Anda di halaman 1dari 49

APPROPRIATE SURFACE OPTIONS

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
and
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

APRIL 2006
Introduction

Many kilometres of earth and gravel, unsealed roads, become impassable


during the wet season cutting communities off from access to schools, clinics
and job opportunities. In addition, the cost of operating vehicles on these
roads during the remainder of the year is excessively high for the communities
affected in relation to the service offered. Of equal or greater impact is the un-
sustainability of replacing the gravel lost from these roads under
environmental and traffic influences.

Using conventional economic analysis and pavement design techniques,


paving of these roads can not be justified. However, when environmental and
social benefits are considered, upgrading of many of these roads carrying
traffic as low as 20 vehicles per day can be justified, particularly when large
communities are affected.
Economic justification is, however, subject to the use of innovative pavement
designs and the use of appropriate surface types that reduce the overall
construction, maintenance and rehabilitation cost of the project.

Sealing of roads can have direct economic, social and environmental benefits.
These include improved access and safety for road users, environmental
sustainability, reduced road user cost and sustainable creation of employment
through contracts using small scale labour based contractors for
implementation and maintenance.

Sealing of roads in specific social environments can also have its drawback.
Communities often desire asphalt paved roads in order to feel that they are
not being discriminated against. The use of local community labour for
construction and maintenance can alleviate this problem to some extent, but it
is essential for the establishment of ownership that there is active stakeholder
involvement throughout the design and construction process.

The visual appearance of the road can have significant implications in the
eyes of politicians, who like to be seen to be providing high quality pavements
and not apparently low-cost solutions. This can be particularly important with
seals, where although the final product is often impossible to differentiate by
laymen from that of asphalt pavement, has a setting in period during which
the surface looks like a gravel road. The usually incorrect perceived increased
risk of failure for these low cost options can also have serious political
connotation. Politicians will not accept a structure that is considered likely to
fail prematurely or require maintenance shortly after construction.

The surface sealing options described in this paper are all suitable for
construction and maintenance by small and medium scale contractors. Most
of these paving options require little capital investment; do not need heavy
imported equipment, use local resource based techniques and can optimise
the use of local materials.
However there are a range of constraints that currently prevent these
approaches from being widely used. Initiatives are required to be taken by
government to develop a market for rural infrastructure works that enable the
small scale contractors to be established and survive to deliver low cost road
infrastructure solutions to the rural communities.

This paper, “Appropriate Surface Options” describes some of the practical


fundamentals; the challenges, the problems and the solutions to the design
and construction of such roads.
Durable Surface Options

TABLE OF CONTENT Page No.

Water Bound Macadam


General Description 2
Technical Specifications 6

Bituminous Surface Treatment


General Description 10
Technical Specifications 16

Penetration Macadam Base


General Description 20
Technical Specifications 23

Otta Seal
General Description 27
Technical Specifications 31

Hot Mixed Asphalt, Road side Mix


General Description 35
Technical Specifications
Wearing Course 39
Seal Coat 43

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 1


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

WATER BOUND MACADAM

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Water Bound Macadam (WBM) comprises two components, a layer of coarse
broken stone (37.5mm to 75mm size) into which graded fine aggregate or
crusher dust (<5mm size) is slurried or washed. This forms a tightly bound,
strong and semi-impermeable matrix. It can be used as an unpaved surface or
as a base material for roads with bituminous seals.
Alternatives: In areas where water is scarce or expensive to obtain, it is
possible to construct a dry bound macadam (DBM) surface. The only
difference in approach is that dry fines are vibrated into the voids between the
stones, rather than being washed in with water. Compaction is likely to take
longer than when water is used.

FEATURES
Water bound macadam provides an improved surfacing option where stone is
available and graded gravels are in short supply. The road surface (or road
base) is built up in layers. Coarse stone (37.5-75mm diameter) is laid over the
sub grade/ base and compacted. The fine material (<5mm) is then added and
washed into the voids. Using strong stone, edge support and ensuring voids
are filled with fines produces a durable surface of low to medium roughness.
Sources of stone are generally relatively easy to locate in volcanic and
mountainous areas. WBM is particularly suitable in these areas where the
terrain is often steep and motorised vehicles travel slowly uphill. WBM
provides traction, protects the subsoil and preventing erosion and
pulverisation. WBM is particularly suited to construction by labour, utilises
local materials and minimise use of mechanical equipment. Water bound
macadam can produce a low capital cost surface, if stone and fines are locally
available (within 10km). Maintenance is low cost, and labour friendly with only
occasional blinding and pothole filling being required.

WBM is particularly appropriate as an improved base for subsequent


bituminous sealing using labour-based and intermediate equipment.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 2


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

DESIGN ASPECTS

Aggregates:
The aggregates used to form the surface should be angular, non-flaky (similar
dimensions in all directions) and have a nominal size of around 40 mm. Larger
stone (up to
75mm) can be used. However, the compacted surface of each layer should
not exceed twice the nominal maximum particle size of the stone used. Larger
stone can be used as kerbstones to provide edge support. A range of other
materials such as hard burned-clay bricks, broken into chips, are also suitable
for WBM. The WBM constructed from bricks has to be surface sealed, either
by bitumen or lime. Stone can be broken by hand or using rudimentary
crushing equipment.

To test the stones for strength, drop one fist sized stone ten times onto
a larger rock from a height of 1.5 metres. If the stone is not significantly
damaged, it should be strong enough for WBM

Table : Coarse Aggregate for WBM

Sieve Size Percentage Passing


mm Nominal Sieve Size
75 100
50 85-100
37.5 35-70
28 0-15

Fine material: The fine material should be less than 5mm in size, graded and
be preferably non-plastic. Single sized material is not recommended. The
fines produced by hand breaking or rudimentary crushing the coarse stone
does not usually produce a fine material in the quantity or grading needed. It
is therefore usually necessary to seek out supplies of sandy soils (e.g. within
or close to river beds). In dry and semiarid areas, sandy soils with quite large
proportions of clay can be used, as the clay will give an additional binding
action. If the surface is to be sealed with bitumen, lower plasticity materials
should be sourced. In some cases addition of 5-10% cement or lime can be
used to strengthen the material or reduce plasticity.

General considerations: If the WBM is to be sealed with bitumen surfacing a


camber of about 3 percent is acceptable. Where used as an unpaved
surfacing a camber of 5 to 6% is normal.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 3


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

CONSTRUCTION ASPECTS
Subsoil and Edge Support:
WBM should be constructed on a firm foundation. In some cases, where sub-
soils are weak, it may be necessary to let the site “dry out” before shaping and
compaction of the formation layer and constructing the surfacing. This can be
achieved by carrying out construction in the dry season (assuming a ready
supply of water) or improvement of the site drainage. The normal formation for
earth roads is constructed to the required camber and width. Pegs and string
are used to mark the final road level (according to the required surfacing
thickness). A berm is constructed along the kerb line by forming a 500 mm
wide windrow of compacted soil or shoulder material to the required layer
thickness. This is then cut to form a vertical face along a trench into which
kerbstones are laid. The berm provides additional edge support for the WBM.
The top of the kerbstones are set at the required final road level. Fine material
should be back-filled and compacted around the kerbstones with hand
rammers. Edge support can be provided by construction of a kerb line and
providing compacted earth shoulders. If the WBM is to be sealed with bitumen
the WBM should be extended into the shoulder area for the full road width.

WORK METHOD
The work for this item may be carried out consisting of the following activities:
- Construction and shaping of formation (and drainage)
- Construction of shoulder berm and berm drains
- Trenching and placing of kerbstones
- Placing and compaction of coarse stone
- Placement and washing in of fines

Berm drains: To prevent trapping water within the road structure it is


necessary to provide drainage. A 250mm wide trench should be cut through
the shoulder every two to three metres on both sides of the carriageway, with
a gentle downward fall. The trench should be filled with 50 to 75mm of free
draining material (such as a sand/gravel mix) and compacted before bring up
to the final level with berm soil. This is a particularly important feature if the
WBM is to be surfaced with bitumen.

Surface: The WBM is constructed in two stages. Firstly the coarse stone is
spread over the road area to just above the required final road level. A single
pass of a static roller is used to settle and bed the stone in position.
The second stage involved spreading the fine material over the stones which
is then sprayed with water to form slurry. The slurry is washed into the matrix
of the coarse stone. This process is assisted by using squeegees. When no
more fines will enter the layer, a final compaction static roller or vibratory
compaction is carried out. Additional fines are applied to areas showing
further settlement on compaction.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 4


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

MAINTENANCE
The top layer of fine material, if not stabilised with cement, or bituminous sand
sealed will gradually be abraded by traffic. It may be necessary to apply more
fines as these are lost to rain or traffic. If not properly maintained, the
additional fine material can be lost, resulting ultimately in loosening of the
stone and destruction of the surface. The surface should remain semi-
impervious to water. Soft spots can be dealt with by removing the fines and
stones over the affected area, levelling (possibly with replacement of weak
material with improved soil), re-laying the stones, and refilling with fresh fines.
Water bound macadam is liable to collapse if unsupported at the side. The
berm or kerbstones should be checked for signs of damage and reformed and
compacted or relaid as necessary.
If the WBM is showing signs of saturation, the berm drains should be checked
for blockages.

NOTE : WBM surfaces CAN NOT be maintained by grader

REFERENCE DATA AND FURTHER INFORMATION


Employment and High-standard Infrastructure, University of the
Witwatersrand, South Africa.
Highway Engineering, S.K Khanna-C.E.G.Justo 7th. Edition

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 5


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

SECTION 4400: WATER BOUND MACADAM

CONTENTS

4401 SCOPE

4402 MATERIALS

4403 CONSTRUCTION METHODS

4404 INSPECTION AND TESTING

4405 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

4401 SCOPE

This work shall consist of the supply, mixing, placing, shaping and compaction of a sub-base/base course
composed of a broken stone aggregate mechanically interlocked by rolling and bonded together with
screening, binding materials where necessary and water laid on a prepared sub-grade with the
Specifications and to the lines, levels, dimensions and cross-falls shown on the Drawings or as directed by
the Engineer. The probable mix proportion of the materials shall be 40% Crushed stone aggregate, 40%
river gravel and 20% fine materials or clayey soil that shall be confirmed as per grading limits.

4402 Materials for WBM

Coarse Aggregate:

The coarse aggregate shall be crushed stone. The aggregate shall be sharp and angular of approximately
cubical in size and shall be hard and durable to serve as ideal material for water bound macadam roads.
The coarse aggregate shall be free from vegetation, soft particles and excess clay or any other substance
which is considered deleterious.

The crushed stones shall comply with the following requirements:

- Water absorption shall not exceed 2%.


- Aggregate Impact value shall be not more than 36 (BS 812) or as directed by the Engineer.

- Flakiness Index shall not be greater than 15%.

- Plasticity Index of binding materials shall not more than 6.

- F.M. of sand shall not be less than 0.80 and shall be free from deleterious materials.

The materials shall be well graded and conform to the following grading limits:

Sieve Size Percent by Weight Passing

63mm 100

50mm 95-100

38mm 35-70

20mm 0-10

10mm 0-5

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 6


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

The base material shall have a soaked (4 day) CBR value of not less than 90% when
compacted to 98% of the MDD.

Screening materials:

Screenings are used to fill the voids in the compacted layer of coarse aggregate. The screenings shall
generally consist of smaller size and crusher dust of the same material as the coarse aggregate. The liquid
limit and plasticity index shall be 20 and 6 respectively and fraction passing 75 micron sieve does not
exceed 10%.

The materials shall be well graded and conform to the following grading limits:

Sieve Size Percent by Weight Passing

10mm 100

4.75mm 85-100

150 micron 10-30

4403 Construction Methods

Preparation of foundation:

The sub grade to receive the Water Bound Macadam course shall be prepared to the grade and camber
and cleaned of all dust, dirt and other extraneous matter. Weak places shall be strengthened, corrugation
removed, depressions and pot holes made good with suitable materials before spreading the aggregate for
WBM.

