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## MTH202 Discrete Mathematics

Final Term Examination – Spring 2005
Time Allowed: 150 Minutes

Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting any of the
questions:
1. Attempt all questions. Marks are written adjacent to each question.
2. Do not ask any questions about the contents of this examination from
anyone.
a. If you think that there is something wrong with any of the
questions, attempt it to the best of your understanding.
b. If you believe that some essential piece of information is
missing, make an appropriate assumption and use it to solve the
problem.
c. Write all steps, missing steps may lead to deduction of marks.
3. The duration of this examination is 150 minutes.
4. This examination is closed book, closed notes, closed neighbors.
5. Calculator is allowed.
6. Pasting the equations of math type from word file into
software may cause some visibility problem, so please note that do
not copy equations of math type into software from word file. Paste
the equations from math type directly into software.
7. In order to get full marks do all necessary steps.

**WARNING: Please note that Virtual University takes serious note of unfair
means. Anyone found involved in cheating will get an `F` grade in this course.

## Question No. 1 Marks : 01

There is a full binary tree that has 10 internal vertices and 13 terminal vertices
o No
o Yes
Question No. 2 Marks : 10

## Show that the following statement is a tautology

~q ∧ (p → q) → ~p

## Use mathematical induction to prove that

3n −1
1 + 4 + 7 + ...... + (3n − 2) = n( )
2

4
3

## Question No. 5 Marks : 10

Find the probability in each case
A bag contains 40 balls out of which 5 are green ,15 are black and the remaining are
yellow, A ball is taken out the bag.
Events happening:
(i) The ball is black
(ii) The ball is green
(iii) The ball is not green

## By mathematical induction, for all integers n ≥1

12 + 2 2 + 32 + + n 2 =
L
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
o 6
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
o 2
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)
o 6
n(n −1)(2n + 1)
o 6

n!
C (n, k )
(n − k )!
= n!
o k !(n − k )!
C (n, k )
=
o
P(n, k )
C (n, k ) =
o (n − k )!

o None of above.

o 6
o 3
o 11
o None of above

## Question No. 9 Marks : 10

st th th
Find the 31 term of the Arithmetic sequence, if its 4 term is 7 and 8 term is 19

o {x} ∈{x}
o ∅ ∈ {x}
o {x} ∈{{x}}
o None of above

## Question No. 11 Marks : 05

Determine whether the graphs A, B shown in the figures are isomorphic or not
isomorphic? Give reasons.
b
b

a c
a c

e d
e d
B
A
Note: In order to get full marks do all necessary steps
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STUDENTS
FINALTERM EXAMINATION
SPRING 2006 Marks: 60
MTH202 - DISCRETE MATHEMATICS (Session - 3 ) Time: 120min

Student Name:

Center Name/Code:

## Exam Date: Tuesday, August 22, 2006

Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting any of the
questions:
1. Attempt all questions. Marks are written adjacent to each question.
2. Do not ask any questions about the contents of this examination from anyone.
a. If you think that there is something wrong with any of the questions,
attempt it to the best of your understanding.
b. If you believe that some essential piece of information is missing, make
an appropriate assumption and use it to solve the problem.
c. Write all steps, missing steps may lead to deduction of marks.

## 3. This examination is closed book, closed notes, closed neighbors.

4. Calculator is allowed.
5. Symbols by using math type should be pasted on the paper direct
from the math type not from the word document otherwise it
would not be visible.
6. In order to get full marks do all necessary steps.

**WARNING: Please note that Virtual University takes serious note of unfair means.
Anyone found involved in cheating will get an `F` grade in this course.

## For Teacher's use only

Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total
Marks
Question 11 12
Marks

## Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

p&q p→q
If are two propositions, p is true and q is false, then is
► True

► False
► Tautology

Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

## A = {x, y, z} & B = {1, 2,

3}
If then constant function from A to B is

► {(x,1),(y,2)}

► {(y,2),(z,3)}

► {(x,1),(x,2)}

None of these.
► No:
Question 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

In a bag there are 3 red balls and 5 black balls. What is the probability of drawing black balls?

