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Is ITTO mandatory for PMP? |

Whizlabs Team - May 22nd, 2017 - Project Management - 0 Comments

PMP is most popular certification in the area of Project Management. As its elaborated subject based on
PMBOK (Project Management Body of knowledge), there are many questions on the way PMBOK is written
and what is important for PMP and what is not. PMBOK is comprehensive and also called guide on place of
book as it covers Project Management without boundaries of different industry.

One of its component is Input, output & tools and techniques for different processes in it. Across forums this
question is asked in one or the other manner that Is ITTO mandatory? Do one need to remember it? How many
ITTO questions are asked in PMP? In this article today, we shall try to understand with respect to these
questions on ITTO

PMBOK Structure

PMP exam is a well-structured exam by PMI. It is

based on Knowledge areas and Process groups which
are explained systematically in PMBOK (Project
Management Body of Knowledge) guide.

Full PMBOK is distributed across 47 process which

are horizontally distributed into 10 Knowledge areas
like Scope management, time management, Cost
management etc.. and vertically distributed across 5
Process Groups i.e. Initiation, Planning, Execution,
Monitoring & Controlling and Closing. Exam
questions percentage is also distributed across these
Process Groups as below, summing up to total 100%:

• Initiation 13%
• Planning 24%
• Executing 30%
• Monitoring and Controlling 25%
• Closing 8%

Each of the 47 process is explained in PMBOK with a set of Input, T&T and Output. Above picture also depicts
the same in the form of hierarchy where ITTO is at the core.
ITTO Importance
As we have seen in the last section, ITTO is the core of the subject. Each and every process is defined in terms
of these three components

This makes ITTO very important part of

PMBOK as well as PMP as exam. To
understand the correlation among different
processes and understanding the individual
processes, it’s important to understand its ITTO.
Different surveys and lessons learnt about PMP
says that almost 35-40% of the questions in
exam will rotate around ITTO.

That’s the reason ITTO becomes important two

dimensionally – Understanding as well as exam

ITTO for PMP exam

Preparation for exam is a focused approach and one has to cover all the Knowledge Areas, process Groups and
processes to have good hold on the PMBOK topics. Generally aspirants refer multiple reference guides/books
for PMP and not confined to PMBOK but that is to make the life easy. PMBOK becomes little theoretical at
times and another book in parallel helps in preparation.


ITTO is core as we discussed but what should be the approach to understand/learn/remember ITTO? Is it
mandatory to remember all the ITTO for 47 processes? Answer is big NO

ITTO and the questions related to ITTO in PMP will not test how good you are at cramming the ITTOs of so
many different processes rather it will test whether you understand the need of an ITTO in a particular process.
Options given will look confusing but the approach to answer should be like this:

There will be enough hints to understand three important things about the asked question i.e.

1. What Knowledge Area (KA) this belongs

2. What Process group it belongs
3. What process this question is referring to

Once you are able to drill down to this level the last question will be based on your understanding about ITTO
for that process and little bit thought process on what can be its ITTO being in say ‘X’ knowledge area and ‘Y’
process group

4. What can be the ITTO for this process asked in question

Based on this you should be able to eliminate most of the options which may not belong to identified
Knowledge area or Process Group or Process itself. Remaining options (generally two close options will be left)
are something you need to put your understanding about Process and its ITTO to reach to the final answer you

Things to memorize

• There are few processes which have certain ITTO as distinguishers i.e. these are not common ITTOs and
not shared across many processes. Those will be easy to remember and keep in mind as “trend Setters” as
I name them. You may find certain questions in the exam which test these kind of ITTO knowledge.
• Memorize the ITTO as a common object and not as separate input, output and Tools & techniques. This
will help you in keeping the link among input, output and Tools & techniques active in your mind so that
you can correlate

Data flow diagram

Every process has a data flow diagram in PMBOK which explains the source of inputs it takes and also
destination of the outputs it gives. It’s important to understand this thoroughly and not remembering it
thoroughly. Once you understand it you will be forced to go back forth from source and destination processes
and this exercise will place the right pointers in the mind.

This will make a big web in the mind which will relate many processes with each other. Even if you are not able
to remember much, it’s absolutely fine. Understanding why this input should be coming from a particular
process and output going to a particular process will do half of the job for you. In exam, mind will pop up that
understanding when needed

ITTO is definitely mandatory for PMP but no mandatory for remembering like crazy all the ITTO. Attempt
shouldn’t be to memorize rather understand the interlacing of ITTO among processes. The focus of exam also
not to judge or evaluate the remembrance rather it’s to check on the understanding one has acquired. There is no
shortcut though to PMP without understanding ITTO.

This effort will also help Project Managers when they will try and implement the same in their project for one or
more processes they will be using. As Project Managers or as PMP aspirants, our effort should always be to
make use of our knowledge gained in projects and share the best practices and lessons learnt to the Project
Management community.