Aggregate lateral confinement:

Before starting the WBM construction, necessary arrangement shall be made for the lateral confinement of
aggregate.

Option 1: Construct side shoulders in advance to a thickness corresponding to the compacted layer of the
WBM. After the shoulders are ready, their inside edges shall be trimmed vertical and the included area to
be cleaned.
Option 2: Complete the earthwork up to finished level of WBM and a make trench up to sub grade level to
the required depth like as a box cutting.

Spreading of Coarse Aggregate:

The broken aggregate shall be spread uniformly upon the prepared sub grade in such quantities that the
thickness of compacted layer is 75 mm. Thus the required compacted thickness of WBM base course
shall be attained in two or more layers. The loose layer is consolidated to 66-75% thickness. In no cases
shall these be dumped in heaps directly on the area where these are to be laid. The surface of the
aggregate shall be carefully turned up with templates and level all high or low spots by removing or adding
aggregates as may be the case. The irregularities are much easier to correct in loose layer than later. The
relationship between the loose thickness and compacted thickness shall be determined from field trials and
used in controlling the loose thickness at the time of spreading the mixed materials.

Dry rolling:

Immediately following the spreading of coarse aggregate, it is first rolled dry with aid of an 8 to 10 tons
roller. The rolling shall begin from edges with roller running forward and backward, parallel to the centre
line of the road until the layer has been firmly compacted. Rolling shall continue until the road metal is
thoroughly keyed and stone creeping ahead of the roller in no longer visible. Slightly sprinkling of water
may be done during rolling, if required. Rolling should not be done if the sub grade is soft or yielding. The
rolled surface shall be checked transversely and longitudinally with templates and if the irregularities
exceed 12 mm, the surface should be loosened and aggregate added or removed before rolling again. In
no case shall the use of screenings be permitted to make up depressions.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 7


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

Applying of Screening course:

After the 1st layer of coarse aggregate has been rolled screenings to be applied to the fill the interstices
between the coarse aggregate gradually over the surface. The screening materials shall not damp or wet
during application. Dry rolling shall be done while screenings are being spread so that vibration of the roller
causes them to settle into the voids of the coarse aggregate. The screenings shall not be dumped in piles
but be spread uniformly in successive thin layers either by spreading the motion of the hand shovels or by
mechanical spreader. The screenings shall be applied at a slow and uniform rate in three or more
applications so as to ensure filling of all voids. This shall be accomplished by dry rolling and brooming by
hand shovel. In no cases shall the screening be applied so fast and thick so as to form cakes or ridges on
the surface. These applications shall continue until no more screenings can be forced into the voids of the
coarse aggregate.

Watering and Wet rolling:

After the screenings have been applied, the surface shall be copiously sprinkled with water, swept and
rolled. Hand broom shall be used to sweep the wet screenings into voids and distribute them evenly. The
sprinkling, sweeping, and rolling operations shall be continued, with additional screenings applied if
necessary, until the coarse aggregate has been thoroughly keyed, well bonded and firmly set in its full
depth and a grout of screening and water is seen squeezes out ahead of the roller.

Care shall be taken to see that the base or sub grade does not get damaged due to the addition of
excessive water during construction.

Second layer of Coarse Aggregate:

A second layer of aggregate can now be spread and all the stages of dry and wet rolling should be
repeated. It is recommended that a smaller size of aggregate can be used for the second layer. It is
necessary that the lower layer should be dry before the top one is put. When the top layer is completed,
the surface is finally checked to see irregularities and deviations and is corrected to proper camber and
longitudinal slopes.

Curing of WBM:

After final compaction of WBM, the road shall be allowed to dry overnight. Next morning hungry spots shall
be filled with screening materials as directed by the Engineer, lightly sprinkling of water if necessary and
rolled. No traffic shall be allowed on the road until the Macadam has set.

4404 Quality Control of Materials and Work

The Engineer shall exercise control over quality of the materials incorporated and works performed through
quality control tests carried out to the frequencies indicated herein under. The frequencies are the
minimum, and the Engineer shall have the authority to have these tests at more frequent intervals where
quality of a material or work is in doubt.

Materials
Material Type of Test Frequency of Test

Aggregate Aggregate Impact Value One per 1.0km (more frequently it


material character changes)
Water Absorption -do-

Sand F.M. -do-

Mixed Material Gradation One per 500m (more frequently


if material character changes)
Atterberg Limits -do-

CBR (set of 3 specimens) One per 1.0km (more frequently if


material character changes)
Moisture-Density -do-

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 8


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

4405 Field Compaction

The compacted layer shall be tested for field density using the sand replacement method at the rate of
minimum one test per 500sq.m. If the test results show that the density is less than the required density the
Contractor shall carry out further compaction to obtain at least the required density. The field CBR shall be
checked using at a DCP at the rate of minimum one check per 500sq.m.

Control over quality of the materials incorporated and works performed through quality control tests
describing Method Specification for application and compaction of WBM to determine the number of
passes required for compaction of WBM course using compact to refusal technique.
An approximate test of compaction is to place a piece of metal or a one inch stone on the WBM surface
and run the roller over it. If no imprints are made on the surface or no embedment’s results, the compaction
may be considered as adequate.

4406 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

Item Unit

44.01 Water Bound Macadam-Basecourse cubic metre

The unit of measurement shall be the cubic metre of material measured in the final position after
compaction to the specified density. The quantity shall be calculated as the product of the Average
depth, the required surface plan width and the required length of Water Bound Macadam base course
measured horizontally along the centre line. No additional payment will be made for alternative types of
construction proposed and/or adopted by the contractor.

Payment shall be full compensation for opening up pits, sampling, procuring and furnishing materials,
royalties, trial processing, processing, haulage, placing compacting and finishing, and for all labour
equipment and other incidentals necessary to complete the work. Payment shall also be deemed to be
compensation for any material placed outside the plan surface area i.e. in the edge batter slopes, and
for wastage.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 9


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

BITUMINOUS SURFACE TREATMENT

BACKGROUND
Surface dressing or treatment is a very effective maintenance technique which
is capable of greatly extending the life of a structurally sound road pavement if
the process is undertaken at the optimum time. Examples of the kinds of road
conditions suitable for the treatment of surface dressings are;
- Loss of road surface skid resistance.
- Hairline cracking of road surface.
- Poor running surface through loss of aggregate.
- Surfacing low volume sealed roads
Under certain circumstances surface dressing may also retard the rate of
failure of a structurally inadequate road pavement by preventing the ingress of
water and thus preserving the inherent strength of the pavement layers and
the subgrade.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
A surface treatment comprises a thin film of binder sprayed onto a previously
primed roadbase, or existing road surface and then covered with a layer of
stone chippings.
The thin film of binder acts as a waterproofing layer preventing the entry of
surface water into the road structure. The stone chippings protect this film of
binder from damage by vehicle tyres, and form a durable, skid-resistant and
dust-free wearing surface. It should be understood that surface dressing does
not contribute to the structural strength of the road structure but can contribute
to the performance of a road by preventing the entrance of water.

FEATURES
Types of surface dressing
Surface treatments s can be constructed in a number of ways to suit site
conditions. The common two types are described below.

Single Bituminous Surface Treatment.


When applied as a maintenance operation to an existing bituminous road
surface a single surface treatment can fulfil the functions required of
maintenance re-seal, namely waterproofing the road surface, arresting
deterioration, and restoring skid resistance.
Double Bituminous Surface Treatment
Double surface treatments are robust and should be used when;
- a new roadbase is surfaced
- extra ‘cover’ is required on an existing bituminous road surface
because of its condition (e.g. when the surface is more badly cracked
or patched);
- the chippings available are particularly poorly shaped; or
- the chippings available are particularly weak, and crush or grind down
quickly.
The quality of a double surface dressing will be greatly enhanced if traffic is
allowed to run on the first coat for a minimum period of 2-3 weeks (and

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 10


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

preferably longer) before the second coat is applied. This allows the chippings
of the first coat to adopt a stable interlocking mosaic that provides a firm
foundation for the second and final treatment.

DESIGN ASPECTS
The principal factors that influence the design of surface treatments are the
traffic, existing road surface conditions, size and type of chippings and the
type of bituminous binder.

Chippings
The selection of chipping sizes is based on the volume of commercial vehicles
(AADT) and the hardness of the existing pavement. Ideally, chippings used for
surface dressing should be single sized, cubical in shape clean and free from
dust, strong, durable, and not vulnerable to polishing under the action of
traffic. Samples of the chippings should be tested for grading, flakiness index,
and aggregate crushing value.
The nominal sizes of chippings normally used for surface dressing are 6, 10,
14 and 20 mm. Specifications for maximum aggregate crushing value (ACV),
typically lie in the range 20 to 35. For lightly trafficked roads the higher value
is likely to be adequate but on more heavily trafficked roads a maximum ACV
of 20 is recommended.
Flaky chippings are those with a thickness (smallest dimension) less than 0.6
of their nominal size. The proportion of flaky chippings clearly affects the
average thickness of a single layer of the chippings, and it is for this reason
the concept of the ‘average least dimension’ (ALD) of chippings has been
introduced. In effect the ALD is the average thickness of a single layer of
chippings when they have bedded down into their final interlocked positions.
The amount of binder required to retain a layer of chippings is related to the
ALD of the chippings rather than to their nominal size.

Bituminous binder
The correct choice of bitumen for surface treatment work is important. The
bitumen must fulfil a number of important requirements. They must;
- be capable of being sprayed;
- ‘wet’ the surface of the road in a continuous film;
- not run off a cambered road or form pools of binder in local
depressions;
- ‘wet’ and adhere to the chippings at road temperature;
- be strong enough to resist traffic forces and hold the chippings at the
highest prevailing ambient temperatures;
- remain flexible at the lowest ambient temperature, neither cracking nor
becoming brittle enough to allow traffic to ‘pick-off’ the chippings; and
- resist premature weathering and hardening.

Penetration grade bitumen’s


Penetration grade bitumen’s vary between 80/100 to approximately 700
penetration.
The softer penetration grade binders are produced at the refinery or, in the
field, using different amounts of kerosene, diesel or a blend of kerosene and

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 11


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

diesel. With higher solvent contents the binder has too low a viscosity to be
classed as being of penetration grade and is then referred to as cutback
bitumen which, for surface dressing work, is usually an MC3000 grade.
Bitumen emulsion
Cationic bitumen emulsion with a bitumen content of 70 to 75 per cent is
recommended for most surface dressing work. This type of binder can be
applied at a temperature between 70 and 85C and once applied it will break
rapidly on contact with chippings of most mineral types. The cationic
emulsifier is normally an anti-stripping agent and this ensures good initial
bonding between chippings and the bitumen.

Cutback bitumen’s.
Except for very cold conditions, MC3000 grade cutback is normally the most
fluid binder used for surface dressings. This grade of cutback is basically an
80/100 penetration grade bitumen blended with approximately 12 to 14 per
cent by volume of a 3:1 mixture of kerosene and diesel.

Surface treatment design for roads carrying less than 100 vehicles per
day
If a low volume road, carrying less than approximately 100 vehicles per day, is
surfaced it is very important that the seal is designed to be as durable as
possible to minimise the need for subsequent maintenance.
A double surface dressing should be used on new roadbases and the
maximum durability of the seal can be obtained by using the heaviest
application of bitumen which does not result in bleeding.
Where crushing facilities are put in place solely to produce chippings for a
project, it will be important to maximise use of the crusher output. This will
require the use of different combinations of chipping sizes and
correspondingly different bitumen spray rates. It may be desirable to use
chippings of a larger size than those recommended for reasons of economy.
It is recommended that on low volume roads the binder spray rates should be
increased above the basic rate of spread of binder. It is important that these
increased spray rates are adjusted on the basis of trial sections and local
experience.

