Anda di halaman 1dari 5

A n a l y s i s of the data obtained for different depths of fuel burnup show the excellent a g r e e m e n t between

the m e a s u r e m e n t r e s u l t s of the burnup according to different isotopes. This gives a b a s i s for supposing that
the cesium m i g r a t i o n effect and the r a d i a t i v e capture of neutrons by the fission products do not d i s t o r t the
r e s u l t s of the burnup d e t e r m i n a t i o n by cesium. C o m p a r i s o n of the r e s u l t s of the burnup d e t e r m i n a t i o n ob-
tained by the different methods (see T a b l e 2) shows t h e i r excellent a g r e e m e n t .
When investigating the buildup of isotopes of the t r a n s u r a n i u m e l e m e n t s in i r r a d i a t e d fuel, the burnup
can be d e t e r m i n e d by the method of heavy a t o m s with an e r r o r of 7%. The burnup can be d e t e r m i n e d m o r e
a c c u r a t e l y (with an e r r o r of 1 to 3%) by m e a s u r i n g the content in the fuel of a n u m b e r of fission products.

LITERATURE CITED
i. R. Webster, in: Progress in Mass Spectroscopy [Russian translation], IL, Moscow (1963), p. 107.
2. Neutron Cross Sections, BNL-325, 2rid edition, Suppl. 2, Vol. 3 (1965).
3. V.D. Siderenko and E. D. Belyaeva, Preprint IAE-19/895 [in Russian], Moscow (1966).
4. G.A. Stolyarov et al., Session of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR on the Peaceful Application of
Nuclear Energy [in Russian]; Izd. Akad; Nauk SSSR, Moscow (1955), p. 217.
5. A.I. Leipunskii et al., in: Proceedings of the Third Geneva Conference. Report of Soviet Scientistsl
Vol. 2 [in Russian], Atomizdat, Moscow (1959), p. 377.
6. G. Ya. Rumyantsev, Calculation of a Thermal Neutron Nuclear Reactor [in Russian], Atomizdat, Moscow
(1967).
7. J. Rein, in: Proceedings of the IAEA Symposium on Analytical Methods in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle,
Vienna, Nov. 29-Dec. 3, 1971, p. 449.
8. A. Fudge, in: Proceedings of the IAEA Symposium on Reactor Burnup Physics, Vienna, July 12-16,
1973, p. 239.
9. Neutron Cross Sections, BNL-335, 2nd edition, Suppl. 2, Vol. lIB (1965).
I0. E. Crouch, in: Proceedings of the IAEA Symposium on Nuclear Data in Science and Technology, Paris,
Mar. 12-16, 1973, Vol. I, p. 393.

AUTOMATIC REACTOR REGULATOR AND


XENON OSCILLATIONS

A. M. Afanas'ev and B. Z. Torlin UDC 62i. 039. 514

At p r e s e n t , t h e r e a r e many studies w h e r e the spatial instability of a r e a c t o r to xenon oscillations h a s


been investigated by analytical methods. However, in the e a r l i e s t studies [1], as well as in the r e c e n t m o n o -
graphs [2, 3], the r e a c t o r control s y s t e m has not been taken into consideration in the computations in an e x -
plicit f o r m . At the s a m e t i m e , v e r y convincing a r g u m e n t s have been p r e s e n t e d [4] showing that in s o m e c a s e s
the automatic r e g u l a t o r (AR) m a y have a positive effect, while in other c a s e s it m a y have a negative effect on
the nature of the p r o c e s s . F u r t h e r m o r e , the elimination of an AR f r o m the investigation m a k e s the s y s t e m in-
compatible with the intrinsic containment r e q u i r e m e n t , e.g., the r e a c t o r power.
We introduce the r e g u l a t o r in an explicit m a n n e r and show that the r e a c t o r stability is e n t i r e l y different
depending on the type of AR, its a r r a n g e m e n t , and how the s e n s o r s f o r m the control signal. F o r a detailed
a n a l y s i s of the effect of the control s y s t e m on the rse" a c t o r dynamics~ a special mINA p r o g r a m was developed,
which was written in FORTRAN language for the BESM c o m p u t e r . However, the main qualitative f e a t u r e s can
be analytically d e t e r m i n e d without the u s e of the computer.
It is known f r o m [1, 4-6] that the spatial stability of a r e a c t o r is higher for the l a r g e r m i n i m u m e i g e n -
value ~ of the b o u n d a r y - v a l u e p r o b l e m
hq~ + B~(p+ ~tq)= 0 (1)

