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Submitted By: Supervised By:

Neha Yadav Dr. Archana Shukla

M.A. Applied Psychology (2016-2018) Director of AIBAS

2nd semester


This is to certify that the scientific research paper titled “Internet addiction and impulsivity” has
UNIVERSITY, HARYANA, for partial fulfillment of the degree Masters in Applied Psychology
has been conducted by Ms. Neha Yadav, a student of AIBAS, under my supervision and no part
of this research paper has been submitted to any other degree or diploma to the best of my


Prof. Dr. Archana Shukla

Director AIBAS



I take this opportunity to express my profound gratitude and deep regards to my research
supervisor head and director of AIBAS Prof. Dr. Archana Shukla for his precious guidance,
mentoring, and encouragement throughout the research process, and without her assistance this
paper would have never been accomplished. I would like to thank you for your understanding
and support in the past four months.

I would also like to extend my gratitude to the Head of the Department Prof. Dr. Rishipal Anand,
their dedicated involvement in every step throughout this research paper process.

I would like to show deep gratification to Prof. Dr. Hitashi Lomash for providing fruitful
knowledge, thoughtful comments and suggestions to all its students, which enables us today to
write this research paper.

I would like to be very grateful to the professors of the entire AIBAS department for giving me
this opportunity.

I would also like to express my sincere thanks and deep appreciation Amity University for
valuable information, guidance and support which helped me to complete my research study. I
feel very proud today that I am able to complete this study.

I would also like to thank Amity University students who cooperated with me and helped in data

I would lastly thank my parents, sister and friends for their constant, support, involvement and
Table of Content

Chapter 1: Introduction

 Internet Addiction

 Impulsivity

Chapter 2: Review of literature

Chapter 3: Methodology

 Sampling Technique

 Sample

 Research Design

 Tools Used

 Procedure

 Statistical Analysis

 Hypothesis

Chapter 4: Analysis of Data

Chapter 5: Discussion and Conclusion

Chapter 6: Implications

Chapter 7: Limitations

Chapter 8: References

Chapter 9: Appendix

TITLE: Internet Addiction and Impulsivity


The purpose of this research study is to find a relationship between internet addiction and
impulsivity among college students. Internet is one of the transformational technologies having
marvelous impact on psychosocial life. However, internet is becoming addictive which is the
condition of being compulsively occupied with or involved in something. Internet addiction may
lead to impulsive behavior, which is a swift action without forethought or conscious judgment.
The sample is carried out in Amity University. For this research study, 104 participants, college
going students, both male and female were assessed on Internet Addiction Test and Barratt
Impulsiveness Scale. The statistical analysis The age of college going students ranked from 18
to 25 years. In this research there was no significant correlation found between these two

Keywords: internet addiction; impulsivity; college students


Internet Addiction-
Internet addiction is described as an impulse control disorder, which does not involve use of an
intoxicating drug and is very similar to pathological gambling. Some internet users may develop
an emotional attachment to online friends and activities they create on their computer screens.
Internet users may enjoy aspects of the internet that allow them to meet, socialize, and exchange
ideas through the use of chat rooms, social networking websites, or virtual communities. Other
internet users spend endless hours researching topics of interest online or blogging. Blogging is a
contraction of the term web log, in which an individual will post commentaries and keep regular
chronicle of events. It can be viewed as journaling and the entries are primarily textual.

Similar to other addictions, those suffering from internet addiction use the virtual fantasy world
to connect with real people through the internet, as a substitution for real- life human connection,
which they are unable to achieve normally.

Different Types of Internet Addiction-

An addiction to the internet can come in various forms. Most of the time, internet addiction is
characterized by the activity that an individual is taking part in while they are online such as
shopping, socializing or gaming. Internet addiction includes-

i. Net Compulsions- this includes compulsive gambling, gaming, shopping, trading stocks
or other obsessive use of the internet that interferes with your work or home,
relationships or financial well- being.

ii. Cybersex Addiction- compulsive use of the internet to take part in adult chat rooms,
fantasy role playing sites, or to watch internet pornography.

iii. Cyber- Relationship Addiction- taking part in social networks, chat rooms and virtual
messaging online to a point in which these online relationships mean more than real- life
relationships with friends or family members.

