrive, they will have left. (Pana cand tu vei sosi, ei vor fi plecat.)

OR Future-in-the-Past Perfect for past reference in the Main Clause

She said /that he would have left /by the time they arrived./ (Ea a spus ca el va fi plecat pana sosesc ei.)

OR Past Perfect Simple or Continuous for past reference in the Main Clause

They had left by the time we called. (Ei plecasera pana cand noi am sunat.)

They had been sleeping for three hours by the time the phone rang. (Ei dormeau de trei ore cand a sunat telefonul.)

!!!!!! AS, JUST AS, WHILE are used with verbs with continuous aspect (Past Continuous/ Present Continuous, Future
Continuous)

I saw a beautiful man as I was driving. (Am vazut un barbat frumos pe cand conduceam.)

The children were playing while their parents were having lunch. (Copiii se jucau in timp ce parintii luau pranzul.)

Just as I was entering the house, the earthquake started. (Tocmai cand intram in casa a inceput cutremurul.)

She is drinking while you are cleaning her room. (Ea bea in timp ce tu faci curatenie in camera ei.)

I will be drinking beer on the beach this time next weekwhile you are working/ will be working. (Eu voi bea bere pe plaja
saptamana viitoare pe vremea asta in timp ce tu vei lucra.)

!!!!!! WHEN

- can introduce a TIME CLAUSE + Present S/ Present C/ Present Perfect S/ Past S/ Past C/ Past Perfect SNEVER
WILL/ WOULD

e.g. I will be there when you will arrive. (Eu voi fi acolo cand vei sosi.)

They came when you had already left. (Ei au venit cand tu deja plecasesi.)

She was there when you were cleaning the house. (Ea era acolo cand tu curatai casa.)

-can introduce a DO. Clause (CD)(WILL or WOULD can be used after it then)

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e.g. I want to know when she will arrive here. (Vreau sa stiu cand ea va sosi aici.)

He wanted to be told when she would arrive. (Respect the Sequence of Tenses) (El a vrut sa i se spuna cand va sosi
ea.)

-can introduce a direct question + WILL

e.g. When will she be here? (Cand va fi ea aici?)

CLAUSES OF REASON

They are introduced by:

AS (deoarece)/ SINCE (din moment ce)/ BECAUSE (pentru ca/ deoarece)/ FOR (pentru ca)/ THE REASON FOR (motivul
pentru care)/ THE REASON (WHY) (motivul pentru care)/ ON THE GROUNDS THAT (pe motiv ca)

AS/ SINCE/ BECAUSE/ FOR/ ON THE GROUNDS THAT/ THE REASON WHY + S + P

e.g. He got a taxi as he was late for work. (El a luat un taxi deoarece era in intarziere la lucru.)

I was there because I wanted to discuss with her. (Eram acolo deoarece voiam sa discut cu ea.)

I didn’t tell him the truth, for I didn’t trust him. (FOR is always used after a comma) (Nu i-am spus adevarul, pentru ca
nu aveam incredere in el.)

Because he is rich, he can buy whatever he wishes. (Pentru ca este bogat, el poate sa cumpere orice isi doreste.)

THE REASON FOR/ FOR + NOUN/ -ing form:

e.g. The reason for his behaviour was unknown. (Motivul pentru comportamentul lui era necunoscut.)

He was punished for being late. (El a fost pedepsit pentru ca a intarziat.)

BECAUSE OF/ DUE TO + NOUN/ -ing form:

e.g. She was late because of heavy traffic. (Ea era in intarziere din cauza traficului aglomerat.)

BECAUSE OF/ DUE TO + THE FACT THAT + S + P (din cauza faptului ca):

All roads were closed because of the fact that it had been snowing all day. (Toate drumurile erau inchise din cauza
faptului ca ninsese toata ziua.)

CLAUSES OF RESULT
They are introduced by:

Such/ so ... that , (and) as a result, (and) as a consequence, consequently, so

e.g. The sea is so cold that they can’t swim in it.

Structures:

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SUCH A(AN) + adjective + sg. countable noun + THAT:

e.g. She had such a beautiful dress that I envied her. (Ea avea o rochie atat de frumoasa incat am invidiat-o.)

SUCH + adjective + uncountable noun/ pl. noun + THAT:

e.g. It was such a horrible weather that we postponed the trip. (Era o vreme asa de urata incat noi am amanat excursia.)

SUCH + A LOT OF + noun:

e.g. There were such a lot of students that I couldn’t find you. (Erau atat de multi studenti incat nu am putut sa te
gasesc.)

SO + adjective/adverb:

e.g. She runs so fast that no one can catch her. (Ea alearga asa de repede incat nimeni nu o poate prinde.)

SO + MUCH/ MANY/ LITTLE/ FEW + noun:

e.g. She has so much money that she doesn’t know what to do with it. (Ea are atat de multi bani incat nu stie ce sa faca
cu ei.)

SO + adjective + A/AN + noun:

e.g. It was so beautiful a dress that I had to buy it. (Eara o rochie asa de/ atat de frumoasa incat a trebuit sa o cumpar.)

As a result (ca rezultat)/ therefore (prin urmare)/ consequently (in consecinta)/ so (astfel)+ clause:

e.g. I didn’t have any money and as a result I couldn’t buy anything. (Nu aveam nici un ban si ca rezultat nu am putut sa
cumpar nimic.)

They did not study enough therefore they failed the test. (Ei nu au invatat destul, prin urmare ei au picat testul.)

She killed him, and consequently she went to prison. (Ea l-a ucis si in consecinta s-a dus la inchisoare.)

PURPOSE CLAUSES / expressing purpose


Purpose is expressed with:

So as to + Vb. Short Inf.

She is studying so as to pass the exam. (Ea invata ca sa treaca examenul.)

She is studying so as not to fail the exam.

In order to + Vb. Short. Inf.

She is studying in order to pass the exam. (Ea invata ca sa treaca examenul.)

She is studying in order not to fail the exam. (Ea invata ca sa nu pice examenul.)

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Verb Long Inf.

She is studying to pass the exam. (Ea invata ca sa treaca examenul.)

She is studying not to fail the exam. (Ea invata ca sa nu pice examenul.)

For + -ing vb.

She is studying for passing the exam. (Ea invata ca sa treaca examenul.)

For + noun

She is studying for the exam. (Ea invata pentru examen.)

With a view to + vb. –ing

She is studying with a view to passing the exam. (Ea invata ca sa treaca examenul.)

With the aim of + vb-ing

She is studying with the aim of passing the exam. (Ea invata ca sa treaca examenul.)

Prevent + noun/ pronoun + (from) + vb. –ing

She put her hat on to prevent the rain from ruining her hair. (Ea si-a pus palaria ca sa impiedice ploaia sa ii strice parul.)

Avoid + vb.-ing

She took a cab to avoid being late. (Ea a luat un taxi ca sa evite sa fie in intarziere.)

Lest + should/ vb. Short Inf./ might (no negative after lest)

I am helping him lest he should get upset with me. (Eu il ajut pe el ca nu cumva sa se supere pe mine.)

For fear + might (should) (no negative after for fear)

I am whispering for fear I might wake her. (Eu soptesc de teama sa nu o trezesc.)

For fear of something/ doing something

She gave him all the money for fear of being beaten. (Ea i-a dat lui toti banii de teama sa nu fie batuta.)

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The clauses are introduced by:

So that

In order that + Clause

!!! They follow the rule of the Sequence of Tenses

Main Clause Purpose Clause

Present Simple/ Cont.

Future

Imperative so that will/may/can + Vb. Inf.

She is studying so that she may pass the exam. (Ea invata ca sa treaca examenul.)

Past Tenses so that would/might/could +Vb. Inf.

She left early so that she might catch the bus. (A plecat devreme ca sa prinda autobuzul.)

CLAUSES OF CONCESSION
They are expressed with:

Although/ even though/ though (desi) + Clause:

e.g. Although it was expensive, she bought the car. (Desi era scumpa, ea acumparat masina.)

Though + adjective

e.g. Though tired, they continued their journey. (Desi obositi, ei au continuat calatoria.)

While (in timp ce)/ whereas (pe cand)/ but (dar)/ on the other hand (pe de alta parte)/ yet (totusi) + Clause:

e.g. She was tired, yet she kept working. (Ea era obosita, totusi ea a continuat sa munceasca.)

Nevertheless/ nonetheless (cu toate acestea)/ however (totusi) + Clause:

e.g. He is intelligent; however, he is absent-minded. (El este inteligent, totusi este zapacit.)

However (totusi/ oricat de)/ no matter how (oricat) + adjective/ adverb + S + (may) + vb.:

e.g. However clever you are/ may be, you won’t trick me. (Oricat de destept esti, nu o sa ma pacalesti.)

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Whatever/ no matter what (orice) + Clause:

e.g. Whatever she may say, don’t believe her. (Orice ar spune ea, nu o crede.)

Adj./ adv. + THOUGH + S + vb. (may + Short Inf.):

e.g. Beautiful though she is, I won’t talk with her. (Desi este frumoasa, nu o sa vorbesc cu ea.)

Adj./ adv. + AS + S + vb.:

e.g. Tired as I was, I couldn’t disappoint her, so I went to the party. (Desi eram obosit, nu am putut sa o dezamagesc asa
ca m-am dus la petrecere.)

Despite/ in spite of (in ciuda) + noun/ vb.-ing + Clause:

e.g. Despite her fear, she entered the dark room. (In ciuda fricii ei, ea a intrat in camera intunecata.)

In spite of her fear, she entered the dark room. (In ciuda fricii ei, ea a intrat in camera intunecata.)

Despite being tired, I went to the party. (Desi eram obosit, m-am dus la petrecere.)

In spite of being tired, I went to the party. (Desi eram obosit, m-am dus la petrecere.)

Despite the fact that/ In spite of the fact that (in ciuda faptului ca) + S + P:

e.g. In spite of the fact that he has money, he has no friends. (In ciuda faptului ca el are bani, el nu are prieteni.)

Despite the fact that he has money, he has no friends. (In ciuda faptului ca el are bani, el nu are prieteni.)

!!!! A comma is used when the Clause of Concession either precedes or follows the Main Clause:

Whatever she says, he won’t believe her. (Orice ar spune ea, el nu o sa o creada.)

He won’t believe her, whatever she says. (El nu o sa o creada, orice ar spune ea.)

23. Confusing words/ expressions/ verbs/ constructions

Made of vs. Made from (facut din)

Made of is used when the material the subject consists of doesn't change during the process of making the
subject. (Made of este folosit cand materialul din care consta obiectul nu se schimba in timpul procesului de
facere a acestuia)

E.g. Chairs are made of wood. (Scaunele sunt facute din lemn.) (aici lemnul este inca lemn, nu se transforma in
altceva)

The house is made of bricks. (Casa este facuta din caramizi.) (caramizile inca se vad, nu sunt transformate
in altceva)

Made from is used when the material changed its nature.(Made from se foloseste cand materialul si-a schimbat
natura)

E.g. Paper is made from wood. (Hartia este facuta din lemn.) (lemnul a fost transformat in hartie)

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Wine is made from grapes. (Vinul este facut din struguri.) (strugurii nu se mai vad, s-au transformat in vin)

Throw at vs. Throw to (a arunca la/ spre)

Se poate spune "throw a ball to someone" si "throw a ball at someone" DAR intelesul este diferit.

To throw a ball to someone so that they catch it.

(A arunca o minge cuiva pentru a o prinde - persoana este constienta ca mingea este aruncata catre ea si deci va incerca sa o
prinda)

To throw a ball at someone means to do it intentionally to hit them with the ball.

(A arunca o minge in cineva - inseamna ca arunci intentionat sa lovesti persoana care nu este constienta ca ceva este aruncat
spre ea)

Se spune: A Number of People is sau A Number of People are? (a number of + substantiv + verb singular sau plural?)

Although the expression a number is strictly singular, the phrase a number of is used with plural nouns (as what grammarians call
a determiner). The verb should therefore be plural.

(Desi expresia "un numar"este strict la singular, expresia "un numar" este folosita cu substantive la plural - deci este un
determinant ca "a lot of" si se foloseste prin urmare cu verbul la plural)

e.g. a number of girls are in the garden (un numar de fete sunt in gradina) ->

a lot of girls are in the garden (o multime de fete sunt in gradina)

• A number of people are waiting for the bus. (Un numar de oameni asteapta autobuzul.)

Insa atunci cand ne referim la the number (numar) atunci folosim verbul la singular.

• The number of people here has increased since this morning. (Numarul de oameni de aici a crescut de azi dimineata.)

Rise – rose – risen = a creste/ a rasari (verb intranzitiv => nu are complement direct dupa el) vs. Raise – raised –raised =
a creste/ a ridica (verb tranzitiv => are complement direct dupa el)

The sun rose in the East. (Soarele a rasarit la est.) – Heraised his hand. (El a ridicat mana.)

The pupil ... his hand to answer the question. (Elevul a ridicat mana ca sa raspunda la intrebare.)

a) rose

b) risen

c) raised

d) has risen

The pupil ... from the desk and left. (Elevul s-a ridicat din banca si a plecat.)

a) raised

b) rose

c) risen

d) rise

To strike – struck – struck (irregular vb.) = a lovi

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e.g. He was struck by lightning last month. (El a fost lovit de fulger luna trecuta.)

To strike – struck – stricken (stricken = attack e.g. stricken with fear/ doubt/ disease/ panic/ love - lovit de teama/ indoiala/
boala/ panica/ dragoste)

e.g. I was panic-stricken when I saw that ghost. (Am fost lovit de panica atunci cand am vazut acea stafie.)

To stroke – stroked – stroked (regular vb.) = a mangaia

e.g. She stroked the cat. (Ea a mangaiat pisica.)

Stroke (noun) = mangaiere/lovitura/ atac cerebral

e.g. I had a stroke of luck when I won the lottery. (Am avut un noroc cand am castigat la loterie.)

I was there at the stroke of midnight. (Am fost acolo la bataia miezului noptii.)

My grandfather had a stroke last year and now he can’t talk. (Bunicul meu a avut un atac cerebral anul trecut si acum
nu poate vorbi.)

Fall – fell – fallen = a cadea vs. Fell – felled – felled = a taia

e.g. He lost his balance and fell down. (El si-a pierdut echilibrul si a cazut.) - Three old trees had to be felled. (Trei copaci
batrani au trebuit sa fie taiati.)

Beat - beat - beaten = a bate pe cineva vs. bite - bit - bitten = a musca

e.g. He has beaten her dog. (El l-a batut pe cainele ei.) - The dog hasbitten his master. (Cainele si-a muscat stapanul.)

Find – found – found = a gasi vs. Found – founded – founded = a fonda

e.g. I found this letter while cleaning the drawers. (Am gasit aceasta sctisoare in timp ce curatam sertarele.) - My father
founded this company in 1990. (Tatal meu a fondat aceasta companie in 1990)

Bind – bound – bound = a lega vs. Bound – bounded – bounded = a sari

e.g. He was bound by the robbers. (El a fost legat de jefuitori.) - The lion bounded forward and tried to kill her. (leul a
sarit in fata si a incercat sa o omoare.)

See – saw – seen = a vedea vs. Saw – sawed – sawed/sawn = a taia cu ferastraul

I suddenly saw a man by the door. (Deodata am vazut un barbat langa usa.) – He sawed the branch in half. (El a taiat
creanga la jumatate.

Sew – sewed – sewn = a coase

My mother has sewn my shirt because it was torn (to tear-tore-torn = a rupe/ a sfasia). (Mama mea mi-a cusut camasa
pentru ca era sfasiata.)

Sow – sowed – sown = a planta

The farmer sowed the tomatoes. (Fermierul a plantat rosiile.)

Grind – ground – ground = a macina vs. Ground – grounded – grounded = a pedepsi/ a tine la sol (despre avioane)

The coffee beans are ground in this machine. (Boabele de cafea sunt macinate in aceasta masina.) – All the planes were
grounded because of the fog. (Toate avioanele erau tinute la sol din cauza cetii.)

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Lend – lent – lent = a DA cu imprumut (to give something to someone to be used for a period of time and then returned)
vs. Borrow – borrowed – borrowed = a LUA cu imprumut (to take and use something that belongs to someone else for a
period of time before returning it)

I have lent Mary some books and she hasn’t returned them yet. (I-am imprumutat Mariei niste carti si ea nu le-a returnat
inca.) – Mary has borrowed some books from me and she hasn’t returned them yet. (Maria a luat niste carti cu imprumut
de la mine si nu le-a returnat inca.)

Remember = a-si aminti singur (to cause something to come back into your mind) vs. Remind (of) = a aminti cuiva ceva
(cineva sau ceva din afara provoaca amintirea) (to cause (someone) to remember something/ evoke, cause someone to think
of (something) because of a resemblance or likeness.)

I remember your face very well. (Imi amintesc fata ta foarte bine.) – Shereminded me that we had a meeting later.(Ea mi-a
amintit ca avem o intalnire mai tarziu.)

!!! remind se poate folosi cu pronume de intarire: I reminded myself to give her a call. (Mi-am amintit mie insami sa ii dau un
telefon.)

I was reminded of your mother when I saw you. (Mi-am amintit de mama ta cand te-am vazut.)

That reminds me, don’t forget to buy bread. (Asta imi aminteste, nu uita sa cumperi paine.)

Wind – wound – wound =a serpui/ a rasuci/ a undui vs. Wound – wounded – wounded = a rani

The river is winding down the mountain. (Raul unduieste/ serpuieste in josul muntelui.) – The policewounded three men
last night. (Politia a ranit trei oameni noaptea trecuta.)

Lie – lay – lain (verb intranzitiv -> fara CD dupa el -> verb static = a sta intins pe ceva) vs.Lay – laid – laid (verb tranzitiv +
CD -> verb de miscare = a pune/ a aseza ceva, a oua)

!!! lie => lying - lay => laying

I was lying on the beach this time last summer. (Vara trecuta pe timpul asta stateam intins pe plaja.) – Shelaid/ was
laying the table for dinner. (Ea a pus masa/ punea masa pentru cina.)

Don't you dare ... a finger on her! (Sa nu indraznesti sa pui un deget pe ea!)

a) lie

b) lay

c) lain

d) laid

The clothes ... on the bed.

a) were laying

b) were lay

c) were lying

d) laid

*to lie to somebody – lied to – lied to = a minti (regular verb) -> este urmat intotdeauna deTO

He lied to me last week. (El m-a mintit saptamana trecuta.)

He always lies to his parents. (El isi minte parintii intotdeauna.)/// He alwayslies in bed. (El intotdeauna sta intins pe pat .)

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** lay – laid – laid: –> lay eggs = a oua/ to have sex (get laid)

Bear – bore – born (a da nastere) vs. Bear – bore – borne (a cara/ a indura)

e.g. He was born in London in 1980. – The winning team wereborne through the streets on their supporters’ shoulders.

Cost – cost – cost (a costa) vs. Cost – costed – costed (a calcula costul a ceva)

e.g. Houses have always cost a lot here. (Casele au costat intotdeauna mult aici.) – The construction of the new bridge
has been costed at 1,000,000 dollars. (Constructia noului pod a fost calculata la un milion de dolari.)

Hang – hung – hung (a agata) vs. Hang – hanged – hanged (a spanzura)

I’ve hung my coat over there. (Mi-am agatat haina acolo.) – Murderers usedto be hanged in the past. (Criminalii
obisnuiau sa fie spanzurati in trecut.)

To lose - lost - lost = a pierde (vb) vs. Loose (adj)/ to get loose = a se elibera/ to be loose = a fi liber/ larg ( liber, larg-
despre haine)

To loosen – loosened – loosened = a largi

I hate it when I lose my wallet. (Urasc cand imi pierd portofelul.) – Her hair was loose on her back. (Parul ei era liber pe spate.)
/ Be careful, the dog is loose in the garden. (Fii atent, cainele este liber in gradina.)/ A dangerous killer is thought to be on
the loose. (escaped from prison) (Se crede ca un criminal periculos a scapat.)

!!!!! ATENTIE: To adviSe/ to practiSe (verb - se scrie cu S):

e.g. He advised adviced me to study more./ We practise practice a lot of sport.

Advice/ practice (substantivul - se scrie cu C):

e.g. Your advice is very good./ I am out of practice.

!!!! to wonder - wondered - wondered = a se intreba vs. to wander - wandered - wandered= a hoinari

e.g. I wonder if he is coming later. (Ma intreb daca el va veni mai tarziu.)

I wandered through the forest yesterday. (Am hoinarit prin padure ieri.)

economic = economic vs. economical = care nu consuma

The economic crisis has affected everybody. (Criza economica a afectat pe toata lumea.) - I have bought aneconomical
car. (Eu am cumparat o masina care nu consuma mult.)

Both +S + and +S +Vb. Plural = si ... si... : e.g. Both Tom and Jamesare students. (Si Tom si James sunt studenti.)

Neither +S1 +nor +S2 +vb. (acordul verbului in aceasta constructie se face cu Subiectul cel mai apropiat, adica S2) = nici ... nici :

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e.g. Neither Tom nor his sister is at home. (Nici Tom, nici sora lui nu sunt acasa.)

Neither Tom nor his sisters are at home. (Nici Tom, nici surorile lui nu sunt acasa.)

Either +S1 +or +S2 + vb. (acordul verbului in aceasta constructie se face cu Subiectul cel mai apropiat, adica S2) = ori ... ori ...

e.g. Either Tom or his sister is at home. (Ori Tom, ori sora lui sunt acasa.)

Either Tom or his sisters are at home. (Ori Tom, ori surorile lui sunt acasa.)

What with + vb. –ing + and with + vb. –ing = ba cu ... si cu ...

e.g. What with packing and with talking on the phone, I forgot to pay the bill. (Ba cu impachetatul si cu vorbitul la telefon, am uitat
sa platesc factura.)

Despite = In spite of (in ciuda faptului ca)

- Despite the fact that + S + P, ...

Despite the fact that she was rich, she was unhappy. (In ciuda faptului ca era bogata, era nefericita.)

- Despite + vb. –ing, ...

Despite being rich, she was unhappy. (Desi era bogata, era nefericita.)

- Despite + NOUN/ Pronoun, ...

Despite her wealth, she was unhappy. (In ciuda bogatiei ei, era nefericita.)

Despite of being rich/ Despite she was rich the fact that she was rich, ...

- In spite of the fact that+ S + P, ...

In spite of the fact that she was rich, she was unhappy. (In ciuda faptului ca era bogata, era nefericita.)

- In spite of + vb.-ing, ...

In spite of being rich, she was unhappy. (Desi era bogata, era nefericita.)

-In spite of + NOUN/ Pronoun, ...

In spite of her wealth, she was unhappy. (In ciuda bogatiei ei, era nefericita.)

24. DO versus MAKE


It can be hard to decide when to use m
' ake' or 'do' in English.

1. We use 'make' when we create or construct something.

e.g. She made a cake.


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I've made us some coffee.

Did you really make those trousers?

2. We use 'do' for general activities. In this case, 'do' is often used with 'something', 'nothing', 'anything' or 'everything':

e.g. What did you do at the weekend?

I didn't do anything yesterday.

She's fed up with doing everything herself. She needs some help.

Are you doing anything interesting during the holidays?

NOTE: 'What do you do?' means 'what's your job?'

