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Chapter $ | ‘The Hydrologic Cycle SA. Water, Essential to Climate and Life Water comimually noes between the oceans, the stmospere the crosphere. and the lan, The ttl amount of water on Eth ein effectively conan on ime scales of thousands of years Dt i changes state Betws is Iss. and neous forms as t moves tragh he hydrologic system, The movement of wate song the reservoie f ocean, ater, a ad sealed the hydrologic cele The amount of water moved though the Rydlogic eck every year sequal sou em dep of lig water spread uniformly ove the srface of Eat Tis amount of water mull enters he atmosphere hough evapesion andres 1 {he surface 2 recipon To evaporate mf wate in year ees an nage energy input of 80 W The an provides the energy ncesay to evap wer fom te surface. Once within he atmosphere, water vapor cube tansprted hr tally for ret dstnces and moved upward. This hrzonal and ver nn en of water vapor sei to he water lnc of and ae, ince about oe Utd the precipitation that fats om the land afeas of Earths water tha ss ‘evaporated fom ceean areas and then vanspred othe ln in the atspher (ig. 5:1). Theexcess of precipi over evaporation a aeas apport he ‘ur of wate fom the nd to the ean in sve ‘The atmosphere contains eave small moan of wate (ables 5) and 1.2) {Walle water apr inthe atophere were conden ou an spread evenly over the surface of arth, would only abou 25cm dee. Since 100 cm of wate isevaorated and condensed per an, the staph wate is emoved by pe ‘iptton about 40 ames a yea. every 9 days. Baca mt vapation sa sal ‘esa of a more apd two-way exchange of wales molecules aero the sitar erie, the actu residence ime of water molecules inthe mop sab 3 ays. Since nearly ak dep of water pesent ner the surface of Eth mo Of whic inthe oceans. and oly 2' em ean reside inthe atnsphee, an average ater molecule must wait avery long tine inthe ocean nan ce sees lash aque, between trie excursion in the amore neater chapters we sa he important ol of warn many aspects of he li ‘mae system, Wate serail tlie andthe existence of eats on Earth has a ‘matically influenced the charcier and evolution of Earths atmosphere. Chemical 165 Mette cae WORLD WATER BALANCE Stott war prt omen erate a ‘Erin ee sina teas Tee ne ovo ee Sa Te Vutermaane 17 and biological processes that take place in the oceans continue to seule atmo- Sphere compostion. Inthe cutentamospher, wate spor the ios npr scot absorber of solr and tees ation and account for ab lof the ‘moiphere’s natural preenbouse effet. Clos of gull water and ie conta shout 30% ofthe atmospheres natural opacity to thermal radiation and cota ‘shou half of Ean’ reteuvityfor sla ration, The evapora of water fom anys surface accounts for about hal ofthe cooling of the sure ta balances the eating by absorption ofslaradation. As the water vapor ise int the atmosphere itevenully condenses and precipitates, bu he eer released during the conde sation of atmospheric water vapor helps o dive te circlation sytem ofthe at mosphere. Waer ean ater the surface sedo of Earth though te deposition of ‘Snow ad ice aby Tsering he development of vegetative cover on la suas, 52°The Water Balance “To understand ov local climates are maesine is nsrctive to comider the vate but forthe sac. nde o model th clint, he surface mate balance sus be accurately pesca, The srfce water tlance may be writen fe =PHD- B= om here fy is the storage of water at and Below the surface, Ps the pesipitton by ruin an snow. D isthe surface eaadensation(defl orfst) i heevepta Spin nd eth rant “Averaged over Tong period of tine, the sloage to is sal. Also, dewfl is ‘sully smal or can be incorpo ino a generalized pecptation, The resling hyologc balance fora long tem averages af=PHk 62) ‘complementary balance forthe mosphere must als bests, Precipitation nis evaporation the et a of war fm the atmosphere othe sae ane urs with oppose signin the atmospheric mae balance Bas =—(P+D-E)-Af, 63) Te ems have the sume meaning asin (5.1, eC hat fy dies storage of ‘ater