iv. General Computer Addiction- obsessively playing on the computer, not necessarily
online. This may include playing games such as solitaire or programming a computer

v. Compulsive Web Surfing- obsessively surfing the web or a database to a point in which
you take time from your friends, family members or regular daytime tasks at work or
The Warning Signs of Internet Addiction-
i. Preoccupation with the internet. (Thoughts about previous online activity or anticipation
of the next online session).
ii. Use of the internet is increasing amounts of time in order to achieve satisfaction.
iii. Repeated, unsuccessful efforts to control or cut back or stop internet use.
iv. Feeling of restlessness, moodiness, depression, or irritability when attempting to cut
down use of the internet.
v. Online longer than originally intended.
vi. Jeopardized or risked loss of significant relationships, job, educational or career
opportunities because of internet use.
vii. Lies to family members, therapists, or others to conceal the extent of involvement with
the internet.
viii. Use of the internet is a way to escape from problems or to relieve a mood. (Example-
feelings of hopelessness, guilt, anxiety, depression.)

Symptoms of Internet Addiction-

An addiction to the internet is manifested in both physical and emotional symptoms, these
specifics may vary for each person.

1. Emotional Symptoms of Internet Addiction- The following symptoms are typical of

internet addiction are-

i. Feelings of guilt
ii. Anxiety
iii. Depression
iv. Dishonesty
v. Euphoric feelings when in front of the computer
vi. Unable to keep schedules
vii. No sense of time
viii. Isolation
ix. Defensiveness
x. Avoiding doing work
xi. Agitation

2. Physical Symptoms of Internet Addiction- The following symptoms are characteristic

of someone who uses the internet for a very long period of time-
i. Backache
ii. Headaches
iii. Weight gain or weight loss
iv. Disturbances in sleep
v. Carpal tunnel syndrome
vi. Blurred or strained vision

Causes of Internet Addiction-

People become addicted to the internet for a number of different reasons. Most of the time, the
urge to compulsive use the internet is the result of a desire to manage unpleasant feeling such as
depression, anxiety, stress or loneliness. Some feel socially inept in the real world and turn to
social media interaction as a means of feeling close to people, while others may lose themselves
online in an effort to temporarily feel better. Unfortunately, the internet, when used
compulsively, can lead to many consequences. Some causes of internet addiction include-

i. Self- medication for a mental health disorder. Many people use the internet to mask
anxiety, depression, or other mental illness.

ii. Information addicts. Some people have an intense hunger for knowledge and the
internet provides immediate access to tons of information that can be very attractive for
information addicts.

iii. Anxiety or social disorders. Some people have anxiety when they are face to face with
people or suffer from other social disorders that make it difficult for them to interact in
real life but easier to interact online.

iv. Loneliness. Many people, especially those who do not have a companion, internet online
to fulfill avoid that causes them to feel lonely.

v. Shifting from a real world addiction. Many people who suffer from a real world
addiction to shopping or gambling will shift their addictions to an online version such as
internet gambling or excessive shopping online.

The Effects of Internet Addiction-

Internet addiction results in personal, family, academic, financial, and occupational problems
that are characteristic of other addictions. Impairments of real life relationships are disrupted as a
result of excessive use of the internet. Individuals suffering from internet addiction spend more
time in solitary seclusion, spend less time with real people in their lives, and are often viewed as
socially awkward. Arguments may result due to the volume of time spent online. Those suffering
from internet addiction may attempt to conceal the amount of time spent online, which results in
distrust and the disturbance of quality in once stable relationships.
Some suffering from internet addiction may create online person as or profiles where they are
able to alter their identities and pretend to be someone other than himself or herself. Those at
highest risk for creation of a secret life are those who suffer from low self-esteem feelings of
inadequacy, and fear of disapproval. Such negative self- concepts lead to clinical problems of
depression and anxiety.

Many persons who attempt to quit their internet use experience withdrawal including anger,
depression, relief, mood swings, anxiety, fear irritability, sadness, loneliness, boredom,
restlessness, procrastination, and upset stomach. Being addicted to the internet can also cause
physical discomfort or medical problems such as: Carpal Tunnel syndrome, dry eyes, backaches,
severe headaches, eating irregularities, (such as skipping meals), failure to attend to personal
hygiene, and sleep disturbance.

