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PENGOLAHAN BIOLOGIS

ANAEROBIK DAN ANOKSIK


SISTEM TERSUSPENSI DAN
TERLEKAT
PENDAHULUAN

 “OLD” SMALL SCALE ANAEROBIC TREATMENT ( ON SITE ) =


SEPTIC TANK

 IPAL KOMUNAL PERKOTAAN = IMHOFF TANK DAN UASB

 IMHOFF TANK = LOW RATE SYSTEM  KURANG DIMINATI

HIGH RATE SYSTEM = PREFERABLE !

 ANOXIC SYSTEM  DENITRIFIKASI : ( NO3)  N2


(a) (b)

Gambar Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket


(a) Skema , (b) Reaktor
DESKRIPSI PROSES TAHAP PEMBENTUKAN ASAM

PROSES ANAEROBIK
TAHAP PEMBENTUKAN GAS METHAN

1. TAHAP PEMBENTUKAN ASAM


HIDROLISIS
susbtrat organik kompleks ( karbohidrat, protein, lemak) asam lemak
H2, , CO2 dan CH3COOH DIURAIKAN O/ BAKTERI FAKULTATIF

CONTOH : PENGURAIAN GLUKOSA

C6H12O6 + 4H2O 2CH3COO- + 2HCO3- + 4H+ + 4H ………………………. (1)


asetat

C6H12O6 + H2O CH3COO- + CH3CH2COO- + HCO3- + 2H+ + H2………. (2)


propionat
CONTOH : PENGURAIAN GLUKOSA ( LANJUTAN )

C6H12O6 + H2O CH3CH2COO- + 2HCO3- + 3H+ + 2H2……………………….(3)


butirat

CH3CH2COO- + 2H+ + H2O CH3COO- + HCO3- + 2H+ + 3H2…………………...(4)


propionat asetat

CH3CH2CH2COO- + H+ + 2H2O 2CH3COO- + 2H+ + 2H2……………………………..(5)


butirat asetat
KETERANGAN :]
COMPLEX POLYMERS

1. Bakteri fermentatif PROTEIN CARBOHYDRATES LIPIDS


2. Bakteri Asetogenik
Penghasil Hidrogen HYDROLYSIS
1 1 1
3. Bakteri Asetogenik
Pemakan Hidrogen AMINO ACIDS, SUGARS FATTY ACIDS, ALCOHOLS
4. Methanogenesis
Reduktif ANAEROBIC
5. Asetoklastik INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS
OXIDATION
1 1
Methanogenesis (Propionate, Butyrate, etc)

2
ACETATE 3 HYDROGEN
CORBON DIOXIDE

HOMOACETOGENESIS
ACETOLASTIC 5 4
METHANOGENESIS
METHANE
CARBON DIOXIDE

Skema proses anaerobic (Pavlostathis dan Giraldo-Gomez, 1991)


2. TAHAP PEMBENTUKAN GAS METHAN
HYDROGENOTROPHIC
BAKTERI METHANOGENESIS ( H2 ; CO2  Methan )

ACETOCLASTIC
( Dekarbolaksilasi Asam Asetat 
Methan )

CH3COOH CH4 + CO2……………………….……………………………………………(6)


methane

H2 + CO2 CH4 + 2H2…………………………………………………………………….(7)


Tabel 1. Proses Tahapan Degradasi Senyawa Organik Secara Anaerobik

Tahap Jenis Senyawa Bakteri Jenis Senyawa Keterangan


Asal Pengurai Produk
Tahap I : Acidogenesis
Hidrolysis Protein Hydrolysing and Asam amino,
Karbohidrat fermentation Gula
Lipid bacteria Asam Lemak
Alkohol
Fermentasi Asam amino, -Fermentation Produk Perantara Proses
Gula bacteria (Volatile Fatty Acetogenesis
Asam Lemak -Hydrogen- Acids, VFA),
Alkohol producing Asam Asetat,
acetogenic Hidrogen dan
bacteria CO2
-Hydrogen-
consuming
acetogenic
bacteria
Tabel 1. Proses Tahapan Degradasi Senyawa Organik Secara Anaerobik
( Lanjutan )

