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Earthfault Protection System


EPSY (Earthfault Protection On the other hand, devices and of earth faults for the operators
System) is the comprehensive systems of traditional earth of medium-voltage networks.
earth fault protection system fault protection engineering It performs for both high and
from Trench Austria, designed can not meet these stringent low impedance faults to earth,
specifically for compensated requirements. including difficult intermittent
networks. Compared with faults where frequent
other methods of power system The protection system EPSY restrikes occur.
earthing, earth fault com- consists of:
pensation offers major ad- The electronic components of
vantages for the safety of per- - an arc suppression coil EPSY and their configuration
sonnel, the security of supply (ASC, continuously possibilities are summarised
and the reduction in conse- adjustable type), in the following pages.
quential damage during earth - an automatic compen-
faults. sation controller and
However, compared to alter- - an earth fault detection
native earthing methods, earth device (selective, highly
fault compensation demands sensitive type).
the highest requirements on
the capability and reliability of The enhanced approach for the
the protection devices for de- selective detection of high-
tecting and locating earth impedance earth faults, which
faults. These standards are met is integrated in the EFD20
by Trench Austria’s EPSY system. device, offers reliable detection

Abb. 1 10kV / 160A Erdschlusslöschkombination für Dauerbetrieb

Earthfault Compensation Controller EFC20 / EFC20i

Fig.1 Earthfault Compensation Controller EFC20

The Earthfault Compensation Controller • For details see EFC20/EFC20i brochure.

EFC20 determines the resonance point by
marginally moving the ASC.

Fig. 2 Earthfault Compensation Controller EFC20i with 19‘‘-rack mounted Current Injection Device ECI

The Earthfault Compensation Controller • The operation mode EFC20i requires the
EFC20i uses a current injection into the installation of the current injection device
zero-sequence system for determination of ECI (see also page 10).
the resonance point. Therefore a detuning • For details see EFC20/EFC20i brochure.
of the Arc Suppression Coil is no longer
necessary for the calculation procedure.
Earthfault Detection Device EFD20 / EFD20c

Fundamental aspects of Earthfault Detection The neutral-to-ground voltage

detecting the faulty System EFD20 (Vo) and the zero-sequence
feeder current (Io) of each feeder are
monitored all the time. The
When an earth fault occurs in a The core of the electronic part feeder indicating the greatest
compensated network, the im- of EPSY is the earthfault fault asymmetry is recognised
mediate problem faced by the detection device EFD20. This is and signalled as the faulty one.
utility is how to reliable detect available as a separate earth The combination of the
which feeder is the faulty one. fault detection device and also admittance method with
It is well known that traditional as part of the combined control additional algorithms imple-
earth fault relays cannot relia- and detection unit (EFD20c). mented in the EFD20 offers re-
ble locate the faulty feeder for The new system family EFD20 liable and selective earthfault
both high and low impedance is based on it’s successful detection of low and high im-
faults. There are fundamental predecessor EFD10/40, which pedance earth faults up to a
reasons for this, which include fulfils the highest requirements few ten-thousands of Ohms.
the instrument transformer er- in the selective detection of The EFD has also been proven
rors, the small zero-sequence earth faults. This detection in the field to reliable detect in-
currents involved, but most of system is patented by Trench termittent earth faults, that is
all because they measure sig- Austria. where frequent restrikes occur.
nals from only the one feeder In the EFD20 family, the In conclusion, the new EFD20
to which they are connected. neutral-to-ground voltage and family sets high standards that
Taking a new and wider ap- the zero-sequence currents are can not be achieved with
proach, the signals that are vectorial measured and traditional earth fault
readily available for earth fault combined in a central unit for protection techniques.
measurement in a substation their further processing.
are the neutral-to-ground The natural asymmetry (zero-
voltage (Vo) and the zero- sequence admittance) and the
sequence currents (Io1 ... Ion) line-to-earth capacitance of
of all those feeders that are each individual feeder are de-
supplied by the busbar. termined while the power
To detect which feeder is faulty, system is healthy. This is best
the amplitude of the zero- achieved by injecting a defined
sequence current cannot be current into the power auxiliary
used as the only criterion. It is winding of the Arc Suppression
essential to evaluate the phase Coil.
position of each zero-sequence
current with respect to the neu-
tral-to-ground voltage or to eva-
luate an additionally resulting
term (e.g. feeder admittance).