Expressions with DO

The following words are normally used with DO:

a course = a face un curs


a crossword = a rezolva cuvinte incrucisate
a dance = a dansa
a drawing = a face un desen
a favor/ favour = a face un serviciu/ o favoare
a good turn = a face bine cuiva
a job = a face o slujba/ a face ceva pentru cineva
a painting = a face un tablou
a project = a face un proiect
a service = a face un serviciu cuiva
a subject at school = a studia o materie la scoala
military service = a face armata
a test = a da un test
an assignment = a face o tema/ a rezolva o insarcinare
an exam = a da un examen
an experiment = a face un experiment
anything = a face orice
badly (= be unsuccessful) = a nu-i merge bine
business = a face afaceri
chores (around the house) = a face treburile in casa
credit to someone = a-i face cinste cuiva/ a aduce onoare
damage = a face stricaciuni
everything = a face totul
exercises = a face exercitii
good (= help other people) = a ajuta alti oameni/ a face bine altora
somebody some good (= make somebody better/ healthier) = a-i face bine
harm = a vatama/ a face rau cuiva
justice = a face dreptate
laundry = a spala rufele
miracles (for) = a face minuni pentru
nothing = a nu face nimic
paperwork = a completa documente
research = a face cercetare
right (the right thing) = a face ceva corect/ lucrul considerat corect
something = a face ceva
sport = a face sport
something for a living = a face ceva pentru a-si castiga existenta

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someone proud = a face mandru pe cineva
time = a face puscarie
the gardening = a gradinari
the housework = a face treaba in casa
the ironing = a calca
the dishes = a spala vasele
the rest = a face restul (de lucruri ramase de facut)
the shopping = a face cumparaturile
the washing (up) = a spala
the cleaning = a face curatenie
the cooking = a gati
well (= be successful) = a-i merge bine/ a avea succes
wonders = a face minuni
work =a face treaba
wrong (the wrong thing) = a face ceva gresit
your best = a face cat poti mai bine
your duty = a-si face datoria
your hair = a-si aranja parul
your homework = a face tema/ temele
your job = a-si face treaba
your nails = a-si face unchiile/ manichiura
your face = a se machia
your teeth (= brush/ clean) = a curata dintii
your work = a-si face treaba
yourself an injury = a se rani/ vatama
somebody/ yourself a mischief = a rani pe cineva or pe tine insati

Expressions with MAKE

The following words are normally used with MAKE:

a bet = a face un pariu


a bargain = a face o invoiala
a cake = a face o prajitura
a call = a da un telefon
a change = a face o schimbare
a charge (for something) = a cere bani pentru/ a cere o taxa pentru
a choice = a face o alegere
a comment = a face un comentariu
a complaint = a face o plangere
a confession = a face o confesiune
a connection = a face o conexiune/ legatura
a contribution = a face o contributie
a cup of coffee / tea = a face o cafea/ un ceai
a date = a aranja o intalnire cu cineva
a deal with somebody = a face o intelegere cu cineva
a decision = a lua o decizie
a demand = a cere ceva in mod ferm/ imperativ
a difference = a face diferenta/ distinctia dintre; a avea un efect
a discovery = a face o descoperire
an enemy of somebody = a-si face dusman din cineva
an enquiry = a intreba/ cere informatii despre ceva
a face/ faces = a se stramba
a fire = a face un foc
a fist = a strange pumnul
a fool of yourself = a se face de ras
a fortune = a face o avere
a friend/ friends = a-si face un prieten/ prieteni
a fuss = a face caz de ceva
a good/ bad job of something = a face ceva bine sau rau
a habit of something = a-si face un obicei
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a joke = a face o gluma
a line = a trage o linie
a list = a face o lista
a living = a-si castiga existenta
a loss = a avea o pierdere/ a nu avea profit
a mess = a face mizerie
a mess of things = a incurca lucrurile
a mistake = a face o greseala
a move = a face o miscare
a noise = a face un zgomot
a nuisance of oneself = a fi o bataie de cap/ a-i deranja pe altii
a pass at someone = a se da la cineva
a payment = a face o plata
a plan = a face un plan
a point = a-si spune punctul de vedere/ a spune ceva important
a prediction = a face o previziune
a profit = a face un profit
a promise = a face o promisiune
a reservation = a face o rezervare
a sandwich = a face un sandwich
a scene = a face o scena/ a se da in spectacol
a sound = a face un sunet
a speech = a tine un discurs
a statement = a da o declaratie
a suggestion = a face o sugestie
advances = a-i face avansuri cuiva/ a avansa (in tehnologie)
alterations = a face schimbari/ ajustari (la o rochie de exemplu)
an appointment = a fixa o intalnire
an announcement = a face un anunt
an attempt = a face o incercare
an appearance = a-si face aparitia (la o petrecere de exemplu)
an effort = a face un efort
an error = a face o greseala
an escape = a scapa de undeva
an exception = a face o exceptie
an excuse = a inventa o scuza/ a se scuza
a gesture = a face un gest
an impression = a face o impresie
improvements = a face inbunatatiri
a journey = a face o calatorie
love = a face dragoste
an observation = a face o observatie
an offer = a face o oferta
a remark = a remarca ceva/ a spune ceva
a start (on something) = a incepe ceva
a translation = a face o traducere
a will = a face un testament
amends = a se revansa
an arrangement/ arrangements = a face un aranjament/ aranjamente
allowances for = a lua in considerare
an acquaintance = a face o cunostinta
breakfast = a face micul dejun
believe = a inventa o poveste/ a-si imagina
certain = a fi sigur ca ceva se va intampla/ va merge bine
clear = a face lucrurile clare
dinner = a gati cina
ends meet = a-si castiga existenta
famous = a face faimos
fun of someone = a rade de cineva
haste = a se grabi
lunch = a gati masa de pranz
inquiries = a face o investigatie
peace = a face pace/ a se impaca cu cineva
possible = a face ceva sa fie posibil
preparations = a face pregatiri

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progress = a face progres
money = a face bani
room = a face loc/ spatiu
sales = a vinde
sense = a avea sens
someone rich = a face pe cineva bogat
someone smile = a face pe cineva sa zambeasca
sure = a se asigura ca ceva e ok/ se intampla asa cum trebuie
trouble = a face probleme
time (for something/ somebody) = a-si face timp pentru ceva/ cineva
war = a se razboi
your bed = a-si face patul
up your mind = a se hotari
your way back/ home = a se intoarce inapoi/ acasa
to make do (to manage with what you have) = a te descurca cu ce ai

25. Similes

A simile is a figure of speech that makes a comparison, showing similarities between two
different things:

simile meaning
as similar/ like as two peas in a pod identical or nearly so
as bald as a coot completely bald
as big as a bus very big
as big as an elephant very big
as black as a sweep completely black
as black as coal completely black
as black as pitch/ night completely black
as blind as a bat completely blind
as blind as a mole completely blind
as bold as brass very bold usually in a negative sense
as brave as a lion very brave
as bright as a button very bright
as bright as day obvious or easy to see
as bright as a new pin very bright and shiny

as brown as a berry very brown from the sun


as busy as a beaver very busy
as busy as a bee very busy
as busy as a cat on a hot tin roof very busy
as calm as a millpond very calm and still usually said of water
as clear as a bell very clear of a sound
as clean as a whistle/ a new pin very clean
as clear as crystal very clear
as clear as mud not at all clear irony or sarcasm
as cold as ice very cold
as common as dirt very common, rude, vulgar usually said of a person

as common as muck low-class/ not sophisticated usually said of a person


as cool as a cucumber cool
as cunning as a fox cunning, sly
as daft as a brush foolish
as dead as a doornail dead
as dead as the dodo dead, extinct the dodo is an extinct bird
as deaf as a post completely deaf may be exaggeration
as different as chalk from cheese very different
as drunk as a lord completely drunk
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as dry as a bone simile very dry meaning
as dry as dust very dry
as dull as dishwater/ ditchwater dull, boring usually said of a person
as easy as A.B.C. very easy
as easy as apple-pie very easy
as fit as a fiddle very fit/ healthy
as flat as a pancake completely flat
as free as a bird very free to go anywhere
as fresh as a daisy very fresh
as gentle as a lamb very gentle usually said of a person
as good as gold very good and obedient usually said of a person
as happy as a lark very happy usually said of a person
as hard as nails very tough in character usually said of a person
as high as a kite very high
as heavy as lead very heavy
as hot as hell/ in an oven very hot
as hungry as a bear very hungry
as hungry as a wolf very hungry
as innocent as a lamb innocent, not worldly-wise usually said of a person
as keen as mustard intellectually quick
as large as life conspicuously present
as light as a feather very light
as light as air very light
as mad as a hatter completely crazy
as mad as a hornet very angry
as nutty as a fruitcake completely crazy
as obstinate as a mule very obstinate, stubborn
as old as the hills very, very old
as pale as death very pale or white in the face of a person
as plain as day/ the nose on your face very clear
as pretty as a picture very beautiful
as poor as a church mouse poverty-stricken
as poor as dirt poverty-stricken
as proud as a peacock very proud
as pure as snow pure and innocent
as pure as the driven snow pure and innocent
as quick as a wink/ flash very quick(ly)
as quick as lightning very quick(ly)
as quick as silver very quick
as quiet as a mouse very quiet
as regular as clockwork very regular/ predictable
as red as beetroot very red
as safe as houses very safe, secure
as scarce as hen's teeth very, very scarce irony (hens have no teeth)

as sharp as a razor very sharp


as sick as a dog very sick
as sick as a parrot very sick
as silent as the dead completely silent
as silent as the grave completely silent

as silly as a goose very silly


as slippery as an eel slippery, evasive of a person
as slow as a snail very slow
as slow as a tortoise very slow

as smart as a whip very smart


as smooth as silk very smooth
as snug as a bug in a rug in a very comfortable position humorous
as sober as a judge sober
as solid as a rock solid
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as simile we stand on
solid as the ground solid meaning
as sound as a bell very clear of a sound
as sour as vinegar very sour
as steady as a rock very steady
as stiff as a board completely stiff
as straight as an arrow straight an arrow flies straight
as strong as an ox very strong
as stubborn as a mule very stubborn, obstinate
as sturdy as an oak very strong and solid
as sure as death and taxes absolutely certain to happen
as tall as a giraffe very tall
as thin as a rake very thin
as timid as a rabbit very timid
as tough as leather very tough
as tough as nails very tough often said of a person
as tough as old boots very tough
often said of a person
as ugly as sin very ugly

as warm as toast very warm and cozy


as welcome as a skunk at a lawn party not welcome at all irony or sarcasm (skunks stink)
as white as a ghost very pale or white in the face of a person
as white as a sheet pure white
as white as snow pure white
as wise as Solomon very wise King Solomon
as wise as an owl very wise
as fat as a barrel very fat
as firm as a rock very firm

26. Idioms 1
An idiom is an expression which has a meaning that is not obvious from the words that form it taken
individually.

(Un idiom este o expresie al carei inteles nu este evident din cuvintele individuale care o formeaza.)

Examples:

To kick the bucket / to bite the dust or to pop the clogs, all mean to die (a muri) but we cannot know that
just by looking at the words.

to hit the roof = to react in a very angry way (a se supara foarte tare)

to be snowed under = to have an enormous amount of work to do (a fi coplesit de munca)

to drive somebody round the bend = to make somebody angry or frustrated (a enerva pe cineva foarte
tare)

as dry as a bone = extremely dry (foarte uscat)

to cut a long story short = to tell the main points and not the details (a spune ideile principale fara a
intra in detalii)

Most idioms have a fix form and cannot be changed. (majoritatea idiomurilor au forma fixa si nu pot fi
schimbate)
There are no specific rules for idioms. (nu exista reguli pentru idiomuri)

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You can learn idioms by discovering them in exercises, books or films that you watch, writing them
down and using them in contexts of your own .(idiomurile se pot invata descoperindu-le in exercitii, carti
sau filme, notandu-le intr-un caiet si folosindu-le in vorbire)

NOTE:

SIMILES are actually IDIOMS but they have their separate section in Study Materials in order to be
studied more easily.

1. To be part and parcel of = a fi parte necesara dintr-o experienta, care nu poate fi evitata: e.g. Travelling is part and parcel
of being a successful business man.
2. To be the be all and end all of = a fi cel mai important element din: e.g. Having moneyis not the be all and end all of a
relationship.
3. To be in a frame of mind = a fi intr-o dispozitie/ stare sufleteasca: e.g. A few hours later he was in a much more positive
frame of mind.
4. To be in the mood for = a avea chef de: e.g. I am not in the mood for an argument.
5. To be at fault = a fi de vina: e.g. She is at fault for sending the wrong letter.
6. To be on the run = a fi pe fuga pentru a nu fi prins de autoritati: e.g. The criminalis on the run.
7. To be hand in glove with = a fi mana in mana cu cineva: e.g. The managerwas hand in glove with the conspirators.
8. To make/ lose money hand over fist = a face sau a pierde multi bani foarte repede: e.g. Business was good and we were
making money hand over fist.
9. To do somebody justice = a pune intr-o lumina avantajoasa: e.g. This dress does not do you justice.
10. To serve one right = a merita ceea ce i se intampla: e.g. It serves him right that he was punished.
11. To be in the way = a fi in calea cuiva: e.g. Your car isin the way and I cannot pass.
12. To be on the way = a fi in drum spre: e.g. I amon my way to work.
13. To be in the know = a sti despre ce este vorba/ a fi expert in ceva: e.g. People whoare in the know say that eating at night
is bad.
14. To be caught in the act of + Vb.-ing = a fi prins asupra faptului: e.g. He wascaught in the act of stealing.
15. To get on like a house on fire = a se imprieteni cu cineva foarte repede pentru ca persoanele se plac foarte mult: e.g. I was
afraid to introduce them at first but now they get on like a house on fire.
16. To be touch and go = a fi foarte riscant, periculos si nesigur in ceea ce priveste rezultatul: e.g. It wastouch and go as to
whether he would die after the accident.
17. Sooner or later = mai devreme sau mai tarziu/ pana la urma: e.g. You have to tell the truthsooner or later.
18. By and large = in general: e.g.I find that, by and large, people tend to do what they are used to doing.
19. To be on the ball = a fi competent, atent/ a sti ceea ce faci foarte bine: e.g. This guy is really on the ball.
20. To look on the bright side = a vedea partea pozitiva dintr-o situatie negativa: e.g. Look on the bright side. You could have
died in that accident.
21. To cut/ make a long story short = a scurta ceea ce ce spui pentru a ajunge la final: e.g. A lot has happened to me lately,but
to cut a long story short, I’m getting married.
22. To keep an eye out for something = a fi atent sa vezi daca cineva/ ceva vine/ apare: e.g. Please try to keep an eye out for
the bus.
23. To make ends meet = a-si castiga existenta (de obicei folosit pentru a spune ca nu prea ai bani si abia iti castigi existenta):
e.g. I have to work at two jobs to make ends meet.
24. To take something on board = a intelege si accepta idei si pareri care iti pot schimba comportamentul in viitor:e.g. Shops
need to take on board the views of their customers.
25. To know something inside out = a sti ceva/ pe cineva foarte bine: e.g. I know my business inside out.
26. To beat about the bush = a evita sa vorbesti despre un subiect dificil sau jenant pentru ca nu vrei sa superi pe cineva (folosit
in sens negativ): e.g. There is no point in beating about the bush. I'm leaving you.
27. To turn a blind eye to something = a ignora ceva si a pretinde ca nu vezi ce se intampla: e.g. My teacher turned a blind
eye when he saw me throw paper balls at my colleague.
28. To face the music = a fi pedepsit/ a accepta rezultatele neplacute ale actiunilor tale: e.g. Mary broke a dining-room window
and had to face the music when her father got home.
29. To go hand in hand + with = a fi conectat cu/ a avea legatura cu: e.g. Crime usually goes hand in hand with poor economic
conditions.
30. To be in the rat race = a lupta si concura pentru succes incercand sa fi mai bun dacat ceilalti colegi de la locul de munca: e.g.
John got tired of the rat race. He's retired and gone to the country.
31. To sugar/ sweeten the pill for somebody = a face lucrurile sa nu para atat de rele: e.g. She never faces the harsh reality
and always tries to sugar the pill when something goes wrong.
32. To be the apple of somebody’s eye = a fi lumina ochilor cuiva/ a fi foarte iubit de cineva: e.g. She is the apple of her father’s
eye.
33. To sit on the fence = a nu se implica: e.g. My two best friends are arguing but I decidedto sit on the fence and not get
involved.
34. To play by ear = a nu face planuri dinainte: e.g. I alwaysplay by ear when I go on holiday.

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35. To be caught red-handed = a fi prins asupra faptului: e.g. He was stealing a car when the policecaught him red-handed.
36. To pull one’s leg = a rade de cineva/ a glumi pe seama cuiva: e.g. You don't mean that. You're just pulling my leg.
37. To take someone for a ride = a pacali pe cineva: e.g. You really took Mary for a ride when you told her she would make a
lot of money if she started a business.
38. To paint the town red = a iesi in oras si a se distra cu prietenii, dansand si consumand mult alcool: e.g. After passing the
Police Academy exam I painted the town red with my friends.
39. To turn up like a bad penny = a aparea/ veni undeva cand nu esti binevenit: e.g. I can’t stand her, she alwaysturns up like
a bad penny, just when you need some privacy.
40. To feel under the weather = a fi bolnav: e.g. I’ve been feeling under the weather this week so I stayed at home.
41. To let the cat out of the bag = a dezvalui un secret: e.g. Who let the cat out of the bag and told them I was getting married?
It was supposed to be a secret.
42. To get the lion’s share = a lua partea cea mai mare din ceva: e.g.The lion’s share of the money goes to Jane.
43. To rain cats and dogs = a ploua foarte mult: e.g. I’s been raining cats and dogs all morning.
44. To fish for compliments = a cauta sa fi complimantat intentionat: e.g. She is so vain. She’s alwaysfishing for compliments.
45. To have butterflies in the stomach = a fi emotionat: e.g. I always have butterflies in my stomach before an exam.
46. To be taken aback = a fi luat prin surprindere: e.g. You took me aback when you told me you had got a divorce.
47. To go back on your word = a nu respecta cuvantul dat: e.g. I hate to go back on my word, but I won't pay you the money I
promised.
48. To live on the shoestring = a trai cu dintr-un buget limitat/ a nu avea prea multi bani: e.g. After the baby was born, welived
on a shoestring for a while.
49. To play truant = a chiuli de la scoala: e.g. When I was in the 12th grade played
I truant a lot.
50. To put one’s foot down = a actiona cu fermitate: e.g. I put my foot down and told him that he wasn’t allowed to come home
late anymore.
51. In all weathers = in orice tip de vreme: e.g. I go for a walk in the parkin all weathers.
52. To do things by rule of thumb = a face lucrurile tinand cont de un principiu general: e.g. As a rule of thumb, I move my
houseplants inside in September.
53. Be/ go out on the tiles = a te distra ducandu-te la petreceri, etc.: e.g. 'My head is thumping.' 'Oh yes? Were youout on the
tiles last night?'
54. Toe/tow the line = a face ceea ce ti se ordona sau ce se asteapta de la tine: e.g. He might not like the rules but he'lltoe the
line just to avoid trouble.
55. Stand someone in good stead [for something] = a fi de mare folos cuiva: e.g. I know that my large vocabulary will always
stand me in good stead at faculty.
56. To take a dim view of = a dezaproba: e.g. I take a dim view of your always being late.
57. To have no head for (figures/ heights) = a nu fi bun (la cifre/ a nu suporta inaltimile): e.g. Ihave no head for figures, that’s
why I am a teacher of English and not of math now.
58. Work your socks off = a munci din greu: e.g. The managers that I know earn a lot of money but theywork their socks off.
59. Blow/knock your socks off = a considera ca ceva este extrem de bun: e.g. I'm going to take you to a restaurant that'll
knock your socks off.
60. Pull your socks up = a face un efort sa iti imbunatatesti munca sau comportamentul pentru ca nu sunt destul de bune: e.g.
He's going to have to pull his socks up if he wants to pass this exam.
61. Get/ come to grips with = a incepe sa intelegi, sa accepti sau sa te obisnuiesti cu o persoana, lucru sau situatie dificila: e.g.
I've tried, but I just can't get to grips with Anna, she's totally out of control!
62. Be (as) thick as thieves (of two or more people) =a fi foarte apropiat de cineva/ a fi prieten intim cu cineva: e.g. I’m sure she’ll
tell Mary what is going on. They are as thick as thieves.
63. Go through the roof = a deveni foarte suparat: e.g. My father went through the roof when he saw what I did to his car./
[despre preturi] a deveni foarte mari. These days, prices for petrol are going through the roof.
64. Have it out with sb = a discuta cu cineva despre ceva care te-a suparat pentru a lamuri problema: e.g.She's been late for
work all week and I thought I'd better have it out with her.
65. Have it in for sb = a fi hotarat sa critici pe cineva sau sa ii faci rau cuiva pentru ca esti suparat pe el/ea
: e.g. He has it in for
Jane because she has broken up with him.
66. Be at loggerheads = a nu fi de acord cu cineva/ ceva (+ with ) They're constantly at loggerheads with the farmers' union. (+
over ) The principal and the teachers are still atloggerheads over the most crucial parts of the school rules.
67. To work at cross purposes = a lucra cu intentii diferite/ opuse: e.g. The two groups of teachers seemed to be workingat
cross purposes during the workshop.
68. Be/live on the breadline = a fi foarte sarac: e.g. Most families of the unemployed are on the breadline.
69. Be well-heeled = a fi prosper/ a vea multi bani: e.g. My sisteris well-heeled as she has a mansion with a pool and a yacht.
70. Make a killing = a avea mult succes mai aleas la a face bani: e.g.John made a killing at the racetrack last weekend.
71. Talk shop = a discuta despre afaceri sau servici la un eveniment social (cand astfel de discutii nu sunt cele mai binevenite):
e.g. All right, everyone, we're not here to talk shop. Let's have a good time.
72. Talk big = a se lauda/ se da mare: e.g. She talks big but can't produce anything.
73. Talk in circles = a discuta intru-n fel care te face confuz: e.g.I couldn't understand a thing he said. All he did wastalk in
circles.
74. In leaps and bounds = rapid/ cu pasi mari: e.g. Our business has been growing in leaps and bounds over the past year.
75. On the run = pe fuga/ fugind de politie: e.g. I will think about it on the run. / Richard is on the run from the cops.
76. Go down the drain = a esua/ a fi ruinat sau distrus/ a fi risipit: e.g.All of our savings have gone down the drain since we

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started gambling.
77. Left, right and centre = a se intampla intr-o multime de locuri sau multor oameni: e.g. They were firing at people left, right
and centre.
78. Get/go beyond a joke = a deveni extrem de serios si ingrijorator: e.g. Tom is drunk more nights than he is sober these days -
this has gone beyond a joke.
79. Be lost for words = a nu sti ce sa spui pentru ca esti surprins sau uimit: e.g.I was so amazed at what she'd said I found
myself completely lost for words
80. Slip of the tongue = a spune ceva neintentionat/ fara sa vrei: e.g. I didn't mean to tell her that. Itwas a slip of the tongue.
81. Be in the red = a datora bani la banca: e.g. Many of the students were in the red at the end of their first year.
82. Red tape = birocratie/ reguli care fac ca lucrurile sa mearga greu: e.g.My passport application has been held up by red tape.
83. On the spur of the moment = deodata/ spontan: e.g. We decided to go for a walk on the spur of the moment.
84. The ins and outs (+ of ) = detaliile sau faptele care privesc ceva: e.g. I don't know allthe ins and outs of the situation but I
gather Jane and Amy haven't been getting on too well.
85. Be/ get cheesed off = a fi suparat pe/ dezgustat de: e.g. Marywas really cheesed off at her sister for taking her favourite
shoes without asking.
86. Drop a clanger = a spune ceva din neatentie care supara sau jeneaza pe cineva: e.g. Idropped a clanger by asking him
how his mother was when she had been dead for three months.
87. Make heavy weather of = a exagera gradul de dificultate a ceea ce faci: e.g. Heis making heavy weather of learning the
idioms because they are not so difficult to learn.
88. By hook or by crook = folosind orice metoda posibila: e.g. I am determined to get that jobby hook or by crook.
89. To take pot luck = a risca ceva fara a sti dinainte ce urmeaza: e.g. I’ve never heard of any of these restaurants. We’ll have to
take pot luck.
90. Be full of beans = a fi plin de energie si entuziasm: e.g. I've never met anyone whois as full of beans before breakfast as
she is.

26. Idioms 2

The most commonly used English idioms 1:

A hot potato

Speak of an issue which many people are talking about and which is usually disputed

A penny for your thoughts

A way of asking what someone is thinking

Actions speak louder than words

People's intentions can be judged better by what they do than what they say.

Add insult to injury

To further a loss with mockery or indignity; to worsen an unfavorable situation.

At the drop of a hat

Meaning: without any hesitation; instantly.

Back to the drawing board

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When an attempt fails and it's time to start all over.

Ball is in your court

It is up to you to make the next decision or step

Barking up the wrong tree

Looking in the wrong place. Accusing the wrong person

Be glad to see the back of somebody

Be happy when a person leaves.

Beat around/ about the bush

Avoiding the main topic. Not speaking directly about the issue.

Best of both worlds

All the advantages.

Best thing since sliced bread

A good invention or innovation. A good idea or plan.

Bite off more than you can chew

To take on a task that is way to big.

Blessing in disguise

Something good that isn't recognized at first.

Burn the midnight oil

To work late into the night, alluding to the time before electric lighting.

Can't judge a book by its cover

Cannot judge something primarily on appearance.

Caught between two stools/ worlds

When someone finds it difficult to choose between two alternatives.

Costs an arm and a leg

This idiom is used when something is very expensive.

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Cross that bridge when you come to it

Deal with a problem if and when it becomes necessary, not before.

Cry over spilt milk

When you complain about a loss from the past.

Curiosity killed the cat

Being Inquisitive can lead you into an unpleasant situation.

Cut corners

When something is done badly to save money.

Cut the mustard

To succeed; to come up to expectations; adequate enough to compete or participate.

Devil's Advocate

To present a counter argument

Don't count your chickens before the eggs have hatched

Don't make plans for something that might not happen.

Don't give up the day job

You are not very good at something. You could definitely not do it professionally.

Don't put all your eggs in one basket

Do not put all your resources in one possibility.

Drastic times call for drastic measures

When you are extremely desperate you need to take drastic actions.

Elvis has left the building

The show has come to an end. It's all over.

Every cloud has a silver lining

Be optimistic, even difficult times will lead to better days.

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Far cry from

Very different from.

Feel a bit under the weather

Feeling slightly ill.

Give the benefit of the doubt

Believe someone's statement, without proof.

Once bitten, twice shy

Said when you are frightened to do something again because you had a bad experience with it before.

Kick/ break the habit

To overcome an addiction especially an addiction like drugs.

Make ends meet

Make sufficient money to survive on.

Up and about

To get out of the bed actively after sleep; to come out of the bed after an illness or injury.

Stands to reason

To reach a logical conclusion; to come to a reasonable deduction.

Up to no good

To have an evil plan; to be inclined towards making something worse through a planned effort.

All that gliters is not gold

The shining outer look of something is not a consistent sign of its real character; not everyone that appears good turns out to be
good.

Forty winks

Sleep for a while, mostly during the day.

Make do

To cope with something even though the circumstances are not ideal

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27. Prepositions

Verbs followed by prepositions

Absorbed in

Arrive in

Believe in

Confide in

Be engrossed in e.g. She was so engrossed in reading that she didn’t hear the doorbell.

Fill in e.g He filled in the application.

Implicate in

Include in

Increase in

Instil in e.g. They instilled good manners in her.

Involve in

Lack in e.g. He lacks in good manners.

Persist in

Result in

Specialize in

Succeed in

Account for e.g. We have to account for the weather when going for a picnic.

Admire for

Allow for e.g. We have to allow for the weather when going for a picnic.

Apologise for

Bargain for

Blame for

Care for

Cater for e.g. We cater for all tastes.

Charge for e.g. How much do you charge for this car?

Count for

Decide for

Earmark for e.g. This tree was earmarked for cutting.

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Fall for

Forgive for

Punish for

Pay for

Wait for

Work for

Accuse of

Approve of

Disapprove of

Dream of

Die of

Consist of

Convict of

Remind of

Smell of

Suspect of

Taste of

Take care of

Think of (also possible: think about)

Acquaint with e.g. I am not acquainted with Tom Smith.

Agree with

Associate with

Charge with e.g. He is charged with murder.

Clutter with (be cluttered with)

Coincide with

Collide with

Compare with

Comply with e.g. Everybody has to comply with the rules.

Communicate with

Concern with

Confront with

Confuse with

Cope with e.g. You have to cope with the situation.

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Cram with (be crammed with) e.g. The room was crammed with furniture.