Tahap II :Methanogenesis
TAHAP JENIS BAKTERI SENYAWA KETERANGAN
SENYAWA PENGURAI PRODUK
ASAL
Aceticlastic Asetat Aceticlastic Methane dan
Methanogenesis methanogens CO2
Reductive Hidrogen CO2 CO2-Reducing Methane dan
Methanogenesis methanogenes CO2
(Hydrogenotrophic
methanogens)
PROSES DENITRIFIKASI ( ANOKSIK )
NO3- NO3- NO N2O N2……………………………………(8)

JIKA KESELURUHAN N BERADA DALAM BENTUK NITRAT, MAKA :


NO3- + 1.08 CH3OH + H+ 0.065 C5H7O2N + 0.47N2 + 0.76COY + 2.44 H2O (9)

JIKA N BERADA DALAM BENTUK NITRIT & MENGANDUNG SEDIKIT OKSIGEN


MAKA :
Cm = 2.47 N0 + 1.53 N1 +0.87 D0

Dimana:
Cm = konsentrasi methanol yang diperlukan, mg/l
N0 = konsentrasi nitrat awal, mg/l
N1 = konsentrasi nitrit awal, mg/l
D0 = konsentrasi oksigen awal, mg/l
PRINSIP RANCANG BANGUN
Tabel 2. Jenis proses biologis anaerobik dan anoksik yang umum digunakan

Jenis Nama Unit Pengolah Penggunaan


Proses Anoksik: Suspended growth Removal N
Suspended growth Denitrification (Denitrification)
Attached growth Fixed-Film Denitrification Removal N
(Denitrification)
Proses Anaerobik: Anaerobik Digestion Stabilisasi (lumpur)
Suspended growth Anaerobik Cantact Process, Removal BOD
Attached growth ACP Removal BOD
Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed, Removal BOD
UASB Removal BOD
Anaerobic Baffled Reactor, Removal BOD
ABR
Anaerobic Filter Process, AF
Expanded Bed, EBR
Tabel 3. Kriteria desain dan kinerja proses
anaerobik yang mengolah limbah cair industri.

Proses Influen HRT Beban Organik Removal


COD (jam) (kgCOD/m3.hari) COD
(%)
ACP 1500 – 5000 2 – 10 0.03 – 0.15 75 – 90
UASB 5000 – 4 – 12 0.25 – 0.75 75 – 85
AF 15000 24 – 48 0.06 – 0.30 75 – 82
EBR 10000 – 5 – 10 0.30 – 0.60 80 – 85
20000
5000 - 10000
MODEL PERSAMAAN KINETIKA :
 UNTUK REAKTOR TERADUK SEMPURNA (COMPLETE MIXED, STEADY STATE )
θ c Y (S 0 − S )
X =
θ (1 + bθ c )

dimana :
X = Konsentrasi pertumbuhan mikroorganisma
θ = Waktu detensi hidrolis (HRT)
θc = Umur lumpur (SRT) atau mean cell residance time
Y = Koefisien pertumbuhan mikroorganisme
S0, S = Konsentrasi influen dan effluen substrat pembatas pertumbuhan
b = Koefisien kematian mikroorganisma

LAJU PERTUMBUHAN MIKROORGANISME ANALOGIS


dX Dimana :
= µX
dt µ = Laju pertumbuhan mikroorganisme spesifik
Maka :
µ max S
µ = −b
Ks + S

Di mana :
S = konsentrasi substrat dalam reaktor (massa/volume)
µmax = kY = Laju penggunaan substrat spesifik (waktu –1)

k = Laju maksimum penggunaan substrat per unit berat


mikroorganisma (waktu –1)
Ks = Koefisien setengah jenuh, sama dengan konsentrasi air buangan
atau substrat ketika µ = 1,5 µmax
Biological Solids Retention Time ( SRT )