PLANT AND EQUIPMENT


Bituminous binder distributors
The success of a surface dressing is very dependent on the binder being
applied uniformly at the correct rate of spread. The method adopted for
distributing binder must therefore;
- be capable of spreading the binder uniformly and at the predetermined
rate of spread; and
- be able to spray a large enough area in a working day to match the
required surface dressing programme.

Chipping spreaders
Chippings can be spread on the sprayed binder by hand and good results can
be obtained by this method providing a well-trained and plentiful labour force
is available. In general, however, better results will be obtained when
chippings are spread mechanically since this facilitates a more even

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 12


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

distribution and rapid application of the chippings after the binder has been
sprayed.

Rollers
The rolling of a surface treatment plays an important part in ensuring the
retention of the chippings by assisting in the initial orientation and bedding
down of the chippings in the binder. Steel wheeled rollers tend to crush
weaker aggregates and to crack poorly shaped chippings. If steel wheeled
rollers are used they should not exceed 8 tonnes in weight and should only be
used on chippings which are strong enough. In general pneumatic tyred
rollers are preferred. These have the advantage that the kneading action of
the tyres tends to manoeuvre the chippings into a tight mosaic without splitting
them and they do not ‘bridge’ depressions in the underlying road surface as is
the tendency with steel wheeled rollers.

CONSTRUCTION ASPECTS
Preparation for surface dressing
A typical sequence of events in the planning of a surface dressing operation is
as follows;
1. Select lengths of road requiring surface dressing and detail the
preliminary work required on each road before the surface dressing can
be carried out.
2. Implement the necessary preliminary work such as patching, heating
and planning, shoulder and edge repairs, drainage works,
reinstatement of service trenches etc. Allow as much time as possible
for trafficking before commencement of surface dressing operations.
3. Decide on the type of surface dressing, the binder to be used and
nominal chipping sizes.
4. Ensure that the chippings will be of adequate quality with suitable ALD
value(s). Stockpile chippings at convenient points along the road to be
sealed to minimise haul distances during construction. Sample the
chippings and confirm their suitability, modify the surface dressing
design if necessary.
5. Order the appropriate binder for the anticipated weather conditions, or
make provision for blending and adding adhesion agents as required.
6. Ensure that all the plant and equipment of the unit is in good working
order.
7. Instruct the construction team of the details of the work programme.
8. Inform the police and other organisations likely to be affected by the
surface dressing operation.
9. Inform the Materials Laboratory and arrange for the testing of
aggregates and binder and rate of spread checks during spraying.

Surface dressing construction


The following sequence of events normally comprises the complete surface
dressing operation:
1. The supervisor arrives on site with traffic control equipment and
supervises the placing of warning signs, control barriers, traffic cones,
etc.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 13


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

2. The surface dressing unit arrives on site and the distributor is parked
off the road whilst the binder temperature is adjusted using the burners;
binder is circulated through the spray bar, and the jets are checked for
correct operation.
3. The supervisor instructs the distributor crew on the spray rate required,
the corresponding road speed and the pump output, where this is
necessary.
4. The chipping crew either load the tipper lorries with chippings or
distribute the chippings at the location specified by the supervisor.
5. The rollers also prepare to follow the distributor after the chipping
spreading operations.
6. The road is thoroughly swept and road furniture is masked so as to
prevent contamination with binder.
7. Cut-off sheets of paper or other material are placed at the beginning
and end of the spray run. The supervisor checks that the road is in fit
condition for spraying.
8. The burners on the distributor are extinguished and, with the machine
standing level, the dip stick provided with the distributor is used to
checked and record the volume of bitumen in the tank. The distributor
is then positioned at the beginning of the spray run.
9. The distributor then commences the spraying run. If mechanised
spreading is done the cut-off sheets being removed immediately the
distributor passes to avoid contamination of the wheels of the chip
spreader or tipper lorries.
10. The chip spreader, tippers and the rollers should follow closely behind
the distributor. Spraying should be stopped if the chipping operation is
delayed for any reason. A strip of binder 150mm wide is left un-chipped
at the edge of the lane to allow for the overlap of the adjacent run of the
distributor.
11. A tipper and crew should move slowly over the new dressing,
spreading chippings by hand shovels on areas where there is a
deficiency of chippings.
12. The operation is then repeated on the adjacent pass (if any) and traffic
is allowed to move slowly over the new dressing.
13. The distributor then returns to a level site and the volume of binder
remaining s checked. The supervisor records the amount of binder
used, and knowing he total area sprayed, calculates the average rate-
of-spread.
14. Speed control and other traffic warning signs are left in position along
the length of the new surface dressing.
15. At the completion of the day's work the distributor spray bar is cleaned,
all vehicles and plant refuelled and lubricated and the supervisor
checks that the bitumen heaters are loaded ready to supply the binder
required for the next day.

After-care of surface dressing


After-care is an essential part of the surfacing process and consists of
removing excess chippings within 24 to 48 hours of the construction of a
dressing. Some of the excess chippings will have been thrown clear by
passing vehicles but some loose chippings will remain on the surface and

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 14


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

these are a hazard to windscreens and hence a source of public complaint.


They can be removed by brooming or by purposed made suction cleaners.
Care must be taken with brooming to avoid damage to the new dressing and it
is usually best to do this work in the early morning when the surface dressing
binder is still relatively stiff. It is important to stress that over-chipping can
reduce the quality of a dressing, make after-care more time consuming and
also unnecessarily increase costs.

REFERENCE DATA AND FURTHER INFORMATION


Transport Research Laboratory (2000). A Guide to Surface Dressing in
Tropical and Sub-Tropical Countries. Overseas Road Note No 3. (2nd
Edition). Crowthorne: TRL Limited.
Hitch L S and Stewart M (1987). The Preparation of Cutback Bitumens to
ASTM
Specifications by Blending Readily Available Constituents. Department of
Transport, TRRL Report RR104, Crowthorne.
TRL Limeted and DFID, 2003. Manual for the labour-based construction of
bituminous surfacing on low -volume roads.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 15


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

SECTION 5400: BITUMINOUS SURFACE DRESSING

CONTENTS

5401 SCOPE

5402 MATERIALS

5403 EQUIPMENT

5404 EXECUTION OF THE WORK

5405 ROLLING

5406 APPLICATION OF THE SECOND COAT OF SURFACE DRESSING

5407 OPENING TO TRAFFIC

5408 QUALITY CONTROL OF MATERIALS AND WORK

5409 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

5401 SCOPE

This work shall consist of supply and application of one or two courses of bituminous binder material
and cover aggregates over the Road Base in accordance with these Specifications and the lines,
dimensions and cross-section shown on the Drawings. When one application of bituminous material and
aggregate is placed it is termed as Single Bituminous Surface Dressing (SBSD). When two applications
of bituminous material and aggregate are placed it is termed as Double Bituminous Surface Dressing
(DBSD).

5402 MATERIALS

Bitumen

Bitumen shall be of penetration grade 80/100 conforming to the requirements of ASTM/AASHTO. The
Contractor shall provide a supplier's test certificate that the bitumen conforms to Specification. The
bitumen shall be stored and handled in such a manner that risks of fire and other hazards, and of
pollution, are eliminated. Sufficient storage shall be provided to contain at least 7 days supply of bitumen
to meet the programmed rate of production.

Aggregate

Aggregate shall consist of clean, hard, dry, tough, sound, crushed stone or crushed gravel of uniform
quality free from dust, clay, dirt and other deleterious matter and from excess of flat or laminated pieces.
The aggregate shall have the following characteristics:

Aggregate Impact value shall not exceed 30 (BS 812)


Water absorption shall not exceed 2%
Flakiness Index shall not exceed 30

When crushed gravel is used, not less than 90% by weight of the particles retained on a 6.3 mm sieve
shall have at least one fractured face. The size of stone chippings shall be as follows:

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 16


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

Nominal Size of
Type of Construction Specification
stone chippings
Single bituminous surface dressing 100% Passing through
1. or the first coat of double 14 mm 20mm sieve and retained
bituminous surface treatment on 10mm sieve.
Second coat of double bituminous 100% Passing through
2. surface dressing 10 mm 12.5mm sieve and retained
on 6.3mm sieve.

The two sizes of aggregate shall be stockpiled separately.

Quantities of Materials

The quantities of materials used per square metre of this work shall be as follows:

Stone Chippings
Type of Construction Bitumen
Nominal Size Quantity
Single bituminous surface dressing
1. or the first coat of double 14 mm 0.015 m3 1.2 to 1.4 kg
bituminous surface dressing.
Second coat of double bituminous
2. 10 mm 0.008 m3 0.8 to 1.0 kg
surface dressing

5403 EQUIPMENT

All plant and equipment required to undertake the works shall be in good working order, hand methods
may be used Equipment required shall Trailer type bitumen sprayer with nozzle and miscellaneous hand
tools – the bitumen sprayer in particular will need to conform with the following:

Bitumen Sprayer

The bitumen distributor shall be so designed, equipped, maintained and operated that bituminous material,
at even heat, may be applied uniformly over variable widths of surface, at a controlled rate.

The sprayer shall be pneumatic tire towed type of minmum1000 litres capacity with spraying capacity of 30
ltr/min by gear rotary pump, gasoline engine or diesel with 5 hp/rated output, atomizing type diesel oil
burner, 19 mm diax 5 m long asphalt hose pipe with hand spray lance. The equipment must be double
circulating system, the asphalt pump and piping system shall be such a way that heating chamber lines
should be evenly heated.

A suitable dial type thermometer shall be installed in the heated drum to check that spraying
temperatures are correct.

A spray test shall be carried out on the site in the presence of the Engineer before the spraying is permitted
on the Works. The Contractor shall provide all necessary equipment for the test, the cost of which shall be
deemed to be included in the contract rates.

5404 EXECUTION OF THE WORK

Weather Limitations

The surface treatment work shall be carried out only when the atmospheric temperature in the shade is
above 16oC. No bituminous material shall normally be applied when the surface to be covered is damp
and when the weather is foggy or rainy, or during dust storms.

Preparation of Base

The base on which the surface treatment is to be laid shall be thoroughly swept and clean of dust, loose
dirt and any other objectionable material before the spraying of the binder.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 17


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

Application of Bituminous Material

Bitumen shall be heated to between 135oC and 155oC and the specified quantity shall be sprayed on to
the dry surface in a uniform manner using a mechanical sprayer. Bitumen that has been overheated by
O
more than 10 C at any time shall be rejected. Excessive deposits of binder caused by stopping or
starting spraying operations or through leakage or for any other reason shall be rectified before the
stone chippings are spread.

Application of Stone Chippings

Immediately after the application of binder, stone chippings in a dry and clean state, shall be spread
uniformly on the surface, by means of an approved aggregate spreader or manually, so as to cover the
surface completely. If necessary, the surface shall be broomed to ensure the uniform spread of
chippings. The stone chippings shall be spread not later than 3 minutes after application of the binder
course.

5405 ROLLING

Immediately after the application of the stone chippings, the entire surface shall be rolled with an
approved smooth wheeled steel roller having sufficient weight to embed the stone chippings into the
binder without crushing them, or with a pneumatic tired roller. While rolling is in progress additional
chippings shall be spread by hand in whatever quantities are required to make up irregularities. Rolling
shall continue until all aggregate particles are firmly bedded in the binder and present a uniform closed
surface. The compacted surface shall be well closed with the stone chippings firmly embedded in the
bitumen and not easily removed by hand. Based on trials, the Engineer shall fix the minimum number of
roller passes for each coat, which shall not be less than four.

5406 APPLICATION OF THE SECOND COAT OF SURFACE DRESSING

In case of DBSD the second coat shall be applied immediately after laying the first coat or within 15
days. The construction operations for the second coat shall be the same as for the first coat.