Cry with (grief)

Be crowded with

Deal with

Discuss with

Face with (be faced with)

Fill with

Ingratiate oneself with e.g. He always ingratiates himself with the boss.

Interfere with

Meet with (meet with an accident)

Pack with (be packed with) e.g. The room was packed with furniture.

Plead with e.g. He pleaded with his father to forgive him.

Provide with

Sympathise with

Tamper with e.g. The thief tampered with the lock and now it’s broken.

Trust with

Bar from

Benefit from

Come from

Derive from

Deter from e.g. He was deterred from going out by bad weather.

Differ from

Distinguish from

Distract from

Excuse from

Exempt from e.g. He was exempted from doing sports because he was ill.

Expel from e.g. He was expelled from school for bad behaviour.

Refrain from e.g. You have to refrain from smoking in public places.

Result from (be the consequence of)

Resign from

Recover from

Stem from e.g. Your problems stem from your lack of education.

Suffer from

Stop from

Translate from

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Base on

Bet on

Blame on

Put the blame on

Centre on

Concentrate on

Congratulate on

Count on

Decide on

Depend on

Elaborate on

Impose on

Insist on

Pride oneself on

Rely on e.g. I rely on you to help me with moving out.

Spend on

Try on (clothes)

Protest against

Insure against

Argue about

Agree about

Be concerned about

Be worried about

Boast about

Decide about

Dream about

Hear about

Laugh about

Know about

Forget about

Protest about

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Quarrel about

Think about (also possible: think of)

Worry about

Phase something out e.g. Land line phones are phasing out.

Arrive at

Aim at

Glance at

Gaze at

Guess at

Hint at

Joke at

Laugh at

Look at

Mock at

Shout at

Shoot at

Stare at

Marvel at

Agree to

Answer to

Appeal to someone (beg)

Appeal to someone (It appeals to me. = I like the idea.)

Apply oneself to e.g. She applied herself to her studies.

Apply to e.g. This rule doesn’t apply to you.

Attend to

Attribute to

Belong to

Commit oneself to

Confess to

Dance to music

Devote oneself to

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Give birth to

Listen to

Prefer one thing to another

React to

Refer to something

Refer someone to someone e.g. My doctor referred me to a specialist.

Resort to e.g. He resorted to murder to escape prison.

See to something (make sure it is done)

Subject someone to something

Succeed to (the throne)

Be used to doing something

Be accustomed to doing something

Take into consideration

Adjectives followed by prepositions

Afraid of

Ashamed of

Aware of

Beware of

Capable of

Conscious of

Fond of

Full of

Be good of somebody to do something

Indicative of

Irrespective of e.g. I love you irrespective of your social position.

Jealous of

Envious of

Shy of

Suspicious of

Tired of

Worthy of

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Annoyed about

Anxious about

Certain about

Excited about

Pleased about

Right about

Sorry about

Thrilled about

Upset about

Wrong about

Angry with a person

Annoyed with a person

Bored with

Commensurate with e.g. Your results are commensurate with how much you worked.

Connected with

Confronted with

Content with

Be good at dealing with

Happy with

Incompatible with

Obsessed with

Pleased with

Popular with

Preoccupied with

Satisfied with

Angry at a person

Annoyed at a person

Be bad at

Be good at

Surprised at

Skilled at

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Keen on

Addicted to

Attentive to

Confined to

Equivalent to

Grateful to

Kind to

Immune to

Impervious to

Indifferent to

Liable to (likely to suffer from)

Married to

Opposed to

Prone to e.g. She is prone to lying when she doesn’t learn the lesson.

Resigned to

Baffled by

Bored by

Detained by

Distressed by

Plagued by

Shocked by

Surprised by

Early for

Eligible for

Famous for

Late for

Liable for (legally responsible)

Ready for

Responsible for

Sorry for

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Suitable for

Deficient in

Experienced in

Implicated in

Interested in

Absent from

Derived from

Different from

Safe from

Missing from

Prepositional phrases (Nouns followed by prepositions)

An authority on (expert)

An outlook on

Advice on

Attack on

Ban on

Comment on

Effect on

Emphasis on

Expert on

Influence on

Restriction on

Talk on

Tax on

Access to

An alternative to

An attitude to

Damage to

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An exception to

Objection to

Reaction to

Reply to

A solution to

Thanks to

A threat to

A witness to

The key to

Be in authority over

Have control over

Be in dispute over something

Agreement with

Contrast with

Connection with

Contract with

Be in dispute with someone

Encounter with

Harmony with

Link with

Quarrel with

Relationship with

Trouble with

Admiration for

Craving for

Credit for

Cure for

Desire for

Disregard for

Excuse for

Provision for

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Reason for

Recipe for

Reputation for

Respect for

Responsibility for

Room for

Sympathy for

Aware of

Delay of

Description of

Hope of

Idea of

Lack of

Map of

Treatment of

Departure from

Protection from

Fall from

Extract from

Phone call from

Discussion about

Information about

Quarrel about

Argument about

Debate about

Hesitation about

Choice between

Comparison between

Connection between

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Contact between

Relationship between

An insight into

Expressions beginning with prepositions

In advance

In addition

In answer to

In the balance

In all likelihood

In blood

In answer to

In any case

In cash

In the centre of

In charge of/ with

In collaboration with

In comparison with

In comfort

In conclusion

In control

In the country

In decline

In demand

In dispute

In distress

In danger

In the early stages

In earnest

In the end

Be in favour of something

Be in favour with someone

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In fear of

In future

In good/ bad condition

In general

In haste

In harmony

In high spirits

In ink

In jeopardy

In the middle of

In the news

In one way or another

In other words

In the open air

In pairs

In pencil

In practice

In recognition of

In response to

In short

In the north/south

In the mountains

In the park

In a queue

In town

In theory

In time

In trouble

In turn

In a loud voice

In the beginning

In the end

In the morning/afternoon/evening

In March

In an hour

In the twentieth century

In the night

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In a moment

In a day or two

In 1999

With the exception of

With intent to

With regard to

With a view to

With the aim of

With the result that

At any rate

At ease

At fault

At first sight

At the first/ second/third attempt

At the end

At large

At liberty

At all times

At the time

At times

At the moment

At present

At the age of

At the beginning

At breakfast/ lunch/ dinner

At the bottom of

At the top of

At the bus stop

At sea

At the corner

At the crossroads

At dawn/ sunrise

At noon

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At dusk/ sunset

At daybreak

At midnight

At night

At last

At the door

At first

At once

At home

At arm’s length

At least

At the same time

At work

At a hotel

At one’s risk

At a price

At the top of one’s lungs/voice

At the weekend

At weekends

At 9 o’clock

At Christmas/Easter/Ramadan

At a wedding

At a funeral

On average

On approval

On a regular basis

On behalf of

On condition that

On the contrary

On good terms

On loan

On the market (for sale)

On its merits

On offer

On purpose

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On the verge of

On my own

On no account

On second thoughts

On the whole

On business

On a diet

On arrival

On foot

On the one hand

On the other hand

On line

On (off) duty

On fire

On horseback

On the left/right

On the floor

On TV

On the radio

On the screen

On the phone

On holiday

On a date

On August 8th

On Tuesday

On New Year’s Day

On Christmas/Easter Day

On the morning of 23rd April

On that day

On the island of

On board

On a cruise

On an excursion

On a trip

On a tour

On Earth

On a chair/stool

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On a farm

On a mountain

On the outskirts

On page three

On the pavement

On the streets

Beyond belief

Beyond a joke

Beyond the shadow of a doubt

By coincidence

By mistake

By the time

By rights

By surprise

By accident

By heart

By chance

By the way

By bus/train/plane/ship etc

By sea/land/air

By example

By sight

By means of

By no means

By cheque

Day by day

By air mail

By e-mail/fax/phone

By far

By the rules

By the arm

By hand

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By and by = after a short period

By and large

By day

By night

For fear of

For life

Not for long

For the foreseeable future

For the time being

For the moment

For a change

For ages

For breakfast/lunch/dinner

For fun/pleasure

For granted

For ever

For luck

For nothing

For sale

For short

For a visit

For a walk

Go for a place

For a while

For now

For one’s birthday

For better or worse

For one’s sake

Out of breath

Out of control

Out of danger

Out of date

Out of doors

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Out of earshot

Out of fashion

Out of focus

Out of favour

Out of luck

Out of money

Out of the ordinary

Out of order

Out of pocket

Out of practice

Out of print

Out of all proportion

Out of reach

Out of sight

Out of stock

Out of time

Out of touch

Out of tune

Out of work

Out of the woods

Out of the way

Out of the blue

Under age

Under the circumstances

Under control

Under cover of

Be under the impression that

Under the influence of

Under (a law)

Under an obligation

Under pressure

Under repair

Under stress

Under suspicion

Under threat

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Without a chance

Without delay

Without exception

Without a word

Within the law

Within reach

Within limits

Within reason

Within walking distance

After all

To some extent

To the point

To one’s surprise

To one’s amazement

To one’s health

To some degree

To you

Up to date

Up to you

Up and down

Up until/till (now)

Up the hill

Up the spout = wasted or spoiled e.g. Pete lost his job so that meant our holiday planswent up the spout.

Up to no good

Up as far as

Up one’s nose

Up with (the new)

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From A to B

From bad to worse

From place to place

From cover to cover

From top to bottom

From time to time

From morning to night

From now on

From my point of view

28.00 Phrasal Verbs


1. Phrasal Verbs: BREAK
2. Phrasal Verbs: BRING
3. Phrasal Verbs: CALL
4. Phrasal Verbs: COME
5. Phrasal verbs: DO
6. Phrasal Verbs: GIVE
7. Phrasal Verbs: GO
8. Phrasal Verbs: LOOK
9. Phrasal Verbs: MAKE
10. Phrasal Verbs: PAY
11. Phrasal verbs: PULL
12. Phrasal verbs: RUN
13. Phrasal Verbs: SEE
14. Phrasal Verbs: TAKE
15. Phrasal Verbs: THINK
16. Phrasal verbs: THROW

28.01 Phrasal Verbs: BREAK


break a leg
to wish good luck (a ura noroc)(for instance for an exam)

break a sweat
to begin to sweat (a transpira)

e.g. I broke a sweat while running.

used to say that something is not difficult for someone to do (ceva nu e dificil de facut)

e.g. Jane gave a perfect performance and didn't break a sweat.

break away

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1. to get away from someone or something by using force or effort (a scapa de cineva sau ceva) +
from

e.g. He broke away [= broke free/loose] from his kidnappers and escaped.

2. to separate from a larger group, country (a se separa de un grup mai mare sau de o tara) -
usually + from

e.g. Three members of the band broke away and formed their own group.

break bread
to have a meal together (a manca impreuna)

e.g. He received an invitation to break bread with the president.

break camp
to take down the tents and other parts of a camp in order to leave (a strange tabara <cu corturi>
pentru a pleca)

e.g. The soldiers broke camp at dawn.

break cover
If you break cover, you come out from a place where you have been safe or hidden (a iesi din locul in
care esti in siguranta sau ascuns)

e.g. The rabbit suddenly broke cover and ran across the field.

break down
1.

a) of a machine : to stop working properly (a se strica)

e.g. Our car broke down on the highway.

b) to fail or stop usually in a complete and sudden way (a esua sau a se opri deodata)

e.g. Negotiations have broken down. [= collapsed]

2.

a) to become overwhelmed by strong emotions (a fi coplesit de emotii puternice)

e.g. She broke down and started to cry. = She broke down in tears.

b) to lose strength or the ability to resist or fight (a pierde puterea de a rezista sau lupta/ a ceda)

e.g. The prisoner finally broke down under intensive questioning.

3.

a) to become separated or to separate (something) into simpler substances (a separa in substante mai
simple)

e.g. The foods you eat break down in the body's digestive system.

b) to be able to be divided or to divide (something) into parts or groups (a diviza)

e.g. The report breaks down into three sections. = The report is broken down into three sections. [= the report
has three sections]

4. to use force to push (something) to the ground (a tranti/ a sparge de ex. o usa)

e.g. break a door down

break even
to take in as much money as you spend : to operate without either a loss or a profit (a opera fara
pierderi sau profit/ a fi egal)

e.g. After years of losing money the company is starting to break even and hopes to make a profit soon.

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break faith with
to stop supporting or being loyal to (someone) : to betray (someone) (a trada/ a nu sustine pe
cineva/ a nu fi loial cuiva)

e.g. He has accused the government of breaking faith with its supporters.

break free
to become able to move or escape by using force or effort (a scapa/ a se elibera)

e.g. The prisoner struggled to break free .

to get away from someone or something that holds or limits you (a scapa de/ a se desprinde de) -
often + from or of

e.g. She wanted to break free from the constraints of her middle-class life.

break from
to end a relationship, connection, or agreement (a sfarsi o relatie, o legatura sau o intelegere/ a se
desprinde de)

e.g. She recently broke from [= broke with ] the organization she helped found.

break in
1. to enter a house, building, etc., illegally (a da o spargere)

e.g. Someone tried to break in while we were away.

2. to interrupt or disturb someone or something (a intrerupe)

e.g. I was listening to my favorite radio program when a reporter broke in with news about a storm.

3. to start or help (someone) to start a new activity, job, etc. (a incepe o noua activitate/ slujba)

e.g. Baseball was very different when he first broke in [=started playing] as a catcher in 1962.

4.

a) to use (something, such as a new pair of shoes) for a period of time so that it becomes comfortable
(a face sa fie comfortabil prin purtare/ a uza)

e.g. The shoes were tight when she first got them, so she broke them in by wearing them around the house for
a few days.

b) to operate (a new machine) carefully for a period of time until it is ready for regular use (a opera
ceva pentru un timp pana este bun de folosit)

e.g. You shouldn't drive a new car too fast while you're breaking it in.

break into
1. to enter (a house, building, etc.) illegally and especially by using force (a da o spargere)

e.g. Someone tried to break into our house while we were away.

2. to begin to do or have (something) suddenly (a incepe ceva deodata)

e.g. She broke into tears. [Ea a izbucnit in plans.]

3. to enter or get started in (something, such as a profession) (a incepe o profesie noua)

e.g. I knew her when she was a young actress trying to break into show business.

4. to interrupt (a intrerupe)

e.g. The network broke into the program with a special news report.

break loose
1. to suddenly become loose : to suddenly stop being attached to something ( a se desprinde)

e.g. One of the shutters broke loose during the storm.


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2. to get away from someone or something by using force or effort (a evada) + from

e.g. The prisoner broke loose [= broke free ] and ran away.

3. all hell breaks loose

if all hell breaks loose, a situation suddenly becomes noisy and violent, usually with a lot of people
arguing or fighting (tot iadul s-a dezlantuit)

e.g. This big guy walked up to the bar and hit Freddie and suddenly all hell broke loose.

break new ground


1. to dig into the ground at the start of building something(a sapa pentru a incepe o constructie noua)

e.g. Workers broke ground on the new stadium last week.

2. or break new ground : to make new discoveries (a face noi descoperiri)

e.g. Critics say that the study does not break (any) new ground in the search for a cure for cancer.

break off
1. to become separated because of force or violence (a se separa/ a se desprinde)

e.g. The handle broke off when I accidentally dropped the cup.

2. to stop or end suddenly (a se opri deodata)

e.g. The speaker broke off (speaking) in the middle of a sentence.

break open

to open or to cause (something) to open suddenly (a deschide deodata)

e.g. The burglars broke open the locked safe.

break out
1. to begin happening suddenly (a izbucni)

e.g. A fire broke out in the kitchen.

2.

a) to suddenly begin to have sweat, a rash, etc., on your skin ( a izbucni pe piele de ex. o iritatie/
transpiratie)

e.g. He broke out in a sweat. [A transpirat - deodata]

b) to appear on the skin suddenly (a aparea deodata pe pile)

e.g. Sweat broke out on his forehead.

3. to escape from a prison, jail, etc. (a evada) + of

e.g. Six prisoners attempted to break out of the jail.

4. to take (something) from the place where it is stored so that it can be used (a deschide/ a lua pentru
folosire)

e.g. We broke out the champagne to celebrate our victory.

break rank
1. to step out of a line (a nu fi respectuos/ a nu respecta regulile)

e.g. The soldier was disciplined for breaking ranks.

2. to no longer agree with or support a person or group (a nu sustine) + with

e.g. The senator decided to break ranks with others in his party and support the proposal.

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break someone's heart
to cause someone to feel great sorrow or sadness (a fringe inima cuiva)

e.g. He broke her heart when he left her for another woman.

break step

to stop walking or marching with the same rhythm as another person or group of people (a pierde
ritmul de ex. in timpul unui mars)

e.g. The soldier was startled and broke step.

break the back of


to get control of: to greatly weaken or subdue (something) (a tine in frau/ a slabi puterea/ a tine sub
control)

e.g. He says the government's new policies will break the back of inflation.

break the bank


to be very expensive or too expensive : to cost a lot of money (a fi prea scump)

e.g. Buy a car that's dependable, but won't break the bank.

break the ice


to say or do something that helps people to relax and begin talking at a meeting, party, etc.(a
sparge gheata - pentru a face oamenii sa se relaxeze)

e.g. He told a joke to break the ice .

break the mold


1. to do something in a completely new way (a face ceva in mod diferit/ a fi total diferit)

e.g. Voters are looking for a candidate who will break the mold and give them honest answers.

2. used to describe a very unusual or admired person (a fi unicat/ nu mai este nimeni asa)

e.g. He was the greatest man I ever knew. They broke the mold when they made that guy. [=there will never
be another person like him]

break through
1. to use force to get through (something, such as a barrier)(a trece prin/ a patrunde)

e.g. The enemy attacked our defenses but they weren't able to break through .

2. of the sun : to shine through (clouds) (despre soare: a straluci printre nori)

e.g. The sun finally began to break through . = The sun finally began to break through the clouds.

break up
1.

a) to separate into parts or pieces or cause (something) to separate into parts or pieces (a separa in
bucati)

e.g. The asteroid broke up [=disintegrated] when it hit the Earth's atmosphere.

b) to end or cause (something) to end (a sfarsi)

e.g. The demonstration broke up when the police arrived.

2. break up : to end a romantic relationship, marriage, etc. (a se desparti de cineva) + with

e.g. He broke up with his girlfriend.

3. to begin laughing suddenly and in a way that is difficult to control (a izbucni in ras)

e.g. I always break up [=crack up ] when I hear that joke.


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4.

a) to change the regular quality or appearance of (something) ( a schimba)

e.g. We moved to America to break up our dull routine.

b) to separate the parts of (something) so that it is not complete (a separa)

e.g. The seller was unwilling to break up the dining room set by selling one of the chairs.

5. break up - of a school : to come to the end of a period of instruction (such as a term) (a se sfarsi
pentru de ex. o vacanta)

e.g. School broke up for the summer last Friday.

break with
to end a relationship, connection, or agreement with (a sfarsi o relatie/ o legatura/ o intelegere)

e.g. He broke with his former friends and colleagues when he decided to support the conservative candidate.

28.02 Phrasal Verbs: BRING


bring about
: to cause (something) to happen (a cauza ceva sa se intample)

e.g. “What brought about the crisis?” “It was brought about by many factors.”

(Ce a cauzat criza? A fost cauzata de multi factori.)

bring around/ round (to)


1

a : to cause (someone) to accept and support something (such as an idea) after opposing it (a convinge pe cineva
sa accepte sau sa sustina o idee, de exemplu, dupa ce a fost impotriva initial)

e.g. She still says she won't support us, but we'll bring her around eventually. [= o vom convinge in cele din
urma]

b : to cause (someone) to become awake again after being unconscious (a trezi pe cineva dupa ce a fost
inconstient)

e.g. The boxer was knocked out and it took the doctor several minutes to bring him around. [= bring him to ]

c : to come with (someone) for a social visit (a aduce pe cineva intr-o vizita)

e.g. Why don't you bring your friend around (to my house) after work today?

2 : to cause (something, such as a conversation) to go to a desired subject or area (a conduce o


conversatie catre subiectul dorit) + to

We gradually brought the conversation around to the subject of his unpaid bills.

bring back
1

a : to come back with (something or someone)(a aduce ceva sau pe cineva de undeva)

e.g. What did you bring back (with you) from your vacation?

b : to cause (something or someone) to return (a readuce ceva)

e.g. The death penalty was done away with in this area many years ago, but some people now want it to be
brought back.

c : to cause (something or someone) to return to a condition, subject.(a face ceva sa se intoarca/ a aduce inapoi)

e.g. That question brings us back (again) to the fundamental problem of world peace.
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2 : to cause (something) to return to someone's memory (a face sa isi aminteasca)

e.g. Seeing her again brought back a lot of happy memories.

bring before
: to cause (someone or something) to come to (someone or something) for an official decision or judgment (a
aduce pe cineva in fata cuiva pentru o decizie oficiala sau pentru judecata)

e.g. He was brought (up) before the judge on a charge of obstructing justice.

bring down
1 : to cause (someone or something) to fall down onto the ground (a face sa cada)

e.g. The deer was brought down by a single shot.

2 : to cause (something) to become lower (a face ceva sa coste mai putin/ a aduce ceva mai jos)

e.g. Will anything ever bring house prices down?

3 : to cause (someone) to become sad or depressed (a deveni trist sau deprimat/ a deprima)

e.g. All this rainy weather is really bringing me down. [= getting me down]

bring forth
: to produce (something) (a produce)

e.g. The rosebushes brought forth an abundance of flowers.

: to cause (something) to occur or exist (a face sa se intample sau sa existe/ a provoca)

e.g. Her controversial comments brought forth [= provoked ] strong reactions from the public.

bring forward
1 to talk about or show (something) so that it can be seen or discussed by others (a aduce pentru a fi vazut sau
pentru a fi discutat)

e.g. The police have brought new evidence forward.

2 to make the time of (something) earlier or sooner (a muta/ a aduce mai devreme ora de desfasurare a unei
intalniri, de exemplu)

e.g. We need to bring the meeting forward from Tuesday to Monday so that more people can attend.

bring in
1 : to cause (someone) to become involved in a process, activity, etc. (a implica in)

e.g. The company has decided to bring in outside experts to help on the project.

a : to produce or earn (an amount of money) (a face bani/ a aduce bani)

e.g. Each sale brought in $5.

b law : to report (an official decision) to a court (in legislatie: a da un verdict)

e.g. The jury brought in [= returned] a verdict of not guilty. [= the jury said that the defendant was not guilty]

c : to introduce (a new law, rule, etc.) (a introduce o lege/ regula noua)

e.g. The government is going to bring in legislation to make such practices illegal.

3 : to cause (someone or something) to come to a place (a atrage/ a aduce intr-un loc)

e.g. The store is having a special sale in order to bring in [= attract] new customers/business.

bring off
to do (something difficult) : to achieve or accomplish (something) (a reusi ceva/ a realiza ceva)

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e.g. It's a challenging role. She's the only actress I know with enough talent to bring it off.

bring on
1 : to cause (something) to appear or occur (a cauza)

e.g. The crisis was brought on by many factors.

2 : to cause (something bad) to happen to (someone) (a face ceva rau sa se intample/ a aduce ceva rau asupra
cuiva)

e.g. You've brought nothing but shame on your family since the day you were born!

bring out
1

a : to show (something) : to cause (something) to appear or to be more easily seen (a face ceva sa apara sau sa
fie vazut mai usor/ a scoate in evidenta)

e.g. The debate brought out [= highlighted] the differences between the two candidates.

b : to cause (something) to become available or to come out (a scoate/ a face sa fie disponibil)

e.g. He is a writer who's expected to bring out a new novel next year.

2 : to cause (someone) to begin to have (something, such as a rash) on the skin + in (a avea o iritatie pe piele)

e.g. Eating strawberries brings me out in spots. [= eating strawberries makes me break out in spots]

bring to
: to cause (someone) to become awake again after being unconscious (a aduce in simtiri dupa ce a fost
inconstient)

e.g. The boxer was knocked out and it took the doctor several minutes to bring him to. [= bring him around]

bring together
: to cause (people) to join or meet : to cause (people) to come together (a aduce oamenii impreuna/ a face oamenii
sa se intalneasca)

e.g. She and her husband were brought together by a shared love of the natural world.

bring up
1 : to take care of and teach (a child who is growing up) (a creste/ a educa un copil)

e.g. I was born and brought up [= raised, reared] in Chicago.

a : to mention (something) when talking : to start to talk about (something)(a mentiona ceva/ a incepe sa
vorbeasca despre ceva)

e.g. We were waiting for a suitable moment to bring up [=introduce, raise] the subject of his unpaid bills.

b computers : to cause (something, such as a file or picture) to appear on a computer screen (a aduce pe ecran)

e.g. The system makes it easy to bring up (on the screen) information about any customer.

c : vomit (a vomita)

e.g. The patient tried to eat some breakfast but immediately brought it back up again.

3 : to cause (someone) to stop suddenly — bring up short (a se opri brusc/ deodata)

e.g. He was just starting to argue when her scream brought him up short .

bring yourself
to force yourself to do something that you do not want to do — usually used in negative statements (a se forta sa
faca ceva)

e.g. He knew that he should apologize, but he couldn't bring himself to do it.
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28.03 Phrasal Verbs: CALL


call a spade a spade
to speak in an honest and direct way (a spune lucrurilor pe nume)

e.g. Why don't you just call a spade a spade and say that he's a liar?

call at
call at (a place) of a boat or ship : to stop at (a place) briefly (a se opri/ a ancora pentru o durata
scurta de timp - despre barci si vapoare)

e.g. The ship called at the port.

call down
to pray or ask God to do something to someone (a se ruga la Dumnezeu/ a binecuvanta/ a
blestema)

e.g. He called down a blessing (a binecuvantata)/ called down curse (a blestemat) on the king. [= he prayed
that the king would be blessed/cursed]

call for
1 call for (something)

a : to say or demand publicly that something is needed or should be done (a cere in mod public)

e.g. The opposition has called for an investigation.

b : to indicate that something is needed or should be done (a cere sa se faca ceva)

e.g. The plan calls for three windows to be added.

c : to require or demand (something) as necessary or proper (a cere sa aiba/ a fi necesar sa aiba)

e.g. The job calls for typing skills. [= you must have typing skills to do the job]

2 : to go to a place to get (someone or something) (a lua pe cineva de undeva)

e.g. I'll call for you (at your house) after dinner.

call forth
to bring (a memory, image, etc.) into the mind (a aduce in memorie/ a evoca)

e.g These events call forth [= elicit, evoke] strong feelings.

call in
1

a : to make a telephone call to a place (such as the place where you work) (a suna la serviciu - sa spui
ca esti bolnav)

e.g. She called in sick yesterday. [= she telephoned the place where she works to say that she was sick and
would not be coming to work]

b : to make a telephone call to a radio or television program (a suna la radio sau program TV)

e.g. Thousands of people called in to make a donation.

c : to deliver (something, such as a message) by making a telephone call (a da un mesaj prin telefon)

e.g. He called in an order for pizza.

