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Power electronics

Half-wave rectifier
- Output voltage
- Average voltage
- Peak inverse voltage
Full-wave rectifier
- Center-tapped
o Output voltage
o Average voltage
o Peak inverse voltage
- Bridge
o Output voltage
o Average voltage
o Peak inverse voltage
Power conditioner / converter / controller
- Ac to dc
- Dc to dc
- Ac to ac
- Dc to ac
Ac to dc (rectifiers / thyristor converters / controller)
- Single phase half-wave controlled rectifier with resistive load
- Single phase full-wave controlled rectifier with resistive load
- Half-controlled bridge with highly inductive load
- Fully-controlled bridge with highly inductive load
- Sedc motor
- Half-controlled bridge with sedc motor
- Fully-controlled bridge with sedc motor
- Three-phase half-wave converter
- Three-phase full-wave converter
Dc to dc (choppers)
- Chopper classes
- Chopper circuit efficiency
- Choppers with resistive loads
- Choppers with inductive loads
- D.c. series motor chopper
- Step-up choppers
- D.c. motor chopper with regeneration
Switched-mode power supplies (SMPS)
- Buck / forward converter
o Output voltage
o Period
o Duty cycle
o Ripple current magnitude
o Minimum inductor requirement
o Output voltage ripple
- Boost / flyback converter
o Output voltage
o Current
o Minimum inductor requirement
o Output voltage ripple
- Buck-boost converter
o Output voltage
o Load current
o Average inductor current
o I1 & i2
o Minimum inductor requirement
o Output voltage ripple
- Isolated buck-boost converter
- Push pull converter
- Half-bridge converter
- Full-bridge converter
Force commutation
- Value of capacitor required to force commutate
- Force commutation circuit
- Self-commutation circuit
Rc filter
- Block diagram
- Dc equivalent
- Ac equivalent
Discrete transistor voltage regulation
- Series regulator
o Block diagram
o Basic series regulator
o Improved series regulator
o Op-amp series regulator
- Shunt regulator
o Block diagram
o Basic transistor shunt regulator
o Improved shunt regulator

Amplifiers
OP-AMPS
- Differential Amplifier Circuit
- Inverting amplifier
- NON-Inverting Amplifier
- Voltage / Unity follower
- Summing Amplifier
- Subtractor / Differencing Amplifier
- Integrator
- comparator
- Differentiator
- Slew Rate & Close Loop Voltage Gain
- Cut OFF Frequency of OP-AMPS
- Maximum Frequency at which an op-amps can operate
- Electrical characteristics of op-amps (Ideal and practical values)
Common mode rejection ratio
o Differential gain
o Common Mode Gain
o Total OUTPUT Voltage
Classes of amplifiers
- General classification of amplifiers
Overall bandwidth of a cascaded amplifier
- Case 1: different critical frequency
o Bandwidth
o Upper critical frequency
o Lower critical frequency
- Case 2: Equal critical frequency
o Upper critical frequency
o Lower critical frequency
Voltage-to-current converter
Anti-log amplifier
Constant current source
Harmonic distortion
- %nth harmonic distortion
- Total harmonic distortion
- Power of signal having distortion

