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PRELIM - The agency that licenses transmitters

and operators in the U.S. and abroad

U.S. registered ships and aircraft.
- Communication ground-base and airbase.
NAVIGATION-art and science of directing the
movement of a craft from one point to another
along a safe and efficient path.
- Montreal, Canada
- International association
BASIC NAVIGATIONAL TOOLS: representing scheduled airlines.


- MARINERS COMPASS - Formerly: Air Transportation Office
- device used to find directions such as: (Tanggapan Ng Transportasyong
North, East, West, South Himpapawid)
- Agency in the Philippines under the
2. NAUTICAL CHART Department of Transportation and
- shows ocean area and landmarks Communications
- Implement policies on civil aviation
3. MARINE SEXTANT to assure safe economic and efficient
- determines altitude and inclination of air travel
a celestial body - Investigates aviation accidents
- Main office: Pasay City
- Shows position, changes and movement  CATEGORY 2 countries – not compliant with
of celestial bodies ICAO standards, does not provide safety
oversight of its carrier operators in
5. CHRONOMETER accordance with minimum standards set by
- most accurate watch; precise in ICAO; operates at “heightened FAA
measuring time surveillance”

6. LIGHTHOUSE  The US FAA downgraded the Philippines from

- Serves as a landmark especially during Category 1 to Category 2 on January 4,
night travel 2008.

7. BUOYS  Expansion or changes in services to the

- Serves as warning when the water gets U.S. by carriers are not permitted,
deep, guidance for path and water waves although services will be permitted if
operated using aircraft wet-leased from a
MAJOR NAVIGATIONAL AGENCIES duly authorized and properly supervised
US or foreign carrier from Category 1.
- Responsible for the certification of 1. CELESTIAL NAVIGATION
- Operates navigational aids and air - Needs: Marine Sextant, Chronometer,
traffic control for both civil and Almanac
military aircraft in the US - Measures the angular elevation of the
- Core Mission: Safety Oversight celestial body with a sextant and notes
SAFETY OVERSIGHT-the process of ensuring the precise time at which the
that airmen, airlines, aircraft, measurement is made with a chronometer,
manufacturers and a host of others who are these two measurements are enough to
engaged in aviation perform their fix the position of the craft on the
functions safely and responsibly. face of the globe


ORGANIZATION (ICAO) - Needs: Nautical Chart (mapping),
- Montreal, Canada compass (det. Direction/heading)
- U.N. agency that allocates recommended
practices, including navigational - TYPES:
aids, for all civil aviation.
- Washington, D.C.
o Fixes position on the map by ALTITUDE is the measure of height in reference
observing known visible to mean sea level while ATTITUDE is the measure
landmarks provided that there of height in reference to the horizon (where the
is good visibility sky and the land meet in eye level).
 If the aid of airborne OBLATE SPHEROID-shape of the earth
RADAR is used Earth is tilted by 23 deg. in reference to the
 the RADAR is used for this True North.
purpose is generally a
microwave search RADAR provided STAR LOCATION is same in all latitude, use
with a plan-position (PP) chronometer to determine longitude, marine
display. sextant, Almanac.

o The position of the craft at LATITUDE AND LONGITUDE
any instant of time is
calculated from previously - Systems of intersecting lines on the
determined position, the speed maps that helps the navigators know
of the motion with respect to their location at any given moment
the earth along the direction
of its motion (track angle) and
↓ INERTIAL NAVIGATION - Used to begin the system of latitude
 Sophisticated extension and longitude
of dead-reckoning 1. NORTH POLE
 Self-contained system 2. SOUTH POLE
that can automatically
determine the position,
velocity, and attitude of EAST-direction toward w/c the earth spins
a moving vehicle by means
of the double integration WEST-direction from w/c the earth has spun
of the outputs of
accelerometers that are
either strapped to the LINES OF LATITUDE-group of lines that circle the
vehicle or stabilized globe in an East-West direction, 30 deg. apart.
with respect to inertial
space. -drawn parallel to the equator circles that span
the Earth’s surface