inthe atmosphere and A, sees orizonal expt of water by atmosphere motions rim nthe form of water vapo. Adding the Bods fo he surface (5.) and the atmosphere (3.3, meats wae balance fer the Earth atmosphere "stem in which he exchange of water sr the srface des na peat. fetta == -M 6 ‘When averaged over yea the sorage ers onthe ef of 54 ar gene sal andthe horton anspor of water ot os egan by the ampere must equ 185 Ted ce 62 Laan can el nd alas, wing pin Fp {opposite toe net hoz anspor how the surface This eas that water amied 0 continents by atmosphere anspor rast aul the rao fom rivers. The dsuton with tae ofthe ems ia the analy averaged sce water telance wre shown in i. 3.2. Precipitation peaks near he equate, wth secondary ‘maxima in mide aitaes of each Remispete. The equator maximum i as sed with heavy precipitation ine interop convergence zone, Mosse len Sir near he surace Now ward the equator rom bath hemispheres and covers ear the equator, wher is eleased ia thunderstorms, topic cylones, ad ter Frccpation producing weather systems (Fp 53). The secondary masa in mid Toutes ofeach hemsapere ae asocited withthe wether systems of that eon Ines Tats eyeonicdisurances wi og wind drive veri mins hat release water. Evaporation varies more smoothly th pectin, wth abroad ‘maximum inthe tpi. Preipitationexceds evaporation i th egoatoril elt and ‘gain in mide o high ates. Evapaion exceeds recipttion i th bet om Sto depres aitude sd thew regions expo wae apo a be condensed in the aitaes where he precipitation maaima oc. The rn dsb shown Fig. 52 implies anspor of wate apo inthe atmosphere rth srs othe equatorial and hgh nitude zones. fet Dow ia the oceans or ier cas water ak oward the sbeopis, The water balances ofthe continents and oceans ar closely relate other aes ad the proceses tat mai climate (Table 32. The Alani nd Ind (Ocean ate net exporter of water vapor, whereas the Pace and Artic Ova re ‘eve more water inthe fom of preeipiation than they give up tothe staph though evaporation. Compara of te surface slimy ofthe Ant and Pie ‘Oceans shows a much hgh salty ia the noth Aumann the north Paci. ‘Te surface hyolapichlance ofthe oceans plays an moral in determining ‘hoist and theres the dep creation the oceans The sline surface wer ‘ofthe Aaic sa ey factor for allowing Surface water sink othe btm ofthe 120s Teta te ‘ocean, spe salinity is a portant arial in determining seawater density, espe aly i ih ste "The runoff ratio, AP. 63 measere of he wetes of continent Hit is lage ten significa fraction ofthe precipitation that als on tat contin ows ito the occa, ate han Being evaporated over he land. The dy sonnet of Aca and Austral ave relatively ow rao ratios. Type. abot 40% ofthe previ {ston ona continent rans back to the soba ocean in rivers The evapation fm the surface ofa canines typically 0 ofthe prsiptation tha fale om that cn 5.3 Sorface Water Storage Runott ‘The storage er in (5.1) acount for changes inthe amount of wate ths retaned inthe surface. Ove land sea hie ices the warn the ne surface sl and also water that fows deeper and becomes pat of underground wate system, An ‘atonal important frm water storage race som cover isn! seasons ‘recitation and dying ae» prominent etre of the lat aman ren Foe ‘ch repions, storage of water nthe oad in sowpack ere for determining ‘he mat of the environment tat develops ding the dy see, In any milla tude regions mountain spowpack is essential fr sping and simmer ter Bo ad Tower elevations sping soowmtt lps o replenish sil mote and groan ‘enter for the summer de season. The combination of mois sel in spingel lowe by summer warmth and sunshine makes many mite and arts rica ‘wally reductive. Storage of precipitated water sqowpack depen only on he Surface thermodynamic nd physi stricture. Stra of wate hat aes a the surface as rainfall depends of the Fequeney and intensity o the Pecption aed the characteris fhe sols vegetative cove, andthe topography ofthe sera, ‘Climate rts only with wae that on the surface e inthe Sl eat one ‘The soi water zone