Anda di halaman 1dari 5

Perpustakaan Unika

STUDI PENGARUH PEMANASAN PADA PADI (Oryza sativa) ORGANIK ”PANDAN


WANGI” TINJAUAN SIFAT KIMIA (AMILOSA, KADAR SERAT PANGAN, KADAR
PROKSIMAT ) DAN SENSORIS

A STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF HEATING PROCESS ON ORGANIC PADDY (Oryza


sativa) “PANDAN WANGI” BASED ON THE CHEMICAL (AMYLOSE, DIETARY
FIBER CONTENT, PROXIMATE) AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS

SKRIPSI
Diajukan guna memenuhi sebagian dari syarat syarat untuk mendapatkan gelar Sarjana
Teknologi Pertanian

Disusun Oleh:
Yanuar Kurnia Sanusi
(04.70.0028)

PROGRAM STUDI TEKNOLOGI PANGAN


FAKULTAS TEKNOLOGI PERTANIAN
UNIVERSITAS KATOLIK SOEGIJAPRANATA
SEMARANG

2007
Perpustakaan Unika

RINGKASAN

Beras yang mengandung serat pangan tinggi baik bagi kesehatan. Umumnya harga beras ini
mahal, mencapai 4 kali dari harga beras “Rajalele”. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui
pengaruh perlakuan pemanasan (kukus/ steaming, par boiling dan microwave) pada padi (Oryza
sativa) organik varietas pandan wangi terhadap kandungan amilosa, serat dan proksimat pada
beras setelah digiling/ diselep saja maupun setelah proses pensosohan. Perlakuan pemanasan
pada padi organik (gabah) dapat menyebabkan komponen serat pangan dari kulit ari dapat
berpindah ke bulir beras dan peningkatan temperatur dapat menyebabkan molekul pati bergetar,
ikatan intermolekul terputus, amilopektin menjadi amilosa. Gabah pandan wangi dikukus pada
suhu 100oC dengan berbagai variasi waktu (10, 20 dan 30 menit), dikukus dengan tekanan 1 atm
pada suhu 121oC (par boiled) dengan variasi waktu (10, 20, 30 menit) dan di microwave dengan
variasi waktu (3, 4 dan 5 menit). Lalu gabah digiling menjadi beras dan ada yang disosoh.
Kemudian beras diuji kadar serat pangan totalnya, kandungan amilosa, air, abu, lemak, protein
dan karbohidrat. Hasil uji dari variasi waktu tiap pemanasan akan dibandingkan dengan kontrol
tanpa pemanasan. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa pemanasan par boiling 30 menit
menyebabkan peningkatan tertinggi kadar serat pangan (dari ±16% menjadi 31%) dan kadar
amilosa pada bulir beras, berbeda nyata dari proses yang lain (p<0,05). Hasil pengujian prosimat
menunjukan pemanasan (steamed, par boiled, microwaved) pada gabah dapat meningkatkan
kandungan air (± 1%), lemak (± 0.5%), kandungan mineral (± 0.5%), kandungan karbohidrat (±
4%), dan menurunkan kandungan protein (± 4%) beras selep dan beras sosoh. Hasil pengujian
sensoris nasi menunjukan bahwa nasi dari beras sosoh lebih disukai daripada nasi dari beras
selep.
Perpustakaan Unika

SUMMARY

Special rice with high dietary fiber content is good to human health. Commonly the price of this
rice is expensive, reach out for 4 times Rajalele’s price. This experiment was ordered at knowing
the effect of heat treatment on organic rice “Pandan Wangi” based on the amylose and dietary
fiber content on unpolished rice and polished rice. Heat treatment of organic rice can improve
amylose content and dietary fiber content in the unpolished rice and polished rice. Heat treatment
cause the transfer of fiber compound and some minerals from rice bran to rice grains, and when
the temperature is increased, the starch molecules vibrate more vigorously, breaking
intermolecular bonds, amylopectin become amylose. In this experiment, we gave heat treatment
microwave (3, 4, and 5 minutes), par boiling (10, 20 and 30 minutes) and hot steam 100oC (10,
20 and 30 minutes) to the rice before the rice peeled. Then, we measure the content of amylose,
dietary fiber, water, ash, lipid, protein, and carbohydrate of the peeled rice and polished rice. The
result showed that par boiling 30 minutes gave the highest increased of dietary fiber (from ±16%
become 31%) and amylose content in rice, really deferent with the other process (p<0.05). The
result of proximate testing showed that heating process can increase of water content (± 1%),
ash(± 0.5%), lipid (± 0.5%), and carbohydrate (± 4%) and decrease protein content(± 4%). The
result of rice sensory testing showed that rice and polished rice were more acceptable than rice
and unpolished rice.
Perpustakaan Unika