Impulsivity has been defined as behavior or without adequate thought, the tendency to act with
less forethought than do most individuals of equal ability and knowledge, or a predisposition
toward rapid unplanned reactions to internal or external stimuli without regard to the negative
consequences of these reactions. Impulsive individuals tend to act without forethought. They
may react rapidly and without planning, often without regard to the consequences on themselves
or others.

Some examples of impulsive behaviors include-

i. Engaging in dangerous activities without considering possible consequences.

ii. Difficulty waiting turns.
iii. Calling out in class.
iv. Intruding in on or interrupting conversation or games.
v. Blurting out answers before questions have been completed.

Some common forms of impulse control behavior-

i. Kleptomania is an uncontrollable, repetitive impulse to steal, even though the child is

aware that the behavior is wrong, senseless. Often, the items stolen by someone with
kleptomania are not even things that the person needs.

ii. Pyromania is the deliberate and purposeful act of setting things on fire in order to
receive instant gratification or as an attempt to relieve tension. Pyromania is dissimilar to
arson, which involves the pursuit of personal, monetary, or other gain.
iii. Compulsive sexual behavior is excessive or uncontrollable thoughts or behaviors
revolving around sexual activities. This can include things such as excessive use of
pornography, excessive masturbation, promiscuity, exhibitionism, voyeurism, fetishes
that becomes so powerful that it begins to negatively impact the individual’s life.

iv. Intermittent explosive disorder which involves recurrent behavioral outbursts that
represents a person’s inability to control aggressive impulses.

Symptoms of impulse control behavior-

The following are some examples of different behavioral, physical, cognitive, and psychosocial
symptoms that may be present in an adult suffering from an impulse control behavior-

1) Behavioral Symptoms-
i. Aggression
ii. Acting out in risky sexual behaviors
iii. Stealing
iv. Playing with fire
v. Lying

2) Physical Symptoms-
i. The presence of STDs in adolescents who are participating in risky sexual
ii. Burns on the skin of children and adolescents who experiment or play with fire
iii. Injuries resulting from physical fights

3) Cognitive Symptoms-
i. Agitation
ii. Irritability
iii. Lack of patience
iv. Difficulty concentrating
v. Obsessive and intrusive thoughts

4) Psychosocial Symptoms-
i. Low self- esteem
ii. Social isolation
iii. Brief periods of emotional detachment
iv. Depression
v. Increased levels of anxiety
Causes and Risk Factors of Impulse Control Behavior-
There has yet to be a specific reason identified as to what causes impulse control behaviors to
develop. Most professionals believe that it is the combination of multiple factors, including
genetic, physical, and environmental risk factors.

1) Genetic- There seems to be a genetic link tied to the onset of impulse control behaviors.
Studies have shown that adult who have family members that suffer from mental health
disorders have a higher susceptibility of developing impulse control behaviors than

2) Physical- It has been said that there is a possibility that when certain brain structures that
are linked to the functioning of emotions, memories and planning become imbalanced,
impulse control behaviors can develop.

3) Environmental- Professionals in the field believe that children who have grown up in
families or in homes where explosive behaviors, violence, verbal abuse, and physical
abuse were common are more likely to develop impulse control behaviors. Some adults
may unconsciously find that participating in such behaviors provides them with some
sense of an escape from the chaos around them.

Risk Factors-
i. History of drug abuse
ii. Young age
iii. Exposure to violence
iv. Family history of mood disorders.
v. Family history of substance abuse.

Effects of Impulse control Behaviors-

The effects of impulse control behaviors can be extremely detrimental to the lives of children,
adolescents and young adults who not receive treatment. Some examples of the types of effects
that can result from impulse control behaviors can include-

i. Difficulty developing and maintaining interpersonal relationships.