► 5/8

► 3/8

► 5/3

► None of these.
Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

gcd(330,156)
Using the Euclidean’s algorithm

► 6

► 3

► 11

► None of these.
Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

## p :1 > 7 & q : 5 < 2 p∨q

If then the disjunction is

► True
► False

► None of these.
Question No: 6 ( Marks: 5 )

( A∩B) =A ∪B
c c c

## Question No: 7 ( Marks: 5 )

th th
If 5th term of an Arithmetic progression is 16 and 20 term is 46 then what is its 12 term?

## Question No: 8 ( Marks: 10 )

A box contains 4 red, 4 white and 5 green balls. Three balls are drawn from the box together. Find
the probability that may be:
(a) All are of different colours.
(b) All are of same colours.

## Question No: 9 ( Marks: 10 )

∼ q ∧ ( p → q) → ∼ p
Show that the following statement is a tautology. By using truth table.

## Question No: 10 ( Marks: 10 )

(a) What is the expectation of the number of heads, when three fair coins are tossed?
(b) How many signals can be given by 6 flags of different colours, using 3 flags at a time?

## Question No: 11 ( Marks: 10 )

(a) Determine the number of vertices, edges and find the degree of each vertex for the given
directed graph.
gcd(440,120)
(b) Using the Euclidean algorithm to find the .

## Question No: 12 ( Marks: 5 )

3
n +
Prove that if n is an odd integer, then n is even.
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## Discrete Mathematics Total Marks: 40

Time: 60 min
MTH 202
Semester Fall 2004
Instructions
Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting any question:
1. The duration of this examination is 60 minutes.
2. This examination is closed book, closed notes, closed neighbors.
3. Answer all questions.
4. Do not ask any questions about the contents of this examination from anyone and if you feel that
there is something wrong with any question then made the best assumptions which you think and
then answer that question.
5. Calculator is allowed
Question No: 1 Marks : 2

## If R ={ (a, a),(b, b),(c, c)} is a relation on the set A={a, b, c} Then R is

a) Symmetric only.
b) Symmetric and reflexive only.
c) Reflexive only.
d) Equivalence relation.

## 1. If P is not a square then P is not a rectangle

2. P is not a square and P is a rectangle
3. P is a square and P is not a rectangle.
4. None of the above
Question No: 3 Marks : 2

## Identify the false statement

1. 0 ∈ ∅
2. { ∅ } ⊆ { ∅ }
3. If A and B are two sets A ⊆ B and B ⊆ A then A = B.
4. Two sets are disjoint if their intersection is empty set.
c
5. A ∪ A = U

## Question No: 4 Marks : 2

Let A be a set containing 3 elements then the total number of relations from A to A is
1. 2*9
9
2. 2
3. n * n
n2
4. 2
Question No: 5 Marks : 2

## Let A = {1,2,3} and B = {2,3,4,5} then

1. A = B.
2. A is a subset of B.
3. A is improper subset of B.
4. Both 2 and 3.
Question No: 6 Marks : 5
Construct truth table for the following compound proposition
( p → q) ↔ ( p ∧ q)
solution:

p q p→ q p∧q p→ q↔ p∧q
T T T T T
T F F F T
F T T F F
F F T F F
Marks distribution
1 marks for column 1
1 marks for column 2
1 marks for column 3
1 marks for column 4
1 marks for column 5

## Question No: 7 Marks : 5

What are the contra positive , the inverse , and the converse of the implication
“If you have flu then you will miss the final examination”
Solution:
Let p = you have flu
Q = you will miss the final examination
Contra positive
~ q → ~p
If you will not miss the final examination then you have no flu.
Inverse
~ p → ~q
If you have no flu then you will not miss the final examination
Converse
q→ p
If you will miss the final examination then you have flu.
Marks distribution
2 marks for contra positive
2 marks for the inverse
1 marks for the converse

