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2nd Article

Title of the Article : Level of Perceived Stress and Coping Strategies Prevailing Among 1st
year Medical Undergraduate Students :A Cross-sectional Study from South India.
Title of the Journal : International Journal of Medicine and Public Health
Year of Publication : 2017
Research took place in : Tamil Nadu, India.
Issue No : 2
Volume No : 7
Page No : 111 to 115
Author : Nethra Shakthivel
Vaishnavi M. Amarnath
Farhad Ahamed
Rama Shankar Rath
Ajay Raj Sethuraman
Rizwan Abdulkader Suliankatchi

➢ Objective

The Objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of stress and associated
coping strategies among medical undergraduate students in south Indian medical
colleges.

➢ Methodology

• Study instruments - To assess the stress level we used the Perceived Stress Scale
(PSS), and to assess the coping strategies the Brief COPE inventory was used. Socio-
demographic characteristics data was collected by semi-structured questionnaire.
• Statistical analysis - All analyses were conducted using STATA 11. Results were
expressed as proportions, means with standard deviation and associations expressed
as odds ratio with 95% CI.
• Ethical statement - The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the
medical college. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants.

➢ Findings

a) A total of 135 out of 148 completed the study. Majority of the students were girls.
b) About 80% of the boys and 75% of the girls reported a moderate or higher stress
level.
c) It was also found that a higher percentage of boys reported moderate stress as
compared to girls.
d) The most commonly employed coping mechanism was found to be religious, self
distraction, instrumental support, positive reframing and humour.
e) Among boys the most common mechanism that were employed are humour, self
blaming to overcome the stress.
f) Whereas in girls the most common strategy that were employed are religious and
positive reframing to overcome the stress.

3rd Article
Title of the Article : A study on stress among university students in India
Title of the Journal : International Journal of Business and Administration Research Review
Year of Publication : 2014
Research took place in : Pondicherry, India.
Issue No : 5
Volume No : 1.1
Page No : 21 to 33
Author : Dr. M. Prabhu
Dr. G. Madan Mohan

➢ Objective
The objective of this page is to analyse and compare the levels of stress, anxiety and
depression among the Tamilian and Non-Tamilian students of Pondicherry Central
University.

➢ Methodology
The research proposed to be conducted is descriptive in nature. Secondary and primary
data were collected for the study. Secondary data were collected from articles in various
journals related to stress. Primary data were collected by administering a well-structured
and non-disguised schedule, comprising of four sections.
Primary data were collected by administering a well-structured and non-disguised
schedule, comprising of four sections. The first section consists of questions on the
demographic profile of the respondents, while the second question consists of 14
statements relevant to Depression, the third section consists of 14 statements related to
Anxiety, and the third section consists of 14 questions related to Stress.
The students opinion about the 42 statements were collected in a Likert’s five point scale
and the data collected were represented in tabular and diagrammatic forms. The SPSS
package has been used to analyse the data using the statistical tools of Mean, ANOVA,
Chi-square, Cluster Analysis, Correspondence Analysis, Correlation and Multiple
Regression.

➢ Findings

a) The sample size of this studying 243 of which 156 (64.2%) are male and 87 (35.8%)
are females, 30 (12.3%) are Tamilians and 88 (36.2%) are Non-Tamilian hostellers.
b) It is found that students of Pondicherry University are subject to low level of
depression , anxiety and stress.
c) It is found that Non-Tamilian students correspond to the low stressed group; while the
Tamilian Non-hosteller students correspond to the moderately stressed group and the
Tamilian hosteller students correspond to the highly stressed group.

4th Article
Title of the Article : A Study on Academic Stress among Higher Secondary Students
Title of the Journal : International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention
Year of Publication : 2015
Research took place in : Tamil Nadu, India.
Issue No : 10
Volume No : 4
Page No : 63 to 68
Author : Dr.P. SURESH PRABU

➢ Objective
1. To find out the level of academic stress among higher secondary students in Namakkal
district, Tamil Nadu, India.
2. To find out whether there is significant difference between the following sub samples
with respect to academic stress.
a) Gender [Male / Female]
b) Locality [Rural / Urban]
c) Management [ Government / Private]
d) Subject [Science / Arts] and
e) Parents Education [Literate / Illiterate]
➢ Methodology
In the study, Normative study is used.
a) Sample

A sample is a small proportion of a population selected for observation and analysis.


By observing the characteristics of the sample, one can make certain inferences about
the characteristics of the population from which it is drawn.
The present study consists of 250 XI standard students studying in higher
secondary schools situated in Namakkal District of Tamil Nadu, India. The sample
was selected by using simple random sampling technique. The sample forms a
representative sample of the entire population.

b) Tool Used

The investigator of the present study selected and used the academic stress scale was
constructed and standardized by ‘R. Balaji Rao’ for data collection.

c) Description of Academic stress scale

One of the important objectives of the present investigation is to find out the level of
academic stress among higher secondary school students for this purpose the
investigator used the academic stress scale constructed and standardized by R. Balaji
Rao. This scale consists of as many as 40 items and each item has five alternative
responses i.e. “No Stress”, “Slightly Stress”, “Moderate Stress”, “ Highly Stress” and
“Extremely High Stress”.

d) Statistical Techniques used

1. Descriptive analysis (Mean & S.D) and


2. Differential analysis (‘t’ test)

➢ Findings

1. The higher secondary students are having moderate level of academic stress and
irrespective of sub samples of the higher secondary students are having moderate
level of academic stress.
2. Male and female students do not differ significantly in their academic stress scores.
3. Rural and urban area students do not differ significantly in their academic stress
scores.
4. Government and private school students do not differ significantly in their
academic stress scores.
5. Science and Arts students do not differ significantly in their academic stress scores.
6. The students whose parent’s education as literate and illiterate level does not differ
significantly in their academic stress scores.

5th Article
Title of the Article : A Study on Stress and its Effects on College Students
Title of the Journal : International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Applied Science
Year of Publication : 2015
Research took place in : Coimbatore, India.
Issue No : 7
Volume No : 1
Page No : 449 to 456
Author : Dr. R. SATHYA DEVI
SHAJ MOHAN

➢ Objective
1. To assess the level of stress among college students.
2. To find out the sources and effects of stress.
3. To give suggestive measures to overcome stress.

➢ Methodology
A questionnaire survey was adopted in this paper. A questionnaire consisting of three
sections was used for data collection. The first section of the questionnaire comprises of
demographic information, the second section is a set of questions on academic, social,
family, emotional and financial stressors and the last section includes the statements on
positive and negative stress coping strategies.
Participants in this study were college students enrolled in two reputed colleges of
Mannarkkad city (Palakkad district, Kerala). Degree students who were pursuing their
studies in different streams namely Arts, Commerce and Science were selected. They
were in between the age group of 18-21 years of age.
Participants were briefed in their respective classrooms regarding the questionnaire and
the scale and confidentiality of the data was assured to the participants. A total number of
200 questionnaires were distributed, out of which 200 completed the questionnaire in the
presence of the investigators.
Convenience sampling method was used for data collection. Various tools are used to
analyses the data such as ANOVA, F-test, Correlation, Weighted average, and Percentage
Method.

➢ Findings

a) According to the collected data it is found that the major cause of stress are academic
factors, social factors, family factors and financial factors.
b) It is found that 85.71% of female students responded that the major cause of stress
was due to the academic problems.
c) It is found that the most important emotional stressors include not feeling confident
about one self , feeling lonely, anxious and having no one to tum and understand.
d) Only 23.5% of the males and 32% of females were having a sound financial
background as their families were able to support them for pursuing their studies.