- Based on the use of EM waves to find LINES OF LONGITUDE-group of lines that run in a
the position of the craft. North-South direction from pole to pole, 15 deg.
- Systems employing this depend upon apart, 24 lines
transmitters and/or receivers working
in conjunction with them in the -numbered as:
 East of the prime meridian from 0 deg. to
SYSTEM FREQUENCY BAND 180 deg. East Longitude
OMEGA 10-13 kHz  West from 0 deg. to 180 deg. West
VLF 16-24 kHz Longitude
LORAN C/D 100 kHz
LONGITUDE is more difficult to determine than
Marker Beacon 75 MHz
latitude because the Sextant and Almanac alone
ILS Localizer 108-112 MHz
do not yield enough information.
VOR 108-118 MHz
ILS Glide Slope 329-335 MHz MANILA, PHILIPPINES: 𝟏𝟒°𝟐𝟏′ 𝑵(𝑳𝒂𝒕𝒊𝒕𝒖𝒅𝒆);

𝟏𝟐𝟎°𝟑𝟓′ 𝟐𝟒′′ 𝑬(𝑳𝒐𝒏𝒈𝒊𝒕𝒖𝒅𝒆)

- a method of position fixing using radio EQUATOR-great circle of latitude, divides earth
and electronic means. Types are: midway between the poles
• Passive Radio Navigation
HEMISPHERE-a line that divides the earth in half
• Ground Based Radio Navigation
• Active Radio Navigation NORTHERN HEMISPHERE-half of the earth that lies
• Space Based Radio Navigation north of the equator, any location here lies in
the North Latitude (N. Latitude, N. Lat., N)
SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE-half of the earth lying respect to both strength and direction
south of the equator, locations here lie in a of its magnetic field.
South Latitude (S. Latitude, S. Lat., S) - Therefore, variation changes not only
with time location of a vessel on the
MERIDIANS-lines of longitude, parts of the great earth but also varies in time.
circles that pass through the earth’s poles. - The correction for magnetic variation
- “MEDIUS” & “DIES”: “middle of the day” for a location is shown on the nearest
nautical chart’s compass rose.
PRIME MERIDIAN-0 deg. longitude, separates
Eastern and Western Hemisphere, half of a great CORRECTING FOR VARIATION
circle and extends from North pole to South pole
𝒕𝒄 = 𝒄𝒄 + 𝒗𝒂𝒓
GREENWICH MERIDIAN-Prime Meridian, site of
England’s National Observatory (Royal Greenwich Where: cc=compass course, tc=true course,
Observatory), 0 deg. longitude. var=variation

 Travelers must change time by an entire Note: to convert a true course into a compass
day when they cross the 180 deg. meridian. course we need first assign a “-“ to a Western
The 180 deg. meridian is near the middle and a “+” to an Eastern variation.
of the Pacific Ocean.
 Time Keeping was an important reason for 2. MAGNETIC DEVIATION (Deviation)
the selection of the Greenwich Meridian - Error of the compass indicated by the
as 0 deg. longitude. angle between the meridian of magnetic
north and the meridian of the compass
INTERNATIONAL DATE LINE-special line which dates north.
change. It swerves from the 180 deg. meridian - Deviation changes with the ship’s
whenever the meridian crosses land. heading, resulting in a deviation table
as shown below.
 To avoid differing dates in various areas,  The vertical axis states the
the nations of the world established the correction in degrees West or East,
International Date Line. where East is again positive.
AXIS AND DIRECTION:  The horizontal axis states the
ship’s heading in degrees divided by
1. TRUE NORTH AXIS (GEOGRAPHIC AXIS) ten. Thus, when you sail a compass
- North Pole course of 220 deg., the deviation
- Axis around which earth rotates is 4 deg. West.