## Question No: 8 Marks : 5

Determine whether the relation R on the set of integers is transitive, where x, y ∈ R if and only if 2|(x – y)

Solution:
To show that R is reflexive, it is necessary to show that
For all x, y, z ∈ Z if x R y, y R z then x R z

## Now by definition of “divides”

2|(x – y)
x – y = 2k for some integer k

## Now by definition of “divides”

2|(y – z)
y – z = 2m for some integer m
(x – y) +( y – z) = 2k + 2m
x – z = 2 (k + m)

## Since k and m are integers then k + m is also an integer

Let k + m = s for some integer s

x – z = 2s
This implies that 2| (x – z)
It follows that R is Transitive
Marks distribution
2 marks for the definition
2 marks for the calculations
1 marks for the required result
Question No: 9 Marks : 5

## Let A , B and C be sets .Show that

c c c c
( A ∪ (B ∩ C )) = (C ∪ B ) ∩ A
By using set identities.
Solution:
c
( A ∪ (B ∩ C ))
= Ac ∩ (B ∩ C ) c By De Morgan ' s law
= Ac ∩ (B c ∪ C c ) By De Morgan ' s law
= (B c ∪ C c ) ∩ Ac By commutative law for int er sec tion

## = (C c ∪ B c ) ∩ Ac By commutative law for union

Marks distribution
2 marks for applying the De Morgan’s law
1 marks for applying commutative law
2 marks for applying commutative law of union

## Question No: 10 Marks : 5

rd th th
If the 3 element of an arithmetic series is -16 and the 20 term is -46. Then find the 10 term?
Solution:

a3 = −16
a20 = −46
a10 = ?
U sin g the formula
an = a1 + (n − 1)d
Putting the values in the above formula we get
−1 6 = a1 + (3 − 1)d
−4 6 = a1 + (2 0 − 1)d
Solving the above two equations we have
−30
d=
17
−212
a1 =
17
a10 = a1 + (10 − 1)d
−212 −30
a10 = + 9( )
17 17
−212 − 270
a10 =
17
−482
a10 =
17
Marks distribution

## 1 marks for using formula

1 marks for substituting values in the formula
1 marks for solving the equation
1 marks for finding the correct values of d and a1
1 marks for the answer

## Suppose that the relation R on a set is represented by the matrix

⎡1 1 0⎤
⎢ ⎥
MR = ⎢1 1 1⎥
⎢⎣ 0 1 1⎥⎦
Is R reflexive, symmetric, and/or anti symmetric?

Solution:

Since all the diagonal elements of this matrix are equal to 1, R is reflexive. Moreover, since MR is symmetric
t
because MR = M R , it follows that R is symmetric. But R is not anti symmetric.
Marks distribution
2 marks for reflexive
2 marks for symmetric
1 marks for anti symmetric
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MIDTERM EXAMINATION
SEMESTER SPRING 2005 Total Marks: 50
MTH202 – Discrete Mathematics
Duration:60mins

Name

PVC Name/Code

Date

## Maximum Time Allowed: (1 Hour)

Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting any of the
questions:
1. Attempt all questions. Marks are written adjacent to each question.
2. Do not ask any questions about the contents of this examination from anyone.
a. If you think that there is something wrong with any of the questions, attempt it
to the best of your understanding.
b. If you believe that some essential piece of information is missing, make an
appropriate assumption and use it to solve the problem.
c. Write all steps, missing steps may lead to deduction of marks.

**WARNING: Please note that Virtual University takes serious note of unfair
means. Anyone found involved in cheating will get an `F` grade in this course.