5407 OPENING TO TRAFFIC

Traffic shall not be permitted to run on any newly laid area until the following day. In special
circumstances, however, the Engineer may open the road to traffic immediately after rolling, but in such
cases speed shall be limited to 16 km per hour until the following day.

5408 QUALITY CONTROL OF MATERIALS AND WORK

The Engineer shall exercise control over quality of the materials incorporated and works performed
through quality control tests carried out to frequencies indicated herein under. The frequencies are the
minimum, and the Engineer shall have the authority to have these tests at more frequent intervals where
quality of a material or work is in doubt.

Material Type of Test Frequency


Bitumen Conform to Specification As deemed necessary
Temperature of boiling During boiling
Temperature of spraying During spraying
Aggregate Gradation One test per 500m (more
frequently than one if material
character changes)
Aggregate Impact Value -do-
Flakiness Index -do-
Water Absorption -do-

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 18


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

5409 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

Item Surface dressing: Unit


5400.01 First layer bituminous surface dressing Sqm.
5400.02 Second layer bituminous surface dressing Sqm.

This work shall be measured as the area in square metres of surface treatment completed and
accepted.

The work measured shall be paid for at the Contract unit prices and as shown in the Bill of Quantities.
The payment shall be full compensation for supply and placing all materials, including all labour,
equipment, tools and incidentals necessary to complete the works.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 19


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

PENETRATION MACADAM BASE

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
Bituminous Penetration Macadam is essentially a course of large, uniform
graded aggregate that, after compacting and keying, is bound and filled with
alternate applications of a heavy bituminous material and smaller aggregate.
Thickness of one course varies from 35 to 65mm. These surfaces are stable
and withstand considerable tearing action of traffic. This construction is used
also as a binder or base course for plant-mix surfacing.

FEATURES
After trafficking the Penetration Macadam is effectively similar to asphalt
concrete. The basic form of this surfacing is constructed using a layer of
coarse aggregate spread and compacted well in dry state followed by a
second layer of smaller coarse aggregate and finally a third layer of still
smaller aggregate bound together by the interlocking of the layers after rolling.
Hot bituminous binder of relatively high viscosity is sprayed in fairly large
quantities at the top. The bitumen penetrates into the voids from the surface of
the compacted aggregates, thus filling up a part of the voids and binding the
aggregates together. Deepening upon the quantity of bitumen spread and
extent of penetration, it is called “full-grout” when bitumen penetrate to the full
depth of the compacted aggregates and “ semi-grout” when it penetrates up to
about half of the depth. Full-grout is adopted in regions of heavy rain fall and
Semi-grout is adopted in regions of moderate rain fall and traffic. Penetration
Macadam is very strong, why this type of surfacing is likely to be the best
solution for sites where road geometry such as tight bends and gradients
cause severe traffic loading on the surface.

DESIGN ASPECTS

Aggregate:
Any clean, angular, but not necessarily dry aggregate can be used. Crushed
aggregate is normally used because this material helps to generate a stable,
interlocking layer after it has been compacted. Uncrushed gravel materials
can be screened for use in such a layer if the aggregate particles have
considerable surface texture. The extraction and sizing of aggregate can be
carried out by labour based methods where the material is reduced by hand
crushing, i.e. breaking down of the aggregate with the use of small hammers.

The proportions of aggregate of different single sizes used in the basic three
layer construction of penetration macadam are;

- 60% of 40mm single sized stone,


- 30% of 28mm single sized stone,
- 10% of 14 to 20mm single sized stone.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 20


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

Voids within the three layers will remain after compaction using a pedestrian
roller. Therefore, a supply of 10 to 14 mm single sized stone, sand or crusher
dust is required in combination with further compaction to fill these voids and
produce a satisfactory surface.

Binder

The complete construction procedure will typically require 3.0 to 3.7 litres of
Penetration Grade Bitumen or 5.5 to 7 litres per square metre of rapid break
bitumen emulsion such as K1-70 or CRS-2. Heating of emulsion is not
needed and watering cans can be used for application if they are fitted with
suitable multi-holed distribution spouts.

Bitumen of Penetration Grade 60/80 or 80/100

CONSTRUCTION ASPECTS

Equipment, tools and materials

Measuring tape of minimum 10 metre length,


String,
Shovels,
Rakes,
Brooms,
Watering cans,
Wheelbarrows,
Buckets,
Pedestrian roller, Static 8-10 ton Roller
Water.
Mechanised or motorised Bitumen Distributor
Bitumen Heater
Bitumen Thermometer

WORK METHOD

Construction Notes
1. Mark out the area of the road
to be surfaced that day.
2. Unload aggregates outside the Ensure aggregates do not become
area of road to be treated. contaminated with dirt and dust.

3. Unload aggregates outside the

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 21


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

area of road to be treated.

4. Spread the 40mm aggregate Aggregate is laid by hand.


on the road surface.
5. Spread the 28mm aggregate.
6. Spread the 40mm aggregate Aggregate is laid by hand.
on the road surface.
7. Roll and compact the two Rolling should begin from the edges
layers of aggregate. of the road and work towards the
centre.
8. Spread the 14mm-20mm
stone.
9. Roll and compact the Continue rolling until no movement of
aggregate. the aggregate is seen.

10. Dampen the surface of the


aggregate with water.
11. Apply emulsion or Hot Bitumen
to the newly rolled surface
at rate of 2 litres per square
metre.
12. Spread 10 to 14 mm aggregate
to just fill large voids in the
surface.
13. Roll and compact the surface

14. Apply emulsion or Hot Bitumen Apply with watering cans.


to the newly rolled surface
at rate of 1.2 litres per square
metre.

15. Repeat steps 10 to 12 with the The complete construction procedure


'blinding' of the surface will typically require 5.5 to 7 litres per
by sand or crusher dust until square metre of bitumen emulsion to
the surface appears free of be applied.
voids.

MAINTENANCE

Normal periodic and routine maintenance activities are essential to ensure


good road performance. Surface maintenance works such as patching and
crack sealing are conducive to labour based approaches.

REFERENCE DATA AND FURTHER INFORMATION


Highway Engineering, S.K.Khanna - C.E.G.Justo 7th edition
Technical Specifications, Capital of Colombia

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 22


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

SECTION 5800: PENETRATION MACADAM BASE

CONTENTS

01 SCOPE

02 MATERIALS

03 EQUIPMENT

04 CONSTRUCTION METHODS

05 QUALITY CONTROL

06 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

01 SCOPE

This Item of the specifications shall consist of the construction of a Penetration Macadam Base placed
on a 25mm granular insulation course over a prepared subgrade and topped with a 25mm blotter course
of key aggregates; conforming to the line, grade, thickness, and typical cross section shown on the
plans.
Penetration Macadam base can be constructed in two (2) or more courses.

02 MATERIALS

Coarse aggregates shall consist of sound, durable particles, and shall not contain deleterious material
such as shale or disintegrated stone in excess of fifteen percent (15%). The crushed aggregates shall
have a percent of wear not to exceed fifty percent (50%) when tested in accordance with AASHTO 96-
58 (c) (Los Angeles Abrasion).

It shall meet the following gradation requirements:


Sieve Size For 40mm For 28 mm For 14-20 mm
mm % by weight Passing % by weight Passing % by weight Passing
50 100
37.5 80-100 100
20 35-70 75-100 100
12 0-10
6.3 0-10 0-10

Insulation course shall be either coarse sand or coarse screening. Screening shall consist of tough,
durable particles of crushed stone.
Insulation material shall be free from dirt and other objectionable material.

Blotter course of key aggregates.


Material shall be crushed stone, free from dirt and other objectionable material and shall have the
following gradation:
Passing 14mm sieve 100%
Passing 9mm sieve, not more than 75%
Passing No. 10 sieve 10-30%

Bitumen Binder
Bitumen Penetration grades 60/80 or 80/100 or Emulsified bitumen

Inspection.
All materials and work shall be subject to inspection at all times by the Engineer, or his duly authorized
representative, and no materials shall be delivered or accepted nor work performed without proper
authorization of the Engineer.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 23


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

In order to assure the use of suitable materials, the Engineer shall have the right to make any
inspections he may deem necessary, either at the plant of the Contractor, or his supplier, or on the job
site.
The Engineer may at any time authorize the collection of samples of materials, from any source he may
direct, and subject them to tests provided for in these specifications, by a recognized reputable testing
laboratory for determination of their quality and fitness for work under this Contract. The expense of
such sampling and testing shall be borne by the City of Columbia. The Contractor shall provide such
facilities as may be required for collecting samples.

03 EQUIPMENT

All equipment, tools, machinery and other appliances used in handling materials and performing any
part of the work shall be subject to the approval of the Engineer before the work is started and whenever
found unsatisfactory shall be changed and improved as required by the Engineer. All equipment, tools
and machinery used must be maintained in satisfactory working condition.
Rollers and compactors shall include self-powered three (3) wheeled and tandem steel rollers and self-
propelled pneumatic-tired rollers, weighing not less than seven (7) nor more than ten (10) tons, and
multiple vibratory compactors of approved design.
Steel-wheeled rollers shall be equipped with scrapers to keep the surface of the wheels clean. All rollers
and compactors shall be equipped with devices to wet the wheels, or contact surface, to prevent the
material being compacted from sticking to them.

04 CONSTRUCTION METHODS

Aggregate lateral confinement


When no curb and gutter or side forms are used, well compacted shoulders with vertical face for the full
depth of the course or layer shall be prepared in advance of spreading aggregate so as to permit the
roller to lap the shoulder and edge of each course or layer of the pavement. The shoulder material shall
be kept levelled at the proper elevation to avoid irregularities extending into the macadam.

Insulation Course
When the subgrade has been adjusted to true line and grade to the satisfaction of the Engineer, a
blanket of insulation course material, as specified above, shall be spread on the subgrade and
compacted to a minimum thickness of 25mm.

Spreading of Aggregate
The Aggregates are spread in three separate and compacted courses before first bitumen application.
The first layer of coarse aggregate, 40 mm shall be spread uniformly upon the prepared surface in such
quantities that the thickness of compacted layer is “one stone thick”. Spread on top a layer of the
28mm aggregate. The two layers of aggregates are dry-rolled with a 10 ton static road roller until the
aggregates are compacted and interlocked. Spread the 14mm-20mm stones. Roll and compact the
aggregate. Continue rolling until no movement of the aggregate is seen.
The surface of the aggregate shall be carefully turned up with templates and level all high or low spots
by removing or adding aggregates as may be the case. The irregularities are much easier to correct in
loose layer than later.
The surface shall not vary more than 12mm from a 3 meter straightedge applied to the surface parallel
to the centre line of the pavement. Areas of the pavement which show more than the allowable variation
shall be loosened and reconstructed in accordance with these specifications and to the complete
satisfaction of the Engineer.

First coat of Bitumen Application


Over the dry and compacted three layered course, the first coat of bitumen is applied uniformly either
with pressure distributor or mechanical hand sprayer. The quantity of heated bitumen required for this
purpose is around 1.8 litres per square metre.

If emulsified bitumen is used, dampen the surface of the aggregate with water. Apply emulsion to the
newly rolled surface at rate of 2 litres per square metre. This operation can be applied with watering
cans.

Spreading of first Blotter course of key aggregates


After the application of bitumen, the key aggregates, 10 to 14 mm, are spread and compacted to just fill
voids in the surface.

Second coat of Bitumen Application


On top of the blinded compacted three layered course, the second coat of bitumen is applied uniformly
either with pressure distributor or mechanical hand sprayer. The quantity of bitumen required for this
second application is around 1.2 litres per square metre.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 24


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

Spreading of final Blotter course of key aggregates


After the application of second coat of bitumen, the second and final layer of key aggregates, 10 to 14
mm, are spread and compacted to fill voids in the surface. The blinding of the surface by sand crusher
dust is continued until the surface appears free of voids.
The complete construction procedure will typically require 3.0 to 3.7 litres per square metre of hot
bitumen or 5.5 to 7 litres per square metre of bitumen emulsion to be applied.