2 : to go in somewhere to make a visit — often + on (a vizita)

e.g. I called in on an old friend [=I visited an old friend] while I was in New York on business.
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3

a : to say that something that has been given or sent should be returned (a retrage - un produs - de pe
piata)

e.g. The manufacturer has called in all its defective products.

b : to demand payment of (a loan) (a cere banii pentru un imprumut inapoi)

e.g. The bank has called in the loan.

4 : to ask for the help or services of (someone) (a cere ajutor de la cineva)

e.g. They may have to call in a mediator to settle the strike.

call into action


When people or things are called into action, they are asked to start working or doing a particular
task (a chema la datorie)

e.g. As a doctor, she can be called into action at any time of the day.

call into question/ doubt


to make people doubt something (a se indoi de ceva/ a fi nesigur de ceva)

e.g. His report calls into question the earlier reports we had. [= his report makes us feel not certain that the
earlier reports were true]

call it a day/night
: to stop an activity (such as work) for the remainder of the day or night (a se opri din ceea ce face)

e.g. We've done enough work for now: let's call it a day .

call it quits
: to quit or end something (such as a job, relationship, or activity) (a renunta la un job, o relatie, o
activitate/ a demisiona)

e.g. She decided to call it quits after many years in office.

call off
1 : to stop doing or planning to do (something) (a anula)

e.g. We had to call off [= cancel] our trip.

2 : to cause or tell (a person or animal) to stop attacking, chasing, etc. (a opri)

e.g. The dog was barking and growling at me until its owner called it off.

call on/upon
1 : to say that someone or something should do something (a cere sa faca ceva) — followed by to +
verb

e.g. The opposition has called on/upon the governor to resign. [= the opposition has said that the governor
should resign]

2 : to ask for help from (a cere ajutor de la cineva)

e.g. Is there anyone you can call on in an emergency?

3 : to use (something, such as a talent or skill) (a folosi un talent/ o indemanare)

e.g. She had to call on/upon all her reserves of strength and skill to meet the challenge.

4 : to ask for a response from (someone, such as a student) (a cere un raspuns de la cineva)

e.g. I was hoping the teacher wouldn't call on me, because I didn't know the answer.

5 : to make a brief visit to (someone) (a vizita scurt pe cineva)

e.g. I'm planning to call on an old friend after I leave here.


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6 : to directly criticize (someone) for (something, such as bad behavior) (a critica in mod direct)

e.g. He's incredibly rude, but no one ever calls him on it. [= no one ever tells him that he should stop being so
rude]

call out
1 : to speak in a loud voice (a vorbi cu voce tare)

e.g. He called out to passers-by for help.

: to say (something) in a loud voice (a spune ceva cu voce tare)

e.g. He called out her name in his sleep.

: to announce or read (something) in a loud voice (a anunta sau citi cu voce tare)

e.g. call out a number

a : to order or tell (a group of people, such as soldiers) to come or go somewhere (a ordona - unor
soldati)

e.g. The governor has called out troops to help control the riot (revolta).

b : to order or tell (workers) to go on strike (a ordona sau spune muncitorilor sa faca greva)

e.g. Factory workers are expected to be called out on strike if a new contract isn't signed by tomorrow.

call (someone) on the carpet


: to criticize someone for doing something wrong (a critica pe cineva pentru ca afacut ceva gresit)

e.g. He was/got called on the carpet for missing the deadline.

call (something) to order


: to say that (something, such as a meeting or court session) should begin (a spune ca o intalnire sau
un proces trebuie sa inceapa)

e.g. She called the meeting to order at 8:15.

call the shots


: to be in charge or control of something (a fi in control/ a fi responsabil)

e.g. Who's the one who calls the shots around here?

call the tune


: to be in charge or control of something (a fi in control/ a fi responsabil)

e.g. She called the tune all through the meeting.

call time
1 sports : to ask for a time-out (a cere o pauza)

e.g. The coach called time.

a : to announce that it is time for a bar or pub to close (a anunta ca este timpul de inchidere)

b : to say or decide that something has ended : to end something (a sfarsi/ termina ceva) — usually +
on

e.g. an athlete who has called time on his career

call to account
: to require (someone) to explain and accept punishment or criticism for bad or wrong behavior (a
tras la raspundere)

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e.g. He was called to account by his boss for failing to spot the mistake in the company's records.

call to mind
: to cause (something) to be remembered or thought of (a-si aminti)

e.g. Seeing her again called to mind the happy times we spent together in college.

call up
1 : to make a telephone call to (someone) (a suna pe cineva)

e.g. I haven't spoken to her in years, but I called her up last night and we talked for hours.

a : to bring (something, such as a memory) into the mind (a aduce in minte/ a aminti)

e.g. The sound of the ocean called up [=brought back] memories of my childhood.

b : to bring (strength, courage, etc.) from within yourself (a apela curaj/ forta/ etc.)

e.g. He will have to call up all his reserves of strength to meet this challenge.

c : to get (something) from the memory of a computer and show it on the screen (a face ceva sa apara
pe ecran)

e.g. call up an old document for revision

a : to order or tell (someone) to come or appear (a ordona cuiva sa apara in fata cuiva)

e.g. The prisoner was called up before a magistrate.

b : to bring (an athlete) to a higher league (a aduce un atlet intr-o liga mai mare)

e.g. a minor-league player who is being called up to the major leagues

c : to order (soldiers) to come for active military duty (a rechema soldati in serviciul activ)

e.g. call up the reserves

call your bluff


◊ If you have made a bluff or a threat and people call your bluff, they tell you to do the thing you have threatened to do
because they do not believe that you will really do it. (a spune cuiva ca nu crezi ca va face ceea ce a spus ca va face)

e.g. When she threatened to quit her job, her boss called her bluff and told her she could leave if she wanted to.

28.04 Phrasal Verbs: COME


come about
1 to happen (a se intampla)

e.g. Their meeting came about by accident/chance.

2 of a boat or ship : to turn to a different direction (despre un vapor - a se indrepta intr-o directie
diferita/ a schimba directia)

e.g. The captain gave the order to come about.

come across
1 to seem to have a particular quality or character : to make a particular impression (a crea o
impresie asupra cuiva)

e.g. How did he come across? [ Ce fel de impresie ti-a facut?]

usually + as

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e.g. He comes across as (being) a good teacher. [El pare sa fie un profesor bun./ Se crede despre el ca este un
profesor bun.]

2 to meet or find (something or someone) by chance (a intalni pe cineva/ a gasi ceva din intamplare/ a
gasi din intamplare)

e.g. Researchers have come across important new evidence.

3 to pay money that someone wants or demands (a plati bani pe care cineva ii vrea sau ii cere)

e.g. They threatened to hurt him if he doesn't come across (with the money).

come adrift
to become loose or unattached (a se desprinde)

e.g. One of the straps on her dress came adrift.

come after
to chase someone : to try to find or capture (someone you want to hurt or punish)(a urmari pe
cineva/ a incerca sa capturezi pe cineva pentru a rani sau pedepsi)

e.g. They're worried that the government might be coming after them.

come again
used to ask someone to repeat something that was not heard or understood clearly (folosit pentru a
ruga pe cineva sa repete ce a spus pentru ca nu s-a inteles bine)

e.g. “Her name is Hermione.” “Come again ? (Poftim?)I didn't quite hear you.” “I said her name is Hermione.”

come along
1 to go somewhere with someone (a se duce undeva cu cineva)

e.g. They asked me to come along (with them) on the trip. [M-au rugat sa ma duc cu ei in excursie.]

2 to make progress (a progresa)

e.g. The project started slowly, but now the work is coming along.

3 to happen or appear as someone or something that might be used, chosen, etc. (a se intampla sau a
aparea in cale)

e.g. She says she won't just marry the first man that comes along.

come a long way


1 to become very successful (a fi plin de succes/ a reusi in viata)

e.g. He's come a long way from his days as a young reporter. Now he's one of the country's most respected
journalists.

2 to make a great amount of progress (a progresa foarte mult)

e.g. Medicine has come a long way in recent years.

come and go
1 used to talk about time that has passed (a trece: despre timp)

e.g. More than a hundred years have come and gone since the day of that famous battle.

2 used to talk about people who appear and then leave as time passes (a veni si a se duce/ a trece)

e.g. She's seen a lot of employees come and go during her time in the company.

come apart
to break into parts or pieces (a esua/ a se dezintegra)

e.g. Their marriage is coming apart at the seams. [= their marriage is failing -> Casatoria lor esueaza.]

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come around/ round
1 to start to accept and support something (such as an idea) after opposing it : to stop opposing or
disagreeing with something or someone (a accepta si sustine o idee dupa ce intial ai fost impotriva ei/
a inceta sa mai fi impotriva cuiva sau a unui lucru/ a se razgandi)

e.g. He still says she won't support us, but he'll come around eventually. [El inca spune ca nu ne va sustine, dar
isi va schimba parerea in cele din urma/ se va razgandi in cele din urma.]

often + to

e.g. She'll come around to our side eventually.

2 to become conscious (a deveni constient/ a-si reveni in simtiri)

e.g. He took a bad fall and knocked himself out. When he came around [= woke up, came to], he didn't
remember what had happened.

3 to go to visit someone (a se duce sa viziteze pe cineva)

e.g. Why don't you come around [= come over] (to my house) after work today?

4 to occur in the usual way as time passes (a reveni/ a se intampla pe masura ce trece timpul)

e.g. I always feel a little sad when the end of the school year comes around.

5 of a boat or ship : to turn to a different direction (despre un vapor: a se intoarce intr-o directie
diferita/ a schimba directia)

e.g. The sailboat came around [= came about] and began to head east.

come as
used to describe the effect that something has when people first learn about it (a veni ca, de ex. o
surpriza, pentru cineva)

e.g. Their decision came as a surprise (to me). [= their decision was a surprise to me]

come at
1

a to move toward (someone) in a threatening or aggressive way (a veni spre cineva intr-un mod
agresiv)

e.g. They kept coming at me.

b to be directed at or toward (someone) (a fi directionat catre cinava)

e.g. The questions kept coming at him so quickly that he didn't know how to respond to them.

2 to begin to deal with or think about (something) (a aborda, de ex. o problema)

e.g. We need to come at [= approach] these problems from a different angle.

come away from


to move away from (an area, place, etc.) (a se departa/ distanta de)

e.g. The guard told him to come away from the door.

come back
1 to return to a place (a se intoarce intr-o locatie)

e.g. I hope you'll come back and see us again soon.

a to return to a former good condition : to become strong, successful again after a time of weakness,
failure, etc. (a se recupera dupa o perioada de slabiciune/ a redeveni puternic/ plin de succes dupa o
perioada de esecuri)

e.g. It can be difficult for an athlete to come back [= recover] from an injury like this.

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b to become popular or fashionable again (a redeveni popular sau la moda)

e.g. Short skirts were out of fashion for many years, but now they're coming back.

c to be successful in a game, sport, etc., after being behind (a se intoarce plin de succes intr-un joc
sau sport dupa ce initial ai fost in urma)

e.g. The team was trailing after the first half, but they came back and won in the second half.

3 to return to someone's memory (a-si reaminti) — usually + to

e.g. I had forgotten a lot of what I learned about music, but it's all coming back to me now. [= I am beginning to
remember it now]

4 to make a reply or response (a replica/ a raspunde) — usually + with

e.g. When questioned about his involvement, he came back with an angry denial.

come between
to cause disagreement between (people or groups) (a se interpune intre oameni sau grupuri/ a
cauza neintelegere)

e.g. We shouldn't let these problems come between us.

come by
1 to make a visit to someone (a vizita)

e.g. Why don't you come by [= come over] for a while after dinner?

2 to get or acquire/ obtain (something) (a obtine)

e.g. I asked him how he came by the money, but he wouldn't tell me.

come cheap
to be available at a low price — folosit de obicei in propozitii negative (a fi disponibil pentru putini
bani)

e.g. His services don't come cheap. [= his services are not cheap; his services are expensive] (Serviciile lui nu
sunt ieftine/ sunt scumpe)

come clean
to tell the truth about what happened : to stop hiding the truth (a spune adevarul)

e.g. Eventually she came clean and helped the police recover the goods she'd stolen.

come close
1 to almost do something (a fi aproape de a face ceva)

e.g. We didn't win, but we came close.

often + to

e.g. The band came very close to breaking up.

2 to be similar to something or as good as expected (a fi asemanator cu ceva/ a fi la fel de bun pe cat


te-ai asteptat)

e.g. She said they taste just like real hot dogs, but they don't even come close (to the real thing).

come down
1

a to move or fall downward (a cadea)

e.g. The crowd erupted in applause as the curtain came down.

b of rain, snow, etc. : to fall from the sky (despre ploaie sau zapada -> a cadea din cer)

e.g. She stood at the window, watching the rain come down.
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2 to go to a lower level (a scadea)

e.g. Stock prices have continued to come down [=fall] this week.

3 to decide or say in an official or public way that you support or oppose someone or something (a
sustine in mod oficial)

e.g. The committee came down in favor of the proposal.

4 An announcement or decision that comes down is an announcement or decision from someone who
has power or authority (a veni - despre o decizie sau un anunt)

e.g. Word came down that the strike was over.

come down on
1. to criticize or punish (someone) (a critica sau pedepsi pe cineva)

e.g. The governor has promised to come down hard on corrupt officials. [= to severely punish corrupt officials]

2. to make a strong effort to stop or oppose (something) (a opri sau a <se> opune)

e.g. The governor has promised to come down hard on corruption.

come down to
1. to have (something) as the most important part (a se rezuma la)

e.g. People talk about various reasons for the company's failure, but it all comes down to one thing: a lack of
leadership.

2. to become someone's property because the previous owner has died (a reveni cuiva/ a intra in
posesia cuiva deoarece proprietarul initial a murit)

e.g. After my aunt died, her house came down to me.

come down with


to begin to have or suffer from an illness (a contracta o boala/ a se imbolnavi)

e.g. She came down with [= contracted ] measles.

come forward
to say openly or publicly that you are the person who should get something or who can do something (a
se prezenta/ a se oferi pentru a face ceva)

e.g. No one has yet come forward to claim the reward.

come from
1.

a to have (a specified origin or source)(a proveni din)

e.g. Wine comes from grapes. [=wine is made from grapes]

b used to describe a person's family (a proveni din)

e.g. She comes from a wealthy family. [=her family is wealthy]

c to be the result of (something) (a fi rezultatul/ a rezulta)

e.g. I'm not surprised that you don't feel well. That's what comes from not eating the right kinds of food.

2. come from (a place) : to be from (a place) -> a veni dintr-un loc/ a fi dintr-o locatie ca de ex.:

a of a person (despre o persoana): to have been born or raised in (a place) (a fi nascut sau crescut intr-
un loc)

e.g. She comes (originally) from a small southern town.

folosit figurativ:

e.g. I understand where you're coming from. [= Iti inteleg punctul de vedere. ]

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b of a thing (despre un lucru): to be produced in (a place) (a fi produs intr-un loc)

e.g. Where did this wine come from? [= where is this wine from?]

come full circle

through a series of changes that lead back to an original position or situation or to an opposite
position or situation (a deveni intreg/ a se implini)

e.g. Now that she's back on the stage, her career has come/gone full circle. [= her career began on the stage,
and now she has returned to it]

come hell or high water


used to say that something will definitely happen or be done even though other events or situations
might make it difficult (ceva se va intampla indiferent de evenimente sau de situatie)

e.g. I will be there on time, come hell or high water. [Voi fi acolo la timp, orice se va intampla.]

come home to
to become very clear and obvious to (someone) in usually a forceful or unpleasant way (a deveni
clar/ a intelege perfect situatia)

e.g. The truth about her marriage came home to her when he left her.

come in
1

a to enter a place (a intra intr-un loc)

e.g. Welcome. Please come in.

b to arrive at a place (a sosi intr-un loc)

e.g. The store will have some exciting new products coming in next week.

2 to be received (a fi primit)

e.g. The election results should start coming in soon. [=we should start receiving/getting the election results
soon]

3 to end a race or competition in a specified position (a sfarsi pe un anumit loc intr-o cursa sau
competitie)

e.g. Joan won the race and her sister came in [=finished] second.

4 to have a particular role or function (a avea un rol)

e.g. We're going to need someone to help with the cooking, and that's where you come in. [= your job will be to
help us with the cooking]

5 ◊ Something that comes in handy or (less commonly) comes in useful/helpful turns out to be useful
when it is needed (a fi la indemana)

e.g. A pocketknife can come in handy.

come in/into bloom


to begin to produce flowers, to start to bloom (a inflori/ a inmuguri)

e.g. I love the garden in early spring, when the forsythias are coming into bloom

come in for
to get or be given (something unpleasant, such as criticism) : to be subjected to (something) (a fi
criticat/ a fi supus criticii)

e.g. The government's policies are coming in for increasing criticism. [= more people are beginning to criticize
the government's policies]

come in on

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to become involved in (something) (a se implica)

e.g. He says he'd like to come in (with us) on the deal.

come into
1 to enter (a place) (a intra undeva)

e.g. Everyone watched her as she came into the room.

2 to get (something) as a possession (a obtine/ a poseda/ a mosteni)

e.g. He came into a fortune when he inherited his father's estate.

3 to be involved in (something) (a se implica/ a interveni)

e.g. Deciding who to hire should be a business decision. You shouldn't allow personal feelings to come into it. [=
you shouldn't allow personal feelings to affect your decision]

come into effect


If a law or something like a law takes effect, comes into effect, or goes into effect, it begins to work or
to be enforced (a fi pus in practica/ a fi aplicat)

e.g. The law went/came into effect today.

come into your own


to begin to have the kind of success that you are capable of having : to become very skillful, successful,
etc. (a deveni indemanatic/ plin de succes)

e.g. She has really started to come into her own recently.

come in/into view/sight


to appear : to begin to be seen (a aparea)

e.g. Another ship suddenly came into view.

come naturally
If something comes naturally to you, you are able to do or learn it easily (a veni/ a se intampla in mod
natural)

e.g. Musical talent comes naturally to that family.

come of
to be the result of (something) (a rezulta din)

e.g. They had discussions about possible new products, but nothing came of it. [=no new products resulted from
their discussions]

come of age
to reach the age when you are considered an adult (a deveni major)

e.g. He received his full inheritance when he came of age.

come off
1. to stop being attached to something (a se desprinde)

e.g. When I tried to pick up the suitcase, the handle came off. = The handle came off the suitcase.

2. to succeed (a reusi)

e.g. His plans to start his own business never came off.

3. to happen (a avea loc)

e.g. The meeting came off as scheduled. [= the meeting happened when it was scheduled to happen]

4. to do or perform well or badly (a face ceva bine sau rau)


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e.g. She came off well in the contest.

5. to seem to have a specified quality or character (a parea/ a aparea ca) — usually + as

e.g. He's really just shy, but he comes off as a little arrogant. [= he seems a little arrogant]

6.

a to have recently completed or recovered from (something) (a termina)

e.g. a company that is coming off a very successful year

b to have recently stopped using (an illegal drug) ( a se opri din a folosi)

e.g. He is an addict who is coming off heroin.

come off it
to stop talking or acting in a foolish way (Nu mai spune!) — usually used as an interjection

e.g. “I could be a pro golfer if I really tried.” “Oh, come off it! You're not even close to being that good!”

come on
1

a to happen or progress as time passes (a se lasa - despre intuneric/ a se instala)

e.g. Darkness came on rapidly/gradually [=it rapidly/gradually became dark] as the sun went down.

b to begin to happen (a incepe sa se intample)

e.g. Rain came on toward noon. [=it began to rain when it was almost noon]

a of an electrical machine, light, etc. : to begin to work or function (a functiona/ a se aprinde)

e.g. The lights came on briefly and then went out again.

b of a TV or radio program : to start (a incepe)

e.g. That program you like is coming on in a few minutes.

3 used in speech to ask or urge someone to do something (folosit pentru a indemna pe cineva sa faca
ceva)

e.g. “I don't feel like going out tonight.” “Oh, come on! It'll do you good to get out of the house for a while.”

4 to have or seem to have a certain quality or nature (a fi vazut ca)

e.g. He comes on [= comes across] as a conservative.

come on strong
1 to be very forceful or too forceful in talking to someone or dealing with someone (a se impune intr-
un mod fortat)

e.g. She didn't like him because she felt that he came on too strong.

2 to become stronger or more successful in a continuing contest, race, etc. (a deveni mai puternic sau
a avea mai mult succes)

e.g. The team was playing poorly in the early part of the season, but it has been coming on strong lately.

come on to
1 to show sexual interest in (someone) : to try to start a sexual relationship with (someone) (a se da la
cineva)

e.g. She complained that her boss has been coming on to her.

2 to start to talk about or deal with (something) (a aborda ceva)

e.g. We'll come on to [= come to, get to] that question later.

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come out
1 to become available : to begin to be produced or sold (a iesi/ a produce sau a vinde/ a deveni
disponibil)

e.g. A new magazine is coming out next week.

a to become obvious : to be clearly shown (a iesi la iveala/ la suprafata/ a deveni evident)

e.g. His pride came out in his refusal to accept help. [= his refusal to accept help showed his pride]

b to become known (a deveni cunoscut)

e.g. The truth finally came out. [= people finally learned the truth]

3 to say something openly (a spune ceva in mod deschis)

e.g. Why don't you just come out and say what you really think?

4 to say publicly that you support or oppose someone or something (a sustine sau opune in mod
public)

e.g. She came out in favor of the proposal.

5 to say openly that you are a homosexual (a dezvalui inclinatia sexuala)

e.g. Many gay entertainers have been reluctant to come out.

a to appear after being hidden/ to appear in the open (a se ivi/ a iesi dupa ce a fost ascuns)

e.g. The rain stopped and the sun/moon/stars came out as the clouds cleared away.

b of a flower : to open : to blossom (a inflori)

e.g. in the spring, when the flowers are beginning to come out (in bloom)

a to end or finish in a specified way (a se tremina)

e.g. How did the game come out? [= turn out] [=who won the game?]

b of a photograph : to produce a good picture / to describe the quality that something has when it is
finished (a iesi)

e.g. Those pictures I took at the game yesterday didn't come out.

8 to be said, expressed, or understood in a particular way (a exprima/ a spune intr-un anumit fel)

e.g. That's not what I meant to say. It didn't come out right. (Nu a iesit cum trebuie.)

come out of
1 to result from something (a rezulta din)

e.g. It's hard to see how anything good can come out of this.

2 to go through the experience of something (a trece printr-o experienta)

e.g. I was lucky to come out of [=come through] the accident alive.

3 ◊ To come out of nowhere is to be very surprising and unexpected or to become successful, popular,
etc., in a very sudden and surprising way (a aparea pe neasteptate)

e.g. That question came out of nowhere.

come out with


1 come out with (something) : to say or express (something, such as an idea) (a spune sau a exprima
ceva)

e.g. She came out with a new proposal.

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2 to publish or produce (something that will be sold to the public) (a publica)

e.g. he is a publisher that is coming out with a new series of children's books.

come over
1 to make a social visit to someone (a vizita pe cineva)

e.g. Why don't you come over [=come around] (to my place) after work?

2 to change from one side to the other in a disagreement, competition (a trece dintr-o parte in alta) —
usually + to

e.g. I've been trying to persuade her to come over to our side, but I haven't convinced her yet.

3 become (a deveni)

e.g. He suddenly came over all bashful (= shy). [= he suddenly became very bashful]

4 to affect (someone) in a sudden and strong way (a afecta/ a i se intampla)

e.g. He's behaving so strangely. I don't know what's come over him lately. [=I don't know what has caused him
to behave so strangely]

come through
1 to succeed in doing something : to do what is needed or expected (a reusi)

e.g. He is an athlete who is known for coming through in the all his races.

a to be received and understood (a fi primit/ inteles - despre un mesaj de ex.)

e.g. The message came through loud and clear.

b to be expressed to someone (a iesi la iveala/ a fi exprimat)

e.g. Her enthusiasm really came through [= came across] when she talked about her job. [=we could see that
she was really enthusiastic when she talked about her job]

3 to be given or made official in a formal and final way (a fi aprobat in mod oficial)

e.g. We're still waiting for approval of our loan application to come through.

4 to have the experience of living through (something) (a trece prin - o boala de ex.)

e.g. It was a very difficult illness, but he came through it in pretty good shape.

come to
1 to become conscious (a-si reveni in simtiri dupa ce a fost inconstient)

e.g. He took a bad fall and knocked himself out. When he came to [= woke up, came around], he didn't
remember what had happened.

2 come to (something)

a to reach (a place) while traveling (a ajunge intr-un loc)

e.g. We came to a fork in the road.

b to reach (a particular point or step in a process) (a ajunge la un punct sau monent intr-un proces)

e.g. Deciding to buy a new car was easy. Now we come to the hard part: finding the money.

c to approach or reach (a specified condition)(a ajunge la o cnditie specifica)

e.g. The water came slowly to a boil. [= Apa a inceput sa fiarba.]

The project suddenly came to a stop/halt. [= Proiectul s-a oprit deodata.]

The work has finally come to an end. [= Munca s-a oprit in sfarsit.]

d to result in something (a rezulta in ceva) - usually used in negative statements

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e.g. His ambitious plans never came to much.

e to make or reach (something, such as a decision or an agreement) after thinking or talking (a


ajunge la o intelegere/ a lua o decizie)

e.g. The two sides finally came to an agreement/understanding after many hours of discussion.