T r a n s l a t e d f r o m A tomnaya E n e r g i y a , Vol. 43, No. 4, pp. 243-246, O c t o b e r , 1977. Original a r t i c l e s u b -


mitted April 6, 1977.

874 0038-531X/77/4304-0874507.50 9 1978 Plenum Publishing Corporation


TABLE 1. Eigensolutions in P r e s e n c e of Local Control

~n

z
sin 2an H (4n%--1) B~
H2
K= 1 sin 2~n Zp ----'

0 sin 2~n - -
H--Z 4n H2 i ) B~
H--Zp (//--Z v)
sin an Z_
-F-p
Z Z0 sin an-H- Z //2
sin an
Za sin ~n H'~ zt~ Z~
K----fi(Z-go) Z0

sift ~ln
H--Z H2

H--Zp

with homogeneous boundary conditions, w h e r e , in the f i r s t - o r d e r perturbation theory [5], c o r r e s p o n d i n g to


each eigenvalue Pn t h e r e is an elgenmode of o s c i l l a t o r y p r o c e s s ~n and t h e r e are definite c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of
its time behavior (decrement, frequency); B 0 is the Laplace o p e r a t o r depending on the coordinates.
The consideration of the r e g u l a t o r s r e q u i r e s , besides the introduction of the new variable Pj in Eq. (1)
(reactivity introduced by the j-th regulating unit), the use of additional equations which d e s c r i b e the operation
a l g o r i t h m s of the r e g u l a t o r s .
We a s s u m e that the r e g u l a t o r s a r e of the h i g h - s p e e d kind and we neglect the r e t a r d a t i o n in the s e n s o r
circuits. T h e r e f o r e , instead of Eq. (1), we have
N
Atp+ B~q~+ q)o : ~ FiPJ + ~q~= 0;
(2)
"v~p~= f K~e~du; ] = I, 2,.. ., N,
V

where n 0 is the s t a t i o n a r y distribution of the neutron flux; Fj d e s c r i b e s the spatial localization of the reactivity
introduced by the j-th regulating unit, Kj is the weight function for the formation of the s e n s o r signals for the
j-th control unit; and vj b e c o m e s unity and z e r o for static (proportional) and astatic r e g u l a t o r s , respectively.
Let us c o n s i d e r how functions Fj and Kj a r e related to the operation algorithm of the regulator.
Let the )-th regulating unit introduce the reactivity uniformly o v e r the volume (e.g., when the r e t a r d e r
is contaminated by boron); then Fj = 1. If an absorbing b a r is the j-th regulating unit, whose end
lies at the point r), then F) = 6 ( r - rj) (only s m a l l displacements of the rod are considered). When
the deviation of the r e a c t o r power from the stationary value is the controlling action for the )-th r e -
gulator, then Kj is p r o p o r t i o n a l to the distribution of the fission c r o s s section. If the deviation of the
c u r r e n t f r o m the s e n s o r at the point r 0 is the controlling action, then Kj = 6(r - r0). In the case of a r e g u l a t o r
operating in the proportional static mode (v = 1), its action p is proportional to the control action f o r m e d by
s e n s o r s a c c o r d i n g to the given algorithm. V~len the r e g u l a t o r operates in astatic mode the r e a c t i v i t y , which
it must introduce, is d e t e r m i n e d f r o m the condition of suppression of the controlling action iv = 0).
Let us investigate the astatic mode of operation of AR, which is at p r e s e n t used in a l m o s t all r e a c t o r s .
We consider the s i m p l e s t s y s t e m in which AIR introduces r e a c t i v i t y p in the entire zone (Y = 1). In this case
the solution of Eq. (2) is of the f o r m

~.=-- P'~ r
~n n=1,2,3, "~ '