1 akS
=U = −b
SRT Ks + S

1
= SRT
µ
SRT > SRT m = 1 / µ
Tabel 4. Koefisien Kinetika Untuk Penggunaan Substrat dan
Pertumbuhan Biologis

Substrat Suhu k* Ks Y** B SRTm


(0C) (mg/mg- (mg/l) (mg/m (hr-1) (hr)
hr) g)
Asam Asetat 20 3,6 2130 0,04 0,015 7,8
Lumpur buangan kota 10,0
Asam Asetat
Asam Propionat 25 5,0 869 0,05 0,011 4,2
Lumpur buangan kota 7,8 613 0,051 0,04 2,8
Buangan susu sintetis 7,5
Asam asetat
Asam asetat 0,38 24 0,37 0,07 4,7
Asam Propionat 5,1 333 0,054 0,037 4,2
Asam butirat 30 8,7 254 0,04 0,019 3,1
Lumpur buangan kota 35 7,7 32 0,042 0,01 3,2
Buangan pengepakan 8,3 5 0,047 0,027 2,7

0,32 5,5 0,76 0,017 2,8


PRINSIP REKAYASA PERENCANAAN
1. EFISIENSI PENGOLAHAN
Efisiensi pengolahan pada HRT 4 – 6 jam adalah :
COD (total/ total): 50 - 70 %
COD (total/ filtered): 70 - 95 %
BOD (total/ total): 70 - 90 %
COD (filtered/ filtered): diatas 60 %
TSS : 60 – 85 %
2. PRODUKSI GAS METHAN
0,19 N m3/kg CODremoved

0,33 CH4 COD/kg CODremoved

56 – 63 % gas methan akan keluar bersama efluen


3. KONVERSI TSS
40 % TSS berada dalam lumpur
25 % TSS terkonversi menjadi methane
30 % TSS keluar reaktor bersama efluen

4. PRODUKSI LUMPUR
Umumnya 0,1 kg COD/ kg COD in

Nilai maksimum yang diperoleh 0,25 kg COD / kg COD in

0,4 – 0,6 kgTSS/kg TSS in (= 0,06 – 0,1 kg TSS/m3)

5. KONSENTRASI LUMPUR DALAM REAKTOR


31 – 37,5 kg TSS/m3
9,4 – 12,5 kg VSS/m3
6. UMUR LUMPUR
35 – 100 hari (pada saat reaktor sudah penuh lumpur)
7. KARAKTERISTIK LUMPUR

Kandungan abu : 55 – 56 %
Specific methanogenic activity : > 0,1 kg/kgVSS.day
Stabilitas : 20 – 50 L CH4/kg lumpur
Karakteristik pengeringan : 20 kg/m2 dalam 7 hari dan menghasilkan
35 – 40 % DS.

8. KONSENTRASI LUMPUR DALAM SLUDGE BED


Dapat mencapai 100 kg TSS/m3 pada bagian bawah reaktor, bergantung pada
jenis air limbah domestik yang diolah. Karakteristik air limbah ini dapat
mempengaruhi settleability lumpur dan kandungan ash (debu)

9. FAKTOR DESAIN LAIN


Minimum HRT rata-rata adalah 4 jam
Ketinggian 4 m
Titik inlet limbah :
1 per 4 m2 apabila reaktor penuh berisi lumpur
1 per 1 m2 apabila reaktor terisi sedikit lumpur
9. FAKTOR DESAIN LAIN

Tekanan statis pada kotak inlet air limbah : sampai


dengan 50 cm
Kecepatan keatas pada saat bukaan: rata-rata
harian 4 m/jam, selama 2-4 jam 8 m/jam.
Material untuk konstruksi: stainless steel atau
plastik (untuk gutter), beton tahan asam dan
gunakan bahan anti karat untuk pemisah gas dan
pelapisan bagian tertentu.
JENIS REAKTOR ANAEROBIK
 Suspended Growth
 Complete mixed suspended growth
 Anaerobic contact process
 Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR)
 Anaerobic Sludge Blanket
 Upflowanaerobic sludge blanket (UASB)
 Anaerobic baffle reactor (ABR)
 Anaerobic migrating blanket reactor (AMBR)
 Attached Growth
 Upflowpacked-bed reactor
 Anaerobic expanded-bed reactor
 Anaerobic fluidized-bed reactor
 Covered Anaerobic Lagoon
UPFLOW ANAEROBIC SLUDGE BLANKET