## For Teacher’s use only

Question Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Q6 Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Total
Marks

## Question No: 1 Marks: 2

Which of the following is not a Proposition?
(a) x >11.
(b) Sun rounds about the Earth
(c) 11+7=18
(d) None of above.
Question No: 2 Marks: 2
131 12
F={x∈ R | x + 29 x -3=0}
(a) finite
(b) infinite
(c ) none of above
Question No: 3 Marks: 2
Let A has the same cardinality as B if and only if ,there is a-------------- correspondence between sets A and B
(a) one-one
(b) onto
(c ) Both (a) and (b)

## Question No: 4 Marks:2

Let A={0,1,2,3,4,5}and we define functions f: A → A and then g: A → A
f (3)=3 , f (4)=2 , f (5)=2 , f (2)=5, f (1)=2
g (1)=4 , g (3)=3 , g (5)=3 , g (2)=1
then f D g(5) and g D f(2)

(a ) f D g(5 ) = g D f(2)
(b) f D g(5) ≠ g D f(2)
(c) f D g(3 ) = g D f(1)
(d) None of the above

## Choose the correct answer.

If f and g are two one-to-one functions, then their composition g o f is
(a) onto
(b) one-to-one
(c ) bijective

## Question No: 6 Marks:5

Write the Boolean expression for the following diagram
Question No: 7 Marks:5
Give the logical proof of the following theorem with the help of truth table
~( p∨q )= ~ p ∧~q

## Question No: 8 Marks:10

Simplify the expressions using set identities
C C
A ∩ ((B ∪ A ) ∩ B )

## Question No: 9 Marks:10

th th th
Find the 18 term of the Arithmetic sequence, if its 6 term is 19 and 9 term is 31.

## Question No: 10 Marks:10

Let A={0,1,2,3,4} and a relation B and C on A as follows:

B={(0, 0),(0, 1)(4, 3),( 4, 4), (1, 3),(2, 2) ,(3, 0),(3, 3)}
C={(0, 0),(1, 2),(3, 3) (4, 4),(2,2),(1,1),(2,1)}

## a. Is B reflexive? Symmetric? Transitive?

b. Is C reflexive? Symmetric? Transitive?
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## MTH202 Discrete Mathematics

Mid Term Examination – Spring 2006
Time Allowed: 90 Minutes

## Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting any

of the questions:
1. Attempt all questions. Marks are written adjacent to each question.
2. Do not ask any questions about the contents of this examination from
anyone.
a. If you think that there is something wrong with any of the
questions, attempt it to the best of your understanding.
b. If you believe that some essential piece of information is missing,
make an appropriate assumption and use it to solve the problem.
c. Write all steps, missing steps may lead to deduction of marks.

## **WARNING: Please note that Virtual University takes serious note of

unfair means. Anyone found involved in cheating will get an `F` grade
in this course.

## Question No. 1 Marks : 5

Let f: R → R be the
-1 function defined by
f(x)=5x+1, Find f (x) .

## If 1=1 then 2=2 , the conditional statement is

 True
ﾐ False
ﾐ None of other.
Question No. 3 Marks : 10

## Question No. 4 Marks : 1

13 + 23 + 33 + " + n 3 =
⎡ n(n + 1) ⎤

2
n(n + 1)(2n + 1)

6
n(n + 1)

2
 None of these

## A set Z has n elements. How many functions are from Z to Z?

n
ﾐ 2
ﾐ n× n
n
ﾐ n
ﾐ None of the other.

## Question No. 6 Marks : 10

th
Find the 7 term of the following geometric sequence
4,12,36,108,…

2

∑ + 2)
(i 2
i =0

 5
ﾐ 3
ﾐ 0
ﾐ None of these

## Question No. 8 Marks :5

Give the logical proof of the following theorem with the help of truth table
~( p∨q ) ≡ ~ p ∧~q

## Let S = {n ∈ Z / n = , for some integer k}

k
(−1)

 S={1}
ﾐ S={-1}
ﾐ S={-1,1}
ﾐ None of the other

## Find the sum of infinite geometric series :

9 3 2
+ + 1 + + ...
4 2 3
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MIDTERM EXAMINATION
SPRING 2007 Marks: 40
MTH202 - DISCRETE MATHEMATICS (Session - 4 ) Time: 90min

Student Name:

Center Name/Code:

## Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting any

of the questions:
1. Attempt all questions. Marks are written adjacent to each question.
2. Do not ask any questions about the contents of this examination
from anyone.
a. If you think that there is something wrong with any of the
questions, attempt it to the best of your understanding.
b. If you believe that some essential piece of information is
missing, make an appropriate assumption and use it to solve the
problem.
c. Write all steps, missing steps may lead to deduction of marks.