Solid state devices


Diode equation
Reverse saturation current / leakage current
Diode models
Diode resistance
Bjt
- Terminal sizes
- Doping level of the terminals
- Ratio of doping level of the outer layers to that of the center layer
- Ratio of total width to the base layer
- Stability factor
- Biasing
o Fixed-bias / base-bias
o Emitter-bias / emitter-stabilized
o Voltage divider-bias (Exact and approximate method)
o Collector feedback
o Emitter follower
o Common base
Transistor configurations
- Common base amplification factor (alpha)
o Typical range
- Common emitter forward current amplification factor (beta)
o Typical range
- Common collector / emitter follower amplification factor (gamma)
- Relationship between beta and alpha
Biasing & operation
Transistor configuration
Hybrid (h) parameters
Admittance (y) parameters
Jfet
- Drain current formula
- Transconductance for both jfet and mosfet
- Max Transconductance for both jfet and mosfet
- Reistance at a particular level of vgs
- Jfet d.c. biasing
o Fixed-bias
o Self-bias
o Voltage-divider bias
o Common-gate
o Special case (Vgs = 0)
D-mosfet
- Drain current formula
- Transconductance for both jfet and mosfet
- Max Transconductance for both jfet and mosfet
e-mosfet
- Drain current formula
- Transconductance formula
- D.c. biasing
o Feedback configuration
Diffusion length of a semiconductor material
Threshold voltage
- Derating factor
Maximum power dissipation
- Given initial power dissipation & temperature
- Given the temperature per junction of the materials
- Derating factor
Zener diode circuit
Depletion width of abrupt junction
Pn junction built-in potential
Industrial electronics
Vacuum tubes
- Diode / Fleming valve
- Triode / audion
- Tetrode
- Pentode
Electronic switches
- Shockley diode / four layer diode
o Approximate equivalent circuit
- SCR (Silicon controlled rectifier)
o Circuit current rating
o Max allowable duration
o Firing angle
o Conduction angle
o Range of turn-on times in high-power scr
- DIAC (Diode AC)
- Triac (Triode AC)
- SCS (Silicon Controlled Switch)
- Ujt (Unijunction transistor)
o Inter-base resistance
o Voltage across rb1 / stand-off voltage
o Intrinsic stand-off ratio
o Peak point voltage
- Put (programmable UJT)
- (GTO) Gate turn-off switch
- (SUS) Silicon unilateral switch
- (SBS) SILICON BILATERAL SWITCH
Terminal relationship between Vacuum tube, bjt and fet

Energy conversion
Generators
- Left hand rule for generators
- Right hand rule for motors
- Generated voltage
o Dc generator
 power
o Ac generator
 Frequency
- Internal resistance
- Voltage regulation
o Ideal value
Maximum power transfer theorem / jacobi’s law
- Case 1
- Case 2
- Case 3
Transformer equations
- Voltage transformation
- Current transformation
- Impedance transformation
3 phase system
- Star / wye
o Load voltage and current
- Delta / mesh
o Load voltage and current
- Power calculations
o True power
o Apparent power
o Reactive power
Primary cells
- silver oxide
- manganese dioxide (alkaline)
- mercury oxide
- zinc chloride
- carbon-zinc (leclanche cell)
Secondary cell
- silver cadmium
- nickel cadmium
- silver zinc
- nickel-iron (Edison cell)
- lead acid
o specific gravity
Batteries
- in series
- in parallel
- in series-parallel
Rectifier
- Half-wave rectifier
- Center-tapped full-wave rectifier
- Bridge full-wave rectifier
- Transformer utilization factor
Filter voltage
- Root-mean-square voltage before entering the filter
- Root-mean-square after entering the filter
- Dc voltage of the waveform before entering the filter
- Dc voltage of the waveform after entering the filter
- Peak value of the ripple

Ripple factor
- Before entering the filter
- After entering the filter
78xx & 79XX IC regulators
- Dropout voltage
317 & 337 IC regulators
- Output voltage
- Reference voltage
- Typical current
Line regulation
Bleeder current
Simple series regulator circuit
- Controlling element
Improved series regulator
- Sampling circuit
- Reference voltage
- Output voltage
Op-amp series regulator
- Comparator circuit

Instrumentation
Accuracy
Precision
Error
- Absolute error
- Relative error
- Percent error
Dc bridges
- Wheatstone
- kelvin
Ac bridges
- Ratio arm bridges
o Maxwell
o Owen
o De sauty
o Wien
- Product arm bridges
o Hay
o Maxwell-Wien / inductance
o Schering
Mechanical-rotation frequency measurement
- Tachometer
- Stroboscope
- Strobotac