V Ir

where r a r e the eigensolutions of Eq. (1). The eigenvalues/~n of Eqs. (1) and (2) coincide. Hence, it follows
that the conclusions on the r e a c t o r stability without the consideration of AR are valid only under the conditions
when the compensation of r e a c t i v i t y is uniform over the r e a c t o r . With r e g a r d to the eigenmodes of oscillations

875
(3), their f o r m is completely determined by the algorithm, in a c c o r d a n c e with which the control signals are

generated by the s e n s o r s and only in the p a r t i c u l a r case S KCndv = 0 they coincide with the eigenfunctions of Eq. (1).
"V

We show that the consideration of the AR leads to significantly different results if the regulation is c a r -
ried out locally. F o r simplicity we consider a uniform one-dimensional r e a c t o r with zero boundary condition
and with astatic regulator imbedded at a depth Z r. In this case F = 8(Z - Zr). F o r the r e g u l a t o r tuned for
keeping the power constant, K = 1. When the r e g u l a t o r is tuned to hold the c u r r e n t of the s e n s o r constant,
placed at a point Z 0, then K = 8(Z - Z0). F o r definiteness we a s s u m e that Z 0 lies in the first zone [0, Zr].
The zone [Zr, H] will be called the second zone. The solutions in the f i r s t <p0)(Z) and in the second ~(2)(Z)
zones a r e continuous, together with t h e i r derivatives. At the point Z r the derivative has a discontinuity

P~ ~
dq~{2) ]z=zp+0 dq~(l)
dZ
Z~Zp-O"

All possible solutions for the cases under investigation are shown in Table 1. For a system with AR, corn-
pens ating reactivity uniformly over the r e a c t o r , we have:

~: k(k+2)B~; k : i , 2, 3 . . .

Let us enumerate the modes shown in Table 1 in order of increasing stability (i.e., increasing ~) and not
in order of index n. It is evident that the regulator imbedded at a depth Z r and tuned to a constant power does
not act on the first and third modes (as also the regulator uniformly compensating the reactivity). However,
it acts on the second mode and depending on the depth at which it is imbedded its stability sometimes worsens,
approaching the stability of the first mode (~t(2) -~ #(I) = 3B 2 for Z r ~H), and sometimes improves tending to the
stability of the third mode (~(2) _~ p(3) = 15B~ for Z r -~ H/2). Since in this case the regulator does not interact
with the least stable (first) mode, it does not affect the spatial stability of the system as a whole. By changing
the operating position of such a reg]]lator it is possible to attain a larger or smaller stability of the second
mode.
The role of the AR changes markedly if it is tuned to constant sensor current. It is evident from Table 1
that by varying the position of sensor Z 0 and the depth of imbedding of the regulator Z r it is possible to change
the stability of the system within a wide range. For example, bringing the sensor and the end of the regulator
closer and simultaneously moving them (if necessary) to any edge of the reactor it is always possible to de-
c r e a s e one of ~I to such an extent that oscillations in the s y s t e m will appear, which are v e r y stable f r o m the
point of view of Randall c r i t e r i o n [1]. On the other hand, separating the s e n s o r and the end of the r e g u l a t o r
by taking them to the opposite ends it is possible to stabilize even a r e a c t o r that is unstable at s e v e r a l modes
according to the Randall criterion. The possibility of this method of stabilization was f i r s t pointed out in [7].
Since a transitional p r o c e s s in a s y s t e m with static regulator was studied [7], this v a r i a n t of regulation is
analyzed in detail. In the p r e s e n t case the algorithm of operation of a static regulator is d e s c r i b e d by the
equation
p = -- K<p(Z0), (4)

where K is the amplification factor.