i. Failure in academic and career ventures.
ii. Self- injury.
iii. Criminal involvement and incarceration.
iv. Low self- esteem.
v. Suicidal thoughts and behaviors.
Review of literature-
According to the Ying Zhang. Songli Mei, Li Li, Jingxin Chai, Jiaomeng LI, Hongyang Du
internet addiction has increasingly been recognized as a serious psychological malady among
Chinese college students. Impulsivity has been shown to be associated to addictive behaviors,
also to internet addiction, and that the purpose of the study is to investigate whether or not there
are variables modulating the relation between impulsivity and internet addiction. Meaning in life
is regarded as a desirable attribute, with positive mental health outcomes. Self- esteem is often
regarded as an important component of psychological health which has relation to internet
addiction. Therefore we examined meaning in life and self-esteem’s possible effects in this
relationship. A total of 1068 Chinese college students ranging in age from 18 to 25 years were
recruited for this cross- sectional survey study. Correlations and multivariate regressions were
used to calculate the possible relationship among the variables of meaning in life, self- esteem,
impulsivity, and internet addiction. In the analyses that we conducted internet addiction was
shown to be prevalent among Chinese college university students. The relationship between
impulsivity and internet addiction was partially mediated by meaning in life, and the relationship
between meaning in life and internet addiction was moderated by self- esteem. The findings
demonstrate that meaning in life and self- esteem can be useful buffers to internet addiction for
highly impulsive individuals.

According to the Fenglin Cao, Linyan Su, Xueping g Gao(2007) this study aimed to assess
whether internet addiction is related to impulsivity among Chinese adolescents. This study was
performed in two stages. The screened for the presence of internet addiction among 2620 high
school students age ranging from 12 years to 18 years from four high schools of Changsha city
using Diagnosed as Internet Addiction (YDQ). According to the modified YDQ criteria by
Bread, 64 students were diagnosed as Internet addiction excluding current psychiatric
comorbidity. 50 students who were diagnosed as internet addiction (mean age 14.8+/-1.4years)
and 50 normal students in internet usage (mean age, 14.5+/-1.8 years) were include in a case
control study. The two groups were assessed using Barratt Impulsiveness Scale 11 (BIS-11)
behavioral measure of impulsivity (GOSTOP Impulsivity paradigm )64 students met the
modified YDQ criteria by bread of whom 14 students suffered from comorbid psychiatric
disorder especially comorbid ADHD. The internet addiction group had significantly higher
scores on the BIS -11 subscales of attention key, motor key and total scores than the control
group (p < 0.05). The internet addiction group scored higher than the control group on the failure
to inhibit responses of Go Stop Impulsivity Paradigm (p<.005). There was a significant positive
correlation between YDQ scores and BIS -11 subscales and the number of failure to inhibit
response of GO-Stop Impulsivity paradigm. This study suggests that adolescents with internet
addiction exhibit more impulsivity than controls and have various comorbid psychiatric
disorders, which could be associated with the psychopathology of internet addiction.
According to the Zamani E.B, Abedini Y, Kheradmand.A (2011) the purpose of this research
was to predict the internet addiction based on the personality characteristics of high school
students in Kerman. This research was a descriptive correlational study. The statistical
population included 538 male and female students in the second grade of high school in Kerman
during 2010. The subjects were randomly selected by multistage clustering. Data was collected
by two questionnaires including the five- factor revised NEO Personality Inventory and the
Internet Dependency Questionnaire. The data was analyzed using ANOVA test and multivariable
regression analysis. The findings showed a significant relationship between the personality trait
of emotional stability and academic fields, i.e. students with higher emotional stability
experience less negative emotions when confronting with problems. Therefore, it is less likely
for them to alleviate the negative emotions by the extreme and obsessed usage of the internet. In
addition, it appears that the students with high extroversion scores prefer social, face- to face
interaction with other people to interaction with virtual world. Conversely, more introvert
students avoid interactions with other people due to their shyness. Thus, they communicate with
the virtual world more. Conversely, more introvert students avoid interactions with other people
due to their shyness. Thus, they communicate with the virtual world more. Three personality
traits of loyalty, emotional stability, and extroversion are the most significant predictors of
internet addiction in high school students.

According to the Nalwa K, Anand A.P (2003) this study is a preliminary investigation of the
extent of internet addiction in school children 16-18 years old in India. The Davis Online
Cognition Scale (DOCS) was used to assess pathological internet use. On the basis of total scores
obtained (N=100). On the Davis Online Cognition Scale two groups were identified- dependents
(18) and non- dependents (21) using mean t and half and SD as the criterion for selection. The
UCLA Loneliness scale was also administered to the subjects. Significant behavioral and
functional usage differences were revealed between the two groups. Dependents were found to
delay other work to spend time online, lose sleep due to late night logons, and feel life would be
boring without the internet. The hours spend on the internet by dependents were greater than
those of non- dependent. On the loneliness measure, significant differences were found between
the two groups, with the dependents scoring higher than the non-dependents.

