Anda di halaman 1dari 10

Design Example

12 m Span Simply Supported Composite Beam to BS EN 1994-1-1


Consider an internal secondary composite beam A-A of 12m span between
columns and subject to uniform loading. Choose a 457  191  74 kg/m UKB in
S 355 steel.
Secondary beam

Slab span 3.0


Primary beam

3.0

12.0

(a) Plan on floor

130

457

190
(b) Cross-section through beam

A 142 mesh

70

10 60

150
300 300 300
(c) Cross-section through slab
Design criteria
Slab designed for 90 minutes fire resistance
Imposed load 5 kN/m2 (4 kN/m2 occupancy load and 1 kN/m2 partitions)

Floor dimensions
Span L = 12,0 m
Beam spacing b = 3,0 m
Slab depth = 130 mm
Depth above profile hc = 60 mm
Deck profile height, hp = 60 mm (allow a further 10mm for stiffener)
Unpropped beam and slab during construction.

Shear connectors
19 mm diameter stud (100 mm overall height)
95 mm length after welding

Materials
Steel: Grade S 355. nominal value of yield strength, fy = 355 N/mm2 Cl. 3.3.2
Partial safety factor a = 1,0 Table 3.3
fy
Design strength fd = = 355 N/mm2
 a

Concrete: Normal weight concrete strength class C25/30 Cl. 3.1.2


Density = 2400 kg/m3 (23,6 kN/m3)
Concrete cylinder strength, fck = 25 N/mm2
Decking: Steel thickness = 0,9 mm
Steel grade = S 350 (fy = 350 N/mm2)

Construction stage loading


Concrete slab
Weight = [130 – 60/2]23,6/10 6 = 2,36 kN/m2
kN/m
Concrete slab = 2,36
Steel decking (allow) = 0,15
Reinforcement (allow) = 0,04
Steel beam (allow) = 0,25
2,81 kN/m2
Construction load = 0,75 kN/m2 acting on the supported area of floor BS EN 1991-
(note this is different from the deck design which uses a construction load 1-6
1.5 kN/m2over 3m length and 0,75 kN/m2elsewhere on the decking.

Imposed loads and other loads


Occupancy = 4,0 kN/m2
Partitions = 1,0 kN/m2
Total 5,0 kN/m2
The designer is obliged to use BS 6399-1 until EN 1991 becomes operational. BS 6399- Pa
According to BS 6399, imposed loads may be reduced with respect to the total rt 1
area supported by the beam. For the purposes of the design example, this
reduction is omitted.
Ceiling and Services = 0,50 kN/m2

Initial selection of beam size


A suitable section for a secondary beam subject to an imposed load of 5,0 kN/m2 is
a 457  191  74 UKB – Grade S 355 steel.
Section properties and dimensions:
h = 457 mm d = 407 mm
b = 190 mm Aa = 9460 mm2
tw = 9.0 mm Iay = 33320 cm4
tf = 14.5 mm W p  = 1653 cm3
c = 190/2 = 85 mm
 (235/fy) = 0.81
BS EN 1993-
Section classification
1-1
c/tf = 5.8 < 10  = 8.1 Table 4.1
d/tw = 45.2 < 72  = 58.3 Table 4.2
The cross-section is Class 1 to BS EN 1993-1-1 for the construction stage.

Construction stage design


Dead load factor G = 1.35 Table 2.2
Imposed load factor Q = 1.5
Slab and beam = 2.75  1.35 = 3.71 kN/m2
Construction load = 0.75  1.5 = 1.13 kN/m2
Total factored load 4.84 kN/m2
4,84  3  12 2
Design moment = MEd = = 261 kNm
8
The beam is laterally restrained as the decking spans perpendicular to the beam
and is directly attached to it.
Moment resistance of steel beam = Map.Rd, where: EC3 Part 1
Cl. 5.4.5.2
Map.Rd = Wp  fd = 1650  355  10–3 kNm
= 585 kNm > MEd = 261 kNm
The beam is satisfactory in the construction stage.