DAFTAR ISI

Ringkasan ..................................................................................................................... i
Summary.......................................................................................................................ii
Kata Pengantar ........................................................................................................... iii
Daftar Isi ...................................................................................................................... v
Daftar Tabel ............................................................................................................... vii
Daftar Gambar ...........................................................................................................viii
Daftar Lampiran............................................................................................................ix

1. PENDAHULUAN ............................................................................................... 1
1.1 Latar Belakang Penelitian dan Persiapan Sampel ........................................... 1
1.2 Tujuan Penelitian ............................................................................................. 3

2. TINJAUAN PUSTAKA......................................................................................... 4
2.1 Karakteristik dan Manfaat Beras ..................................................................... 4
2.2 Beras Organik ............ .................................................................................. 6
2.3 Beras Kukus (Steamed Rice)..... ...................................................................... 7
2.4 Perlakuan Pemanasan dan Analisa Kandungan Beras ................................... 8

3. MATERI METODA ............................................................................................. 14


3.1 Bahan dan Alat................................................................................................. 14
3.1.1 Bahan ...................................................................................................... 14
3.1.2 Alat ......................................................................................................... 15
3.2 Metoda ........................................................................................................... 15
3.2.1 Penelitian Pendahuluan .......................................................................... 15
3.2.2 Penelitian Utama .................................................................................... 16
3.2.2.1 Persiapan Sampel (gabah) .......................................................... 16
3.2.2.2 Analisa Kadar Amilosa .............................................................. 18
3.2.2.2.1 Pembuatan Kurva Standar ...........................................18
3.2.2.2.2 Penetapan Sampel ....................................................... 18
3.2.2.3 Analisa Serat Pangan Total ....................................................... 19
3.2.2.4 Penentuan Perlakuan Waktu yang Terbaik ................................ 20
3.2.2.5 Analisa Proksimat ..................................................................... 20
3.2.2.5.1 Penentuan Kadar Air .................................................. 20
3.2.2.5.2 Penentuan Kadar Protein.............................................. 20
3.2.2.5.3 Penentuan Kadar Lemak ............................................ 21
3.2.2.5.4 Penentuan Kadar Abu .................................................. 21
3.2.2.6 Analisa Sensoris Nasi ................................................................ 22
3.2.2.7 Analisa Data ............................................................................. 22

4. HASIL PENGAMATAN .................................................................................... 23


4.1 Pengamatan Fisik Beras Pandan Wangi .......................................................... 23
4.2 Hasil Pengujian Amilosa Beras Pandan Wangi ............................................ 27
4.3 Hasil Pengujian Serat Pangan Total Beras Pandan Wangi ............................ 29
Perpustakaan Unika

4.4 Hasil Pengujian Proksimat …………………………………………….......... 31


4.5 Hasil Pengujian Sensoris Nasi ....................................................................... 32

5. PEMBAHASAN ................................................................................................. 35
5.1 Pengujian Kadar Amilosa Beras Pandan Wangi ............................................. 35
5.2 Pengujian Kadar Serat Pangan Total Beras Pandan Wangi............................. 38
5.3 Pengamatan Fisik Beras Pandan Wangi .......................................................... 40
5.4 Pengujian Proksimat Beras Terbaik ............................................................... 41
5.5 Pengujian Sensoris Nasi dari Beras Terbaik .................................................. 45

6. KESIMPULAN DAN SARAN ........................................................................... 47


6.1 Kesimpulan ................................................................................................... 47
6.2 Saran ................................................................................................................ 47

7. DAFTAR PUSTAKA .......................................................................................... 48

8. LAMPIRAN ..........................................................................................................51