extends downward w the dep pens hy te sats f the ‘segetation Plant can daw water rom tis depth ltl uichly and ecase io the mosphere by tanspiraron though kaves Because roots of pans can dr rmostre from the soi more quickly than wate is brought the Surface by non ological processes, vegetated srfars normally eee water more quickly the _stmosper thn does bes with he sare wate content Depending on the Con ons, one may eed to considera lye exper than the rot nein one red Surface moisture and evapatanspiaton. Move sored deeper i thes than ‘he out zone mast be brovet wpa by difeson o capa action. Transport ‘tough he sin to gud and vps fori pow, ‘Wate is suspended inthe soil by adherence fo sil partic in thin films The mount of water hat ean be Bel inthis manner calles the flea he ei. ehe soil water content inereaen sve the fd caput then pavttna oes ‘ay the water downward othe wate ble, where it becomes pat othe ound 54 Pepin Deval 121 Water fh water encounters an impermeable obit sa as bed, he it ay ‘ow Interaly. seeking lower presse. Gradual cilton of war in sobre "serious inne formation of aur rom which freshwater cane exacted ‘The mos balance of he slayer an he average soll motu coment ae ‘tia ote local climate of and areas. The water nhs zone lable foe by ans and canbe wanted or evaporated. The slayer and asociaed ve pean determine the fate of recipitted water, which may be quclyreevapre, sorbed he sor run ff in steam low The taster of srface water he sis ale infiatin. The faton of precipitation thai retain bythe os dete, ‘ined oi an vegcaton properties ad bythe rata ewer of peipatin te surface sii saturated and the reiptaon or sown ore than can be alanecd! by inflation and evapraton, then ssface ponding wl ‘secu Once the surface depressions inthe soi are led with wate te Stace watt wl epi flow erally towad reams an desinage stems, Water rn fo land areas in streams ad ives is important Tor navigation, heres. ower generation, inition of ry land ares, nd uncial water supplies, 'S4 Precipitation and Dew Precipitation produced when ar parcels become sper with water vapor, ondensation and droplet formation osu an the droplets or parce ea ie sr face without wevaporaton. Superstrtion is onmaly cashed by coling of ir Parcels ding scent. Ascent of ai paces can he forced by atmospheric meio ‘sociated with mide fomal and synoptic weather system. Inthe pcs nd ‘ove continents dorng surmes, ace, condensation, an peiitation a fen sociated with convective sat where parcels sae fred upwand by by ny in cumulonimbus clos ln setiform cloud systems ligt bt ey reps lation f generated though he ait cooting of he tops ofthe clouds an stay ‘overtuing of moist air fom beneath Heavy and persist preiptaton ay rst ‘when mois ari forced over mountain ranges ty Preval winds “Te gegrphie diibutionofprecipaton is shown in Fig The general fes tures ofthe sona-verage precipitation a Fig 5.2 ar apparent, withthe age pe ‘iptaton nea the equate whee the average wer coment ithe as igh nd tnpical convective systems are espns or moch ofthe rainfall In he stop Jes convection and precipitation ae suppressed by the downward mean st muses ‘hat characteris this tepion. In these latitudes pespttion sat a minima, ba high surace insolation and subsidence of dry ar ive rie to very song evapora ton, In midatitdes precipitation iceass again besuse of mila Synoptic ‘storm systems. The reed ascent of mot srface sin milatude weather yeas ‘nthe westerly low ovr obstacles such the Rocky Mountains ie ne heat) Precipitation, In the polar regions precipitation decreases The etic hydlog {el is lowed down in por regions because ofthe low temperatures ad conse uel low watercarying aps ofthe atmosphere 1225 Tet Cee Fe.4_ Gepost fom men cpm nm (Ate S98 Reine sift Non Cro rs Recah ‘When air comes into contact with a cold surface, wsully on relatively clear rigs, water vapor may condense dire onto he sutace frm dw. Vapor ix, from te soi may also bean mporantconibur tote accumulation a em, espe lly fight hen the uelyng Soi maybe warmer than the serface. Del Signin conor othe surtace water blances in sre aid lias, Di cerally small a lrped togeter wih he psp, Foe droplets tha eto “mal to precip can be collected frm the ar bythe leaves or news of plant. Isom climates such “combing of igus wate or thea san imporant mech ism eed plans ovata moist. 