UASB
PRINSIP UMUM
•Aliran dalam reaktor = aliran vertikal ke atas ( up flow )
•Sludge untuk mendegradasi bahan organik dalam air buangan berada di
dasar reaktor

• influen dasar reaktor mengalir ke atas (upflow)

Gas Solid Liquid Separator Gas ditampung GLSS, sludge kembali


ke zona sludge blanket, air limbahdipompa
ke ke outlet
KEUNTUNGAN
•Beban Loading tinggi
•Waktu detensi lebih rendah u/ skala anaerobik
•Tidak perlu suplai Oksigen / hemat biaya
•Dapat mereoval PO4 ( fosfat ) & NH3 ( Nitrat ) menjadi gas N2 melalui
proses denitrifikasi
SKEMA REAKTOR UASB
BEBAN VOLUMETRIK
Beban volumetrik COD yg diijinkan untuk removal COD UASB 85 - 95%

COD Fraksi COD Volumetric Loading


air limbah partikulat ( Kg COD / m3.hari)
( mg / L ) Sludge Granular Sludge Granular Sludge
Flocculant Removal TSS tinggi Removal TSS rendah

1000 - 2000 0.1 – 0.3 2–4 2–4 8 – 12


0.3 – 0.6 2–4 2–4 8 – 14
0.6 – 1.0 n.a n.a n.a.
2000 - 6000 0.1 – 0.3 3–5 3–5 12 – 18
0.3 – 0.6 4–8 2–6 12 – 24
0.6 – 1.0 4-8 2-6 n.a.
6000 - 9000 0.1 – 0.3 4–6 4–6 15 – 20
0.3 – 0.6 5–7 3–7 15 – 24
0.6 – 1.0 6–8 3-8 n.a

9000-18000 0.1 – 0.3 5–8 4–6 15 – 24


0.3 – 0.6 n.a. 3–7 n.a.
0.6 – 1.0 n.a. 3–7 n.a.

Sumber : Lettinga & Hulshoff Pol, 1991


BEBAN VOLUMETRIK
Beban Organik volumetrik yg dianjurkan berdasarkan suhu substrat COD soluble
Untuk removal COD 85 – 95%, konsnetrasi rata-rata sludge = 25 mg / L

VOLUMETRIC LOADING ( Kg s COD / m3.hari )


VFA WASTEWATER NON – VFA
SUHU ( C) WASTEWATER
TIPIKAL RANGE TIPIKAL RANGE

15 3 2–4 2 2–3
20 5 4–6 3 2–4
25 6 6 – 12 4 4–8
30 12 10 – 18 10 8 – 12
35 18 15 – 24 14 12 – 18
40 25 20 – 32 18 15 – 24

Sumber : Lettinga & Hulshoff Pol, 1991


BEBAN VOLUMETRIK
Hidraulic Retention Time ( HRT ) τ yang dipakai untuk pengolahan air buangan domestik
Pada kedalaman reaktor UASB = 4 m

SUHU ( C) τ RATA-RATA Τ MAKSIMUM,


(jam) 4 – 6 peak (jam)
16 – 19 10 – 14 7–9
22 – 26 7–9 5–7
> 26 6-8 4-5

Sumber : Lettinga & Hulshoff Pol, 1991


UPFLOW VELOCITY ( v )
Upflow Velocity & Reactor Heights Recommended for UASB Reactor