Oscillators
Feedback connection types
- Voltage-series
- Voltage-shunt
- Current-series
- Current-shunt
Close loop gain / gain with feed back
Nyquist criterion
- Stable
- Unstable
Startup conditions
- Loop gain
- Phase shift
Barkhausen criterion / oscillation condition
- Loop gain
- Phase shift
Oscillators
- Phase-shift oscillator
o Frequency, loop gain & attenuation
o Fet phase-shift oscillator
 Frequency
 Gain
 Load resistance
o Bjt phase-shift oscillator
 Frequency
 Current gain requirement

- WiEn bridge oscillator


o Attenuation
o Frequency
 If r1 = r2 = r & c1 = c2 = C
 For different values
o Resistances ratio
 If r1 = r2 = r & c1 = c2 = C
 For different values
- Colpitts oscillator
o Frequency
 For Q > 10
 For Q < 10
o Gain & attenuation
- Hartley oscillator
o Frequency
 Series inductance
 Mutual inductance
o Gain and attenuation
- Clapp oscillator
- Armstrong / tickler / tuned-based oscillator
- Tuned-collector oscillator
- Crystal oscillator
o Oscillation frequency
 Series
 parallel
o Natural frequency
o Materials that has piezoelectric effect
Function generators
- Triangular wave oscillator using 2 op-amps
o Upper trigger point
o Lower trigger point
o frequency
Multivibrators
- Astable / free running
- Monostable / one shot
- Bistable
555 timer
- 5 basic elements
- Pins
- Voltage reference
o Upper comparator
o Lower comparator
- Astable
o Frequency
 At r1 > r2
 At r1 < r2 (assuming an ideal diode)
o Time that output is high
o Time that output is low
o Period
o Duty cycle
 At r1 > r2
 At r1 < r2 (assuming an ideal diode)
- Monostable
o Time that output is high
Rise time / attack time
Fall time / decay time

Computers
2’s complement
Maxterms
- symbol
- Logic 0’s
- Sum terms
- Product of sum (pos)
o Equation
Minterms
- symbol
- Logic 1’s
- product terms
- sum of product (pos)
o equation
k-map
- Two-input
- Three-input
- Four-input
Encoder & decoder
- Input lines
- Output lines
Multiplexer & demultiplexer
- Number of inputs and outputs
- Data select lines
- Input lines
- Output lines

Fan-in & fan-out


- Fan-out
o High state
o Low state
Conversion of any base to any base
Logic families
- Resistor transistor logic (RTL)
- Diode transistor logic (DTL)
- Transistor transistor logic (TTL)
o Supply voltage of standard ttl
o Advanced schottky ttl
- Emitter coupled logic (ecl)
- Integrated injection logic (IIL) / merge transistor logic
- Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS)
o Typical voltages
Weighted
- Binary coded decimal
Unweighter
- Excess 3
Counters
- Synchronous counters
o Total time
- Asynchronous counters
o Total time
- Modulus-12
o flip-flops required
o Output frequency
o Terminal count
modulus
Frequency or clock division
Boolean laws
Universal gates
Combination logic circuits
- Quarter adder
- Half adder
- Full adder
o Number of half adders to make a full adder
Digital to analog converter
- Percent Resolution
o Via number of bits
- Lsb
- Full scale voltage
Analog to digital converter
- Comparator type
o Number of comparators
o Minimum number of bits
o Resolution
o Number of voltage internals
Radix point
Conversion of fractional binary number to decimal
Liquid crystal display
- Maximum temperature limit
- Response time
Jump instructions
Microprocessor components
Efficiency of memory access time
FLIP-FLOPS
- Frequency
- Modulus
Arithmetic instruction
Temperature range when testing integrated circuits
- For military and space applications
- For commercial and industrial applications
Typical dimension of solid state devices on ic
- Mosfet
- Bjt
- diode