55 Braporat and Transpiration Evapiranpiraion the removal of wate fom te sua to he a wih a “ompanying chang phase om the liu the vapor Form she sam of evap ‘rater and anspration. Evaporation refers to det evaporation of wate rm he Surface isl. Transprarion is he passage of water fom plant the atmosphere hah et pores called somata which alo serve asthe point of ny for crbon iorde reqaed for photsyness Water i absorbed fom the soil and eared Thr he roots and ems of plans othe leaves, wher ecapes as water vapor Stata sooally close at nah and open daring he da. but they may also close a ry in response t high femperteres, temporary water deo high erbon ‘ide concentrations. The dflences between evaporation and anpiaion ate important, bts if to separate te effec ofthe two provese in ratio, 50 "hey ae generally ade foema single term in water budgets Evapatrspraion Ima als nce slimation, which refers to he des conversion of ow’ and ce toate vapor, without an termediate igi pase Evaporation from a wet surface x determined by the sce tension atthe i= eter nerfce andthe ae of decrease of water vapor concentration between the 55 opr a Trampitin 123 ter surface an the adjacent ai The ete t which te wer vapor concentration ‘ngs wit stance rom a water surface depen the molecu ts and "he vention ofthe inert wae sure by ur motos. Noma tule sir motions are of peimary importance fr crying wie vapor away ta race ‘an dominate in determining gradiens on sels larger ta» fw mlimeters The Jmeraction of surface water waves with amospberietarbelence can ence the ‘ate of evaporation over the oceans. Over land the stile of the surface and the vegetation covering ican hive sani effect om the ate of evaporation ‘The colton of vegetable mater covering the land saci called the plat ‘canopy, which maybe as thin a ayer of moss thik al foes Pant canopies have importa effets the wae nd ener) balances of he t= {ce Some ofthese flees ae ilusuaed in Fig. 53, Pepa that fly on lant canopy canbe imereped by leaves and se ofall dels the so wa cr STs Me $5 Dugan ovine he ec fe ei ayo he er nd ey te ean lint, © aes Cope Unc 124 § Tete Cee Water ha falls oo the eaves can be evaporated om the leaveso pt the sr face. Inception of precipitation hy eaves and evipton fom eas can pet ‘decree rn the anal is ot oo inne na he ai elavely dry. The lea strscture ofa plant presents 2 mh larger race area on which evportion ‘an take plae than he ground surface alone The energy blah eves also ‘of imporance, ince dtennines how ply water canbe evaporate. The sr ture and arangeret of aves and tranches fest the absorption of le adaton, {heemision of longwave radiation, andthe veation othe surface by at motion ‘Aprameter often sed to characterize plan canopies ithe le area index (LAD It is defined as the ato of he area of he top sds Fal teens in the canopy {ted om a ar surface 1 the re ofthe ufc der he canopy” Ie the umber of leaves tat would be crossed by a Vrical e psig tough the anop.on average. 55.1 Mensrement of Evapotrenspiaion "Evaptranspiraion can be estimated in vary of ways. One ofthe most acute smethodsis by weighing the moist chang inthe sol and its vegetatie cover witha device called imeter A lysameter isa container of eset balance or provided ‘vith some other means of measuring water comment To obtain acura Yes’, the Iysimeter must be lrge enough o contain he sil wa one and anole vege hon The simetr should beset inalage environment where the src conditions ne similar to those unde investigation if sus representative of he natal en ronment are dese, Forexample, jsnte coining dept growing rast and ‘oileante burton large gras filo hat the grass inthe sneer experiences ‘ely the same conditions asthe adjacent grass ouside the Ismet Fr envio ‘mens