Spreading and Compacting Succeeding Courses of Base Aggregate.


Succeeding course of base aggregate shall be spread, compacted and finished in the same manner and
to the same tolerances as hereinbefore specified for the first course.

Blotter Course. Immediately after the Hot or Emulsified Bitumen has been applied to the final course of
the base aggregate and while it is yet warm, a blotter course of crushed rock, as specified hereinbefore,
shall be spread over the surface in just sufficient quantity to fill the surface interstices. This stone shall
be spread by hand or means of an approved mechanical spreader at the rate of not more than 12
kilogram per square meter. Any cover material remaining unbounded on the pavement shall be swept
up and removed. The top surface of the bitumen coated coarse stone of the final base course shall be
exposed upon completion of the cleaning operation to provide a secure bond for the future surface
course to follow.

05 QUALITY CONTROL
Control over quality of the materials incorporated and works performed through quality control tests
describing Method specification for application of Penetration Macadam.
An approximate test of compaction is to place a piece of metal or a one inch stone on the Hot Mixed
Asphalt surface and run the roller over it. If no imprint is made on the surface or no embedment results,
the compaction may be considered as adequate.

The finished surface shall be uniform and smooth. The longitudinal profile and cross slope shall be
checked using straight edge and camber board. The thickness of the Penetration Macadam course shall
be checked by making as many tests as necessary to determine the average thickness. The average
thickness shall be equal to or greater than the specified compacted thickness.

Inspect the site before bringing Aggregate and bituminous materials and remove any loose materials
that may contaminate the aggregate

Stockpile the aggregates into separate stockpiles for Coarse- Fine- and filler materials. And check that
the coarse aggregate all are most regular shaped.

Check the bitumen drums to determine if the bitumen delivered is the prescribed, approved penetration
grade.

Records shall be maintained at the site of the temperature in all containers used for heating bitumen and
premix carpeting. Temperatures shall be recorded every 30 minutes.
Records shall also be maintained in the site book of the measurements of the thickness of the
compacted layer.
Check that the aggregate in the stockpiles conforms to the grading envelope given.
Check that the area of road to be treated is clearly marked to ensure correct placement and recording of
binder and aggregates.
The binder distributor should be loaded with sufficient binder to complete the marked up work are and at
the correct temperature for spraying.
Check that the aggregates have been placed correctly at intervals and the workforce are ready to
spread the aggregates after the binder distribution.
Check that the binder is sprayed at the design binder spray rate within the given area and make
necessary adjustment together with the spray operator.
Check that no areas are left uncovered and aggregates are not left in heaps.
On the first day of construction the surface traded must receive a minimum of 15 passes by a pneumatic
roller.
Traffic must be restricted in speed to 30 kilometres per hour for two weeks after construction

The finished surface shall be uniform and smooth. The average thickness shall be equal to or greater
than the specified compacted thickness.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 25


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

06 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

The quantities complete in place and accepted, will be paid for at the applicable Contract unit price,
which payment shall be full compensation for preparation of subgrade, furnishing, hauling and placing all
materials, rolling equipment, tools, labour and work incidental thereto. Payment will be made under:

Method No. 1 Penetration Macadam Base shall be measured to the nearest square meter in place.

Method No. 2 Coarse stone, the blotter course, and the insulation course shall be measured in cubic
meter

Bitumen Binder shall be measured to the nearest ten (10) litres.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 26


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

OTTA SEAL

BACKGROUND
An Otta seal is a relatively thin bituminous seal comprising graded gravel or
crushed aggregate containing all sizes and either cut-back or soft penetration
grade bitumen. Otta seals should be considered when;

- a road is to be constructed in a remote area where only natural gravels


occur;
- workmanship may be of indifferent quality;
- flexibility and durability are required to tolerate low quality, low bearing
capacity pavements; or
- there is a low maintenance capability.

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
An Otta seal comprises of a layer of binder followed by a layer of aggregate
that is rolled into the binder using a pneumatic tyred roller or loaded trucks. It
is different to surface dressing in that an 'all in' graded gravel or crushed
aggregate is used instead of single sized chippings. It depends for its success
on the binder being squeezed up through the aggregate by the action of
extensive rolling. Due to the fines in the aggregate, 2 to 3 days or longer of
pneumatic-tyred compaction (rollers or traffic) are required to fully coat all the
particles. An Otta seal may be applied in a single or double layer. Evidence on
the performance of these types of seal constructed by conventional plant
methods has shown them satisfactory for over 12 years on roads carrying up
to 300 vehicles per day.
Binder and aggregate design is by judgement and must be established
through trials. Inadequate trials can give poor results and a loss of confidence
in the construction technique. A wide range of aggregate sources and types
can be used.

DESIGN ASPECTS

Aggregate
The grading of the aggregate material is based on the level of traffic expected.
Generally for roads carrying light traffic (less than 100 vehicles per day), a
'coarse' grading should be chosen while a 'dense' grading should be applied
to roads carrying greater than 100 vehicles per day.
The amount of fines (<0.075 mm) should not exceed 10 per cent. A higher
fine content than this may result in construction problems through the finer
particles being coated before the larger ones which can result in a less
durable surfacing.
Plasticity Index of the aggregate must not exceed 10. No requirement for
Flakiness Index is required for natural gravel or a mixture of crushed rock and
natural gravel in Otta seals. If crushed rock material is used on its own then
the Flakiness Index must not exceed 30.

The recommended aggregate spread rates are given in Table 1.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 27


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

Table 1.

Aggregate spread rate m3/m2

Dense grading Medium grading Coarse grading

0.016 – 0.020 0.013 – 0.016 0.013 – 0.016

Binder
The viscosities of binders used in construction should reflect the grading of
aggregate employed and the level of traffic at the time of construction.
Normally MC 800, MC 3000 or 150/200 penetration grade bitumen are used.
Table 2 shows the recommended binders for Otta seals with different
aggregate grading and traffic levels.
Table 2

Annual Average Aggregate grading


Daily Traffic Dense Medium Coarse

More than 1000 MC 3000 150/200 pen Not suitable for


MC 800 below Otta seal
15oC

100 – 1000 MC 3000 150/200 pen. 150/200 pen.


MC 800 below
15oC

Less than 100 MC 800 MC 3000 150/200 pen.

.
Spray rates are not calculated by design and must be chosen empirically
through road trials. The range of spray rates for different levels of traffic that
can be employed during trials is given below.

- Average annual daily traffic <100 1.8 - 2.2 l/m2


- Average annual daily traffic 100 – 500 1.8 - 2.0 l/m2
- Average annual daily traffic >500 1.6 - 1.8 l/m2

Best results are achieved by spraying the bituminous binder with a self
propelled or tractor drawn bitumen distributor. However application by hand
lance, if skilfully carried out, can achieve satisfactory work on small-scale
work.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 28


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

CONSTRUCTION ASPECTS
It is because of the broad range of materials that may be used and the
empirical nature of the design of this type of seal that it is very important that
pre-construction trials be carried out. This strategy will enable any special
local conditions concerning the available aggregates and binders to become
apparent to the engineer so he can adjust the nominal design.

Preparation for Otta sealing


An Otta seal will, like any other type of bituminous seal, not add to the
structural strength of the road and therefore the surface to be treated must
previously have been prepared to withstand the expected traffic levels.
Preparation of the roadbase may include re-gravelling, reshaping and
compaction. Immediately prior to the construction of the Otta seal the
roadbase must be broomed free of sand and excess dust, mud or any other
material that might hinder bonding between the seal and roadbase. Priming of
the roadbase of non-calcareous material is not normally required. Calcareous
material does require priming due to its capacity to absorb high amounts of
bitumen. MC 30 or MC 70 is normally used for priming and are applied at
spray rates between 0.8 and 1.2 l/sqm.

Stockpiles of aggregates must be inspected to see if screening is needed to


remove excess fines or over size particles. The spreading of aggregate can
be carried out with conventional mechanical methods or by more labour
intensive methods. If aggregate is to be spread by hand then small stockpiles
must be placed in sufficient quantities on either side of the road to be treated
at approximately every 10 metres. The aggregate must be placed so as not to
interfere with the binder spraying operation.

Otta sealing construction


1. The area of road to be treated must be marked out by some means such as
with string or small stones. This will ensure the correct placement of binder
and no overspray onto adjoining areas.
2. Controls must be put in place to prevent traffic encroaching within the area
of construction.
3. The binder distributor should be loaded with sufficient binder to complete
the work area and be at the correct temperature for spraying.
4. Cut-off sheets of paper or other material must be placed across the road at
the start and end of the length of road to be sprayed. This produces a tidy
appearance.
5. Check the speed of which the distributor will be driven will produce the
design binder spray rate.
6. Check the aggregate has been placed correctly and the workforce are
ready to spread the aggregate after the distributor run.
7. Check equipment for rolling is positioned ready for rolling.
8. It is recommended the distributor makes a spray run of 100 metres to allow
for immediate covering of the binder with aggregate. Rolling will be able to
begin within 10 minutes of the binder being applied.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 29


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

9. Spreading of the aggregate must begin immediately after the spraying of


binder has begun. The binder must be covered with aggregate as soon as
possible.
10. The supervisor must check that no areas are left uncovered or too little
aggregate is spread. Aggregate must not be left in heaps and a drag broom
pulled manually can help ensure an even distribution before rolling begins.
11. 12 tonne pneumatic-tyred rollers must be used in the construction of Otta
seals although it is possible to use loaded trucks in their place. The section of
treated road may be reopened to traffic after 3 passes of the rollers but on the
day of construction, the surface treated must receive a minimum total of 15
passes.
12. Traffic must be restricted in speed to 30 kilometres per hour for two to
three weeks after construction to minimise the hazard of loose excess
aggregate being thrown up into the air.
13. During this initial period, aggregate that has been displaced by the action
of traffic should be broomed back into the wheel paths. After 2 to 3 weeks the
excess aggregate should be swept away and the traffic speed restriction can
be lifted.
14. If a second layer is to be constructed to make a double Otta seal, then a
minimum of 2 to 3 months should pass before construction takes place.

An important aspect of Otta seal construction that can not be over stressed is
the need for extensive rolling by pneumatic rollers for two to three days or
longer after construction. The action of rolling ensures the binder is forced
upwards, coating the aggregate, and thereby initiating the process, continued
by subsequent trafficking, of forming a premix like appearance to the surface.

REFERENCE DATA AND FURTHER INFORMATION


Experiences with Otta Seals and Gravseals as low cost surfacing alternatives
for Low volume roads in South Africa( S. Oloo, R. Lindsay & S. Mothilal)
Technical Specification; Local Government Engineering Department,
Bangladesh,
TRL Limited and DFID, 2003. Manual for the labour-based construction of
bituminous surfacing on low -volume roads.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 30


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

SECTION 5900: OTTA SEALS

CONTENTS

01 SCOPE

02 MATERIALS

03 PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

04 CONSTRUCTION METHODS

05 QUALITY CONTROL

06 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

01 SCOPE

An Otta seal is an bituminous surface treatment constructed by placing a graded aggregate on top of a
thick application of relatively soft bituminous binding agent. The binder works its way up and into the
aggregate with rolling and traffic.
This work consists of one or two careful applications of bituminous material and cover aggregate on
properly cleaned and prepared base course surface. When one application of bituminous material and
cover aggregate is placed, the term "Single Otta Seal" shall apply. When two applications of bituminous
material and cover aggregate are placed, the term "Double Otta Seal" shall apply

02 MATERIALS

Bituminous material:
Bituminous binder for Otta seal shall be a cut back product of 180/200 penetration grade bitumen.
Power paraffin and Engine Oil (SAE 30 grade) are blended as cutter by the proportions 10% and 8%
respectively as percentages of total volume at blending temperature of the bitumen (minimum 140°C) or
with 5% to 8% kerosene as an alternative if approved by the Engineer. The hot binder is applied at a
rate of 1.6 to 2.2 litre/sqm. depending on the Average annual daily traffic and grading of the aggregates.