- The fluid motion of the Earth’s outer
core generates magnetism such that its
magnetic field within the Earth creates
a magnetic axis which is an angle away
from the geographic or true axis
- The magnetic north pole is somewhere
in Arctic Canada (𝟕𝟖°𝑵, 𝟏𝟎𝟒°𝑾) - Note: On most modern sailing yachts,
3. COMPASS NORTH AXIS the deviation is usually not larger
- Axis of reference of compass direction than 3 deg.
is called compass meridian, the
magnetic field of which is the sum of
total of the ship’s magnetism and all
other magnetism on board. 𝒄𝒄 + 𝒗𝒂𝒓 + 𝒅𝒆𝒗 = 𝒕𝒄

- (VARIATION/DECLINATION) - The heading after magnetic variation
- Error of the compass indicated by the has been considered, but without
angle between the meridian of true compensation for magnetic deviation
north and meridian of magnetic north 𝒕𝒄 − 𝒗𝒂𝒓 = 𝒄𝒄 + 𝒅𝒆𝒗 = 𝒎𝒄
- Both the strength and direction of the
magnetic field will vary over the MAGNETIC COURSES ARE USED FOR THREE REASONS:
years, this gradual change is called 1. To convert a true course into a compass
the secular variation of the magnetic course.
field. 2. On vessels with more than one steering
- Secular Variation is the change of compass, also more deviation tables are
magnetic declination in time with
in use; hence only a magnetic or true
course is plotted in the chart.
3. Bearings taken with a handheld compass 2. Let’s say the compass rose gives a
often don’t require a correction for variation of 2◦50’ E in 2007, with a
deviation, and are therefore useful to correction of 0◦04’ E per year. In 2009
plot in the chart as magnetic courses. this variation is estimated to be ___,
almost ___. Now, if we sail 90◦ on the
COURSES AND BEARING: chart, the compass would read ____.

- Direction of travel
- The angular distance of a ship’s
direction of movement on the surface
of the earth, measured clockwise from
a reference north point (or three
references-true, magnetic and compass
north) through 360 deg. system on the
arc of the horizon
3. If we have steered a compass course of
HORIZON-line that separates earth from 200◦, we have to plot a true course of ____
sky in the chart if the variation is 3◦ East
or a true course of ___ if the variation
is 10◦ West.
𝒅 = √𝟏𝟑𝒉𝒎 𝒌𝒎 𝒅 = √𝟏. 𝟓𝒉𝒇𝒕. 𝒎𝒊

2. BEARING (direction)
- Angular distance of any terrestrial
object from an observer measured
clockwise from the same three points
of references through 360◦ system of
the compass, giving rise to the three 4. The compass course is 330◦, the deviation
bearings in one direction. is +3◦ (table) and the variation is +3◦
a. RELATIVE BEARING (chart); 330◦cc+3◦var+3◦dev=?◦tc
- angular distance of an object
measured clockwise through 360◦ from
the ship’s bow (intended line of
- the angular distance of an object
5. The compass course is 220◦, the deviation
measured clockwise from the true
is -4◦ (table) and the variation is still
TB=H+RB +3◦ (chart).
c. 4-POINT BEARING 220◦cc+3◦var+-4◦dev=?◦tc
- the eye approximation of relative
bearing measured clockwise or anti-
clockwise from the ship’s bow, stern
or beams.

6. The compass course is still 220◦,therefore
1. If we find a variation of 4◦15’ W in 2009, the deviation is still -4◦ (table) but
with an indicated annual correction of 0◦ let’s use a variation of -10◦ this time.
08’ E. Hence, in 2011 the variation is
estimated to be 3◦59’, almost 4◦ West. This
means that if we sail 90◦ on the chart (the
true course), the compass would read 94◦.