where the vegetation is le and hs substantia ot store suchas for fst the consreton of a ysimeter or even single we Is consiceble challenge ‘Evapovanspiation can also be estimated by measuring the Runes of moire aay fm the stacey aking silaneoos measurements of etal eos and humidity, Because the moisture is earsed upward by turbulent mations, the device ed 0 measure wind and humity Huctustions mut espond on the timescale of seconds Is aso a challenge to obtain represeutiv spatial an empral means, parca fhe surface characteristics re spatially nomngeous. ‘An atemtiveo direct measurement of evaptranspiation toner its a resi alin the energy lance, ithe oe emis inte energy blanc cn be messed Reananging (1) 1 solve forthe evaporation rate el ela, -sh-at-0} 63 ‘Wen the surlace is mois the et radiation and he evaporation are the largest tems inthe surface energy balance (ce Chapter 4) so tat an acute measure 55 Epona ad Tampon 125 ‘ment ofthe et adation and approximations tothe he em in the srace en tray balance wil provide ago estimate of evaptransiratio, Radiation can be measured very accurately and over long pei wih eaivel expensive sts Imenaton, an! most weather stations have a device for meusuting isolation, Set Sle heat ions ean be esimated from blk erodynamc forulas if measurements ‘of mean wind sped abd temperature a two level are aisle, Measoremens of Temperature prails inthe sil or water can Be used To extimate energy rage ‘elon te sara 55.2 Evaporation from Wet Surface Penman (1948) derived method of eaculiing the evaporation fron wet sfaces th minima input dat. The Bowen ra isthe rato of sensible o Latent race ‘ergy Sut. I'ma be estimated by wing the bulk aerodynamic formals (426) man, SH _¢p (i -Ta) pecs 0 te Cea) “oo Nee we hve asm a he ear concen ores a mi te area Ihe surfs as stra adhe utc sere a {Epes are too feet we ma make lowing pronation (eine) a amt) * ar whee isthe stron ming et of wer ap, Using (3.7 in (3 ad the ‘ssompion at he suas sated, ne oan (3) os where Bis the equim Bowen aio defied i (4.3). shou be noted that the Use ofthe Bowen aio can be problematical in the presence of tempera aver ‘Sons the denainator in (5.7) seat 2. "The surac energy balance (5.5) may he rewrite E (1B) Ea 69 on where (Rahs) 10) ay isthe evaporation rate necessary to balance the enegy soppy to the su face by radian, hozonal Rx sow the surface, and storage, Subtiuing (for the Bowen tion ($9) yiekls (ea) (a =a.) Using the bulk serodjnamie formulas, the evaporation may be eliminate from the secon tem onthe rip in (S11) 40! a expression forthe evaporation fom fet sac, which is ofen called Penman’ equation F(R )= Beg HEB sy 1 2, fe 12) ay Tay ‘ “Te evaporating capac the ais dered by FarnP Con (i —a)=P Coe Uae (RH) 8) and depends on the rai humidity ofthe ait, RH, as wel a the i temperate fin wind pel “The advantage of (5.12) that mesurements of stospheic variables at only ‘ne level te equ. Over land sees the horizontal anspor tr 7, td forte sales oa month or longs th storage term can also be ignored soho ‘measurements of the et faaon air tenpeatue, specie humid apd wind ‘syed tone level re ered to evaluate evaporation. The Penman eqtion S12) tlh shows the relative res oat humidity a avaiable radiation a dving evap fraton vera wet siface. AC igh temperatures the eau Bowen rao fs ‘mal an evaporation mol dependent on walle ener. As the xiii Bowen rato tecomes smal the evaporation rte approaches value necessary to Talance the energy input to the sac. This occurs at emperaties grater thn shout °C, Ar ler temperate, and consequently higher gular Bowen tos the evaporation ate s move dependent the supply of unstated amos Dhoni ir At ements near or below frecrng the egitim Bowen ais Tage and he evaporation s dependent primary the drying capacity he aie 553. Potential Evaporation Evapoanspzation i constrained by the surface water supply the energy’ availabe to provide the tet heat of vapaization, ah the by ofthe surface a accom rede water vapor. The pote evsporaton i ined asthe ate of evapora Spin that