Aggregates:
Both natural gravel and crushed gravel or a mixture of both may be used. The maximum size of stone
shall be 16mm.Screening of aggregate shall be required to remove over size stones as well as excess
of fines. The gradation of aggregate is given below. For light traffic (less than 100 vehicles per day),
gradation should be in the courser side and at finer side for more than 100 vehicles per day. For roads
carrying more than 200 vehicles per day, a blend of crushed and uncrushed aggregate at a ratio of
30/70% is preferable. The aggregate strength shall have a minimum dry 10% FACT strength value (ref
BIS 812) 70 Kn, or an ACV value (aggregate crushing value. ref BSI 812) not more than 35 Kn. If
crushed aggregate is used, the weighted Flakiness index shall be determined using 13.2 mm and
6.7mm sieves and shall not exceed 30%.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 31


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

Passing the sieve (% by mass)


Sieve size (mm)
Dense Graded Coarse Graded
19 100 100
16 79-100 77-100
12 61-100 59-100
9.5 42-100 40-85
4.75 19-68 17-46

2.36 8-51 1-20


1.18 6-40 01-10
0.600 3-30 0-3
0.300 2-21 0-2
0.150 1-16 0-1
75 micron 0-10 0-1

Preparation of Binder:
Emptying of the 180/200 pen. bitumen from drums into bitumen heater shall be carried out under strict
control. Any open drum must be checked if water is present and shall be removed before pouring into
the bitumen boiler. The bitumen boiler shall be equipped with gas or paraffin/diesel burner and a
thermometer to control over-heating of bitumen. The bitumen level in the distributor shall be maintained
to minimum of 150mm above the heating flue before the burner is operated.

The adding of cutter (power paraffin) and engine oil or kerosene at the correct quantity shall follow the
same procedure as for the bitumen and be added using the designed hose and valve not through the
manhole. The power paraffin shall be added first followed by engine oil.

The maximum temperature of the bitumen (180/200 pen.) during the blending process shall not exceed
140°C. To ensure a homogeneous mix of the component the blend shall be circulated for minimum one
hour after all the component are filled into the distribution. The last 15 minutes before spraying the blend
shall also be circulated through the spray bar. During the circulation time the binder is heated up to the
required spray temperature of minimum 150°C and maximum 155°C. Binder blend shall not be held at
temperatures within the spraying range for a period exceeding 10 (ten) hours.

Processing of Aggregate:
Prior to commencement of sealing, stockpiles of aggregate shall be checked to ensure that they are free
from over sizes and excess fines. The spreading of aggregate could be done manually and in that view,
stockpiling of aggregate along the road side must be carefully planned in order to have a sufficient
volume of aggregate for the sealing operation. Stockpiled aggregate shall be placed in such way that the
stockpiles do not interfere with the spraying operation.

Spraying of Binder:
Area to be sprayed shall be set out with a string line and shall be 20cm off verge of the spray. Prior to
spraying, all the necessary arrangement for sealing shall be ensured. No priming is needed for Otta
Seals. The application rate of binder shall be 1.6 litre/Sqm. to 2.2 litre/Sqm. A light spray of water in
some cases may be required to develop a good bond between the base and the seal.

Spreading of Aggregate:
Labour intensive methods can extensively and successfully be adopted in Otta Seal surfacing. The
spreading of aggregate for an Otta Seal does not require any mechanical equipment; manually
spreading of aggregate can be considered as appropriate. Aggregate shall be stockpiled with sufficient
quantity at staggered intervals (left and right hand side of the road) of 10 metres or as seems to be
appropriate. The spreading of aggregate @1.3 to 2.0 cum per 100 sqm. of road surface shall be
commenced immediately after spraying the binder. It is essential that the binder shall be covered with
aggregate as quickly as possible. Close supervision and special care shall be exercised during the
spreading of aggregate sequence to ensure that there are no areas left out with too little aggregate or
no aggregate at all. Any such spot shall be covered with aggregate immediately. The drag-broom shall
be pulled manually to distribute the aggregate more evenly before rolling takes place.

Inclement Weather:
No spraying binder shall be carried out on a wet pavement, while rain appears to be immanent or during
high winds. The supervising staff may order work to be ceased temporarily on the ground of inclement
weather.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 32


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

Safety Precautions:
Blending of cut back bitumen on site may be a hazardous operation. Appropriate precautions shall be
taken to safeguard personnel handling the operation against fire and hot bituminous spray. The
personnel shall be protected with overalls, boots, caps, gloves and safety glasses.

03 PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

Plant and equipment required for the production, transportation, spreading and compaction of the
bituminous seal must be in good working order and shall have sufficient capacity to ensure the works
are carried out in the required manner.
Various plants and equipments required for the job include:
Bitumen Distributor: Motorised or manual pressure distributor with spray bar.
Bitumen Heater with temperature control..
Steel Wheeled rollers and Pneumatic Tyreed Rollers’
Wheelbarrows, brooms, shovels, rakes and lutes

Compaction shall be undertaken with sufficient rollers of adequate size and weight to achieve the
required compaction and surface finish. The contractor shall through a trial demonstrate the adequacy of
his equipment in providing a bituminous seal to the specified requirements.

04 CONSTRUCTION METHODS

The preparation of the road base to be surfaced shall be in such a condition that a good bond between
the base and surfacing is developed. The base shall be broomed free of sand, mud, excess dust or any
other foreign materials to aid bonding. Places where lamination can be seen in the top, base shall be
removed and repaired. The brooming work shall preferably be carried out manually.

A spray length of above 100 metre at full sealing width shall be taken in one lift so that an immediate
cover with aggregate and rolling operation can be started within 10 minutes after the bituminous binder
is applied.

If any initial occurrence of fatty spots shall be blinded off with more aggregate and rolled. During
spreading of aggregate care shall be exercised to apply the cover material a bit excessive in order to
ensure proper covering. Applications in excess shall be broomed off about a week after completion. All
of the loose aggregate shall however not be broomed off as the remaining aggregate plays an important
rule in forming the final surfacing.

Rolling:
Immediately following the spreading of aggregate to the satisfaction of the engineer, rolling shall
commence (Preferable within 1- minutes after spraying of binder) with a pneumatic tyred roller to embed
the chips in the bituminous binder.

Rolling shall generally begin at the outer edge of surfacing and progress uniformly toward the centre
accept on super elevated curves where rolling shall begin at the lower edge and progress uniformly
towards the higher edge. Consecutive roller passes shall generally overlap by about one half of the
roller's width.

After the day’s production is completed, rolling shall commence for the entire sprayed area with all
rolling equipment available and may continue until dawn. The following day from noon time rolling shall
be commenced again and be continued for the rest period of the day.

Opening to Traffic:
When the initial rolling with the pneumatic roller is completed, commercial traffic could be allowed in the
surfaced area. The Speed of traffic shall be temporarily reduced to avoid the damage to the aggregate
cover materials. Maximum speed limit of 30-40 Km/hour shall, therefore, be enforced during the first
month after construction using drums as speed breaker. The contractor shall employ people to ensure
the drums are effective.

05 QUALITY CONTROL
It is important for this type of seal that pre-construction trials are carried out. During these trials the
optimum binder content and aggregate spray shall he established. Control over quality of the materials
incorporated and works performed through quality control tests describing Method specification for
application of Otta Seal.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 33


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

Inspect the site before bringing Aggregate and bituminous materials and remove any loose materials
that may contaminate the aggregate

Stockpile the admixture graded aggregates into stockpiles and check that the aggregate are with the
given grading specification.

Check the bitumen drums to determine if the bitumen delivered is the prescribed, approved penetration
grade.

Records shall be maintained at the site of the temperature in all containers used for heating bitumen
and. temperatures shall be recorded every 30 minutes.

Records shall also be maintained in the site book of the daily consumption of binder and aggregate over
that days covered area.

Check that the aggregate in the stockpiles conforms to the grading envelope given.

Check that the area of road to be treated is clearly marked to ensure correct placement and recording of
binder and aggregates.

The binder distributor should be loaded with sufficient binder to complete the marked up work are and at
the correct temperature for spraying.

Check that the aggregates have been placed correctly at intervals and the workforce are ready to
spread the aggregates after the binder distribution.

Check that the binder is sprayed at the design binder spray rate within the given area and make
necessary adjustment together with the spray operator.

Check that no areas are left uncovered and aggregates are not left in heaps.

On the first day of construction the surface traded must receive a minimum of 15 passes by a pneumatic
roller. Roll the Otta seal using a pneumatic tyred roller until the bitumen can be seen pressing up
between the aggregate particles.

Traffic must be restricted in speed to 30 kilometres per hour for two weeks after construction

06 MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

The quantities, complete in place and accepted Otta Seal surface , will be paid for at the applicable
Contract unit price, which payment shall be full compensation for preparation of foundation , furnishing,
hauling and placing all materials, rolling equipment, tools, labour and work incidental thereto. Payment
will be made under:

Method No. 1 Ottas Surfacing, Single ,shall be measured to the nearest square meter in place.

Method No. 2 Graded Aggregates shall be measured in cubic meter

Bitumen Binder shall be measured to the nearest ten (10) litres.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 34


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

HOT MIXED ASPHALT, ROAD SIDE MIX

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
The surfacing of roads with Premix Bituminous layers (also called Hot Mix
asphalt) is common on high traffic roads and/or high strength pavements, and
is done using Equipment and plant intensive construction methods. The
historic laying of asphalt by hand has been superseded by equipment and
plant as quality and quantity demands for bituminous surfacing have changed
with increasing vehicle loading and speed. Now the use of bituminous
surfacing in labour enhanced construction is limited to small quantities for
maintenance and pothole filling. However, recent research into the road
surfacing has indicated an increased role for bitumen as a surfacing option on
light construction/low traffic volume roads. To introduce bituminous surfacing
as an option for labour enhanced construction of high quality road surfacing,
the appropriate technology practice and design must be reintroduced.

CONSTRUCTION ASPECTS
The specification for production of Pre-Mix, Hot Mixed Asphalt using road side
plant based construction will be given in the Technical Specification.
Although small quantities may be mixed by hand, a standard portable drum
concrete mixer mounted with a burner for heating the aggregates can
effectively mix aggregates and heated bitumen to produce. The requirements
for labour enhanced construction are broadly given herein.
The Mix design should be established by mixing by ratio similar to that of
producing cement concrete. Aggregates should be stockpiled in three
separate stockpiles of filler, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate. The mixing
ratio is the proportional volume normally in a 1:1:2 ratios to a determined
volume of bitumen. Bitumen shall be separately preheated before being feed
into the mixer. Mixing process in the drum should be as short as possible
however enough to establish a uniform bitumen cover on all sizes of
aggregates.

Site preparation
The site preparation for labour enhanced construction of pre-mix surfacing is
similar to plant based construction. This involves basecourse preparation by
patching, levelling, and sweeping.
Then a bituminous emulsion or cut back prime/tack coat is applied. There are
various methods that can be used for the application of the prime/tack coat.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 35


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

These vary from hand distribution using a watering can to the use of a hand
held distributor spray bar that is attached to a hand pump and drum trolley.

Construction team
The construction team is typically made up of the following people:
- Foreman,
- Rake men and labourers, with wheelbarrows, shovels, brooms,
rakes/lutes to spread the pre-mix,
- Screed board operators, with screeds to level the pre-mix prior to
compaction,
- Roller operators,
- Traffic controllers, surveyor, and checker (if required)

(At full productivity, a team size of seven labourers can easily spread, lay and
compact twenty tonnes per day of asphalt road surfacing, with complete
finishing to a high quality standard.)