According to the Papastylianou A.(2013) the study aimed at investigating the extent to which
Greek students are internet over-users or addicted and further answering the hypotheses whether
Internet addiction is correlated to certain personality traits ( namely openness and extraversion)
and depression, controlling for certain demographics such as gender and faculty of studies
(Social, Humanities and Exact Sciences). The sample consisting of N=404 students from the
social sciences, humanities and exact sciences departments of Greek Universities and Technical
Colleges were administered a self- reporting questionnaire On Internet Addiction, Personality
traits- NEO-FFI, Depression (CES-D) and demographics. Results show that a rather low
percentage of students fulfilled the criteria to be considered as Internet addicted, and this was
associated mainly with openness and only marginaly with neuroticism regarding the Big Five
Personality Factors. Further analysis controlling for Depression, gender and type of studies
showed that the association between Big-Five and Internet addiction was even weaker, pointing
out that this association is confounded by the factors included in the analysis.

According to the Susan Ebeling-Witte,B.A.,Michael L. Frank and David Lester (2004) to

investigate the association between shyness and internet usage, 88 undergraduate completed the
revised Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale, the Online Cognition Scale, a Computer/ Internet
Familiarity Scale, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire revised (short version) and the
Abbreviated Duke Social Support Index Significant Correlations were found between, shyness,
Internet use and Personality Traits. A stepwise regression analysis indicated that shyness was
predicted by introversion, neuroticism, and problematic Internet usage as assessed by the Online
Cognition Scale.

According to the Yao M.Z. Pang K. etal 2014A survey of 2,095 College students in five major
cities in China was conducted to examine the influence of personality, parental behaviors, and
self- esteem on internet addiction. The influence of parental behaviors, on internet addiction was
also significant. However father’s and mother’s behaviors had impacts on their children’s
likelihood of being addicted to the internet. Specifically, we found that father’s and mother’s
behaviors had impacts on their children’s likelihood of being addicted to the internet.
Specifically, we found that father’s rejection and overprotection, and mother’s rejection would
increase the risk for Internet addiction. Furthermore, the influence of emotional warmth from
parents on internet addiction was partially mediated by self- esteem. Finally, we found that
parental behaviors of mother’s and father’s affected males and females differently in terms the
risk of being addicted to the Internet

To find the relationship between internet addiction and impulsivity in college students.

There will be a significant relationship between internet addiction and impulsivity of the college

Sampling Technique-
For the purpose of this research Purposive Random Sampling is used.

 Total number of 104 (N=104) participants were taken as a sample. Both males and
females were taken
 Age between 18- 25 years were taken

Inclusion Criteria-
 Males and females aged between 18-25 years
 College going students

Exclusion Criteria-
 Males and females below 18 years and above 25 years.
 Non college going adolescents and adults.

Research Design-
Biserial correlation design.

Statistical Analysis-
To find the relationship between internet addiction and impulsivity in college students by using
Biserial Correlation, Mean and standard deviation.

Tools Used-
Internet Addiction Test (IAT) This test is a reliable and valid measure of addictive use of
Internet, developed by Dr. Kimberly Young. It consists of 20 items that measures mild, moderate
and severe level of Internet Addiction.
Instructions of the Internet Addiction Test-

Read each statement and circle the appropriate number given below for each questions of
internet addiction test. Do not spend too much time on any statement. Answer quickly and

Items are scored on a 5 point rating scale-

0 Does not apply

1 Rarely

2 Occasionally

3 Frequently

4 Often

5 Always

Scoring of the internet addiction test is-

After collecting the data the scoring is done. The scoring of this test is done by calculate the total
scores for each item. The higher your score, the greater level of addiction is.

20-49 scores- You are an average online user. You may surf the web a bit too long at times, but
you have control over your usage.

50-79 scores- You are experiencing occasional or frequent problems because of the internet. You
should consider their full impact on your life.

80-100 scores-Your internet usage is causing significant problems in your life. You should
elevate the impact of the internet on your life and address the problems directly caused by you
internet usage.

Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) Revised-

People differ in ways they act and think under various situations. Ernest Barratt developed the
Barratt Impulsiveness Scale Test in 1995 to measure a person’s level of impulsiveness. This is a
revised test incorporating my comments to help you identify and be aware of ways in which you
react and think as an investor. Barratt Impulsiveness Scale consists of 30 questions

Instructions of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-

Read each statement carefully and circle the appropriate number on the right side of the page. Do
not spend too much time on any statement. Answer quickly and honestly.
Items are scored on a 4 point scale-

1 Rarely/ Never

2 Occasionally

3 Often

4 Almost always/ Always

Scoring of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-

Before adding up your scores in each question reverse the scores of reverse questions; for
example- if your score on a reverse score question was 4, then reverse it to 1. The reverse scoring
of the items are-

Attentional Impulsiveness (8 items): 6, 5, 9*, 11, 20*, 24, 26, 28

Motor Impulsiveness (11 items): 2,3,4,16, 17,19,21,22,23,25,30*

Non planning Impulsiveness (11 items): 1*, 7*, 8*.10*, 12*,13*.14, 15*,18, 27 ,29*

*Reversed item scored: 4,3,2,1

Then add up all your scores for all the questions.

The study was carried out with college students. Both males and female were contacted
personally. All the participants were informed about the nature of the study and confidentiality
was assured. Questionnaires were administered to them individually.

Table-1 Descriptive statistics-

Variables N Minimum Maximum Mean Standard


Internet Addiction
Test 104 19 87 50.57 13.93

Impulsiveness 104 1 24 13.53 5.45

Valid N (List-wise) 104

According to Table 1 where is the sample N=104 participants there mean of internet
addiction test is 50.57 and standard deviation is 13.39 and for Barratt Impulsiveness Scale
mean and standard deviation are 13.53 and 5.45
Table- 2 Correlations-

Correlation Internet Addiction Test Barratt Impulsiveness Scale

Kendall’s 1.000
Internet Addiction Test .085
Correlation Coefficient

Sig (2 tailed)
N 104

Barratt Impulsiveness .085 1.000

Sig (2 tailed) .218

The table 2 shows that correlation coefficient of Internet Addiction Test and Barratt
Impulsiveness Scale is 0.085 and 2 tailed significance is 0.218 which is insignificant
According to the previous researches there was an effect of internet addiction and impulsivity
but this research shows no significant 2 tailed correlation. The aim of the study is to find the
relationship between these two variables which comes out to be positive that means if any of
these variables increases other increases. The statistical tool used was bi-serial correlational
design. According to the previous research there was a significant relationship between these
two variables. But this study showed different results this may be due to several different
limitations which are discussed in further sections of the study.
In the field of psychology and in this research can prove helpful because there was not much
relevant work was done in India. So the aim of the research satisfies the need and justification for
the research. This may motivate other researchers to work in the area of impulsivity and internet
addiction as it affects most of people these days. For the better understanding of the topic further
researches are needed to be done.

 The sample taken in the study is too small. So it is hard to generalize on the whole

 The sample is typically taken inside Amity University so its again hard to generalize
this is hard to generalize it on the other population as an institute has a set of

 The review of literature has most of the studies done in other countries so cultural
differences take a role here.

 The sample includes only college going student i.e. early adults and excludes other
ages from both the groups (female and male) which can influence the study.

Cao, F, Su, L, Lin, T., & Gao,X. (2007). The relationship between impulsivity
and internet addiction in a sample of Chinese adolescents. European
Psychiatry,22 (7), 446-471
Ebeling- Witte, S., Frank, M. L, & Lester, D. (2007). Shyness, Internet use and Personality.
Cyber Psychology& BEHAVIOR, 10 (5), 713-716

Nalwa, K., & Anand, A. P. (2003). Internet addiction in students: A cause of

concern. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6(6), 653-656.

Patton, J.H., & Standford, M.S. (1995). Factor structure of the Barratt

Impulsiveness Scale. Journal of clinical psychology, 51(6) 768-774.

Young, K. (2014). Internet Addiction Test (IAT) by Dr. Kimberly Young. Accesses, 31, 14.

Yao, M. Z., He, J., Ko, D. M., & Pang, K. (2014). The influence of personality, parental
behaviors, and self-esteem on Internet addiction: a study of Chinese college
students. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 17(2), 104-110.

Zamani, B. E., Abedini, Y., & Kheradmand, A. (2012). Internet addiction based on
personality characteristics of high school students in Kerman, Iran. Addiction and
Health, 3(3-4), 85-91.