Thus, a new p a r a m e t e r a p p e a r s , on whom the dependence of the stability is quite unique. However, in
this case it is considerably m o r e difficult to obtain analytical solutions and t h e r e f o r e it was n e c e s s a r y to take
r e c o u r s e to n u m e r i c a l methods.
The m o s t d i r e c t stability c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the s y s t e m is its eigenfrequency with m a x i m u m real part.
The IRINA p r o g r a m immediately d e t e r m i n e s the two complex eigenfrequencies with m a x i m u m real p a r t s and
the corresponding l e a s t stable eigenmodes of xenon oscillations. The effect of the amplification f a c t o r of the
stable regulator on the stability and the f o r m of the eigenosciUations was also investigated with its use. In a
r e a c t o r without power coefficients and without r e g u l a t o r the fundamental mode is unstable to xenon o s c i l l a -
tions. Its stabilization can be expected only for positive values of K in e x p r e s s i o n (4). Actually, With the in-
c r e a s e of K the r e a l p a r t of the complex eigenfrequency of the fundamental mode (Rew 0 d e c r e a s e s monotoni-
cally. The effect of the r e g u l a t o r on the f i r s t mode is m o r e complex.

876
L e t the s e n s o r be placed at the point where the f i r s t mode is equal to zero (without regulator); then the
regulator has no effect on it. If at the points where the s e n s o r and the end of the r e g u l a t o r a r e located the
f i r s t mode has (without regulator) one and the same sign, R e ~ l d e c r e a s e s monotonically. When the s e n s o r
and the end of the r e g u l a t o r a r e located in the region where the f i r s t mode has (without regulator) different
signs, then Rew 1 at f i r s t i n c r e a s e s with the K, w 0 and w t get c l o s e r , and for a certain value Kcr w 1 = ~0. A
f u r t h e r i n c r e a s e of K* causes a monotonic d e c r e a s e of Re wl. F o r the investigated modes the limiting (for K -*
~) are the values of w obtained for astatic regulator. The study of the deformation of the eigenmedes with the
i n c r e a s e of K confirms the phenomena detected in the computations with the p r o g r a m described in [8]. A r e g u -
l a t o r whose end lies close to the s e n s o r quite easily blocks the field change at this point, deprivingthe s e n s o r o f
the information about the p r o c e s s e s o c c u r r i n g in the r e a c t o r . The separation of the s e n s o r and the r e g u l a t o r
makes this blocking difficult. T h e r e f o r e , such s y s t e m s are m o r e stable. The nonmonotonic dependence of
Rew 1 on K for appreciable separation of the s e n s o r and the regulator is also explained in this way. F o r K ~<
Kcr the phases of the oscillations of the f i r s t mode at the point Z 0 and Z r are opposite (shifted approximately
by ~). The operation of the r e g u l a t o r a c c o r d i n g to the algorithm d e s c r i b e d by Eq. (4) leads to a degradation
of its stability (regulator acts out of phase). However, as K i n c r e a s e s , an additional phase shift bebveen the
points Z 0 and Z r o c c u r s in the f i r s t mode so that the r e g u l a t o r acts out of phase only a p a r t of the period.
Thus, by a special choice of the position of the s e n s o r and the depth of imbedding of the AR it is possible
to change the stability of the spatial xenon oscillations in wide ranges. Sometimes special stabilization d i s -
tribution s y s t e m s are provided for the s u p p r e s s i o n of the axial xenon instability in r e a c t o r s . The m o s t widely
used units for such purposes a r e shortened regulating rods (SRR).
Let the SRR have length equal to half the length H of the one-dimensional homogeneous r e a c t o r and be
ptaced s y m m e t r i c a l l y with r e s p e c t to the center of the r e a c t o r . The s e n s o r s controlling it a r e placed at the
points Z 1 = H/4 and Z 2 = 3H/4 and operate a c c o r d i n g to the astatic algorithm ~(Z1) - e(Z2) = 0, i.e., by a d i s -
p l a c e m e n t of the SRR it can be insured that the absolute or relative differences of the s e n s o r c u r r e n t s b e c o m e
zero. F o r s u c h S R R F = 5 ( Z - Z~) - 5(Z - Z J .

We show how such rods i n t e r a c t with AR of the types d i s c u s s e d above.


1. The AR is tuned to a constant power; the compensation of the r e a c t i v i t y is uniform. The SRR annuls
the mode of type sin2vZ/H, which was the l e a s t stable before. F r o m the remaining modes the l e a s t stable i s
the mode of the type
l
(Z) ==sin 3nZ /H -- y sin nZ /H.