Upflow Velocity Tinggi Reaktor


Jenis air buangan ( m / jam) (m)
Range Tipikal Range Tipikal

COD hampir 100% soluble 1–3 1.5 6 – 10 8

COD sebagian soluble 1 – 1.25 1 3–7 6


Air buangan domestik 0.8 - 1 0.7 3–5 5
Sumber : Lettinga & Hulshoff Pol, 1991

ν=Q/A
DIMENSI REAKTOR
VOLUME

Vn = Q . S0 Vn = volume reaktor nominal ( efektif ) liquid,


m3
Lorg Q = debit influen , m3/ jam
Lorg = organic loading rate, Kg COD / m3.hari
So = influen COD, Kg

VL = Vn VL = volume reaktor total liquid , m3


Vn = volume reaktor nominal ( efektif ) liquid,
E m3
E = faktor efektif, tanpa satuan

A= Q/v

HL = VL / A HT = HT + HG
Petunjuk Ukuran Luas / Area yang dilayani oleh Saluran Pipa Inlet

Sludge Type COD Area per


loading feed
(Kg/m3.hari) inlet, m3
Dense flocculent sludge, > 40 kg TSS/m3 <1 0.5 – 1
1–2 1–2
>2 2–3
Medium Flocculent Sludge, 20 – 40 kg TSS / m3 >1 – 2 1–2
>3 2–5
Granular Sludge 1–2 0.5 – 1
2–4 0.5-2
>4 >2
Sumber : Lettinga & Hulshoff Pol, 1991

Contoh perhitungan UASB Treatment Process


Design dapat dilihat pada Metcalf&Eddy,2003
Chapter 10:1012-1016
INLET
ANAEROBIC BAFFLED REACTOR

GENERAL DESCRIPTION
 High rate reactor firstly developed by Bahman & Mc Carty
 Consists of several compartments producing gaseous,
designed by using several vertical baffles couraging upflow by
activated sludge which allowed contact between
microorganism & wastewater
 Bacterias tend to grow, move & settle horizontally within each
compartment, low velocity, increase Solid Retention Time
(SRT) equal to 100 days on Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT)
equal to 20 hours
 Less HRT ≈ minimizer reactor size ≈ less O&M cost
 Consists of 3 zone :
 Acidification Zone
 Methanation Zone
 Buffer Zone
ZONE CLASSIFICATION

1. Acidification Zone
Occurred mostly on intial compartment
Volatile fatty acid ( VFA) formation  decrease pH
value
Buffer capacity increased, pH value = increased

2. Methanation Zone
Methane gas produced

3. Buffer Zone
Determined to stabilize the process
ADVANTAGES ( Barber & Stuckey, 1999 )
1. Construction
a. simply design
b. no need mechanical mixing
c. minimize clogging
d. minimize sludge bed expansion
e. low construction cost
f. low O & M cost
2. Biomassa
a. no need biomass with special settling
b. low sludge growth
c. high SRT
d. no need fixed medium / solid settling chamber
e. no need gaseous / sludge separation
ADVANTAGES ( Barber & Stuckey, 1999 )

3. Operational
a. Low HRT
b. allowed intermittent operational
c. stabil hydraulic shock loading
d. long operational without sludge disposal
ATTACHED GROWTH ANAEROBIC
PROCESSES

• Upflow Packed-Bed Attached


• Upflow Attached Growth Anaerobic Expanded-
Bed Reactor
• Attached Growth Anaerobic Fluidized-Bed
Reactor
• Downflow Attached Upflow Attached Growth
Processes
Nitrogen removal

Nitrification and denitrification


Nitrogen Cycle N2
NO2-
Nitrification
Nitrogen
NO3- fixation
NH2 group
of protein
Oxic
NH3
Anoxic
NO2- NH2 group
of protein
Nitrogen
fixation
NO N2
N2O
Denitrification
Nitrogen removal
Organic nitrogen
(protein;urea)

Ammonia Organic Organic nitrogen


nitrogen nitrogen (net growth)
(NH4+) (bacteria cells)

Nitritez(NO2-)

Nitritez(NO3-) z (N2)
Nitrogen
Key Processes and Prokaryotes in the
Nitrogen Cycle
Processes Example organisms

Nitrification (NH4+ NO3-)