3 ◊ People say that they don't know what the world is coming to or they ask What is the world coming
to? when they are shocked or disgusted by something that has happened in the world. => Nu stiu ce s-a
ajuns de lumea asta/ la ce s-a ajuns in lumea asta.

e.g. I don't know what the world is coming to when so many poor children have to go to bed hungry every night.

4 ◊ The phrase when it comes to is used to identify the specific topic that is being talked about (Cand
vine vorba de asta)

e.g. When it comes to playing chess, he's the best I know.

5 ◊ The phrase if it comes to that means “if that is necessary.” (daca se ajunge la asta/ daca este
necesar)

e.g. I'm willing to pay more money if it comes to that.

6 come to (an amount) : to produce (an amount) when added together (a se insuma)

e.g. The bill came to [= amounted to] 10 dollars.

7 to be thought of by (someone) : to occur to someone (a-i veni <un gand/ un raspuns/ o solutie>
deodata)

e.g. The answer suddenly came to me. [=I suddenly thought of the answer]

◊ Something that is coming to you is something that is owed to you (a primi ceea ce iti este datorat)

e.g. I have another dollar coming to me. [=I am owed another dollar]

◊ If you get what's coming to you, you get the punishment that you deserve (a primi ceea ce meriti)

e.g. He's a dirty cheat, and I'm going to see that he gets what's coming to him.

◊ If you have it coming (to you) you deserve to get something bad, such as punishment (a merita ceea
ce i se intampla)

e.g. I'm not sorry to hear that he lost his job. He had it coming.

come together
1 to join or meet (a se uni/ a se intalni)

e.g. the place where two rivers come together

2 to form a group (a se uni)

e.g. People from many different areas have come together to try to find a solution.

3 to begin to work or proceed in the desired way (a incepe sa mearge in modul dorit)

e.g. The project started slowly, but everything is finally starting to come together now.

come to grief
to experience failure, disaster, etc. (a esua/ a se distruge)

e.g. The boat came to grief on the rocks.

come to grips with


to begin to understand or deal with (something, such as a problem) in a direct or effective way (a
intelege/ a se ocupa de)

e.g. The government needs to come to grips with the unemployment problem.

come to life

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1 to become very interesting, appealing, or exciting (a deveni interesant/ placut)

e.g. The movie really comes to life when she appears on the screen.

2 of a place : to become filled with the energy and excitement of active people (a reveni la viata)

e.g. Downtown comes to life each night when the clubs open.

3 of a machine or sputter/roar (etc.) to life : to begin working (a incepe sa mearga/ sa functioneze)

e.g. The engine suddenly roared to life.

come to light
to become known (a iesi la iveala/ la suprafata)

e.g. Other details have come to light because of this investigation.

Come/ spring/ leap to mind


to be remembered or thought of (a-si aminti/ a veni in minte)

e.g. What comes to mind when you hear his name?

come to pass
to happen (a se intampla)

e.g. Many of the things he predicted have come to pass.

come to rest
to stop moving (a se opri)

e.g. The ball came to rest against the curb.

come to terms
to reach an agreement (a ajunge la un acord)

e.g. The two sides have not been able to come to terms.

often + with

e.g. The company has come to terms with the union.

2 to learn how to accept or live with something that is difficult or painful (a accepta situatia) + with

e.g. It took him a long time to come to terms with the end of his marriage.

come to think of it
used in speech to say that you have just remembered or thought of something (folosit pentru a
spune ca tocmai ti-ai amintit ceva)

e.g. The meeting is next Tuesday, which, come to think of it , is also the date of my doctor's appointment.

come to your senses


to begin to think in a sensible or correct way after being foolish or wrong (a-si reveni in simtiri/ a-si
da seama de realitate)

e.g. He finally came to his senses and gave up his plans to quit his job and become an artist.

come true
to become real : to happen in the way that you wished or dreamed (a deveni realitate)

e.g. Everything we hoped for came true.

come under
1 come under (something) : to be subjected to (something) (a fi atacat/ a fi supus unui atac, de ex.)

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e.g. The troops were resting when they suddenly came under attack. [=when they were suddenly attacked]

2 to be affected, controlled, or influenced by something (a fi controlat/ influentat/ afectat de)

e.g. That is an area that has come under the control of rebel forces [=an area that is now controlled by rebel
forces]

3 used to identify the group or category that something belongs to (a se subscrie)

e.g. These matters come under the heading of classified information.

come up
1 to move near to someone or something : to approach someone or something (a veni/ a se duce spre
cineva)

e.g. He came (right) up (to me) and introduced himself.

a to be mentioned or thought of (a aparea)

e.g. That issue never came up. [=arose]

b to occur in usually a sudden or unexpected way (a se ivi)

e.g. She seems to be ready to deal with any problem that may come up. [=arise]

3 of the sun or moon : to become visible in the sky : to rise (a rasari - despre soare sau luna)

e.g. She was already awake when the sun came up.

4 of a plant : to first appear above the ground (a rasari - despre plante)

e.g. In the spring the daffodils and tulips are coming up.

5 to finish in a specified condition or state (a se sfarsi intr-un anumit mod)

e.g. I flipped the coin and it came up heads/tails.

6 to move up in rank or status (a avansa in rang/ in statut)

e.g. he is an officer who came up from/through the ranks [=who started as an ordinary soldier and rose to
become an officer]

7 ◊ Something that is coming up will happen soon or will appear soon (a veni in curand/ a se intampla
in curand)

e.g. With the election coming up, both candidates are spending all their time on the campaign trail.

come up against
to be stopped or slowed by (something) (a se confrunta cu/ a fi oprit sau incetinit de)

e.g. The proposal has come up against some opposition. [=there is some opposition to the proposal]

come up empty
to fail to get or find something or someone (a nu gasi nimic)

e.g. The police searched the area for clues but came up empty. [=they did not find any clues]

come upon
1 to meet or find (someone or something) by chance (a intalni sau gasi pe cineva sau ceva din
intamplare/ a da peste din intamplare)

e.g. As they turned the corner, they came upon an unexpected scene.

2 to affect (someone) suddenly (a veni asupra cuiva deodata/ a simti nevoia sa faci ceva deodata/ a fi
afectat deodata)

e.g. An urge to travel suddenly came upon him. [=he suddenly felt an urge to travel]

come up to
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to be as good as something (a fi la fel de bun ca)

e.g. The movie didn't come up to our expectations. [Filmul nu s-a ridicat la inaltimea asteptarilor noastre./
Filmul nu a fost asa de bun pe cat ne-am asteptat.]

come up with
to get or think of (something that is needed or wanted) (a gasi/ a veni cu, de ex. o solutie)

e.g. We finally came up with a solution (to our problem).

come what may


regardless of what happens (fie ce-o fi)

e.g. He promised to support her, come what may.

28.05 Phrasal Verbs: DO


do away with
1. to kill (a ucide/ omori pe cineva)

e.g. She's accused of hiring a hit man to do away with [= murder, do in] her husband.

2. to cause the end of (something) : to get rid of (a scapa de/ a pune capat)

e.g. The struggling company had to do away with a number of jobs.

do battle
to fight or struggle usually + with (a se lupta cu)

e.g They are political opponents who have been doing battle [= battling] for years.

do by
to deal with or treat (someone) well or badly (a tratat pe cineva bine sau rau)

e.g. She feels that they did poorly/badly by her. [= that they treated her poorly/badly]

do down
to talk about (someone) in an insulting or critical way (a insulta/ a critica)

e.g. She thinks that if she does everybody else down, people will think more highly of her.

do for
1. to cause the death or ruin of (a cauza moartea sau ruina cuiva)

e.g. All that hard work nearly did for him. [= nearly killed him]

2. to do the cleaning and cooking for (a face curatenie sau a gati pentru cineva)
e.g. Mrs. Jones does for the vicar now that his wife's passed on.

do good
1. to do kind or helpful things : to do things that help other people (a face bine)

e.g. She tried to make the community better by doing good .

2. to be useful or helpful — used with any, much, some, etc. (a fi de folos/ de ajutor)

e.g. I tried to convince him to change his mind, but it didn't do any good . [=I was unable to convince him]

do in

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1.

a) to kill (a omori pe cineva)

e.g. They threatened to do him in if he didn't pay the money he owed them.

b) to cause the death of (a cauza moartea cuiva)

e.g. He struggled with lung disease for many years, but it was a heart attack that finally did him in.

c) to cause the failure of (someone)

His inability to attract Southern voters is what finally did him in as a presidential candidate. [=he failed
because he was unable to attract Southern voters]

2. to make (someone) very tired (a extenua/ a epuiza)

e.g. Working in the garden all day really did me in./ After working in the garden all day, I was/felt done in. [=
exhausted]

do it
informal: to have sex (a face sex)

e.g. They've kissed—but have they actually done it ?

do justice
◊ to treat or show something or someone in a way that is as good as it should be (a descrie in mod
adecvat/ a ilustra realitatea)

e.g. Words could never do justice to her beauty. [= could not adequately describe her beauty]

do out of
to unfairly prevent (someone) from getting or having (something) (a priva de/ a lipsi de/ a insela)

e.g. They did [=cheated] him out of his inheritance.

do over
1. to do (something) again (a face din nou)

e.g. I made a mistake when I measured the window and I had to do it over (again).

2. to decorate or change a room, house, etc., so that it looks very different (a redecora)

e.g. We're planning to do over the kitchen next year.

3. to attack and beat (a ataca sau a bate pe cineva)

e.g. He got done over by a gang of teenagers.

do someone proud
to give someone a reason to feel proud (a face pe cineva sa se simta mandru)

e.g. It did me proud [=made me feel proud] to watch her graduate from college.

do the trick
to produce a desired result : to solve a problem (a rezolva o problema)

e.g. One small adjustment will do the trick.

do up
1.

a) to decorate (a decora)

e.g. They did up the room in bright colors for the party.

b ) to adjust (something, such as your hair) in a particular way (a-si aranja parul/ a-si prinde parul)

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e.g. She did up her hair in a ponytail.

c) to repair (a repara)

e.g. He has decided to do up [=fix up] his grandfather's old furniture.

2. to dress (someone) up : to put attractive clothes, makeup, etc., on (a se aranja/ a se gati pentru)

e.g. She really did herself up for the party. = She was all done up for the party.

3. to be fastened or to fasten (something) with buttons, a zipper, etc. (a se incheia la nasturi sau a
inchide fermoarul)

e.g. She has bought a dress that does up at the back.

do well
◊ If you would do well to do something, you should do it.(a face bine)

e.g. You would do well to avoid him right now. [= you should avoid him right now]

◊ If you did well to escape, survive, etc., you were lucky to escape, survive, etc. (a fi norocos sa
supravietuiesti/ sa scapi)

e.g. When the tornado hit, they did well to escape uninjured.

do with
to be helped by having (a-i prinde bine/ a-i de folos)

e.g. I could (really) do with a cup of hot coffee right now! [= I could use a cup of coffee; I would like/appreciate
a cup of coffee]

do without
not to have (something) : to live, work, etc., without having (a te descurca cu ce ai)

e.g. If you can't afford a new car, you'll just have to do without (one).

◊ The phrase can/could do without is often used to say that you do not like or approve of something (a
displacea/ a nu fi de acord cu)

e.g. I enjoy traveling, but I can do without having to wait around in crowded airports. [= I don't like having to
wait around]

do your bit
to do your share of a job or task (a-si face partea/ datoria)

e.g. We all have to do our bit [= do our part ] to help out.

have to do with
1.

a) to relate to (something) : to be about (a avea legatura cu/ a avea de-a face cu)

e.g. The problem has to do with fishing rights.

b) to relate to or involve (a avea legatura cu/ a implica)

e.g. That's your problem: it has nothing to do with me!

2. to be involved in or in some way responsible for (a fi implicat/ a fi responsabil)

e.g. He claims that he had nothing to do with the accident.

3.

◊ If you do not want to have anything to do with someone or if you want nothing to do with someone,
you do not want to be involved with that person in any way (a nu vrea sa ai de-a face cu cineva)

e.g. She thinks he's a liar and she refuses to have anything to do with him. [= she refuses to talk to him, to see
him, etc.]

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make do
to proceed or do what you can with the things that you have even though you do not have what you
want (a se descurca cu ce are) often + with/ without

e.g. If we don't have carrots for the soup, we'll just have to make do without them.

do a number on
to have a very bad effect on (someone or something) : to hurt or damage (a rani/ a vatama/ a ruina)

a.g. This heavy backpack is doing a number on my back.

Do right by somebody
to deal with someone in a kind way, as you should (a-si face datoria)

e.g. He always did right by all his children.

28.06 Phrasal Verbs: GIVE


give as good as you get
to be as forceful in fighting or arguing against others as they are in fighting or arguing against you
(a face fata/ a da atat cat primesti)

e.g. She can give as good as she gets in an argument with just about anybody.

give away
1.

a) to make a present of (a da un cadou)

e.g. For a limited time only our store is giving away [=giving] a free T-Shirt to each and every one of our
customers!

b) to lose (something) in a careless way (a pierde ceva)

e.g. He virtually gave the election away when he made a racist remark.

c) to allow (something hidden or secret) to become known (a face un secret cunoscut/ a trada)

e.g. The way she looked at him gave away her real feelings for him.

2.

a) to bring (the bride) to the groom at a wedding (a aduce mireasa/ mirele la nunta)

e.g. Traditionally, it's the father of the bride who gives his daughter away at the wedding.

b) to reveal the truth about (a dezvalui adevarul despre/ a trada/ a turna pe cineva/ a denunta)

e.g. His fellow conspirators gave him away to the police. [= they betrayed him to the police]

give back
to cause someone to have (something) again : to return or restore (something) to someone(a returna/
a da inapoi

e.g. He gave back the money he found to the person who'd lost it.

give birth
1. of a mother : produce a baby from the body (a da nastere) - usually + to

e.g. He was present when his wife gave birth to his daughter.

2. to cause the beginning of something (a cauza inceputul/ a da nastere) - often + to

e.g. It was a revolution that gave birth to a new nation.

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give chase
to chase someone or something (a urmari) - often + to

e.g. The officer saw the thief and gave chase.

give ground
to move backward when you are being attacked : retreat (a se retrage)

e.g. The troops were forced to give ground.

often used figuratively (a ceda)

e.g. The controversy has continued, and both sides are still refusing to give ground.

give in
1. to stop trying to fight or resist something : to agree to do or accept something that you have been
resisting or opposing (a renunta) - often + to

e.g. The strike has been going on for weeks, and neither side seems willing to give in.

2. to give (something) to a person who has authority to review or accept it (a inmana)

e.g. He didn't give in [= hand in] his assignment yesterday.

give it a rest, give (something) a rest


used to tell someone to stop talking about something (a se opri din vorbit)

e.g. Oh, give it a rest ! I don't want to hear it.

give me a break, give (someone) a break


to stop criticizing or behaving in an unpleasant way to someone (a lasa in pace/ a da pace cuiva)

e.g. Give her a break - she's only a child and she didn't mean any harm.

give of
to use your time and effort to help others (a dedica timp sau a face efort pentru a-i ajuta pe altii)

e.g. They freely gave of their time when their help was needed.

give off
to send (light, energy, etc.) out from a source (a emite lumina/ energie/ miros)

e.g. The telescope can detect light given off [= emitted] by distant galaxies.

give on to/ onto


to provide a view of or a passage to (a da spre)

e.g. The door gives directly on to the garden.

give or take
used to indicate that the stated amount is approximate and might be increased or decreased by a
specified amount (aproximativ/ cu mai mult sau mai putin)

e.g. He ran a mile, give or take a few yards.

give out
1. to stop working (a se opri)

e.g. The plane's engine sputtered and gave out, forcing an emergency landing.

2. to become used up (a se epuiza/ a se tremina)

e.g. Our supply of fuel had almost given out [=run out] entirely.
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3. to produce (noise, light, etc.)( face zgomot/ lumina)

e.g. The brakes gave out a loud squeal.

4. to give (something) to many people : to hand out (a inmana mai multor persoane)

e.g. They gave out copies of the newsletter.

give over
to stop doing something that is annoying or unpleasant - often + -ing verb (a se opri din ceva)

e.g. They eventually gave over bothering me [= stopped bothering me] and let me alone.

give over to
1. to give (something) to (someone) to have, use, do (a da cuiva ceva)

e.g. She has given most of her work over to her assistant.

2. to allow (yourself) to be fully affected by, controlled by, or involved in (a se lasa cuprins de)

e.g. He gave himself over to despair. [= he was overcome by despair]

3. ◊ Something that is given over to a specified purpose is used for that purpose (a fi folosit pentru un
anumit scop)

e.g. One of the upstairs rooms is given over to storage.

give place to
be replaced by (a fi inlocuit)

e.g. Confidence gave place to [= gave way to] fear.

give rise to
to cause or produce (a cauza/ a produce)

e.g. His strange behavior gave rise to rumors about his health.

give up
1. to stop an activity or effort: to admit that you cannot do something and stop trying : quit (a
renunta)

e.g. He vowed that he would never give up .

2.

a) to stop having, doing, or using (a ceda/ a renunta)

e.g. He was forced to give up his job.

b) to stop trying to do (a renunta/ a se opri din a incerca ceva)

e.g. We did our best to repair the engine, but in the end we had to give it up as impossible.

c) sports : to allow (a score, a hit, etc.) by an opposing team or player (a permite sa inscrie)

e.g. The defense gave up two touchdowns in the first quarter.

3. to surrender (yourself) as a prisoner (a se preda)

e.g. The fugitive eventually gave himself up (to the police/ authorities).

4.

a) to stop trying to improve the condition of (someone) because it seems hopeless (a renunta/ a se da
batut)

e.g. The teacher gave him up as a hopeless case.

b) to stop having hope of seeing (a da pe cineva disparut)

e.g. We'd given you up (for lost) hours ago!


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5. to allow (yourself) to be fully affected by, controlled by, or involved in (a permite sa fie afectat de)

e.g. He gave himself up to despair.

6. to stop trying to improve the condition of (a pierde speranta/ a inceta sa mai ai incredere in cineva)

e.g. He has gotten in trouble many times, but his parents have never given up on him.

7. to stop trying to do or achieve (a renunta)

e.g. They have given up on their plan to build a new factory.

give up the ghost


to die — often used figuratively (a muri/ a nu mai functiona)

e.g. After years of service my car finally gave up the ghost.

give way
1. to break apart and fall down (a se desprinde)

e.g. The step feels like it will give way soon.

2. to agree to do or accept something that you have been resisting or opposing (a fi de acord/ a
accepta ceva)

e.g. After several hours of debate, the opposition finally gave way. [=gave in]

3. to be replaced by something specified (a fi inlocuit de/ a face loc) — often + to

e.g. Our frustration soon gave way to anger.

4. to allow another car or person to go ahead of you or in front of you (a ceda trecerea) — often + to

e.g. Cars must give way [= yield] to pedestrians.

What gives?
used to ask the reason for something (ce se intampla?)

e.g. You've been acting weird all week. What gives? [=why are you acting weird?]

28.07 Phrasal Verbs: GO


go about
1. to start to do something (a incepe sa faca ceva)

e.g. I'd like to fix this old radio but I don't know how to go about (doing) it.

2. to do something (a face ceva/ a-si vedea de treaba ca de obicei)

e.g. Despite the threat of war, most people are just quietly going about their business. [= most people are just
doing the things that they usually do]

go a bundle on
to like or be interested in something very much (usually used in negative statements) (a fi foarte
interesat de ceva)

e.g. I don't usually go a bundle on science fiction, but this book is really good.

go after
1.

a) to follow and try to stop or catch someone (a urma pe cineva/ a se duce dupa cineva/ a prinde din
urma pe cineva)

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e.g. When the boy ran out the door, his mother quickly went after him.

b) to try to find and punish someone (a incerca sa gaseasca pentru a pedepsi)

e.g. The government is going after people who cheat on their taxes.

2. to try to get something or someone (a incerca sa obtina)

e.g. If you want the job, you should just go after it.

go against
1. not to agree with something (a nu fi in acord cu)

e.g. I won't do anything that goes against my conscience/ beliefs/ principles.

2.

a) to oppose someone or something (a fi impotriva)

e.g. He was surprised when some of his former supporters went against him.

b) to compete against a player or team in a contest or game (a concura impotriva)

e.g. The Red Sox will be going against the Yankees in tonight's game.

3. not to be good for someone/ not to produce the result that is wanted by someone (a nu iesi cum
vrei/ a fi impotriva cuiva)

e.g. Everything seemed to be going against her, but she didn't give up hope.

go ahead
1. to do or begin to do something (a continua cu ceea ce faci)

e.g. Instead of waiting for approval, they just went ahead and started working on the project.

2. to do something after planning to do it or after getting permission to do it (a continua)

e.g. Despite the bad weather, they decided to go ahead with the party.

3. to happen or proceed (a se intampla/ a continua)

e.g. Despite the weather, the party went ahead as planned.

4. to go or travel to a place before the other person or group that is with you (a merge/ a se duce
inaintea altora)

e.g. I'll go (on) ahead and make sure that everything's ready when you arrive.

go all out
to do something with as much effort as possible (a face ceva cu cat mai mult efort posibil)

e.g. When he has a party, he likes to go all out. [=have a big and expensive party]

go along
1. to continue or proceed (a continua)

e.g. The project is going along smoothly.

2. + with: to go or travel with someone (a insoti pe cineva/ a merge impreuna)

e.g. They were going to the fair so I asked whether I could go along with them.

3. + with: to agree to do or accept what other people want (a accepta sau a face ce doresc altii)

e.g. We tried to convince him to support us but he refused to go along with our request .

4. + with: to be part of something (a fi parte din ceva)

e.g. If I want the job, I have to accept the stress that goes along with it.

go ape
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1. to become very excited (a fi foarte incantat/ a fi innebunit dupa)

e.g. The kids go ape [=go crazy, go wild] whenever they hear that song.

2. to become very angry (a fi foarte manios)

e.g. Mom really went ape [= went ballistic, blew her top] when I got home late.

go around/ round
1.

a) to go to different places (a merge in locuri diferite)

e.g. She and her friends go around (together) to lots of clubs. = She goes around with her friends to lots of clubs.

b) to travel to a place that is nearby (a se duce intr-o locatie apropiata)

e.g. I went round [= went over] to his flat.

c) used to describe the way a person often dresses or behaves (folosit pentru a descrie cum se imbraca
sau cum se comporta cineva)

e.g. She goes around (dressed) in a miniskirt.

2. to go or pass from one person to another person (a trece de la o persoana la alta)

e.g. There's a rumor going around (the office) that the boss is about to get fired.

3. to be long enough to pass all the way around (a fi destul de lung pentru a inconjura ceva)

e.g. This belt isn't long enough to go around (my waist).

4. If people want something and there is enough/plenty to go around, there is enough for all of the
people who want it or need it (a fi destul pentru toata lumea)

e.g. There aren't enough jobs to go around.

5. what goes around comes around : used to say that if you treat other people badly you will eventually
be treated badly by someone else (dupa fapta si rasplata)

go at
1.

a) to attack someone (a ataca pe cineva)

e.g. They went at each other viciously.

b) go at it : to fight or argue (a se certa)

e.g. Our neighbors were arguing again last night. They went at it for almost an hour.

2. to make an effort to do or deal with something (a face un efort pentru a rezolva ceva)

e.g. They had to go at the problem from many different angles before they finally solved it.

go away
1.

a) to leave a place or person (a pleca)

e.g. She angrily told him to go away and stop bothering her.

b) to leave your home for a period of time (a pleca de acasa pentru o perioada de timp)

e.g. They're going away on vacation.

2. to stop existing or happening/ to end (a disparea/ a trece)

e.g. I just wish there was some way to make the pain go away.

go back
1.

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a) to return to a place (a se intoarce intr-un loc)

e.g. I forgot my purse and had to go back for it.

b) + to: to begin doing something again (a face ceva din nou)

e.g. I turned off the alarm and went back to sleep.

c) The phrase there's no going back means that you have done or decided something and cannot
change it (nu mai e cale de intors)

e.g. I've already signed the contract, so there's no going back now.

2.

a) + to: to have existed for a particular amount of time or since a particular period (a exista de o
perioada de timp/ a data de o perioada de timp)

e.g. These ruins go back hundreds of years.

b) to have known each other for a particular amount of time (a se cunoaste de o perioada de timp)

e.g. We go back 30 years.

c) + to: to think or talk about something from the past (a se gandi la sau a vorbi despre ceva din
trecut)

e.g. To fully understand the issues, we have to go back a few years.

3. + on: not to do what is required by (something, such as a promise)(a nu respecta/ a incalca - o


promisiune/ cuvantul dat)

e.g. She went back on her promise to help us. [=she failed to keep her promise]

go before
1. to happen or exist at an earlier time than (a se intampla sau a exista inainte de momentul de fata)

e.g. We owe a great debt of gratitude to those who went before us.

2. to be considered by (someone or something) for an official decision or judgment (a se prezenta in


fata unei persoane oficiale)

e.g. The contestants will go before the judges tomorrow.

go beyond
to do more than something (a face mai mult decat este cerut)

e.g. She went beyond the call of duty. [= she did more than was required]

go by
1. of time: to pass (a trece - despre timp)

e.g. The morning seemed to go by very quickly/slowly.

2.

a) to be guided or directed by (something, such as a rule) (a respecta)

e.g. That's a good rule to go by.

b) to form an opinion from (a-si forma o parere)

e.g. She may be guilty, but we have very little evidence to go by.

3. to be known by a name (a fi cunoscut dupa un nume/ a fi numit)

e.g. His name is Edwin, but he goes by Ed. [= people call him Ed]

4. to go somewhere in order to visit someone (a vizita pe cineva)

e.g. I went by (her house) to see her after school.

go down
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1. to fall or crash to the ground (a se prabusi)

e.g. The airplane went down when one of its engines caught fire.

2. to sink into the water (a se scufunda)

e.g. The ship went down after hitting an iceberg.

3.

a) to drop to a lower level (a scadea)

e.g. Prices are expected to go down soon.

b) to become less or smaller (a se micsora)

e.g. It may take a few hours for the swelling to go down.