would curd surface mas wet, ad i therefore the maximum pos sie evaptranspiation forthe prevailing atmospheric condition. messes the ‘et of energy supply and sir amity on the evapunspiran rite and aids the more iit ae of ol moist aay andthe physiological processes in plants that ring moisture from the ol othe stmoxpere I the poeta evapo raion exceeds the stl evaptranspiaion, hen 4 messed xis, and One Ima infer ry Surface. Pte etaporation can be clued using a vay of 56 Modengthe Land Sure Wate Raace 127 heoeial and epic ectigues. One meth would he oll from en Ima’s equation, wtih relies the evaporation fom 4 wet surface to wet raitve heating and mean temperature, humid and wind sped at oe veh 56 Modeling the Land Surface Water Balance ‘The water balance ofthe surface i itimately coupled with the surface energy ce, Overwater surics the jin enetzy~ water alse problem x spl te use the aia the surface ea always be asamed fo be saturate soaps {nd etva of water rom Below he surtac is at a se. Over an sae the heat and water Blanes ae vey seve othe amount of water below the sree faith ate at which it canbe trove to he suface and evaporated transpired ‘though plants. Transition tough pas is dependent ot simpy onthe si ‘moist and mosphere condition, bt ho om he physical seo the plant S61 The Bucket Model of Land Hydrology ‘The simplest model forthe soit water badge isthe bucket mal, The si is sumed io have fied capaci o Sore watt hats avaible for evapotranpiration The rate of change ofthe mas water inthe sol er ites, etermine by the rainfall rate. theevaptaneprion ate, te meting of sw Mand the rot at a, a ah cotton ee, ony oy he = BM, ‘The amount of avaiable water inthe soil can be exes as an equivalent depth ‘ng. using a tadard water density pI he back mode, thes sued 10 havea ted capacity o sore moisture, corespading Wan cuvaen water dep, ‘which woud type e about 5c the oil mst equals th capac of the si hee the so sted to be strated Ith su of nal pls snowmelt ‘needs evaporation when thesis saturated, then ran rate ast suet 0 ep the sol sutured i predic “Tocomplete the sil msture balance modelo regions with snowfall, separate tug For stowcover muse ened. I precipitation oceurs When the sare tem perature is below feezing it can be assumed to esl srfacesnoweover TE Sowcover can be measred in terms of its weer mass tun aes wor an eu lent depth of water. ae. ah Me ap, Men is) 185 Tessa se “The maximum carving capt ofthe ste fr snow oes determine bythe Ira fw oie sheets and des na tecome a actor ul the cei several ade es thick Snowcovers removed By aubimation, Ey, or meng, The sow overlies on tp ofthe si and oes at enter ino thes stare lance ules it mets, Ming oceurs when the sac temperate ses to the rea point of eter. The latent et of fsion must be supp to the surface energy alae hen ‘meng occurs Meng cots a th te ncesay to kep the sre trope, ‘wre from rising above O°€ unl the temperate falls Below ering the sow. cover completely removed, “The rte of evaporation depends onthe sil moist, The soi moisture ean be ‘sed to eae the ata evapration othe peal evo: the evaporation that would ocur ifthe srace were wet Hf msasrements fat homily it em erature. wind sped. ad srface temperature are avilable, che bulk needa Fecmula can be sed to clclate potent exapratin. PE =P, Cop U (aT) -au) 610) Wisin tao eva (5.16) ate vale, ten ater approximate fe rl ean Be wd estate Pe “The ata evaporation may be rela othe pei evaporation nd the soil mostar conten. ofp PE 17) ealthysegtton may transpire atthe rat of potential evapration. ven when the sol so saturated Whe the soit stuf elo ace eve the eae tation wil wo lenge transpie at he pte ras orl sure aaa ess than its simpest to asume that saves lineal Between eo si one 10, hy 2h, { Pel check 18) “The siple bucket motel enemy he brat yang a deep ye ate hangs wae withthe yer ert ow depending on te le stron OF the two Iyer. This lows he so wae one toh eles with mote frm teow witou he ccrense of ptt. nts cosa aoa get ation forthe dep ayer gue a ter deere she exch wih he