Composite stage design


Slab and beam = 2,81  1,35 = 3,79 kN/m2
Services ceiling = 0,50  1,35 = 0,67 kN/m2
Imposed load = 5,0  1,5 = 7,50 kN/m2
11,96 kN/m2
Shear force, VEd = 11,96  3  12/2 = 215 kN
11,96  3  12 2
Design moment, MEd = =646 kNm
8

Effective width of compression flange, beff

2  0 Cl 5.9.1(5)
beff = (for a simply supported beam, l0 = span)
8
2  12
= = 3.0 m = 3 m (beam centres)
8

Compressive resistance of slab, Rc


f ck
Rc =  beff  hc
 c

where  c = partial safety factor for concrete = 1,5


fck = characteristic cylinder strength = 25 N/mm2
hc = 130 – 60 – 10 = 60 mm (allowing for re-entrant
stiffener)
Rc = (25/1,5)  3000  60/103 =3000 kN

Tensile resistance of steel section, Rc

Rs = fyd  Aa
= 355  9460/103 = 3358 kN > 3000 kN
Moment resistance for full shear connection
Since Rs > Rc , the plastic neutral axis (PNA) lies in the steel flange. Therefore,
the moment resistance of the composite beam is given by taking moments about the
centre of the top flange of the beam, as follows:
h h 
Mapl.Rd = Rs  Rc  c  hp 
2 2 
= 3358 x 0.457/2 + 3000 x (30 + 70) x 10-3
= 767 + 300 = 1067 kNm > MEd

Shear connection
Shear connector resistance
The design shear resistance of a shear connector is:
= 0,29   d2  f ck Ecm  /  v or

PRd = 0,8 fu ( d2/4)  v


Which ever is smaller.
For d = 19 mm, h = 95 mm, fu = 450 N/mm2,  v = 1,25, fck = 25 N/mm2 Cl. 6.3.2.1
and Ecm = 30,5 kN/mm2
h/d = 95/19 > 4   = 1,0
PRd = 0.29  1,0  192  25  30 ,5 / 10 / 1,25
3

= 73 kN
PRd = 0,8  450  (  192/4)/1,25 = 81,7 kN > 73 kN
PRd = 73 kN for a solid slab
Cl.6.3.3.2
Influence of deck shape - Deck perpendicular to the beam

One stud per rib, i.e. nr = 1:


0, 7
kt = (b0/hp) [(h/hp) – 1]  1,0
nr

where kt = reduction factor due to deck shape


150
= 0,7  [(95/60) – 1] = 1,02 > 1,0
60
The upper limit on kt is dependent on the number of shear connectors and the Table 6.2
thickness of the profiled decking, and is given by kt = 0,85 in Table 4.2.
PRd = 0.85  73 = 62 kN
Two studs per rib, i.e. nr = 2:
0, 7
kt = (b0/hp) [(h/hp) – 1]  0,8
nr

0, 7
= (150/60) [(95/60) –1] = 0.72
2
The upper limit on kt for nr = 2 and ts = 0,9 mm is 0,75 . Therefore, kt,=0.72.
PRd = 0,72  73 = 52 kN for pairs of shear connectors per rib

Shear connector layout


A total of 19 deck ribs is available for the positioning of the stud shear connectors
from the support to mid-span.

Longitudinal shear force transfer, Rq

Rq (1 stud/rib) = 19  PRd = 19  62 kN = 1178 kN


Rq (2 studs/rib) = 19  2  PRd = 19  2  52 kN = 1976 kN

Degree of shear connection, n/nf (one stud per rib)

Rq 1178
   0.39
Rc 3000
Minimum degree of shear connection (one stud per rib) Cl.6.6.1.2
(3)
 355 
  1   1  0 ,04 L   0.4
f 
 y 
For fy = 355 N/mm2 and L = 12 m,  > 0,48. It follows that single shear
connectors are not adequate.
Degree of shear connection, n/n f (two studs per rib):
Rq 1976
    0.66
Rc 3000
Minimum degree of shear connection (two studs per rib)
 
  1  
355 

0.75  0,03L)  0.61 ( 0.4
 fy 
The actual degree of shear connection of  = 0,66 exceeds this limit of 0.61

Moment resistance for partial shear connection

Consider pairs of shear connectors per rib with a degree of shear connection, =
0,66.
Use the linear interaction method:

M Rd  M a ,p ,Rd   ( M p ,Rd  M a ,p ,Rd )


= 404 + 0,66  (1067 – 404)
= 841 kNm > 646 kNm

Unity Factor = 626/841 = 0,74

Shear resistance
407  8,5  275
Vp.Rd =
3  103
= 549 kN > VEd = 215 kN
NB: For uniformly distributed load, shear at the supports does not influence the
moment resistance of the section.