4. to become less bright (a scadea despre lumina/ a nu mai fi foarte luminos)

e.g. The lights went down [=the lights were turned down] as the movie started.

5. of the sun or moon/ to stop being visible in the sky/ to set (a apune)

e.g. The sun comes up in the morning and goes down at night.

6.

a) used to say how easy or hard it is to eat or drink something (a inghiti/ a bea cu usurinta)

e.g. The medicine went down easily. [=it was easy to swallow the medicine]

b) used to say how easy or hard it is to accept or agree to something (a nu placea/ a fi greu de
acceptat)

e.g. His suggestion didn't go down [= go over] very well with his boss. [=his boss didn't like his suggestion]

7. to lose or fail (a pierde/ a esua)

e.g. Last year's champion went down in the first round of the tournament this year.

8. of a computer, system, etc./ to stop working (a nu mai merge/ a cadea - despre un computer/ sistem)

e.g. The network went down this morning.

9. to be remembered or talked about as an important person, event, etc. (a fi cunoscut ca)

e.g. He will go down as one of the greatest leaders this country has ever known.

10. to be sent to prison (a fi trimis la inchisoare)

e.g. He went down [= went to jail] for six years for the robbery.

11. to travel to a place especially one that is nearby or to the south (a se duce undeva)

e.g. I need to go down to the store for milk.

12. to happen (a se intampla)

e.g. We need to find out what's going down . [=(more commonly) going on ]

13. go down with an illness/ to begin to have or suffer from an illness (a se imbolnavi)

e.g. He went down with (= caught, came down with) mumps.

go for
1.

a) to attack someone (a ataca pe cineva)

e.g. My dog went for the intruder.

b) to try to get something (a incerca sa obtina ceva)

e.g. He always goes for the prize.

2. to accept or agree to something, such as a plan or suggestion (a accepta/ a fi de acord cu un plan


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sau o sugestie)

e.g. I asked her to lend us some money, but she wouldn't go for it. [=she wouldn't agree to lend us money]

3.

a) to like or be attracted to someone or something (a placea pe cineva/ a fi atras de cineva)

e.g. When I see how she looks at him, I can tell she really goes for him.

b) to relate to or apply to someone or something (a se aplica cuiva)

e.g. The rule goes for you, too. [= the rule also applies to you]

4. to be sold for a particular price (a se vinde pentru un anumit pret)

e.g. The painting went for more than a million dollars.

5. to do an activity such as walking or driving a car that usually involves going somewhere (a se duce
la plimbare pe jos sau cu masina)

e.g. She went for a walk/stroll after dinner.

6. If you have something going for you, you have a talent, skill, etc., that helps you (a fi talentat/ a avea
un avantaj)

e.g. She's not as young as some of the other athletes, but experience helps, and she has that going for her. [=she
has an advantage because of her experience]

go great guns
to do something or proceed in a very quick, effective, and successful way (a face ceva cu mult succes)

e.g. The new program has been going great guns since it began last spring.

go in
1. of the sun or moon : to become hidden by a cloud (a fi ascuns de un nor - despre soare sau luna)

e.g. The afternoon got cooler after the sun went in.

2. go in for something : to like or be interested in (a placea/ a fi interesat de)

e.g. She doesn't go in for sports.

3. go in on something : to help pay for (something, such as a present) (a contribui cu bani - pentru un
cadou de exemplu)

e.g. Are you going to go in on the gift for her?

4. go in with someone : to join (someone) in a business, project, etc. (a se alatura cuiva intr-o afacere/
intr-un proiect)

e.g. His brother-in-law went in with him on his new business.

go into
1.

a) to start to be in (a different state or condition)(a deveni)

e.g. After she lost her job she went into a deep depression. [= she became very depressed]

b) to start to move in (a different and usually bad way) (a se misca intr-un mod diferit)

e.g. The car went into a skid. [= the car began to skid - Masina a derapat.]

2. to start to do (something) as a job or career (a incepe o cariera/ o slujba)

e.g. He wants to go into the priesthood. [= he wants to become a priest]

3.

a) to talk about something/ to talk about the details of something (a intra in detalii)

e.g. I'll try to tell the story without going into too many details. = I'll try not to go into too much detail.

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b) to try to get information about (something)/ usually used as (be) gone into (a examina)

e.g. A problem like that should really be gone into [=looked into] carefully.

4. to be used for something (a fi folosit pentru)

e.g. Lots of time, energy, and money have gone into (completing) the project.

5. mathematics: used to say how many times a number can be multiplied to produce a larger number
(a diviza/ imparti)

e.g. 6 goes into 18 three times. [=18 divided by 6 equals 3]

go it alone
to do something by yourself (a face ceva de unul singur)

e.g. If no one's willing to help me, I guess I'll just have to go it alone

go off
1.

a) of a bomb: to explode (a exploda - despre o bomba)

e.g. The building was evacuated before the bomb went off.

b) of a gun: to shoot (a impusca/ a se descarca - despre o pusca)

e.g. The gun went off accidentally.

c) of an alarm: to begin to make a sudden loud noise(a se declansa - o alarma)

e.g. I woke up when the alarm went off.

2. of lights, electricity, etc.: to stop working (a nu mai merge - lumina de exemplu)

e.g. The lights in the building suddenly went off.

3. to leave a place for a new place (a pleca)

e.g. He went off to join the army after graduating from high school.

4.

a) to occur or happen (a se intampla/ a avea loc)

e.g. The meeting went off as scheduled. [= the meeting happened when it was scheduled to happen]

b) to happen in a particular way (a se intampla intr-un anumit mod/ a decurge)

e.g. The party went off well. [=the party was a success]

5. + on: to begin shouting at someone in an angry way (a tipa la cineva intr-un mod furios)

e.g. Her boss went off on her because she was late again.

6. to stop liking someone or something (a nu-i mai placea)

e.g. She used to like him but now she's gone off him completely.

7. + with: to take something that belongs to someone else away with you/ steal (a fura)

e.g. Someone went off with my wallet.

go on
1. to continue (a continua) :

a) to continue on a journey (a continua o calatorie)

e.g. We stopped briefly in Detroit, and then went on to Chicago.

b) to continue as time passes (a merge mai departe/ a continua pe masura ce trece timpul)

e.g. Life goes on .

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c) to continue doing something (a continua sa faca ceva fara a se opri)

e.g. She went on working [=she continued to work] after everyone else had stopped.

d) to continue talking (a continua sa vorbeasca)

e.g. He went on (and on) about how unfairly he had been treated. [= he talked about it for a long time]

to talk too much or too long about something (a vorbi prea mult despre ceva)

e.g. She's always going on about the importance of a good diet.

e) to continue to be in the same situation or relationship (a continua sa fie in aceeasi situatie sau
relatie)

e.g. We can't go on like this.

2. to go or travel to a place before another person or group that is with you (a merge inainte)

e.g. You go on (ahead). I'll come later.

3. + to: to do or say something else after you have finished doing or saying something (a continua sa
faca ceva dupa ce a terminat de facut altceva)

e.g. He accepted the nomination and went on to win the election.

4. to happen (a se intampla)

e.g. What's going on ?

5. of lights, electricity, etc. : to begin to work or function (a incepe sa mearga/ sa functioneze - despre
electricitate)

e.g. The lights went on briefly and then went out again.

6. to form an opinion or conclusion from something — used in the phrase to go on (a forma o opinie
sau o concluzie)

e.g. There's very little evidence to go on. [=there's very little evidence that can be used to form an opinion]

7. + at: to criticize (someone) often or repeatedly (a critica in mod repetat)

e.g. Quit going on at me all the time!

go one better
1. to achieve more/ to move to a higher or better level (a realiza sau a progresa)

e.g. She qualified for the finals, then went one better and took first place.

2. to do better or more than someone or something/ to outdo someone or something (a face mai bine
decat altcineva)

e.g. The company has gone its competitors one better by offering new customers a special discount.

go out
1. to leave your home for an activity (a merge undeva - in oras de exemplu/ a iesi din casa)

e.g. I'm going out for a walk. I'll be back soon.

2. to be sent from a person or place (a fi trimis)

e.g. The message went out by e-mail to all members of the staff.

3. to stop being popular or fashionable (a nu mai fi la moda)

e.g. That hairstyle went out years ago.

4.

a) to meet someone for a romantic social activity : to go on a date with someone (a iesi cu cineva la o
intalnire)

e.g. They went out a couple of times, but it was never serious.

b) to have a continuing romantic relationship with someone (a avea o relatie romantica cu cineva)
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e.g. I've been going out with her for quite a while now.

5. to stop working, especially : to stop shining or burning (a nu mai merge)

e.g. The electricity suddenly went out.

6. + for: to try to become a member of a team, group, etc. (a incerca sa devina un membru intr-o
echipa/ grup)

e.g. He went out for the football team last year.

7. of the tide: to drop to a lower level (despre maree - a se retrage)

e.g. The tide is going out [= (more formally) ebbing] now.

8. + over: to be broadcast on the radio, television, etc. ( a fi difuzat la radio sau tv)

e.g. A distress call went out three hours ago.

go over
1. + to: to move or travel to a particular place or person (a se duce intr-un loc sau la cineva)
e.g. He went over and stood by the window.

2. + to: to change sides in a disagreement, competition (a se duce la partea adversa/ a schimba


tabara)

e.g. After several years of supporting us, he went over to our competitors.

3. + with: to be accepted or received in a particular way (a fi acceptat/ primit intr-un anumit mod)

e.g. He tried to make a joke but it went over badly with his friends. [=no one thought his joke was funny]

4.

a) to talk about or think about something carefully (a vorbi despre sau a se gandi la ceva cu atentie)

e.g. He went over all the arguments before making up his mind.

b) to look at or study something again in order to correct it, learn it, etc. (a repeta/ a studia din nou
pentru a invata sau corecta)

e.g. The students were told to go over their essays.

go the distance
to complete something you have started (a merge pana la capat/ a termina ceea ce ai inceput)

e.g. Even with an injured elbow, he went/lasted the distance and finished the game.

go there
to start to talk or think about something (usually used in negative statements) (a vorbi despre sau
gandi ceva)

e.g. “Do you remember when we were dating?” “Let's not go there.” = “I don't want to go there.” = “Don't go
there.” [=I don't want to talk about that]

go through
1.

a) to study or look at (something) in a careful way (a studia/ privi ceva cu atentie/ a trece prin detalii
cu atentie)

e.g. The book goes through every detail of the French Revolution.

b) to search in or through (a cauta prin)

e.g. I found him going through my closet.

c) to experience (a trece prin)

e.g. He's going through a painful divorce.

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d) to spend or use all of (a cheltui toti banii)

e.g. He went through all the money he inherited.

e) to occur throughout (a se intampla peste tot/ a fi peste tot)

e.g. A note of despair goes through the narrative. [=there is a note of despair throughout the narrative]

f) If something (such as an idea or a song) is going through your head/mind, you are thinking about it
or remembering it (a se gandi la ceva/ a-si aminti ceva)

e.g. I don't know what was going through her mind [=I don't know what her thoughts were; I don't know why she
did this] when she agreed to help him.

g) to do (a face ceva)

e.g. It took him about an hour to go through his usual morning routine.

2. Something (such as a law or contract) that goes through is officially accepted and approved (a fi
acceptat/ aprobat in mod oficial)

e.g. The bill is expected to go through easily.

3. + with: to do something that you have thought or talked about (a duce ceva la care te-ai gandit sau
despre care ai vorbit pana la capat)

e.g. He was always threatening to quit his job, but I never thought he'd actually go through with it. [=I never
thought he would actually do it]

go to
1. to begin to be in (a particular state, condition, or situation) (a incepe sa faca ceva)

e.g. You need to go to sleep.

2. to be given to (a fi dat cuiva)

e.g. First prize went to the team from Chicago.

3. to do something that causes you (trouble or expense) (a face ceva care iti cauzeaza probleme sau
cheltuiala)

e.g. You shouldn't go to all this trouble just for me.

go together
1. to be suited to or appropriate for each other (a se potrivi/ a merge impreuna) (not used in a
continuous aspect)

e.g. The tie and his suit go together well.

2. to have a continuing romantic relationship (a fi intr-o relatie romantica)

e.g. They've been going together for several years.

go to show/ prove
to help show or prove something (a arata/ a demonstra)

e.g. Her success goes to show that if you work hard, you can make your dreams come true.

go toward(s)
to help pay for (a plati)

e.g. My extra income is going towards a new car.

go under
1. to sink below the surface of the water (a se scufunda)

e.g. The ship went under after being struck by a torpedo.

2. to fail/ not to succeed (a esua/ a nu reusi)

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e.g. The company has been losing money and is in danger of going under .

go up
1. to rise to a higher level (a creste)

e.g. Prices are expected to go up soon.

2. to become brighter (a deveni mai stralucitor)

e.g. The lights went up [=the lights were turned up] when the movie ended.

3. to be built (a fi construit)

e.g. A new store is going up downtown.

4. to travel to a place (especially one that is to the north) (a merge intr-un loc)

e.g. We went up (north) to the lake for the weekend.

go with
1. to have a continuing romantic relationship with (someone) : to date (someone)(a iesi cu cineva la
intalniri romantice)

e.g. I've been going with her for quite a while now.

2.

a) to be suitable for or appropriate with (a se potrivi cu)

e.g. The skirt she's wearing doesn't really go with [=match] her blouse.

b) to exist or occur as a necessary part of (a exista ca parte integranta din)

e.g. If I want the job I have to accept the stress that goes with it.

3. to choose or use (a alege)

e.g. After thinking about who to offer the job to, they decided to go with the more experienced candidate.

go without (something)
not to have (something)/ to live or continue without having (a trai sau continua fara ceva)

e.g. How long can you go without sleeping/sleep?

here/ there you go (again)


used to say that something is happening again or in the same way that it has happened before (folosit
pentru a spune ca ceva se intampla din nou)

e.g. There you go , making a big deal out of nothing.

there go/ goes


used to say that something is no longer available or possible (folosit pentru a spune ca ceva nu mai e
posibil)

e.g. Look at that traffic jam! There goes our only chance of arriving on time. [=our only chance of arriving on
time is gone/lost]

to go
1. still remaining (a mai ramane)

e.g. There are only three more days to go until my birthday!

2. of food : sold to be taken away and eaten somewhere else (despre mancare care este vanduta pentru
a fi mancata in alta parte)

e.g. “I'd like a hamburger.” “For here or to go?” “To go.”

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28.08 Phrasal Verbs: LOOK
look after
1. to follow with the eye, as someone or something moving away (a urmari pe cineva cu privirea)

e.g. She looked after him as he walked toward the train station.

2. to pay attention to; concern oneself with (a avea grija de)

e.g. He always tells me to look after my own interests.

3. to take care of; minister to (a avea grija de)

e.g. I took a job to look after a child.

> look back


to review past events; return in thought (a privi in urma - la niste amintiri de ex.)

e.g. When I look back on our school days, it seems as if they were a century ago.

look down on/upon


to regard with disdain (dispret); have contempt for (a dispretui)

e.g. They look down on all foreigners.

look for
1. to seek; search for (a cauta)

e.g. Columbus was looking for a shorter route to India when he discovered America.

2. to anticipate; expect (a anticipa/ a astepta pe cineva)

e.g. I'll be looking for you at the concert.

look in
to look briefly inside of (a se uita in)

e.g. Look in the jar and tell me if any cookies are left.

look in on
to visit (a person, place, etc.) briefly ( avizita scurt pe cineva)

e.g. I'll look in on you some day next week.

look into
to inquire into; investigate; examine (a investiga)

e.g. The inspectors are looking into the papers to find the cause of the problem.

look on/upon
1. to be a spectator; watch (a privi)

e.g. The crowd looked on at the street brawl.

2. to consider; regard (a considera)

e.g. They look upon lying as bad.

look out
1. to look to the outside, as from a window or a place of observation (a privi pe - de ex. fereastra)

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e.g. From her office window, she could look out over the bustling city.

2. to be vigilant or on guard (a fi vigilent/ a fi atent)

e.g. Look out , there is a hole ahead. (Atentie, este o gaura in fata.)

3. to afford a view; face (a da spre/ a avea vedere spre)

e.g. The room looks out on the garden.

look out for


to take watchful care of; be concerned about (a avea grija de/ a fi preocupata de)

e.g. He has to look ou t for his health.

look over
to examine, especially briefly (a examina)

e.g. Will you please look over my report before I submit it?

look to
1. to direct one's glance (privire) or gaze to (a privi la)

e.g. If you look to your left, you can see the Colosseum.

2. to pay attention to (a-si vedea de propriile probleme)

e.g. Look to your own business and stay out of mine.

3. to direct one's expectations or hopes to (a privi cu speranta)

e.g. We look to the day when we are on holiday.

4. to regard with expectation and anticipation (a astepta nerabdare/ a anticipa)

e.g. We look to the future of science and technology.

<! look up
1. to direct the eyes upward; raise one's glance (a privi in sus/ a-si ridica privirea)

e.g. The other guests looked up as she entered the ballroom.

2. to become better or more prosperous; improve (a se imbunatati)

e.g. Our business is looking up.

3. to search for, as an item of information, in a reference book or the like (a cauta in dictionar/ intr-o
carte de ex. enciclopedie/ mersul trenurilor/ etc. o informatie)

e.g. Look up the new words in the dictionary.

4. to seek out, especially to visit (a vizita)

e.g. I am going to look up an old friend.

<! look up to
to regard with admiration or respect; esteem (a admira)

e.g. A boy needs a father he can look up to .

Idioms

< look daggers = to look at someone with a furious, menacing expression (a privi furios)

e.g. I could see my partner looking daggers at me.

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look down one's nose at/on = to regard with an overbearing attitude of


superiority, disdain (dispret), or censure (a dispretui)

e.g. The more advanced students really looked down their noses at the beginners.

look forward to + vb. ING. = to anticipate with pleasure (a astepta cu


nerabdare)

e.g. I always look forward to my gradnparents' visits./ I look forward to meeting you.

look sharp
1. to be alert and quick (a arata alert)

e.g. If you want to get ahead, you must look sharp .

2. to hurry (a se grabi)

e.g. You'd better look sharp ! It's getting late.

look a gift horse in the mouth


To be critical or suspicious of something one has received without expense.

e.g. Never look a gift horse in the mouth. = Calul de dar nu se cauta la dinti.

look alive/sharp = to act or respond quickly (a actiona repede)


e.g. Look alive! We leave in ten minutes.

look the other way = to deliberately overlook something (a trece cu vederea)


e.g. I knew the students were cheating, but decided to look the other
way.

28.09 Phrasal Verbs: MAKE


make a face/ pull a face
1. to make a facial expression that shows dislike or disgust

e.g. He made a face when I mentioned her name.

2. to make a silly or amusing facial expression

e.g. She tried to get me to laugh by making a face when I looked at her.

make away with


to steal and take away (something)

e.g. Someone had made away with [=made off with] all the money.

make believe
to act as though something that is not true or real is true or real : pretend

e.g. When we were children we used to make believe (that) we were soldiers fighting in a war.

make do
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to do what you can with the things that you have even though you do not have what you want

e.g. They didn't have much money but they somehow managed to make do.

often + with: If we can't get what we want, we'll just have to make do with what we've got.
often + without : If we don't have carrots for the soup, we'll just have to make do without them.

make eyes at
to look at (someone) in a way that shows sexual attraction

e.g. Some guy was making eyes at her from across the room.

make for
1. to go toward (a place) quickly

e.g. Everyone made for [=headed for] the exit as soon as the show was over.

2. to cause (something) to happen or to be more likely

e.g. Courtesy makes for safer driving.

make friends
to become someone's friend — often + with

e.g. She's very good at making friends with people from all walks of life.

make it
1. to reach a particular place, goal, etc.

e.g. The ship made it to port.

2. not to fail, die, etc. = to survive

e.g. Many new businesses don't make it through their first year.

3. to become successful

e.g. It's tough to succeed in this business, but if you work hard I know you'll make it eventually.

4. to have sex

e.g. His girlfriend caught him making it with another girl.

make like
1. to pretend to be (someone or something)

e.g. He made like a rooster and strutted across the stage.

2. to act in a way that does not show your true feelings

e.g. He made like [=acted like] he didn't care.

make love
to have sex with someone

e.g. It was the first time they made love (to/with each other).

make merry
to have fun and enjoy yourself by eating, drinking, dancing, etc.

e.g. They made merry throughout the night.

make much of
to treat (something) as very important

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e.g. In talking about his past, the book makes much of the influence of his brother. [=the book says that his
brother's influence was very important]

make nice
to behave in a polite or friendly way toward other people even though you do not have kind or polite
feelings towards them

e.g. It's time to forget about the past and make nice.

make of
1. make (something) of (something or someone) : to have or form an opinion about (something or
someone)

e.g. What do you make of this? [= what is your opinion about this?]

2. make (a day, night, etc.) of it : to continue with an enjoyable activity during all of (a day, night, etc.)

e.g. Since we're going out to dinner anyway, let's make an evening of it and go to a movie afterward.

3. make something of (yourself or your life) : to become successful

e.g. She has worked very hard to make something of herself.

4. make something of it informal : to treat something as a reason for arguing or being angry — used in
speech as an angry way of telling someone that you are prepared to fight or argue about something

e.g. Yes, I got home late last night. Do you want to make something of it ? [= do you want to argue/fight about
it?]

make off
1. to leave quickly especially in order to escape

e.g. After taking the money, the thieves made off toward the main highway.

2. make off with (something) : to take or steal (something) and go away

e.g. Someone broke into the office and made off with some valuable equipment.

make out
1. make (something) out or make out (something) : to write down the required information on
(something, such as a check)/ make out [=fill out] a form

e.g. He made out a check for 100 euros to cover the cost of the repairs.

The doctor will make out a prescription for you.

2.

a) to see and identify (something)

e.g. We could just make out a ship approaching through the fog.

b) to hear and understand (something )

e.g. I couldn't quite make out what she said.

c) to learn or understand (something) by studying, searching, etc.

e.g. I can't quite make out [=tell] whether he's drunk or sober.

3. to understand the behavior of (someone) — used in negative statements

e.g. I just can't make him out [=figure him out]—he's so contradictory.

4. to describe (someone or something) in a specified and usually false way

e.g. The book makes them out to be criminals.

5. used to ask about or describe the success or progress of someone or something

e.g. “How are you making out [=doing, getting along] in your new job?” “Just fine, thank you!”

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6. chiefly US, informal : to kiss and touch for a long time in a sexual way

e.g. She was making out [=(old-fashioned) necking] with her boyfriend.

make over
1. to change the appearance of (something or someone)

e.g. We made the whole house over so it looked more modern.

2. to give (property) to another person in an official or legal way

e.g. He made the ranch/shares over to his eldest son.

make up
1. to create or invent (a story, a lie, etc.)

e.g. He entertained the children by making up a funny story about a cat that lived on a sailboat.

2.

a) to combine to produce (something )

e.g. Ten chapters make up this volume. = This volume is made up [=composed ] of 10 chapters.

b) to produce or create (something) by putting together different parts

e.g. They're going to make up a list of requirements for us. = They're going to make us up a list of
requirements.

c) to prepare (something) so that it is ready to be used

e.g. I'll make up a bed for you. = I'll make you up a bed. [=I'll prepare a bed for you to sleep in]

d) British : to supply (something) according to directions

e.g. make up [=(US) fill] a prescription

3. to provide an amount of time, money, etc., that is needed

e.g. The total cost of the repairs is $200. If you can pay half of that, I'll make up the rest.

4.

a) to put makeup on (someone or someone's face)

e.g. She made herself up for the party.

b) to change the appearance of (someone or something) by using costumes, decorations, etc.

e.g. The actor was made up to look like George Washington.

5. to become friendly again after being angry

e.g. They quarreled but later made up (with each other).

6. to do or have something as a way of correcting or improving (something else)

e.g. He wanted to make up for [=atone for] neglecting his children by spending more time with them.

7. to treat (someone) in a very friendly or helpful way in order to get something for yourself

e.g. an employee who's always making up to [ sucking up to] the boss

8. to do something helpful or good for someone you have hurt or treated wrongly

e.g. He'd neglected his children and wanted to make it up to them by spending more time with them.

make up your mind


to make a decision about something

e.g. I can't make up my mind [=decide] where to take my vacation.

make way
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to create a path or open space so that someone or something can use it

e.g. Several houses were torn down to make way for the shopping center.

make your way


to move forward usually by following a path

e.g. When his name was called, he made his way to the stage.

often used figuratively

e.g. After college, she set out to make her way in the world as a lawyer.

28.10 Phrasal Verbs: PAY


hell to pay/the devil to pay
used to say that if a specific thing happens, something else that is very bad will be the result or
someone will get very upset

e.g. They knew that if anyone caught them cheating there would be hell to pay . [= they would be severely
punished ]

pay a call/visit
to go somewhere to visit someone

e.g. She paid me a visit [= she came to visit me ] while I was in the hospital. = She paid a call on me while I
was in the hospital.

pay back
1. to return money that someone allowed you to borrow

e.g. He has to pay back the 10 Euros he borrowed./ Tomorrow I’m paying back the loan to the bank.

2.

a) to give (someone) the amount of money that you borrowed

e.g. I'll pay you back when I get the money./ I have to pay back my father for that loan.

b) to punish or hurt someone who did something bad to you

e.g. I wanted to pay them back (= get back at him ; make him suffer ) for all the pain they caused me.

c) to do something good for someone who did something good for you

e.g. How can I pay you back for all your help?

pay court to
to give a lot of attention to someone in order to get approval, affection, etc .

e.g. My neighbour does not approve of the man who has been paying court to his daughter. (= who has been
courting his daughter)

pay for itself


If you buy something that pays for itself, the money you save by using it is more than the money
you spent when you bought the product.

e.g. You save so much on heating costs with our high-quality fireplaces that they will pay for themselves within
five years!

pay in
to put money in an account = deposit

e.g. I went to the bank to pay in a cheque.


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pay into
to put money into a fund or account

e.g. Each month she pays into an account that can be used for personal expenses.

pay off
1. to produce a result that you want

e.g. It's great to see that all of their hard work has finally paid off.