Tools for spreading and laying


The main spreading tools for bituminous pre-mix are the rake and the lute.
The rake is used for the lower layers and the lute is used for finishing off the
upper layers. The rake and lute are also used for the construction of both the
longitudinal and transverse joints
- Rakes should be made of steel and are used to move large volumes of
mix and so work well on bases and large stone mixes
- A normal rake width is 30 cm. However, the wider the rake width, the
better its levelling capabilities are as well as its ability to produce a
smooth surface finish.
- Lutes should be of a lighter construction than rakes and preferably
made of aluminium or wood. Lutes consist of both a rake and a flat
blade and should be treated with more care. They are often used as
the finishing tool on the final layers of asphalt
- A normal lute width is not less than 60 cm.

The wheelbarrows and all the tools should be kept clean for ease of work by
periodically dipping and cleaning with diesel. The tools should be wiped dry
after cleaning to prevent excess diesel from coming into contact with the
bitumen on the road.

Spreading and laying


The pre-mix is moved from the road side Mixing Plant to the road by
wheelbarrow. The pre-mix is spread from the wheelbarrows by shovel. The
material in the shovels should be kept in a mass when placed. “It should be
deposited from shovels into small piles and spread with lutes” (Asphalt
Institute, 1983). The raker should indicate to the shovel hand where to deposit
the mix off the shovel. A straight, controlled throw, keeping the wrist rigid, will
ensure that the mix is kept in a mass when placed a distance from the shovel.
This technique ensures regular and neat placement of the mix, minimising
segregation

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 36


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

The labourers should not work into a corner, and especially not walk on the
finished work areas prior to screeding (Asphalt Institute, 1983). Walking on the
material prior to screeding will result in differential compaction of the layer
during the rolling procedure. This will lead to surface irregularities occurring
during the screeding and the rolling process.

Screeding
Screeding (levelling and smoothing) of the pre-mix must be undertaken to
ensure that the particle orientation in the wearing course is correct. A surface
evenness equivalent to a paver finish can be achieved by screeding the mix.
Screeding is undertaken manually by means of a screed plank, and screed
rails upon which the screed plank is drawn; this is operated by two or more
labourers.
Lane width, ease of handling of the screed plank over the screed rail, and
roller width all dictate the paving width. However, screed planks spanning
more than 4m will result in a difficult screeding procedure for the labourers
manning the plank. The excess hot mix asphalt accumulating in front of the
plank will make it difficult for the screed plank to be manoeuvred and thus
slow down the screeding process.

The screed rails consist of:


Varying diameters of galvanised steel plumbing pipe depending on pre-
compacted lift thickness. Galvanised piping is preferred as a screed rail
compared to wooden planks. The length of screed rail can consist of 3 x 6 m
galvanised pipes on either side. The pipe diameter will relate to the
requirement of the un-compacted thickness of the pre-mix.

The ability to manoeuvre the screed rails is important, and this is mainly
dictated by the mass of the screed rails. The rails should not be too light and
flexible as this could lead to unsatisfactory surface smoothness tolerance as
the rails conform to the unevenness of the base upon which the pre-mix
wearing course is laid.
Walking on the screeded wearing course prior to rolling must at all cost be
prevented, as this will damage all the levels so carefully prepared by the rake
men. Use a straightedge and level or a stringline frequently to check any
irregularities and cross falls of the screeded material, prior to rolling and these
corrected if required (Asphalt Institute,1983).
The appearance behind the screed board should be examined frequently for
excessive or insufficient binder and for aggregate segregation. Unsatisfactory
material should be removed by a rake or hoe and replaced with new material.

Compaction
The time available for compaction of a thin pre-mix layer is limited by the
increase of viscosity of the bitumen in the cooling pre-mix. Laboratory test
results for 60/70 grade bitumen suggest 85C as a closing temperature for
compaction. Specifications should state that substantial completion of
compaction is needed by 90C.
Steel wheeled rollers can be used for all three rolling stages. Pneumatic Tyre
Rollers (PTR) are rarely used for breakdown rolling but are generally preferred

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 37


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

for intermediate rolling. Vibrating rollers are also used primarily for
intermediate rolling. The number of roller passes required to meet the
specified density varies with mix. A typical method statement is 4 passes with
a steel wheel roller and another 6 passes with a PTR. These all have to be
completed in the short time available for compaction.

REFERENCE DATA AND FURTHER INFORMATION


Methods and Procedures. Labour enhanced construction for bituminous
surfacing. South African Bitumen and Tar Association (SABITA)
Current Practice for the Construction of Hot Asphalt Surfacing by Hand,
University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa.
TRL Limited and DFID, 2003. Manual for the labour-based construction of
bituminous surfacing on low -volume roads.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 38


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

SECTION 5200.a : HOT MIXED ASPHALT, ROAD SIDE MIX

CONTENTS

5201.a SCOPE

5202.a MATERIALS

5203.a MIXES

5204.a PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

5205.a MIXING OF AGGREGATES AND BITUMEN

5206.a TRANSPORTING AND LAYING

5207.a QUALITY CONTROL

5208.a MAINTENANCE

5209.a MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

5201.a SCOPE

This section covers the supply and furnishing of materials, methods of construction and requirements for
the construction of bituminous surfacing, wearing course, using hot mixed and rolled asphalt produced
from small mobile asphalt batch mixer near the road side. The contractor may adopt alternative types of
construction provided details of construction methods / specifications etc. are first provided to, and
approved by, the Engineer.

5202.a MATERIALS

Aggregates

The aggregate shall consist of approved crushed stone, free from all clay and organic material, and

which complies with the following requirements:

(i) Grading
Percentage by weight passing
Sieve Size Coarse aggregate Fine aggregate
(mm) 19mm

20 100

12.7 30 – 100

9.5 0 – 55 100

4.75 0 – 10 90 – 100

2.36 80 – 100

0.6 25 – 100

0.075 0-1 3 – 11

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 39


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

(ii) Shape, strength, abrasion and durability

The following limits are set for coarse aggregates:

Flakiness Index < 35%


Aggregate Crushing Value < 30
Aggregate Impact Value < 30
Los Angeles Abrasion < 40
Aggregate Abrasion Value < 15
Polished Stone Value >50
Soundness <12
Water absorption <2

Crushed gravels shall have at least two fractured faces.

Bitumen

The bitumen content shall be 60/70 or 80/100 penetration grade bitumen to BS 3690 unless otherwise
approved by the Engineer. A bitumen certificate shall be provided for all material delivered to the site.

5203.a MIXES

The aspartic mixture shall be composed basically of aggregate and bituminous material. In some cases the
addition of a filler will be necessary to ensure the requirements specified below are met :

The design fractions of the mix shall generally lie within the limits indicated below, however the use of any
filler is to be minimised.

Coarse aggregate - 20 – 40 (% by weight of total mix)


Fine aggregate - 26 – 50
Filler - 4.5 – 7.5
Binder content - 4.0 - 6.0
Before starting work the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer, for his approval, a mix design for the
material that he proposes to use. This will include details of material type and source, nominal particle
sizes, combined percentages, total and effective bitumen contents and the temperature at which the
material is to be delivered and placed. The contractor shall demonstrate the suitability of all proposed
aggregates and proposed mix by making and testing trial mixes in the laboratory and also by field
testing using his proposed procedure for production and placement. Permanent paving works shall not
commence until a satisfactory trial has been placed and approved by the Engineer.

5204.a PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

Plant and equipment required for the production, transportation, spreading and compaction of the
bituminous material must be in good working order and shall have sufficient capacity to ensure the
works are carried out in the required manner.
Various plants and equipments required for the job include:
Bitumen Distributor: Motorised or manual pressure distributor with spray bar.
Mechanised Batching plant or improved converted Concrete Batch mixing machine.
Steel Wheeled rollers and PTR’s
Wheelbarrows, shovels, rakes and lutes

The batching plant must be capable of producing a mix to the required tolerances and in sufficient
capacity to continuously supply the paving operation when spreading.
Equipment or plant for hauling the material shall have tight, clean and smooth metal trays that allow the
material to be readily discharged.
Equipment for spreading and finishing shall be shovels, rakes and lutes. Screeding (levelling and
smoothing) shall be undertaken manually by means of screeding plank and screed rails upon which the
screed planks is drawn.
Compaction shall be undertaken with sufficient rollers of adequate size and weight to achieve the
required compaction and surface finish. In trialling the design mix the contractor shall demonstrate the
adequacy of his equipment in providing a bituminous layer to the specified requirements.

5205.a MIXING OF AGGREGATES AND BITUMEN

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 40


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

The bitumen shall be separately heated before being mixed with the aggregates so that it can produce a
uniform coating of the aggregates. Care shall be taken not to overheat it. The temperature shall never
exceed 180°C for 60/70 and 80/100 pen. Heated bitumen and shall normally be between 130-150°C.
O
Aggregates shall be dried and heated so that they are mixed at a temperature of 130-170 C.

The dried aggregates shall be combined in the mixer in the amount of each fraction required to meet the
requirements established and agreed at the laboratory and site trials. Aggregate fractions shall be of
uniform quality and of such grading that when combined in proper proportions, with mineral filler if
necessary, the resultant mixture meets the gradation requirements. Bitumen shall be introduced into the
mixer in the amount specified. The materials shall then be mixed until a complete and uniform coating of
the aggregate is obtained.

The mixing time shall be the shortest required obtaining a uniform mix and thorough coating. The wet
mixing time shall be determined by the Contractor and agreed by the Engineer for each type of
equipment and for each type of aggregate used. It shall normally not exceed 60 seconds.

5206.a TRANSPORTING AND LAYING

The bituminous mix shall be kept free of contamination and segregation during transportation.

Well in advance of placing the bituminous mix, the existing surface shall be cleaned of all loose or
deleterious material by sweeping with a power broom, supplemented with hand brooming if necessary.
After the surface has been prepared and approved a tack/prime coat shall be applied in accordance with
section 5100. The bituminous mixture shall then be spread to line and level by the laying equipment
without segregation and dragging. The mixture shall be placed in widths of one traffic lane at a time,
unless otherwise agreed by the Engineer. The temperature of the mixture at the time of compaction
shall be at least 95ºC where 60/70 bitumen is used.

Immediately after the bituminous mixture has been spread, it shall be thoroughly and uniformly
compacted by rolling. The surface shall be rolled when the mixture is in the proper condition and when
rolling does not cause undue displacement or shoving. The number, weight and type of rollers furnished
shall be sufficient to obtain the required compaction while the mixture is in a workable condition. The
sequence of rolling operations shall be as agreed with the Engineer.

To prevent adhesion of the mixture to the rollers, the wheels shall be kept lightly moistened with water.
Rolling shall begin at the side and proceed longitudinally parallel to the centre-line, each trip overlapping
one half of the roller width. On super-elevated curves, rolling shall begin at the low side and progress to
the high side. In areas too small for the roller, a vibrating plate compactor or a hand tamper shall be
used to achieve the specified compaction.

Spreading the mixture shall be as continuous as possible. Transverse joints shall be formed by cutting
neatly in a straight line on the-previous run to expose the full depth the course. The vertical face so
formed shall be painted with bitumen just before additional mixture is placed against it. Longitudinal
joints shall be rolled directly behind the paving/spreading operation. The first lane shall be placed true to
line and level and have an approximately vertical face The mixture placed in the abutting lane shall then
be tightly crowded against the face of the previously placed lane.

When the abutting lane is not placed on the same day or the joint is destroyed by traffic, the edge of the
lane shall be trimmed to line and painted with bitumen just before the abutting lane is placed. Any fresh
mixture spread accidentally on the existing work at a joint shall be carefully removed by brooming it back
on to uncompacted work so as to avoid formation of irregularities at the joint. The finish at joints shall
comply with the surface requirements and shall present the same uniformity of finish, texture and-
density as other sections of the work.