## **WARNING: Please note that Virtual University takes serious note of

unfair means. Anyone found involved in cheating will get an `F` grade
in this course.

## For Teacher's use only

Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total
Marks
Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one
p= T,q= T,r=F (( ~ p ) ∧ r ) → (q ∧ r )
If then must be

► F

► T

► q∨ r

None of these

## If A={ a ,b ,c ,d } then the number of elements of power set P(A) are

► 24

► 25

► 26

► 27
Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

► Symmetric

► Transitive

► Reflexive

► All of these

## Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

f :X → Y
The function defined by the following diagram is

► One-to-one

► Onto

## ► Both one-to-one and onto

► None of these
Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

## 1,10,102 ,103 ,104 ,105 ,106 ,107 ,................

is

► Arithmetic series

► Geometric series

► Arithmetic sequence

► Geometric sequence
Question No: 6 ( Marks: 5 )
3
f :Z→Z f ( x) = 3x − x
Define by . Determine whether or not f is one-to-one function.
Question No: 7 ( Marks: 5 )

~ ( p ∨ ( ~ p ∧ q ) ) ≡~ p∧ ~ q
Show that by the laws of logics.

## Question No: 8 ( Marks: 5 )

1 1
1 + + + ... to15th term.
3 9
Find the sum of the geometric series

## Question No: 9 ( Marks: 10 )

Consider the following data for 120 students in a MCS class concerning the courses Discrete
Mathematics (D), JAVA (J) and SQL (S)

65 study D
45 study J
42 study S
20 study D and J
25 study D and S
15 study J and S
8 study all three courses
Find the number of students who study at least one of the three courses and to fill in the correct
number of students in each of eight regions of the Venn diagram as shown in the following figure:
Question No: 10 ( Marks: 10 )

## Define a relation R on the set of all integers Z as follows:

aRb ⇔ a ≡ b ( mod n )
n≠0
For all integer a and b ∈ Z. We define a relation R such that .Let be
n (a − b )
any fixed integer such that .
Show that R is an equivalence relation.
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STUDENTS
MIDTERM EXAMINATION
SUMMER 2007 Marks: 40
MTH202 - DISCRETE MATHEMATICS (Session - 1 ) Time: 120min

Student Name:

Center Name/Code:

## Exam Date: Monday, August 20, 2007

Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting any of the
questions:
1. Attempt all questions. Marks are written adjacent to each question.
2. Do not ask any questions about the contents of this examination from
anyone.
a. If you think that there is something wrong with any of the questions,
attempt it to the best of your understanding.
b. If you believe that some essential piece of information is missing, make
an appropriate assumption and use it to solve the problem.
c. Write all steps, missing steps may lead to deduction of marks.

**WARNING: Please note that Virtual University takes serious note of unfair
means. Anyone found involved in cheating will get an `F` grade in this course.

## For Teacher's use only

Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total
Marks

## Question No: 1 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Negations for the given statement “The train is late or my watch is fast” is

## ► The train is not late and my watch is not fast.

► The train is not late or my watch is fast.
► None of these.
Question No: 2 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

Let R be the relation from A={a1,a2,a3}(Elements of A are ordered by their subscript)to itself given
⎛0 1 0⎞
⎜ ⎟
⎜ 1 0 1⎟
⎜0 1 0⎟
⎝ ⎠

## ► Irreflexive and Anti- Symmetric.

Question No: 3 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

If out of 35 people each person like Discrete Mathematics or Data Structures ,25 like
Discrete Mathematics, and 20 like Data structures then the number of people who like both
Discrete and Data Structures is………..

► 5

► 15

► 10

► None of these.
Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

## Inverse of a function may not be a function

► True

► False
Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

The process of defining an object in terms of smaller versions of itself is called recursion.