2. to give all of the money that you owe for something that you pay for over a period of time

e.g. It will take us 30 years to pay off our mortgage (ipoteca), but then the house will be ours.

If I win the money, I will use it to pay off all my debts.

She finally got her apartment paid off. [=she finally paid all the money she had borrowed to buy her
apartment]

3.

a) to give money to someone in order to make that person do something illegal or dishonest for you or
to convince that person not to talk about something

e.g. He tried to pay off (=bribe = mituiasca ) a police officer.

b) to stop employing someone after paying all of the money that was owed to that person

e.g. They paid off all their workers and then closed the factory.

pay out
1. to give money to someone usually over a period of time

e.g. The government has paid out millions of euros to aid the unemployed.

2. to allow (a rope or chain) to become loose and move through your hands

e.g. They lowered the anchor and continued to pay out several more feet of rope.

pay the piper


1. to pay the cost of something

e.g. I have to obey them because they're the ones who are paying the piper .

2. to pay money or suffer in some way because of something you have done

e.g. They have stolen from the company for years, and now they have to pay the piper .

pay through the nose


to pay a very high price

e.g. I’ve found the perfect handbag, but I paid through the nose for it.

pay up
1. to pay what you owe/ to pay what is due

e.g. We paid up what we owed and left.

2. if you are paid up, you have given all of the money that you owe until a specific date.

e.g. You're (all) paid up through July. (=you do not have to pay any more money until after June)

pay your dues


to work hard and have difficult experiences in order to become successful

e.g. I've paid my dues . It's time that I began having some benefits.

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pay your (own) way
to use your own money to pay for the things you need or do

e.g. I had a part-time job in order to pay my way through college.

pay your respects


to visit or speak with someone in a polite way as a sign of respect

e.g. I went up to her after the funeral and paid my respects .

put paid to
to cause something to end / to stop something

e.g. The storm put paid to his attempt to sail around the world.

28.11 Phrasal Verbs: PULL


pull a fast one
to deceive or trick someone

e.g. Be careful. He might try to pull a fast one on you.

pull ahead
to take the lead in a race, competition, contest.

e.g. The two runners were side by side until one pulled ahead .

pull apart
1.

a) to be separated into parts or pieces by pulling

e.g. The cloth pulls apart easily.

b) to separate or break something into parts or pieces

e.g. She pulled the loaf of bread apart with her hands.

His problem is pulling the family apart. (= is destroying the family)

2. to separate people or animal in order to stop a fight

e.g I stepped in and pulled the two men apart. (= separated them)

pull aside
to take someone to one side away from other people for a private conversation

e.g. The customer pulled me aside and asked if I knew who was in charge.

pull at
1. to hold onto and pull something repeatedly

e.g. When she gets nervous, she pulls at [= pulls on] her hair.

2. to breathe in the smoke from (a cigarette, pipe, cigar, etc.)

e.g. He rocked back and forth, pulling at [= pulling on] his cigar.

pull away (+ from)

to begin to move farther ahead in a race, competition, contest, etc.

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e.g. James pulled away from the other contestants and won the race easily.

pull back
1. to decide not to do something that you had intended to do or started to do

e.g. The buyers of the flat pulled back (= pulled out ) at the last minute.

2. to move back from a place or position or to cause (someone or something) to move back from a
place or position

e.g. The soldiers were forced to pull back. (= retreat, withdraw )

3. to score (a goal, point, etc.) so that you are not as far behind in a game as you were before

e.g. They were behind 3–0 but they pulled back a goal (= they scored a goal to make the score 3–1 ).

pull down
1.

a) to move (something) down

e.g. He always wears his cap pulled down over his eyes.

b) to destroy a building completely

e.g. They pulled down [= demolished] the old building.

c) to make (something) smaller in amount or number / to reduce or lower

e.g. The bad rumors about the company pulled stock prices down.

2. to cause (someone) to become sad or depressed

e.g. His death really pulled them down. [=brought them down]

3.

a) to earn a large amount of money

e.g. He pulls down (= makes, pulls in ) more than a million euros a year.

b) to get (something)

e.g. The film has pulled down high praises.

pull for
to say or show that you hope (someone or something) will succeed, get well, etc.

e.g. We hope you're feeling better soon. We're all pulling for (= rooting for) you (to get well).

pull in
1. to arrive at a place and come to a stop

e.g. The train pulled in on time.

2. to attract (someone or something)

e.g. We hope the display will pull customers in from the street.

3. to earn a large amount of money

e.g. After just a year at the firm, she is pulling in (= pulling down, making ) more than 100,000 euros.

4. to bring (someone) to a police station/ to arrest

e.g. The police pulled them in for questioning.

pull off
1. to remove (something) from something else/ to take off (something)

e.g. She pulled her boots off.


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2. to do (something difficult) successfully

e.g. I was doubtful the plan would work, but he managed to pull it off.

pull on
1. to hold onto and pull (something) repeatedly

e.g. When she gets nervous, she pulls on (= pulls at ) her hair.

2. to breathe in the smoke from (a cigarette, pipe, etc.)

e.g. She stayed there, pulling on (= pulling at ) her cigarette.

3. to dress yourself in clothing

e.g. She quickly pulled on (= put on) her pullover.

pull out
1. to decide not to do something that you had intended to do or started to do

e.g. The buyers of the house pulled out at the last minute.

2. to leave a place or position or to cause (someone or something) to leave a place or position

e.g. The soldiers were forced to pull out . (= withdraw = sa se retraga )

pull over
1. to move a vehicle to the side of the road and stop

e.g. Let's pull the car over and look at the map.

2. to force a driver or vehicle to move to the side of the road and stop

e.g. I was pulled over by the police for speeding.

pull through
1. to survive a serious illness, injury, operation, etc.

e.g. We sat in the hospital waiting room praying that he would pull through . (= live)

2.

a) to get through a difficult situation

e.g. Our company will pull through , just as it did in difficult times in the past.

b) to help someone or something to continue to live or succeed in a dangerous or difficult situation

e.g. His determination pulled him through .

pull together
1. to work together as a group in order to get something done

e.g. It was amazing to see so many people pull together to put out the fire.

2.

a) to bring (people or things) together and organize them in order to make or do something

e.g. She managed to pull a team of scientists together.

b) to make something by bringing together different things

e.g. The chef pulled together a menu of Greek and Italian cuisine.

3. to control your emotions and behavior after you have been very upset, emotional, etc.

e.g. I know you're upset, but you need to pull yourself together . [= calm down]

pull up
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1.

a) to move (something) up

e.g. I pulled up the curtains.

b) to move (something) forward or into a position where it can be seen, used, etc.

e.g. Pull up a chair and make yourself comfortable.

2. to stop a vehicle at a particular place

e.g. We pulled up in front of the villa.

3. to stop suddenly before completing something

e.g. A muscle spasm made her pull up halfway through the race.

4. to criticize (someone) severely for doing something

e.g. Her boss pulled her up for/on making that mistake.

pull strings
to use the influence that you have with important people to get or achieve something

e.g. His parents had to pull (some) strings to get him this job.

pull the strings


to control someone or something often in a secret way

e.g. It turned out that his wife was the one pulling the strings behind the business.

28.12 Phrasal Verbs: RUN


run across
to meet someone or find something by chance

e.g. I ran across (= ran into) an old colleague of mine today.

run after
1. to run toward (someone or something) in an attempt to catch that person or thing

e.g. The dog ran after (= chased) the cat.

2. to try to start a romantic relationship with (someone)

e.g. He's always running after married women.

run along
to go away/ leave

e.g. He told the little girl to run along home.

run about/ around/ round


1. to run in an area while playing

e.g. The pupils were running around in the schoolyard.

2. to go from place to place in a busy or hurried way

e.g. They spent the whole day running around town doing errands (comisioane).

3. to spend a lot of time with (someone)

e.g. James runs around with younger women.

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run away (with)
1. to leave your home suddenly without permission and go somewhere else to live

e.g. Tom and Mary ran away (= ran off) together because their families didn’t want them to marry.

2. to avoid a person or situation that makes you feel uncomfortable

e.g. She shouldn't keep running away . She should face her father and tell him how she feels.

3.

a) to leave a person or place in order to live with and have a sexual relationship with someone

e.g. He left his wife and ran away with (= ran off with) his next door neighbour.

b) to leave a place with something that does not belong to you

e.g. The servant ran away with (= stole, ran off with ) the family jewels.

4.

a) to be the best or most popular performer in a performance

e.g. The reviewers say that she ran away with (= stole) the show.

b) to win something very easily

e.g. The president ran away with the election.

5. to make (someone) do something that is not sensible or reasonable

e.g. I don’t think he’s cheating on you. Don't let your imagination run away with you. (= don't let yourself
imagine all kinds of things that aren't true )

run by/ past


to tell something to someone so that it can be considered, approved, etc.

e.g. We'd better run these ideas past/ by the boss. (= we'd better tell the boss about the ideas we have and
find out if he/she thinks they are good)

run down
1. to hit and knock down a person or animal with a vehicle

e.g. He ran down a deer while he was driving in the forest.

2.

a) to chase after and catch a person or animal

e.g. The policemen ran the robber down in the park.

b) to find someone or something after searching

e.g. The professor wasn't in his office, but I finally ran him down in the faculty hall.

3.

a) to use up or cause something to use up all of its power

e.g. The battery of the watch has run down .

b) to become or cause a business or activity to become gradually smaller

e.g. The company has been running down for years.

4. to criticize someone or something in usually an unfair way

e.g. Don't keep running yourself down like that! It wasn’t your fault.

5. to say or repeat a list of people or things from the beginning to the end

e.g. Let’s run down all the things I need to do.

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run for it
to run to avoid being caught

e.g. It's the police! Run for it !

run high
to be or become very strong or intense

e.g. Passions usually run high in these kind of talk shows. [= people often get very angry in these talk
shows]

run in
1. to arrest someone

e.g. The police ran him in for being drunk.

2. to drive a new vehicle carefully for a period of time until it is ready for regular use

e.g. Don’t drive your new car too fast while you're running it in. (= breaking it in )

run into
1. to move into someone or something in a sudden or forceful way/ collide with

e.g. Iulian went off the road and ran into an electricity pole.

2. to meet someone by chance

e.g. I ran into (= ran across) an old friend the other day.

3. to experience something that is unpleasant or difficult/ encounter

e.g. The Smiths ran into some bad weather on their way home from holiday.

4. to amount to

e.g. His bank debt runs into five figures.

run its course


to begin, continue for a time, and then end

e.g. This type of flu usually runs its course in a few days.

run off
1.

a) to leave or abandon a person or place

e.g. His wife ran off and left him with two small children to take care of.

b) to leave a place with someone or something/ to run away with someone or something

e.g. Her husband ran off with his young assistant.

2. to repeat or produce (something) quickly

e.g. Would you please run off five copies of this report?

3. to force a person or animal off your land

e.g. She ran us off her property.

run on
1. to talk about something for a long time

e.g. He ran on and on about economy until everybody was bored.

2. to keep going without being stopped or interrupted for a long period of time

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e.g. The speeches ran on for hours.

run out
1.

a) to come to an end

e.g. Time ran out (= expired) before I could finish the explanation.

b) to become used up

e.g. The gas ran out before we got to Bucharest.

2. to force (someone) to leave a place

e.g. The people ran him out of the village.

3. to run hard to first base after hitting a batted ball (at baseball)

e.g. His coach got angry because he failed to run out a grounder.

4. + of : use up the available supply of something

e.g. We're low on petrol. We'd better stop before we run out of it.

5. + on: leave someone you should stay with/ to abandon or desert someone

e.g. Jane ran out on her husband to be with a man young enough to be her son.

run over
1. to go beyond a limit

e.g. The staff meeting ran over . (= the meeting was longer than it was planned to be )

2.

a) to flow over the top or edge of something/ overflow/ spill over

e.g. The water was running over the sink onto the kitchen floor.

b) of a container: to have a liquid flow over its edge/ overflow/ spill over

e.g. His glass ran over .

3.

a) to knock down and drive over or go over someone or something

e.g. The cat was run over by a car.

b) to read, repeat, or practice (omething quickly

e.g. Let's run the lines over together again.

run through
1.

a) to spend or use up something quickly/ squander (= a risipi)

e.g. She ran through his inheritance in a short time.

b) to read, repeat, or practice something quickly

e.g. Let's run through the dialogue one more time.

c) to occur repeatedly in something or throughout something

e.g. This song which has been running through my head all day is driving me mad.

2. to enter information into a computer for processing

e.g. He ran the photo through the database.

3. to push a sword through someone (literary meaning)


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e.g. The duke ran the traitor through with his sword.

run up
1.

a) to raise a flag to the top of a flagpole

e.g. To celebrate the independence day, we ran up our flag.

b) to achieve a large score or lead

e.g. Our soccer team ran up a big lead in the first part of the match.

c) to increase the amount of something

e.g. These extra requirements will run the bill up another 100 euros.

d) to get a large bill, debt, etc. by buying many things without making payments

e.g. My sister ran up a large phone bill because all she does is talk on the phone.

2. + against: to experience something difficult/ encounter

e.g. Their candidate has run up against a lot of opposition.

run with
to use something in a very energetic, enthusiastic and effective way

e.g. What if I took this idea and ran with it. (use it, put it into practice )

run your mouth


to talk too much and in a foolish way

e.g. He's always running his mouth about what a great man he is.

walk before you (can) run


to learn the basics before trying to do something more advanced

e.g. Don't bite more than you can chew. You have to walk before you can run .

run a temperature/ fever


to have a higher than normal body temperature

e.g. You don't look so good. Are you running a fever?

28.13 Phrasal Verbs: SEE


see about (something)
1. to do what is required for (something)/ to deal with (something)

e.g. My friend will see about getting tickets for the film./ I’ll see about (= attend to) dinner soon.

2. we'll (soon) see about that: used to say that you are not going to allow someone to do something or
to behave in a particular way

e.g. “He says that he's not coming.” “Well, we'll (soon) see about that .”

see after
to take care of (someone or something)

e.g. See after [= look after ] the luggage, while I buy the tickets.

see and be seen

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to see and be noticed by important or fashionable people

e.g. We go to parties to see and be seen .

see around/round
to move about while looking at (something)/ to tour (something)

e.g. If you'd like to see around (= look around ) the castle, a guide can accompany you.

see double
to see two things when only one thing is present

e.g. I must be drunk because I began seeing double.

see eye to eye


to have the same opinion/ agree -> mostly used in negative statements

e.g. They don't see eye to eye on this matter.

see fit/think fit to do something


to choose to do it because you think it is right or appropriate.

e.g. She can decorate her room as she sees fit. [=she can decorate it as she chooses]

see here
used to introduce a statement when you want someone to notice what you are saying

e.g. See here (= look here ), you are in my way. Move over, please!

see in
to notice or perceive (something good or attractive) in someone or something

e.g. She saw great artistic talent in her daughter.

seeing is believing
it means that when you actually see something, you have to believe that it exists or is true.

e.g. I didn't think she would marry him, but seeing is believing . (= I saw it happen, so now I believe it's
possible)

see off
1. to go to an airport, train station, etc., with (someone who is leaving) in order to say goodbye

e.g. I saw them off to the bus station.

2.

a) to chase or force (someone) away from a place

e.g. The police finally saw the revelers off.

b) to defeat or stop (an enemy, opponent, etc.)

e.g. They saw off the invading army.

see out
to continue to work at (something) until it is completed

e.g. He saw the project out to its very end.

see over
to walk around and examine (a place) carefully

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e.g. They went to see the new apartment over . (= look the apartment over )

see red
to become very angry

e.g. The changes in the exam rules have many students seeing red .

see stars
to see flashes of light usually because you have been hit on the head

e.g. I hit my head so hard that I saw stars.

be glad/ happy to see the back of someone


to be glad to see someone finally going away.

e.g. I'll be glad to see the back of my guests! (= I'll be glad when they have gone )

see the light, see the light of day

see the light


to suddenly understand or realize the truth of something

e.g. He used to be a thief but now he has seen the light and has changed his ways. ( = he has realized that what
he was doing was bad)

see the light of day


1. to be seen or used

e.g. I’ve taken out the silver cutlery which hasn’t seen the light of day in years.

2. to become publicly known

e.g. His theory first saw the light of day in a science magazine.

see things
to see things that do not really exist/ hallucinate

e.g. There's no ghost there - you must be seeing things.

see through
1. to realize the true nature of (someone or something)

e.g. I can always see through his lies. (= I know when he is lying)

2. to continue to work at (something) until it is completed

e.g. We saw the project through to the end.

see to
1. to do or provide what is needed for (something) / to deal with (something)

e.g. My aunt saw to his education. (= my aunt made the necessary payments, arrangements, etc., for his
education)

The hotel staff saw to ( =attended to) her every need.

2. see to it : to make sure that something is done

e.g. I will see to it that everyone gets a copy of this report.

see your way (clear) to


to be willing to (do something)

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e.g. I'd be very grateful if you could see your way clear to lend/lending me some money. (= if you would lend
me some money)

28.14 Phrasal Verbs: TAKE


take aback (by)/ take someone aback
to surprise or shock (someone) — usually used as (be) taken aback

e.g. When I told him my answer, he seemed taken aback. [=shocked]

take action
to act in order to get a particular result/ to do something

e.g. The committee is ready to take action.

take after
to be like (someone, such as a parent) : to resemble (someone)

e.g. He takes after his father in height and build.

take against
to begin to dislike (someone or something)

e.g. They took against her for no apparent reason.

take a lot out of you


◊ If something takes a lot out of you or (Brit) takes it out of you, it requires a lot of work or energy and
causes you to feel physically or emotionally tired.

e.g. That interview really took a lot out of me.

take apart
1. to remove or separate the parts of (something)

e.g. They practiced taking apart [=disassembling] their rifles and putting them back together again.

2. to talk about the different parts of (an idea, story, etc.) often in order to criticize it

e.g. He takes apart the theory and shows its weaknesses.

3. to badly beat (a person or team) in a game or contest

e.g. The champion really took the challenger apart in the second round.

take away
1. to remove (someone or something) : to cause (someone or something) to go away, to no longer exist,
to no longer be held, etc.

e.g. “Take him away!” said the queen.

2.

a) to remember (something) for possible use in the future — usually + from

e.g. What lesson can we take away from this?

b) to buy (food that is cooked in a restaurant) and carry it to another place

e.g. We sell hot food to take away. [=(US) we sell hot food for takeout]

3. to reduce the value or importance of (something)

e.g. The ugly door takes away from [=detracts from] the beauty of the house.

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take back
1.

a) to return (something or someone)

e.g. If you bought any of these toys, take them back to the store for a full refund.

b) to accept or receive (someone or something) again

e.g. They wouldn't take back the dress because I didn't have the receipt.

2. to cause (someone) to remember a time or event - usually + to

e.g. This meal takes me back to [=it makes me remember] our vacation in Mexico.

3. to say that you did not really mean (something that you said)

e.g. My mom is not fat! Take it back!

take down
1. to remove (something) from the place where it is hanging or standing

e.g. She took the books down from the shelf.

2. to lower but not remove (something)

e.g. The doctor asked him to take down [=pull down] his pants.

3. to write (something)

e.g. He took her phone number down on a napkin.

take in
1.

a) to allow (a person or animal) to stay in your house, hotel, etc.

e.g. The family started taking in boarders to make ends meet.

b) to take (someone) to a police station

e.g. The police took him in for driving while drunk.

c) to trick or deceive (someone) — often used as (be) taken in

e.g. He was taken in by a man who said he was collecting money for a charity.

2.

a) to make (a piece of clothing) smaller or shorter

e.g. I lost weight and had to take in my pants.

b) to receive (something) as payment or earnings

e.g. The restaurant has been taking in [=(Brit) taking] thousands of dollars a night.

c) to allow (water, air, etc.) to enter your body

e.g. She stood on the shore taking in the salty sea air.

d) to look at and think about (something)

e.g. We spent the hour talking and taking in the view.

e) to learn about and try to understand (something)

e.g. We paused to take in the situation.

f) to watch (a show, game, etc.)

e.g. If we have time after dinner, I thought maybe we could take in a movie.

g) to include (a place) among the places that you go to


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e.g. Our trip to New York City will take in several museums. = We will take in [=visit] several museums on our
trip to New York City.

take it or leave it
1. used to say that you will not make a better offer than the one you have made

e.g. I'll give you $500 for the camera, but that's my final offer. Take it or leave it.

2. used to say that you do not care about or are not excited about something

e.g. “Do you like lobster?” “I can take it or leave it .” [=I neither strongly like nor dislike lobster]

take it upon/on yourself


to do something that needs to be done even though no one has asked you to do it

e.g. Thank you for taking it upon yourself to organize the meeting.

take long
to require or use a long amount of time

e.g. It didn't take long to realize that something was wrong.

take note (of)/ take notice


to notice or pay attention to something

e.g. The news made them sit up and take notice. [=suddenly give full attention to something]

take off
1.

a) to suddenly go somewhere

e.g. She took off without even saying goodbye.

b) to start to move quickly in order to catch (someone or something)

e.g. If my dog sees a cat, she'll take off after [=chase] it.

2. to begin to fly

e.g. Please sit down. The plane's about to take off.

3. to quickly become very successful or popular

e.g. Her career took off after she won an Oscar for best supporting actress.

4.

a) to remove (something)

e.g. I took my boots off and put on some slippers.

b) to reduce the price of something by (a specified amount)

e.g. You can take 20 percent off everything in the store.

c) to spend (an amount of time) away from a job or activity

e.g. He took the day off and went to the beach.

5.

a) to tell (someone) to stop using (something, such as a medicine)

e.g. The doctor took her off the drug and put her on a new one.

b) to tell (someone) to no longer work on (something)

e.g. The newspaper's editor took her off the story.

6. to copy (someone) usually in order to make other people laugh


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e.g. He can take off [=mimic , imitate] our teacher perfectly.

take on
1.

a) to begin to deal with (something, such as a job or responsibility)

I don't have time to take on any new responsibilities right now.


We are depending on you to take on this important assignment.
Her willingness to take on new challenges is admirable.

b) to begin to have (a particular quality or appearance)

Her writings took on new meaning after her death.


In the evening, the plaza takes on a different air/aura.
stories in which animals take on human attributes

2.

a) to fight or struggle with (someone or something)

e.g. Police have been taking on the neighborhood's drug dealers.

b) to criticize or argue against (someone or something)

e.g. She takes on the country's current foreign policy in her new book.

c) to compete against (a person, team, etc.)

e.g. The Yankees are set to take on the Red Sox at Yankee Stadium tonight.

d) to allow (someone or something) to enter

e.g. The train took on a few more passengers before leaving the city.

3. to accept (someone) as an employee, client, etc.

e.g. I'm sorry, but the doctor isn't taking on [=taking] any new patients.

take out
1.

a) to remove (something) from a thing, place, or person

e.g. She had her tonsils taken out when she was ten years old.

b) to move (something) from the place that held, enclosed, or hid it

e.g. Please take out a pencil and begin the test.

c) to make the arrangements, payments, etc., that are required for (something)

e.g. All drivers in the state must take out insurance on their vehicles.

d) to borrow or rent (something) from a store, library, etc.

e.g. She took out a couple of books from the library.

e) to destroy (something)

e.g. Our mission is to take out two enemy targets.

2.

a) to go with (someone you have invited) to a restaurant, party, etc.

e.g. Can I take you out sometime?

b) to cause (a person or team) to no longer be part of a competition

e.g. He took his opponent out in the first 60 seconds of the match.

3.

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◊ If you take your anger, frustration, etc., out on someone, you treat someone badly because you feel
angry, frustrated, etc.

e.g. workers who go home and take their frustration out on their families

take over
1. to start doing (something that someone has stopped doing)

e.g. Here, you take over stirring the soup while I start making the salad.

2. to become the person who has control of (something)

e.g. Since she has taken over the company, productivity and profits have soared.

take sides or take someone's side


to agree with or support one person or group and not another

e.g. She refuses to take sides on the issue.

take through
to tell (someone) how (something) happens or is done by explaining the details of each step

e.g. I asked him to take [=lead, walk] me through his daily exercise regimen.

take to
1. to go to or into (a place)

e.g. They grabbed their weapons and took to the hills.

2. to begin to like (someone or something)

e.g. I took to her as soon as she smiled at me.

3. to begin (doing something) as a habit

e.g. He took to drinking after he lost his job.

4. to use (something) to do something to (someone or something)

e.g. Someone needs to take a mop to this floor. [=someone needs to mop this floor]

take up
1. to begin (something) again : to continue (something) after you or another person stops

e.g. She took up [=picked up ] the story where he left off.

2. to fill (an area, amount of time, etc.) completely or almost completely

e.g. The new couch takes up half of the room.

3.

a) to begin studying or practicing (an activity, subject, instrument, etc.) usually as a hobby

e.g. I was thinking about taking up skiing/dancing/photography.

b) to begin to deal with (a problem, an issue, etc.)

e.g. The cause of global warming has been taken up by many celebrities recently.

c) to begin to have (a new job, home, etc.)

e.g. He will take up his post [=begin working at his new post/job] at the beginning of the year.

d) somewhat old-fashioned : to begin to use (something)

e.g. They took up hammers and nails and went to work building the house.

e) to make (something, such as a piece of clothing) shorter

e.g. Can you take the legs of these pants up two inches?
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f) to lift and remove (something)

e.g. We took up the carpet in the living room and replaced it with hardwood flooring.

g) to gather (money, clothes, etc.) from many different people or places

e.g. They are taking up a collection for the homeless shelter.

4. to make an agreement with (someone) to accept (an offer)

e.g. “Can I buy you a drink?” “Sure, I'll take you up on that.”

5. to talk about (something, such as a problem) with (someone)

e.g. If you have a problem, please take it up with one of our managers.

6. to begin a friendly or romantic relationship with (someone)

e.g. After her divorce, she took up with a younger man.

on the take
illegally taking money for doing favors for someone : illegally accepting bribes

e.g. We've heard rumors that the senator is on the take.