In this case the s m a l l e s t eigenvalue ~ i n c r e a s e s to 8B~.

2. The AR is tuned to constant neutron c u r r e n t at the center of the r e a c t o r ; the compensation of the r e -
activity is uniform. All the f o r m s of the preceding case are valid. The l e a s t stable of the remaining modes
differs only in the f o r m

q~(Z) = sin 3axZ/Hq- sin azZ/H.

3. The AR is tuned to constant power, but the compensation of the reactivities is accomplished by a rod
i n s e r t e d up to the midpoint of the active zone. In this case the least stable f o r m of oscillations is r e a l i z e d in
the f o r m of an a r b i t r a r y s y s t e m composition of m o d e s , determined only by the initial excitation:

sin4=-< {<jvu;
f 0, 0 H
%(Z) = { sin4n z--H~411' ~4 ~Z~--~;aK

The s m a l l e s t eigenvalue ~ i n c r e a s e s to 15B 2.

*For such K the eigenvalues p become complex.

877
4. The AR is tuned to constant neutron field in the central region of the r e a c t o r ; the compensation of the
r e a c t i v i t y is a c c o m p l i s h e d by a r o a d i n s e r t e d up to the midpoint of the active zone. The l e a s t stable m o d e h a s
the f o r m

sin 2a H ;

As in the absence of SRR, the s m a l l e s t eigenvalue p r e m a i n s equal to 3B[. T h u s , in this c a s e , which is of


p r a c t i c a l significance, SRR does not eliminate the instability of the f i r s t mode.
Among the investigated e x a m p l e s , the m o s t stable is the combination of SRR with rod tuned to constant
power of the r e a c t o r .
T h u s , the e x a m p l e s c o n s i d e r e d above show how significant the action of AR on the stability of r e a c t o r to
xenon oscillations is. N u m e r i c a l computations of m o r e complex s y s t e m s (with different distribution of c h a r a c -
t e r i s t i c s , power coefficients, coefficients of the r e a c t o r , and so forth) c a r r i e d out with the u s e of the IRINA
p r o g r a m confirmed this conclusion. M o r e o v e r , the tendencies d e s c r i b e d above also w e r e confirmed.
The authors a r e thankful to A. D. Galanin for attention and i n t e r e s t to the w o r k and to Ya. V. Shevelev,
d i s c u s s i o n s with whom p r o m p t e d the authors to undertake the investigation; they a r e also thankful to B. R.
B e r g e l s o n , B. P. Kochurov, I. B. Basina, A. Ya. K r a m e r o v and m a n y other colleagues for d i s c u s s i o n s .

LITERATURE CITED

1, D. Randall and D. John, Nucleonics, 16, 82 (1958).


2. G. I. Bell and S. Glasstone, N u c l e a r R e a c t o r T h e o r y . Van Nostrand Reinhold (1974).
3. I. Ya. E m e l y a n o v , P. A. G a v r i l o v , and B. N. Seliverstov, Control and Safety of N u c l e a r Power R e a c -
t o r s [in R u s s i a n ] , A t o m i z d a t , Moscow (1975).
4. A. Khitchkok, Stability of N u c l e a r R e a c t o r s [in R u s s i a n ] , G o s a t o m i z d a t , Moscow (1963).
5. A. M. Afanasev and B. Z. T o r l i n , in: P r o b l e m s of Atomic Science and Engineering, Series YaEU Dy-
n a m i c s , No. 2(6), T s N I I a t o m i n f o r m , Moscow (1974), p. 91.
6. P. S. Postnikov, in: P r o b l e m s of Atomic Science and Engineering, Series YaEU D y n a m i c s , No. 2(6),
T s N H a t o m i n f o r m , Moscow (1971), p. 5.
7. P. S. Postnikov and E. F. Sabaev, At, E n e r g . , 26, No. 1, 56 (i969).
8. A. M. Afanasev and B. Z. T o r l i n , in: P r o b l e m s of Atomic Science and Engineering, Series YaEU D y -
n a m i c s , No. 1(7), T s N I I a t o m i n f o r m , Moscow (1975), p. 65.

878