7. The true course from the chart is 305◦ and

the variation is +3◦ (chart), yet we don’t
know the deviation; ?
Ephemeris second. Atomic second is the
unit in the international System of units

8. The true course from the chart is 150◦ and 6. INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC TIME-Atomic time
we have a Western variation of 7 degrees. reference derived from averaging the
atomic time standards of several

7. UNIVERSAL TIME-Mean solar time on the

Greenwich Meridian. Used in the
application of astronomy to navigation.


9. Standing on a ground with a height of 1.5 GMT, atomic time maintained by the Royal
m., the horizon is at a distance of: Observatory and adjusted in steps (leap
seconds, so that it is synchronized with
the UT1 within 0.9 second). UTC is a high-
precision Atomic Time Standard.

9. UTO-determined directly from the

10. Standing on a hill or tower of 150 astronomical observation. It is non-
m. height, the horizon is at a distance uniform due to irregular rotation of the
of: earth.

10. UT1- it is UTO corrected for the

polar motion hence more uniform than UTO.
UT1 is the same as GMT.
MEASUREMENT OF TIME: 11. UT2-It is UT1 corrected for the mean
seasonal variations, hence more uniform
The accurate measurement of time has always been
than UT1.
fundamental to navigation.

Clocks were invented that would remain accurate

throughout long ocean voyages. They were called The Measurement of time in electronic navigation
Chronometers. is usually concerned with the lapse of time
between the occurrence of two events such as the
Progress has led to the measurement of time time between the transmitted and received pulses
using fundamental properties of the atom. This of an echo sounder or the time between the
has resulted in a redefinition of the second as reception of master and slave pulses in Loran C
being 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation
(9,192,631,770 cycles of the Cesium resonance).
1. SOLAR DAY-a day defined by the rotation
of the Earth on its axis, 24 hrs.

2. EPHEMERIS TIME-time based on long-term

observations of the annual revolution of
the earth around the sun. It is the
uniform measure of time defined by the law
of dynamics.

3. SOLAR MEAN DAY-time in reference to a

particular point in Earth (Greenwich)
Simplified illustration of measuring time
4. SIDEREAL TIME-the earth in reference to lapse in electronic navigation system
Vernal Equinox, the earth rotates at 23
hours, 56 minutes and 1.409 seconds.
5. ATOMIC TIME-based on transitions in the NAVIGATION SYSTEM:
atom. It uses the frequency of the Cesium
1) An integral source of time which is
atomic clock. This agrees closely with
precise and stable over the consider the many possible combination of
measurement interval. paired stations.

2) A means of measuring the time lapse.

One method of maintaining a stable oscillation Disadvantage:

frequency is to utilize the natural resonance
of quartz crystal. The limitation of range-range navigation is the
requirement to maintain absolute time with a
high degree of precision. The clock stability
necessary for the duration of an ocean passage
would demand the use of a cesium frequency


TYPES OF ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION SYSTEM:  Low-frequency radio range beacons may be

used to guide ships or aircraft along
I. Hyperbolic Navigation System predetermined and fixed courses.
- a method of using the propagation velocity to  In this system, special transmitting
determine the distance and position. antennas are employed in w/c two or more
field patterns are combined to form a
• Propagation velocity
straight line equisignal courses.
 velocity at which EM energy (radio waves)
travel between their source and the point  The system employs five vertical towers
of reception. as radiators.

Types of Hyperbolic Navigation System:

1. Loran A and C
2. Omega
3. Decca Navigator

The inherent advantage of the hyperbolic system

is the need to make only a measurement of time

II. Range-Range (or circular) Navigation System

 This differs from hyperbolic navigation in

that instead of measuring time difference, a
measure is made of actual signal propagation
time between the transmitter and receiver. The
resulting loci are therefore circles centered
on the signal transmitter (source) and with
radii corresponding to the distances which are
equivalent to the measured propagation time.


1. Only two stations are required to

determine the position.
2. It is an easier technique for processing
several signals, since each can be dealt
within isolation, rather than having to