NH4+ NO2- Nitrosomonas, Nitrosospira
NO2- NO3- Nitrobacter, Nitrospira

Denitrification (NO3- N2) Bacillus, Paracoccus, Pseudomonas

N2 Fixation (N2 + 8H NH3 + H2)


Free-living
Aerobic Azotobacter, Cyanobacteria
Anaerobic Clostridium, purple and green bacteria

Symbiotic (w/ plants) Rhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Frankia

Ammonification (organic-N NH4+)


Many organisms can do this
Anaerobic-Anoxic-Aerobic Process (A2/O)
Mixed-liquor NO3- recycle
Influent Effluent

Settler Settler
Anaerobic Anoxic Aerobic

Sludge recycle
Sludge waste

Biological Removal of Nitrogen and Phosphorus


Step-Feed Biological Nitrogen Removal
process
Mixed-liquor NO3– recycle
Influent
Effluent

Settler
Settler
Anoxic Aerobic Anoxic Aerobic

Sludge recycle

Sludge waste
Low Energy Cost and High Removal Rate of Nitrogen
One-Sludge Denitrification by Biomass Storage and Decay

BOD oxidation Denitrification


Nitrification with biomass
Biomass synthesis as donor

BOD0 NO3

Low BOD
TKN0 Biomass Low NO3

High NH4+

Aerobic Anoxic

Sludge recycle

Sludge waste
One-Sludge Denitrification by Simultaneous
nitrification with denitrification
Controlled Low D.O.
Simultaneous nitrification,
denitrification,
and BOD oxidation
θ X > 15 days

BOD0 Low BOD


TKN0 Low NO3

Low NH4+

Sludge recycle

Sludge waste
Biofilm predenitrification

Aerobic biofilm reactor


Anoxic biofilm reactor Nitrification
Denitrification Aerobic BOD oxidation

Influent Effluent

High effluent recycle to return NO3–


Biological Nitrification
NH4+
Nitrosomonas
+ −
55 NH 4 + 76O2 + 109 HCO3

→ C5 H 7O2 N + 54 NO2 + 57 H 2O + 104 H 2CO3

NO2-
Nitrobactor
− + −
400 NO2 + NH 4 + 4 HCO3 + HCO3 + 195O2

→ C5 H 7O2 N + 3H 2O + 400 NO3
NO3-

Conditions pH: 7.5 - 8.6


DO: above 1 mg/L
Biological Denitrification
NO3- NO2- NO N2O N2

Microorganisms:

Achromobacter, Aerobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus,


Brevibacterium,Flavobacterium, Lactobaillus,
Micrococcus, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Spirillum

Conditios:
pH: 7 - 8
DO: anoxic
Pond Treatment Processes
Aerobic Stabilization Ponds

Fig. symbiotic relationship between algae and bacteria

Factors: organic loading, degree of pond mixing,


pH, nutrients, sunlight, temperature
Pond Treatment Processes

Fig. Facultative Ponds


Phosphorus Removal

EUTROPHICATION
C&N

C, N, & algae
P
Total P concentration
(mg/L)
municipal wastewater 12
conventional wastewater treatment 6
effluent standard for a protected watershed 1

Additional phosphorus removal is necessary


Phosphorus Removal
Phosphorus in wastewater
Orthophosphate (PH43-)
Polyphosphate (P2O7)
70% of influent
Organically bound phosphorus
10 - 30 % removal by secondary biological treatment:
Utilization for cell synthesis and energy transport
Additional phosphorus removal is necessary
Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal
Anaerobic zone Release of stored phosphorus

Aerobic zone
Additional uptake of phosphorus
(Oxic zone)
Phosphorus Removal
PhoStrip process

Biological Release of Phosphorus

Concentrated phosphorus

Precipitation
of phosphorus

Fig. (a)
Phosphorus removal from wastewater
① ② ③

Activated Sludge Process ①, ③: Chemical precipitation


②: Biological treatment

Normal phosphorus uptake into biomass (11.1)


Precipitation by metal-salts addition to a biological process (11.2)
Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (11.3)