► True

► False.
Question No: 6 ( Marks: 8 )

## Logic is difficult or not many students like logic.

If Mathematics is easy, then logic is not difficult.
Therefore,
Mathematics is not easy or logic is difficult.

## Question No: 7 ( Marks: 9 )

Let A = {a,
relations forb,reflexive,
c, d} andsymmetric
define theand
null relation φ and universal
transitive relation A ×A on A. Test these
properties.

## Question No: 8 ( Marks: 4 )

Let f and g be the functions from the set of integers to the set of integers defined by f(x) = 2 x +
3 and g(x) = 3 x + 2 .What is the composition of f and g ? What is the composition of g and f?

## Question No: 9 ( Marks: 9 )

th th
If the 5 element of an arithmetic sequence is -16 and the 20 term is -46.
th
Then find 10 term.

## Question No: 10 ( Marks: 5 )

Show that the sequence 0,1,3,7,...2n − 1,..., for n ≥ 0, satisfies the recurrence relation

## for all integers k ≥ 0 Ck = 2Ck − 1 + 1,

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FINALTERM EXAMINATION
SPRING 2006 Marks: 60
MTH202 - DISCRETE MATHEMATICS (Session - 1 ) Time: 120min

Student Name:

Center Name/Code:

## Exam Date: Tuesday, August 22, 2006

Please read the following instructions carefully before attempting any of the
questions:
1. Attempt all questions. Marks are written adjacent to each question.
2. Do not ask any questions about the contents of this examination from anyone.
a. If you think that there is something wrong with any of the questions,
attempt it to the best of your understanding.
b. If you believe that some essential piece of information is missing, make
an appropriate assumption and use it to solve the problem.
c. Write all steps, missing steps may lead to deduction of marks.

## 3. This examination is closed book, closed notes, closed neighbors.

4. Calculator is allowed.
5. Symbols by using math type should be pasted on the paper direct
from the math type not from the word document otherwise it
would not be visible.
6. In order to get full marks do all necessary steps.

**WARNING: Please note that Virtual University takes serious note of unfair means.
Anyone found involved in cheating will get an `F` grade in this course.

## For Teacher's use only

Question 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total
Marks
Question 11 12
Marks

## Which of the following is true

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► {x}∈{x}

► ∅ ∈{x}

► {x}∈{{x}}

► None of these

► a = b ⇒ b = -a

► a=b ⇒ b=a

► a = b ⇒ b = 2a

► a = b ⇒ a = -b

## A graph that consists of a single vertex is called

► Trivial tree

► Empty tree

► Forest

► None of these
Question No: 4 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

C (n, k )
Combination of n and k i.e. =
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► n!
(n − k )!

► n!
k !( n −k )!

► k!
n!(n − k )!

► None of these
Question No: 5 ( Marks: 1 ) - Please choose one

n( A ∪ B) =
If A and B are finite and over lapping sets then

► n( A) + n( B) + n( A ∩ B)

► n( A) − n( B) + n( A ∩ B)

## ► n ( A)+n ( B )−n ( A∩B )

► Non of these
Question No: 6 ( Marks: 5 )
3
f :Z→Z g:Z→Z f (n) = n + 2 g (n) = n , ∀n ∈ Z
Let and be defined by and .
f Dg & gD f.
Find the compositions

## Question No: 7 ( Marks: 5 )

Find the sum of the following infinite geometric series 2, 1, 0.5, ...

## Using mathematical induction to prove that

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n −1 n
1 + 2 + 4 + "" + 2 = 2 −1

## Question No: 9 ( Marks: 10 )

2
Prove by contradiction that is an irrational

## Question No: 10 ( Marks: 10 )

A class contains 10 boys and 20 girls of which half boys and half the girls have brown eyes. Find
the probability that a student chosen at random is a boy or has brown eyes.

## (a) Which vertex is the root?

(b) Which vertices are internal?
(c) Which vertices are leaves?
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Connecting VU
Students
j
(d) Which vertices are children of
h.
(e) Which vertex is the parent of