Transverse reinforcement
Use A142 mesh reinforcement in the slab.
Check resistance of concrete flange to splitting:
Shear resistance per shear surface, VRd
Tensile resistance of reinforcement perpendicular to axis of beam
FH = 142  460  10–3 = 65 kN/m BS EN
1992-1-1
Longitudinal force per shear connector per plane (at 300 mm centres)
FL = 2  52/(0,3  2) = 176 kN/m Cl …
tan = FH/FL = 65/176 = 0,37 < 0.5 not OK
It follows that the amount of transverse reinforcement is not acceptable without
considering the beneficial influence of the profiled decking. For pairs of shear
connectors per rib, the effect of end anchorage is included, as follows:
Ppd,Rd = 6,0  19  0,9  350  10–3 = 36 kN per stud
FH = 65 + 36 = 101 kN
tan = FH/FL = 101/176 = 0,57 > 0.5 OK
 = 30 to the axis of the beam
Compression force along the slab
FC = 0.5FL /cos = 0.5  176/cos30 = 102 kN/m
Compressive strength of concrete
fc = 0,6 (1 – fck/250)fck/ c
= 0,6 (1 – 25/250)25/1,5 = 9 N/mm2
Compression resistance of slab
FC = fchc s sin
= 9  60  sin30  103  10–3 = 270 kN/m > 102 kN/m OK
It follows that A142 mesh is acceptable for this case. For the case where the
profiled decking is discontinuous, increase the mesh size to A193.

Serviceability Limit States


No stress checks are required in Eurocode 4-1-1 for normal conditions.

Non-composite stage deflection, d

Self weight of slab and beam qd = 2,81 kN/m2


From properties in sheet 2, the deflection of the steel beam due to the self weight
of the slab and beam is:
5  2,81 3.0 x 12  103 
4
5qd bL4
d = 
384 Ea I ay 384  210  33320 10 4
= 32,5 mm

Composite stage deflection

Second moment of area of the composite section based on elastic properties


(uncracked section), Ic, is obtained , as follows:
Aa h  2h p  hc  beff  hc3
2

Ic =   I ay
41  nr  12n
Aa 9460
r =  = 0.052
beff  hc 3000  60
n = modular ratio = 10 for normal weight concrete subject to variable load
9460 457 ,4  2  70  60  3000  60 3
2
Ic =   33320  10 4
41  10  0 ,052 12  10
= (6.71 + 0.05 + 3.33) x 108 = 10.09 x 108mm4
(203% increase on steel beam stiffness)

Imposed load deflection for full shear connection

Imposed load and services load = 5,5 kN/m2

i =
5 qi bL4


5  5 ,5  3  12  10 3  4

384 Ea I c 384  210  10 ,09  10 8


= 21.0 mm
The imposed load part of this deflection is 19.1mm.
For pairs of shear connectors per rib, the degree of shear connection is 66%, in
which case, the effects of slip do not have to be considered.
No deflection limits are given in BS EN 1993-1-1 and the designer should refer to
national requirements. The imposed load deflection is less than the deflection limit
of L/360 in BS 5950-1, and indicates that the beam is acceptably stiff.

Total deflection

Construction stage = 32,5 mm


Imposed load = 19,0 mm (no slip effect)
Ceiling and services = 1,9 mm
Total 53,5 mm [= L/244]
Normally, in UK practice, the limit on the maximum total deflection for a
L
composite beam is (= 60 mm), which is satisfactory and is within the range of
200
adjustment on the raised floor and suspended ceiling.
To BS EN 19931-1, the suggested total deflection limit is L/250= 48 mm, which is
not satisfied using this beam. However, pre-cambering would not normally be
considered for abeam with a span of 12 m. In this case, it may be appropriate to
consider nominal partial fixity of the connections to reduce deflections.

Vibration Sensitivity: Simplified approach

Permanent loading
Slab and beam = 2,81 kN/m2
Ceiling and services = 0,50 kN/m2
10% of imposed load = 0,50 kN/m2
Total 3,85 kN/m2
Increase the inertia, Ic, by 10% to allow for the increased dynamic stiffness of the
composite beam, Ic1
Ic1 = 10.09  108  1,1 = 11,1  108 mm4
Simplified natural frequency
Instantaneous deflection caused by the self weight of the composite slab and the
beam plus 10% of the imposed load re-applied to the composite beam;
5 qd bL4
d =
384 Ea I c1

d =

5  3,81  3.0  12  10 3 
4

384  210  11,10  10 8

= 13,2 mm
18 18
Natural frequency, f =  = 4.9 Hz > 4 Hz OK
 sw 13 ,2
This simplified check of natural frequency shows that the composite beam is
satisfactory.

Conclusions
The beam size 457  191  74 kg/m UKB in S 355 steel is satisfactory for a 12 m
span secondary beam. The Unity Factor on bending resistance is 0.74, when using
S355 steel. Shear connectors may be placed in pairs per deck rib at 300mm
centres in which case, the degree of shear connection is 66%. The design is
strongly influenced by the requirements for limitation of total deflections, rather
than the bending resistance or other serviceability criteria. It would have been
possible to use S275 steel for this secondary beam design.