5207.a QUALITY CONTROL

Samples and Records from Site


Control over quality of the materials incorporated and works performed through quality control tests
describing Method specification for application of Hot Mixed Asphalt.
- Inspect the site before bringing aggregate and bituminous materials to the mixing site and
remove any loose materials that may contaminate the aggregate
- Stockpile the aggregates into three separate stockpiles for Coarse- Fine- and filler materials,
and check that the coarse aggregate all are most regular shaped.
- Check the bitumen drums to determine if the bitumen delivered is the prescribed, approved
penetration grade.
- Establish the mix designs by volume or mass of aggregate and bitumen.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 41


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

- Check that the aggregates in the mix are fully coated with bitumen before being spread and
compacted
- Records shall be maintained at the site of the temperature in all containers used for heating
bitumen and premix carpeting. Temperatures shall be recorded every 30 minutes.
- Records shall also be maintained in the site book of the measurements of the thickness of the
compacted layer including Date of placing and Chainage of the sample.
- An approximate test of compaction is to place a piece of metal or a one inch stone on the Hot
Mixed Asphalt surface and run the roller over it. If no imprint is made on the surface or no
embedment results, the compaction may be considered as adequate.
- The finished surface shall be uniform and smooth. The longitudinal profile and cross slope shall
be checked using straight edge and camber board. The thickness of the Hot Mixed Asphalt
course shall be checked by making as many test pits as necessary to determine the average
thickness. The average thickness shall be equal to or greater than the specified compacted
thickness.

If instructed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall remove any faulty material laid and replace it by
material complying with the Specification, all at his own expense.

5208.a MAINTENANCE

The Contractor shall maintain the bituminous surface until the work is finally accepted by the Employer.
Any damage occurring to the surface or any defects which may develop during the Defects Notice
Period, fair wear and tear excepted, shall be corrected by the Contractor at his own expense and to the
requirements of the Engineer.

5209.a MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

Item Unit
5200.01 Hot Mixed Asphalt,Wearing Course (depth indicated)............... m2

The unit of measurement shall be the square metre of material laid and compacted on the road
calculated as the product of the length instructed to be laid and the net width as shown on the Drawings
or instructed by the Engineer. No measurement or payment shall be made for alternative mixes
proposed and/or adopted by the contractor nor for bituminous mixes laid in excess of the thicknesses or
widths shown on the Drawings or instructed by the Engineer.

Payment shall include for the cost of all preparatory works; provision, storage and transportation of all
materials; hauling, laying and compacting the bituminous mixture and all other incidentals that are
necessary for the proper execution of the works.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 42


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

SECTION 5200.b : HOT MIXED BITUMINOUS SEAL COAT, ROAD SIDE MIX

CONTENTS

5201.a SCOPE

5202.a MATERIALS

5203.a MIXES

5204.a PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

5205.a MIXING OF AGGREGATES AND BITUMEN

5206.a TRANSPORTING AND LAYING

5207.a QUALITY CONTROL

5208.a MAINTENANCE

5209.a MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

5201.b SCOPE

This section covers the supply and furnishing of materials, methods of construction and requirements for
the construction of Hot Mixed Bituminous Seal Coat of 7mm compacted thickness produced from small
mobile asphalt batch mixer near the road side. The contractor may adopt alternative types of construction
provided details of construction methods / specifications etc. are first provided to, and approved by, the
Engineer.

5202.b MATERIALS

Aggregates

The coarse aggregate shall consist of approved crushed stone, or 6.3 mm down pea gravel free from all
clay and organic material.
The fine aggregate shall be natural sand of F.M. between 2.00 to 2.50. It shall be non-plastic, clean and
free from all clay and organic material.
Overall Grading of the coarse and fine aggregates combined shall comply with the following grading
given in the table below:

Percentage by weight passing


Sieve Size Coarse aggregate
(mm)
6.3mm down

6.30 100

4.75 80-100

2.36 70-95

0.6 20-50

0.075 5 - 15

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 43


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

Bitumen

The bitumen content shall be 60/70 or 80/100 penetration grade bitumen to BS 3690 unless otherwise
approved by the Engineer. A bitumen certificate shall be provided for all material delivered to the site.

5203.b MIXES

Before starting work the Contractor shall submit to the Engineer, for his approval, a mix design for the
material that he proposes to use. This will include details of material type and source, nominal particle
sizes, combined percentages, total and effective bitumen contents and the temperature at which the
material is to be delivered and placed. The contractor shall demonstrate the suitability of all proposed
aggregates and proposed mix by making and testing trial mixes at site using his proposed procedure for
production and placement. Permanent paving works shall not commence until a satisfactory trial has
been placed and approved by the Engineer.

5204.b PLANT AND EQUIPMENT

Plant and equipment required for the production, transportation, spreading and compaction of the
bituminous material must be in good working order and shall have sufficient capacity to ensure the
works are carried out in the required manner.
Various plants and equipments required for the job include:
Bitumen Distributor: Motorised or manual pressure distributor with spray bar.
Mechanised Batching plant or improved converted Concrete Batch mixing machine.
Steel Wheeled rollers and PTR’s
Wheelbarrows, shovels, rakes and lutes

The batching plant must be capable of producing a mix to the required tolerances and in sufficient
capacity to continuously supply the paving operation when spreading.
Equipment or plant for hauling the material shall have tight, clean and smooth metal trays that allow the
material to be readily discharged.
Equipment for spreading and finishing shall be shovels, rakes and lutes. Screeding (levelling and
smoothing) shall be undertaken manually by means of screeding plank and screed rails upon which the
screed planks is drawn.
Compaction shall be undertaken with sufficient rollers of adequate size and weight to achieve the
required compaction and surface finish. In trialling the design mix the contractor shall demonstrate the
adequacy of his equipment in providing a bituminous layer to the specified requirements.

5205.b MIXING OF AGGREGATES AND BITUMEN

The bitumen shall be separately heated before being mixed with the hot aggregates so that it can
produce a uniform coating of the aggregates. Care shall be taken not to overheat it. The temperature
shall never exceed 180°C for 60/70 and 80/100 pen. Heated bitumen and shall normally be between
130-150°C. Aggregates shall be dried and heated so that they are mixed at a temperature of 130-
170OC.

The dried aggregates shall be combined in the mixer in the amount of each fraction required to meet the
requirements established and agreed at site trials. Aggregate fractions shall be of uniform quality and of
such grading that when combined in proper proportions the resultant mixture meets the gradation
requirements. Bitumen shall be introduced into the mixer in the amount specified. The materials shall
then be mixed until a complete and uniform coating of the aggregate is obtained.

The mixing time shall be the shortest required obtaining a uniform mix and thorough coating. The wet
mixing time shall be determined by the Contractor and agreed by the Engineer for each type of
equipment and for each type of aggregate used. It shall normally not exceed 60 seconds.

5206.b TRANSPORTING AND LAYING

The bituminous mix shall be kept free of contamination and segregation during transportation.

Well in advance of placing the bituminous mix, the existing surface shall be cleaned of all loose or
deleterious material by sweeping with a power broom, supplemented with hand brooming if necessary.
After the surface has been prepared and approved a tack/prime coat shall be applied in accordance with
section 5100. The bituminous Sand Seal mixture shall then be spread to line and level by the laying
equipment without segregation and dragging. The mixture shall be placed in widths of one traffic lane at
a time, unless otherwise agreed by the Engineer. The temperature of the mixture at the time of

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 44


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

compaction shall be at least 95ºC where 60/70 bitumen is used.

Immediately after the bituminous mixture has been spread, it shall be thoroughly and uniformly
compacted by rolling. The surface shall be rolled when the mixture is in the proper condition and when
rolling does not cause undue displacement or shoving. The number, weight and type of rollers furnished
shall be sufficient to obtain the required compaction while the mixture is in a workable condition. The
sequence of rolling operations shall be as agreed with the Engineer.

To prevent adhesion of the mixture to the rollers, the wheels shall be kept lightly moistened with water.
Rolling shall begin at the side and proceed longitudinally parallel to the centre-line, each trip overlapping
one half of the roller width. On super-elevated curves, rolling shall begin at the low side and progress to
the high side. In areas too small for the roller, a vibrating plate compactor or a hand tamper shall be
used to achieve the specified compaction.

Spreading the mixture shall be as continuous as possible. Transverse joints shall be formed by cutting
neatly in a straight line on the-previous run to expose the full depth the course. The vertical face so
formed shall be painted with bitumen just before additional mixture is placed against it. Longitudinal
joints shall be rolled directly behind the paving/spreading operation. The first lane shall be placed true to
line and level and have an approximately vertical face The mixture placed in the abutting lane shall then
be tightly crowded against the face of the previously placed lane.

When the abutting lane is not placed on the same day or the joint is destroyed by traffic, the edge of the
lane shall be trimmed to line and painted with bitumen just before the abutting lane is placed. Any fresh
mixture spread accidentally on the existing work at a joint shall be carefully removed by brooming it back
on to uncompacted work so as to avoid formation of irregularities at the joint. The finish at joints shall
comply with the surface requirements and shall present the same uniformity of finish, texture and-
density as other sections of the work.

5207.b QUALITY CONTROL

Samples and Records from Site


Control over quality of the materials incorporated and works performed through quality control tests
describing Method specification for application of Hot Mixed Asphalt.
- Inspect the site before bringing aggregate and bituminous materials to the mixing site and
remove any loose materials that may contaminate the aggregate
- Stockpile the aggregates into three separate stockpiles for Coarse- Fine- and filler materials,
and check that the coarse aggregate all are most regular shaped.
- Check the bitumen drums to determine if the bitumen delivered is the prescribed, approved
penetration grade.
- Establish the mix designs by volume or mass of aggregate and bitumen.
- Check that the aggregates in the mix are fully coated with bitumen before being spread and
compacted
- Records shall be maintained at the site of the temperature in all containers used for heating
bitumen and premix carpeting. Temperatures shall be recorded every 30 minutes.
- Records shall also be maintained in the site book of the measurements of the thickness of the
compacted layer including Date of placing and Chainage of the sample.
- An approximate test of compaction is to place a piece of metal or a one inch stone on the Hot
Mixed Asphalt surface and run the roller over it. If no imprint is made on the surface or no
embedment results, the compaction may be considered as adequate.
- The finished surface shall be uniform and smooth. The longitudinal profile and cross slope shall
be checked using straight edge and camber board. The thickness of the Hot Mixed Asphalt
course shall be checked by making as many test pits as necessary to determine the average
thickness. The average thickness shall be equal to or greater than the specified compacted
thickness.

If instructed by the Engineer, the Contractor shall remove any faulty material laid and replace it by
material complying with the Specification, all at his own expense.

5208.b MAINTENANCE

The Contractor shall maintain the bituminous surface until the work is finally accepted by the Employer.
Fine sand with F.M. 0.8( Min) shall be spread on the finished and accepted surface. Any damage
occurring to the surface or any defects which may develop during the Defects Notice Period, fair wear
and tear excepted, shall be corrected by the Contractor at his own expense and to the requirements of
the Engineer.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 45


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc
Durable Surface Options

5209.b MEASUREMENT AND PAYMENT

Item Unit
5200.01 Hot Mixed Bituminous Seal Coat (7mm compacted)............... m2

The unit of measurement shall be the square metre of material laid and compacted on the road
calculated as the product of the length instructed to be laid and the net width as shown on the Drawings
or instructed by the Engineer. No measurement or payment shall be made for alternative mixes
proposed and/or adopted by the contractor nor for bituminous mixes laid in excess of the thicknesses or
widths shown on the Drawings or instructed by the Engineer.

Payment shall include for the cost of all preparatory works; provision, storage and transportation of all
materials; hauling, laying and compacting the bituminous mixture and all other incidentals that are
necessary for the proper execution of the works.

C:\Documents and Settings\Niels Kofoed\My Documents\Work\Appropriate Surface Options\Main Paper Tech. 46


Spec\Appropriate Surface Options, General Description and Technical Specifications.doc