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Nutrition is the study of food, including (1) how food nourishes our bodies and (2) how food influences
our health. Nutrition is a relatively new discipline of science. Nutrition contributes to wellness.

Wellness is the absence of disease. Wellness involves physical, emotional and spiritual health. The
critical components of wellness are: (1) nutrition and (2) physical activity.

Nutrition can prevent disease.

 Nutrient deficiency diseases include scurvy, goiter and rickets.

 Diseases influenced by nutrition include chronic diseases, such as heart disease.
 Diseases in which nutrition plays a role include osteoarthritis, osteoporosis.

Nutrition is so important it has become a national goal as stated in the goals of Healthy People 2010.

 Increase quality and years of healthy life.

 Eliminate health disparities.

Nutrients are the chemicals in foods that are critical to human growth and function. Nutrients include
carbohydrates, fats/oils, proteins, minerals, vitamins and water.

 Macronutrients are those nutrients required in relatively large amounts. Provide energy to our
bodies. Include the carbohydrates, fats/oils and proteins.

 Micronutrients are those nutrients required in smaller amounts. Include the vitamins and

Energy is measured as kilocalories (kcal). The term kilocalorie represents the amount of energy
required to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1’C. On food labels, “calorie” actually refers to

Carbohydrates: Primary source of fuel for the body, especially for the brain. Provide 4 kcal per gram.
Carbohydrates are found in grains (wheat, rice), vegetables, fruits and legumes.

Lipids (Fats and Oils): Fats and oils are composed of lipids, which are molecules that are insoluble in
water. Provide 7 kcal per gram. Lipids are an important energy source during rest or low intensity
exercise. They are found in butter, margarine and vegetable oils.

Proteins: Proteins are chains of amino acids. Proteins can supply 4 kcal of energy per gram, but are not
a primary energy source. Proteins are an important source of nitrogen. Proteins are important for (1)
building cells and tissues, (2) maintaining bones, (3) repairing damage and (4) regulating metabolism.
Protein sources include meats, dairy products, seeds, nuts and legumes.

Vitamins: Organic molecules that assist in regulating body processes. Vitamins are micronutrients that
do not supply energy to our bodies. There are: (1) fat-soluble vitamins and (2) water-soluble vitamins.
Vitamins are organic molecules that assist in regulating body processes. Vitamins are micronutrients
that do not supply energy to our bodies.

 Fat-soluble vitamins: vitamins A, D, E and K. They dissolve easily in fats and oils. Fat-soluble
vitamins can be stored in the body.

 Water-soluble vitamins: vitamin C and the B vitamins. These vitamins remain dissolved in water.
Excess water-soluble vitamins are eliminated by the kidneys and cannot be effectively stored in
our bodies.

Minerals: Minerals are inorganic substances required for body processes. Minerals include sodium,
calcium, iron, potassium, and magnesium. Minerals have many different functions such as fluid
regulation, bone structure, muscle movement and nerve function. Our bodies require at least 100 mg
per day of the major minerals such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium and chloride.
We require less than 100 mg per day of the trace minerals such as iron, zinc, copper, iodine and

Water: Water is a critical nutrient for health and survival. Water is involved in many body processes
such as fluid balance, nutrient transport, nerve impulses, removal of wastes, muscle contractions and
chemical reactions.

Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI’s) are updated nutritional standards. Expand on the traditional RDA
values. Set standards for nutrients that do not have RDA values. DRI’s consist of 4 values:

1. Estimated Average Requirement (EAR)

2. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA)
3. Adequate Intake (AI)
4. Tolerable Upper-Intake Level (UL)

Estimated Energy Requirement (EER)

 Average dietary energy intake (kcal) to maintain energy balance.

 Based on age, gender, weight, height and level of physical activity.

Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDR)

 Describes the portion of the energy intake that should come from each macronutrient.