28.15 Phrasal Verbs: THINK


don't even think about (doing) it
used to tell someone in a forceful way that something is not allowed

e.g. You are not allowed to cheat during the test. Don't even think about it !

not think anything of


not to think of something as being important or unusual

e.g. I didn't think anything of it at the time but it turned out to be very important for my future.

not think much of


not to like someone or something very much

e.g. They didn't think much of their new daughter-in-law.

think again
used to say that what someone believes, expects, etc., is not true or will not happen

e.g. If you think you can get away with cheating on her, think again . (= you are wrong ) Women always find out.

think ahead
to prepare for a future event or situation by thinking about what might happen

e.g. It’s raining again. I should have thought ahead and taken an umbrella with me.

think aloud or think out loud


to say your thoughts so that other people can hear them

e.g. No, I’m not talking to you. I’m just thinking out loud .

think back
+ to: to think about something that happened in the past

e.g. Thinking back to my school years, I remember the English classes with pleasure.
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think better of
to decide not to do something after thinking further about it

e.g. She was going to make a rude comment but thought better of it.

think big
to think about doing big things

e.g. If we want to start a business, we should think big.

think fit
to choose to do something because you think it is right or appropriate.

e.g. She can do as she thinks/ sees fit. (= she can do what she chooses )

think for yourself


to form opinions and make decisions without help from other people

e.g. Don't believe what others tell you to. You need to learn to think for yourself .

think less of
to have a worse opinion of someone/ not to respect someone

e.g. I hope you don't think (any) less of me now that you know I have no money.

think nothing of
1. not to hesitate at all about doing something that other people think is very difficult or dangerous

e.g. She thinks nothing of climbing Mount Everest.

2. think nothing of it: used as a polite response when someone has apologized to you or thanked you

e.g. “Thanks for giving me a lift.” “Think nothing of it , I was going there anyway.”

think of
1.

a) to have thoughts about possibly doing something

e.g. She is thinking of applying to university.

b) to use your mind to form or invent something

e.g. All they could think of was to buy another car.

c) to remember something

e.g. I can think of plenty of other times when she went back on her word.

2.

a) to have a particular kind of opinion about someone or something

e.g. Her boss thought highly of her. (= had a high opinion of her )

b) to form or have an idea about someone or something

e.g. People are thinking of him for mayor. (= are thinking that he should be the mayor )

c) to be concerned about someone or something when you make decisions about what to do

e.g. I must think first of my children when deciding whether or not to move abroad.

3. to believe that someone or something is a particular type of person or thing or has a particular
quality

e.g. He thinks of himself as a good father. (= he thinks/believes that he is a good father )

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think out
to think about something, (such as a problem) for a period of time in an effort to find a solution, make
a decision, etc.

e.g. He spent hours thinking out the solution to the problem of unemployment in his town.

think outside the box


If you think outside the box, your thoughts are not limited or controlled by rules or tradition, and you
have ideas that are creative and unusual.

e.g. To solve this math problem, you'll have to think outside the box .

think over
to think about (something) for a period of time especially in an effort to understand or make a decision
about it

e.g. I'll give you time to think the matter over .

think through
to think about all the different parts or effects of something for a period of time especially in an effort
to understand or make a decision about it

e.g. I’m not so sure I’m doing the right thing moving abroad. I need time to think this through .

think twice
to think seriously about whether you really want to do something before you do it

e.g. I'd think twice about/before doing that if I were you.

think up
to use your mind to form or invent (something)

e.g. Quick! We have to think up a reason to explain why we’re here.

to think
used to express surprise or shock

e.g. To think, all I had to do was give her money.

have another think coming


used to say that someone is wrong or mistaken

e.g. If they think they can trick me, they have another think coming . (= they’re wrong; they can't fool me )

think the world of somebody


to have a very high opinion of someone

e.g. Jane is an excellent dentist and all her patients think the world of her.

28.16 Phrasal Verbs: THROW


throw away
1. put (something that is no longer useful or wanted) in a trash can, garbage can, rubbish bin, etc.

e.g. I threw away (= threw out) a lot of old photos that were in the attic.

2.

a) to use something in a foolish or wasteful way

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e.g. She threw away (= squandered = a risipit) her life savings.

b) to foolishly fail to use something, such as a chance

e.g. He had a chance to do something good, and he threw it away (= wasted).

throw in
1. to add something to what you are selling without asking for more money

e.g. If you buy two shirts, I'll throw in a third for free!

2. to add something to the effort or activity of a group

e.g. He threw in a drum solo toward the end of the concert.

throw off
1.

a) to quickly remove a piece of clothing

e.g. He threw his clothes off and jumped into the shower.

b) to get rid of something you do not want, such as a quality or a condition

e.g. She tried to throw off her reputation as being a tough teacher.

c) to cause something to be incorrect

e.g. A wrong figure threw his calculations off.

d) to send light, smoke, etc. out from a source

e.g. The fireplace throws off (= gives off) a lot of heat.

2.

a) to cause someone to be confused or uncertain about where to go, what to do, etc.

e.g. The teacher was thrown off (= distracted) during the class by a ringing cell phone.

b) to get away from someone who is trying to catch you

e.g. He managed to throw off (= escape from ) his pursuers by stealing a car.

throw on
1. to quickly put on a piece of clothing

e.g. She threw on her fur coat and got out of the room.

2. to cause (something) to work by moving a switch

He threw on [=switched on] the lights.

throw out
1.

a) to put something that is no longer useful or wanted in a trash can, garbage can, rubbish bin, etc.

e.g. Jane threw out (= threw away) some old clothes.

b) to refuse to accept or consider something

e.g. My boss threw out (= rejected) the proposal.

c) to mention something as a possible thing to be done, thought about, etc./ suggest

e.g. She threw out a couple of ideas for improving the department.

d) to send light, smoke, etc. out from a source

e.g. The campfire started throwing out sparks.

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e) to injure a part of your body

e.g. He threw out his back lifting a piece of heavy furniture.

2. to force someone to leave a place, game, etc.

e.g. The referee threw out two players for being rude.

throw together
1. to make something by joining or combining things in a quick and usually careless way

e.g. He threw some dinner together for his family.

2. to bring people together usually in an unexpected way

e.g. People from different walks of life were thrown together for the jury.

throw up
1. to have the food, liquid, etc., that is in your stomach come out through your mouth/ vomit

e.g. She felt sick and then threw up.

2.

a) to raise or lift something quickly or suddenly

e.g. He threw up the window and shouted.

b) to build something quickly

e.g. The villa was thrown up almost overnight.

c) to leave your job, home, etc.

e.g. She threw up (= quit) her job to devote time to her family.

d) to cause something to be known

e.g. A lot of information has been thrown up from the investigation.

3. throw up your hands/ throw your hands up in the air : to stop an activity or effort and admit that you
cannot do anything to make a situation better

e.g. He tried to make her see reason, but in the end he had to throw up his hands in despair.

throw yourself at someone


to try too hard to attract the attention of someone you are sexually attracted to

e.g. Stop throwing yourself at men. You'll look like a desperate woman.

throw yourself into


to begin doing or working on something with great energy and determination

e.g. He threw himself into composing his music.

28.17 Phrasal Verbs: LET


let bygones be bygones
to forgive someone for something done to you or for a disagreement with you and forget about it(a ierta si uita)

e.g. I know Mary and I had our fights over the years, but I think it's time welet bygones be bygones.

let down
1.

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a) to fail to give help or support to someone who needs or expects it/ disappoint(a dezamagi)

e.g. I promised my mother that I'd help her, and I can'tlet her down.

b) to make someone unhappy or displeased by not being as good as expected(a dezamagi)

e.g. The end of the film really let me down.

2. to let someone down easy/gently is to give someone unpleasant news in a gentle or kind way(a da vesti proaste intr-un
mod bland)

e.g. She tried to let him down gently when she told him she wouldn’t marry him.

3.

a) to cause or allow something to move down gradually (a lasa in jos/ a cobori)

e.g. The young girl let a bucket down into the well so as to get some fresh water.

b) to make a skirt, a pair of pants, etc. longer(a lungi o fusta/ pantaloni)

e.g. The skirt was a little too short and needed to belet down a little.

let your hair down


to relax and enjoy yourself (a se relaxa/ a se distra fara grija)

e.g. We learn hard all week, so when Friday comes we like tolet our hair down a little and have some fun in town.

let fly with


to throw something in a forceful way (a arunca cu forta)

e.g. The quarterback let fly with a long pass.

let go
1. to stop holding or gripping something or someone (a da drumul)

e.g. I tried to take the wallet from him, but he wouldn'tlet go.

2. let yourself go: to behave in a very free and open way(a se relaxa)

e.g. He really lets go when he's out in town partying with his friends.

3.

a) to allow someone who is being held as a slave, prisoner, etc. to be free(a elibera)

e.g. They let the convict go.

b) to officially make someone leave a job (a concedia)

e.g. The company let Tom go at the end of the month.

4. let yourself go: to fail to take care of yourself(a nu-i mai pasa de aspectul exterior)

e.g. I was very depressed after my divorce and had reallylet myself go. (= I had stopped taking care of myself)

let it all hang out


to show your true feelings/ to behave in a very free and open way(a arata adevaratele sentimente/ a se comporta intr-un
mod liber)

e.g. When I'm with my family, Ilet it all hang out.

let loose
1. let/ set/ turn someone or something loose: to allow someone or something to move or go freely (a lasa liber)

e.g. He let/ set the dogs loose in the garden.

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2. to produce something, such as a cry in a sudden and forceful way(a striga)

e.g. The crowd let loose (= let out) an enormous shout when he scored a goal.

let me see/ let’s see/ let me think


used in speech by someone who is trying to remembersomething (stai sa ma gandesc/ stai sa vad)

e.g. Let me see, where did I put my wallet?

let off
1. to allow someone to get off a bus, an airplane, etc.(a lasa sa coboare)

e.g. Could you let me off the bus at the next stop, please?

2. to allow someone who has been caught doing something wrong or illegal to go without being punished(a lasa fara
pedeapsa)

e.g. The police officer let her off with just a warning after he caught her speeding.

3. let someone off the hook = be freed from blame or obligation (a lasa pe cineva sa scape fara pedeapsa)

e.g. If you ask me, they let her off the hook too easily for not meeting the deadline.

4. to cause something to explode or to be released in a forceful way(a face sa explodeze)

e.g. He was punished for letting off (= set off) a firecracker in the schoolyard.

let/ blow off (some) steam


to calm down and get rid of energy or anger by doing something active(a se relaxa)

e.g. I play computer games every evening just tolet off some steam.

let on
1. to allow someone to get on a bus, an airplane, etc. (a urca)

e.g. They let passengers with disabilities on the airplane first.

2. to tell, admit, or show that you know something (a spune, a admite sau a arata ca sti ceva)

e.g. He knows a lot more about her life than helets on.

3. to pretend or seem (a pretinde/ a parea)

e.g. Jane is not as happy as she lets on.

let out
1. to release something or someone (a elibera/ a tipa)

e.g. She let out a scream. (= she screamed)

2. to make a shirt, a pair of pants, etc. larger(a largi o camasa/ pantaloni)

e.g. The blouse is too tight and needs to be let out a little.

3. of a school: to end a semester, year, or session(a se termina)

e.g. School lets out at the end of June.

let rip
1. to do something in a way that is full of anger or energy(a se dezlantui)

e.g. At the end of the concert, the bandlet rip with a fantastic version of the song that made them famous.

2. to make a car, boat, machine, etc. go very fast — usually used in phrases like let it rip and let her rip(a merge foarte

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repede)

e.g. Once we got the motorboat out into the open water, welet it rip.

let sleeping dogs lie


to ignore a problem because trying to deal with it could cause an even more difficult situation(a lasa lucrurile asa cum
sunt)

e.g. I thought about telling her what I thought of her, but decided instead tolet sleeping dogs lie.

let someone have it


to attack, punish, or criticize someone in a violent or angry way (a ataca/ a pedepsi/ a critica intr-un mod dur)

e.g. When she found out what they'd been doing, she really let them have it.

let someone in on something


to allow someone to know a secret (a permite cuiva sa stie un secret)

e.g. She said she'd let me in on a secret if I promised not to tell my colleagues.

let someone know


to tell something to someone (a anunta/ a spune)

e.g. Let me know (= tell me) if you're ready to go.

let someone or something be


a) to not bother or touch someone or something (a lasa in pace)

e.g. Please let (= leave) me be.

b) to tell people something (a spune ceva/ a anunta)

e.g. He let it be known (= he announced) that he intends to run for president.

let something slip/ let slip something


to say (something that you did not want to say) by mistake(a spune ceva din greseala/ a lasa sa scape un secret)

e.g. He let slip that he was getting married.

let the cat out of the bag


to reveal a secret (a dezvalui un secert)

e.g. We wanted to throw her a surprise birthday party, but helet the cat out of the bag.

let the grass grow under your feet


to wait before doing something or to do something slowly (used in negative statements)(a face ceva prea tarziu/ prea incet)

e.g. He has never been one to let the grass grow under his feet. (= he has never been slow about doing things/ he gets
things done quickly)

let up
1. to stop or become slower (a se opri/ a incetini)

e.g. Will this storm ever let up?

2. + on someone: to treat someone in a less harsh or demanding way(a trata mai ingaduitor)

e.g. The students might respond better if the professor let up on (= eased up on) them a little.

3. + on something: to apply less pressure to something (a aplica mai putina presiune)


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e.g. I let up on (= eased up on) the gas pedal to park the car.

let yourself in for


to cause yourself to have or experience something bad or unpleasant(a permite sa treaca prin)

e.g. She's letting herself in for a lot of criticism by saying such things.

28.18 Phrasal Verbs: FALL


fall afoul of
to get into trouble because of (the law, a rule, etc.)

e.g. After moving he fell afoul of the law. [=he got into trouble for breaking the law; he was arrested for committing a crime]

fall (all) over yourself


to be very eager or too eager

e.g. Fans were falling over themselves trying to meet the movie star.

fall apart
1. to break into parts in usually a sudden and unexpected way

e.g. The pie was falling apart as I tried to serve it.

— often used figuratively

e.g. I feel as if my family is falling apart.

2. to become unable to live in a normal way because you are experiencing a lot of confusion or emotional pain

e.g. She began to fall apart when her son was imprisoned.

fall away
to become gradually less, to disappear gradually

e.g. The sound of the parade fell away in the distance.

fall back
1. to move back away from something dangerous or threatening : retreat

e.g. The crowd fell back when the police arrived.

2. to use (something) for help or protection when you are in a bad situation

e.g. When her health insurance was canceled she had nothing tofall back on.

fall behind
1. to fail to move or go forward as quickly as others

e.g. We had to stop several times so that the slower hikers wouldn'tfall (too far) behind.

2. to fail to do something as quickly as planned or required— often + with

e.g. We've been falling further behind with our work.

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- often + on

e.g. I am falling behind on my homework.

fall down on the job


to do a job badly

e.g. The people who are supposed to be keeping the city clean have beenfalling down on the job.

fall flat
to produce no response or result

e.g. All of his jokes fell flat. [=no one laughed at his jokes]

fall for
1. fall for (someone) : to feel a strong attraction for (someone) : to fall in love with (someone)

e.g. He fell for her the moment he saw her.

2. to be fooled by (something, such as a trick)

e.g. I can't believe you fell for that old trick.

fall foul of
to get into trouble because of (the law, a rule, etc.)

e.g. After leaving school she fell foul of the law. [=she got into trouble with the law; she was arrested for committing a crime]

fall from grace


If you fall from grace or experience a fall from grace, you no longer enjoy the success or good reputation that you once had, usually
because you have done something wrong.

e.g. The governor fell from grace after being accused of tax fraud.

fall in
1. to break apart and fall down in an inward direction

e.g. The roof fell in.

2. to take your place in a military formation

e.g. The troops were ordered to fall in.

fall in/into line


to start to do what you are told or required to do

e.g. Several of the older companies have refused tofall in line (with the new regulations).

fall in love, fall out of love


When people begin to feel romantic love for each other, theyfall in love.

e.g. They fell (madly/passionately) in love (with each other).

- used figuratively.

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e.g. She fell in love with sailing the first time she tried it.

- People are sometimes said to fall out of love when they stop loving each other.

e.g. It was sad to see how they graduallyfell out of love (with each other) after they married.

fall into
1. to be caught in (a trap)

e.g. We fell into a trap.

2. to begin to do or experience (something) or to be affected by (something) without wanting or trying to

e.g. He fell deeply into debt.

fall into place


to fit together, to make sense

e.g. The pieces of the puzzle/mystery are finally starting tofall into place.

fall into step


to begin walking or marching with the same rhythm as another person or group of people

e.g. He fell into step beside her and struck up a conversation.

fall into the hands of


to come to be held or possessed by (someone)

e.g. Officials are concerned that the stolen weapons may fall into the hands of terrorists. [=that terrorists may get/obtain the stolen
weapons]

fall into the wrong hands


to come to be held or possessed by the wrong person or group

e.g. There could be a disaster if the weapons fell into the wrong hands.

fall into your lap


If something good drops/falls into your lap or lands in your lap, it comes to you suddenly in an unexpected way even though you did
not try to get it.

e.g. This wonderful new job just fell into my lap when I was least expecting it!

fall in with
1. fall in with (someone) : to begin to spend time with (someone)

e.g. Their daughter fell in with a bad crowd.

2. fall in with (something) : to accept and act in agreement with (something)

e.g. They readily fell in with our plans.

fall off
to stop being attached to something

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e.g. The handle was so loose that it almost fell off.

fall on/upon
1.
a) to begin to experience (something) : to meet with (an experience)

e.g. We fell on hard times after I lost my job.

b) to notice (something) especially without wanting or trying to

e.g. Her eyes/glance fell on the letter on his desk.

2.

fall on/upon (someone) : to attack (someone) suddenly

e.g. They fell on the enemy soldiers and killed every one of them.

fall on deaf ears


to fail to be heard, to be ignored

e.g. Her pleas for mercy fell on deaf ears.

fall on your feet


to be lucky and be in good condition or in a good situation after having a bad or difficult experience.

e.g. He lost his job but landed on his feet when he was hired by another company just a few days later.

fall out
1. of a tooth or hair : to stop being attached to the body

e.g. The cancer treatments made her hair fall out.

2. to have an argument

e.g. They fell out [=fought, argued] over money.

3. to leave your place in a military formation

e.g. The soldiers were ordered to fall out.

fall over backward


to make a great effort to help someone or to reach agreement with someone

e.g. The salesman said he would bend over backward to make the deal.

fall prey to
1. to be killed by (an animal, disease, etc.)

e.g. The deer fell prey to coyotes.

2. to be harmed or affected in a bad way by (someone or something)

e.g. After the accident, she was prey to all kinds of anxieties.

fall short
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1. to fail to be as good or successful as expected or hoped for

e.g. In comparison to her previous novel, this one falls short. [=this one is not as good]

— often + of

e.g. Her current book falls short of her previous novel.

2. to fail to reach a goal

e.g. Their efforts fell short.

— often + of

e.g. Their efforts fell (far) short of (achieving) their goal.

fall through
to fail or stop in a sudden or final way

e.g. Contract negotiations have fallen through.

fall through/between the cracks


to fail to be noticed or included with others

e.g. Parents are concerned that children who have trouble in school willfall through the cracks in the school system. [=will not be
given the help they need; will graduate without anyone noticing that they are unable to do the work]

fall through the net


to fail to be noticed or included with others

e.g. There are plenty of talented players who slip through the net and never get to play professionally.

fall to pieces
1. to break into parts

e.g. The old map fell to pieces [=came apart, fell apart] in my hands.

2. to become ruined or destroyed

e.g. His life fell to pieces after his divorce.

3. to become unable to control your emotions

e.g. She falls to pieces [=breaks down] when she tries to talk about the accident.

fall under
to be influenced or affected by (something)

e.g. He fell under her influence.

fall victim to
1 to be attacked, injured, or killed by (someone or something)

e.g. Police think she may have fallen victim to a serial killer.

2 to be affected badly by (something)

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e.g. She fell victim to the flu.

let the chips fall where they may


to allow events to happen without trying to change thembecause you are willing to accept a result, whatever it may be.
e.g. I will run the best campaign I can, thenlet the chips fall where they may.

29. Collocations
What is a collocation?

Words that are used together frequently "collocate": e.g. Time flies/ Time goes by/ Time wears on/ Time passes (= they
collocate)
Words that don't collocate are never used together. If we try they sound unnatural and wrong: e.g. Time speeds/ Time
travels/ Time rides/ Time moves
There are NO RULES that can be used to learn collocations. They can be learned by discovering them (in exercises or by
reading books, watching films), learning them and using them often.

Examples:

To take a photo and not to make a photo


To do your homework and not to make your homework
To make a mistake and not to do a mistake
To make an effort and not to do an effort
To watch TV and not to look at TV

30. Proverbs
"Chickens/ Curses come home to roost. "

You have to face the consequences of your mistakes or bad deeds

"The last straw that breaks the camel’s back"

The last in a series of unpleasant events which finally makes you feel that you cannot continue to accept a bad situation

"Two wrongs don't make a right."

When someone has done something bad to you, trying to get revenge will only make things worse.

"The pen is mightier than the sword."

Trying to convince people with ideas and words is more effective than trying to force people to do what you want.

"When in Rome, do as the Romans."

Act the way that the people around you are acting. This phrase might come in handy when you're traveling abroad notice that
people do things differently than you're used to.

"The squeaky wheel gets the grease."

You can get better service if you complain about something. If you wait patiently, no one's going to help you.

"When the going gets tough, the tough get going."

Strong people don't give up when they come across challenges. They just work harder.

"No man is an island."

You can't live completely independently. Everyone needs help from other people.

"Fortune favors the bold."

People who bravely go after what they want are more successful than people who try to live safely.

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"People who live in glass houses should not throw stones."

Don't criticize other people if you're not perfect yourself.

"Hope for the best, but prepare for the worst."

Bad things might happen, so be prepared.

"Better late than never."

It's best to do something on time. But if you can't do it on time, do it late.

"Birds of a feather flock together."

People like to spend time with others who are similar to them.

"Keep your friends close and your enemies closer."

If you have an enemy, pretend to be friends with them instead of openly fighting with them. That way you can watch them carefully
and figure out what they're planning.

"A picture is worth a thousand words."

Pictures convey emotions and messages better than written or spoken explanations.

"There's no such thing as a free lunch."

Things that are offered for free always have a hidden cost.

"There's no place like home."

Your own home is the most comfortable place to be.

"Discretion is the greater part of valor."

Sometimes it's important to know when to give up and run away, instead of always acting brave and maybe getting hurt.

"The early bird catches the worm."

You should wake up and start work early if you want to succeed.

"Never look a gift horse in the mouth."

If someone offers you a gift, don't question it.

"You can't make an omelet without breaking a few eggs."

When you try to do something great, you'll probably make a few people annoyed or angry. Don't worry about those people; just
focus on the good results.

"God helps those who help themselves."

Don't just wait for good things to happen to you. Work hard to achieve your goals.

"You can't always get what you want."

Don't whine and complain if you don't get what you wanted.

"Cleanliness is next to godliness."

Be clean. God likes that.

"A watched pot never boils."

If something takes time to finish, don't watch it too closely because it will seem like it's taking forever.

"Beggars can't be choosers."

If you're asking for a favor from someone else, you have to take whatever they give you.

"Actions speak louder than words."

Just saying that you'll do something doesn't mean much. Actually doing it is harder and more meaningful.

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"If it ain't broke, don't fix it."

Don't try to improve something that already works fairly well. You'll probably end up causing new problems.

"Practice makes perfect."

You have to practice a skill a lot to become good at it.

"Too many cooks spoil the broth."

When there are too many people trying to lead and give their opinions, it's confusing and leads to bad results. Jobs and projects
should have one or two strong leaders.

"Don't bite the hand that feeds you."

If someone's paying you or helping you out, you have to be careful not to make them angry or say bad things about them.

"All good things must come to an end."

You can't keep having good luck or fun forever; eventually it will stop.

"If you can't beat 'em, join 'em."

When you try to change someone's behavior and it doesn't work, you might have to change instead.

"One man's trash is another man's treasure."

Different people have different ideas about what's valuable.

"There's no time like the present."

If you need to do something, don't wait until later. Do it now.

"Beauty is in the eye of the beholder."

Different people have different ideas about what's beautiful.

"Necessity is the mother of invention."

When you're really in need, you think of creative solutions to your problems.

"A penny saved is a penny earned."

Save your money. Saving money is just like making money.

"Familiarity breeds contempt."

When you're around someone for too long, you get tired of them and annoyed by them.

"You can't judge a book by its cover."

Things sometimes look different than they really are. A restaurant that looks old and small might have amazing food, for example.

"Good things come to those who wait."

Be patient. Eventually something good will happen to you.

"Don't put all your eggs in one basket."

Have a backup plan. Don't risk all of your money or time in one plan.

"Two heads are better than one."

When two people cooperate with each other, they come up with better ideas.

"The grass is always greener on the other side of the hill."

People tend to want whatever they don't have.

"The proof of the pudding is in the eating. "

You don't know the quality of something until you have tried it or experienced it.

"Do unto others as you would have them do unto you."

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Don't do mean things to people.

"A chain is only as strong as its weakest link."

If one member of a team doesn't perform well, the whole team will fail.

"Honesty is the best policy."

Don't lie.

"Absence makes the heart grow fonder."

Sometimes it's good to be away from your partner, because it makes you want to see each other again.

"You can lead a horse to water, but you can't make him drink."

If you try to help someone, but they don't take your advice or offers, give up. You can't force someone to accept your help.

"Don't count your chickens before they hatch."

Your plans might not work out, so don't start thinking about what you'll do after you succeed. Wait until you've already succeeded,
and then you can think about what to do next.

"If you want something done right, you have to do it yourself."

Don't trust other people to do important things for you. You have to do things yourself to control the quality of the results.

"A friend in need is a friend indeed. "

A true friend offers help when one needs it most.

"A rolling stone gathers no moss."

People pay a price for being always on the move, in that they have no roots in a specific place (the original meaning);or people
who keep moving avoid picking up responsibilities and cares.

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