Device concept EFD20 / EFD20c

Hardware • LED indication of status Hardware Options

and control signals
• microprocessor based • housing
device 19‘‘-rack mounted (6U) • serial interfaces
• cover strips for panel
• easy operation by means • analogue output module installation
of a scroll wheel and 0 ... 20 mA output for
function keys external indication of several • alternative power supply
measurement signals
• extended operation via PC • extension of the number of
by means of a terminal • prepared for easy upgrade to digital I/O by means of the
program the compact device EFD20c expansion unit EFX20
with additional control
• flexible hardware function for an arc
configuration suppression coil

Fig. 3 Compact Device EFD20c (control & detection)


• easy operating by
means of
- integrated display
- scroll wheel
- clearly arranged
function keys
Fig. 4 Operating panel of compact device EFD20c
• clear menu guide with
„help“ – text

• separated display for

control and detection mode

• automatic, adaptive
menu according to
activated software options

• terminal program EFDTerm

for Windows for parameter
setting and on-site operating

• remote control by means

of a modem

Fig. 5 EFDTerm

Software Software Options

• easy upgrade from • automatic reclosing unit

detection device EFD20 to short-time disconnection of
the compact device EFD20c faulty feeders for self-healing
of earth faults
• high flexibility in
parameter settings due to • fault location
the implemented PLC- determination of fault location
functionality in case of an earth fault

• indication of operating • SCADA

status via text messages SPABus or
• measurement buffer
for recording of various • software options for the earth
network incidents fault compensation control
function in the compact device
• remote parameter changes EFD20c see EFC20/EFC20i
by means of a PC connected brochure
via modem to the serial

• 3 menu access levels for

different users

• software-update via
serial interface

Technical Data EFD20 / EFD20c

Basic device

EFD20 EFD20c EFX20


24 line display, 53 symbols per line, 6 keys, scroll wheel x x -

serial interface for SCADA, PC or modem: RS 232 4 4 1

Ethernet (LAN)/CAN-BUS 1/1 1/1 - /1

analogue voltage inputs

0 ... 110 V AC 50 Hz 4 4 -
rated burden < 0,5 VA

analogue current inputs for zero-sequence

current measurement / current injection
0 ... 5 A AC; rated burden < 0,2 VA 8 ... 321,2 8 ... 321,2 -

analogue outputs for Vo, coil position, fault location

0 ... 20 mA, software programmable (2)* 2 -

coil position indication

by linear potentiometer 0 ... 200 ohm / 0 ... 2000 ohm - 1 -
or by 0 ... 20 mA input signal

digital inputs
potential free contacts, 24 ... 230 V AC/DC 16 ... 1123 16 ... 1123 16 ... 1443

digital outputs
potential free contacts, 230 V AC/DC, max 5 A continuous 16 ... 1123 16 ... 1123 16 ... 1443
max contact current closing rating 1000 VA
max contact interrupting rating 30 VA

auxiliary voltage
230 V AC/DC x x x
110 V DC (x)* (x)* (x)*
(other voltages upon request)

current inputs allocateable via menu for zero sequence current measurement resp. for current injection (max. 3 pcs.)
in steps of 4 available (8, 12, 16, ... 32)
depending on the system configuration; in steps of 16
Basic device Software options

EFD20 EFD20c EFD20 EFD20c

detection of low- and high-impedance earth faults x x
automatic earth fault compensation control of stepless x
adjustable plunger core coils
terminal program EFDTerm for Windows x x
automatic adaptive menu x x
non-volatile measurement buffer x x
3 menu access levels for users x x
software-update via serial interface x x
implemented PLC-functionality x x
fault location at loop configuration x x
automatic reclosing unit x x
predefined coil position1 x
automatic resistor control 1
fix coil control 1
ideal compensation (v=0)1 during earth fault condition x
automatic switching if Vo exceeds Vmax 1

Mechanical data
dimensions width 483.0 mm
height 266.0 mm
depth 350.0 mm
weight approx. 13 kg
temperatures operating 0°C ... +40°C
storage -25°C ... +55°C
transport -25°C ... +70°C
humidity class G acc. to DIN 40040
protection class IP20

for details see EFC20/EFC20i brochure

Current Injection Device ECI

The Current Injection Device The current injection into the Following designs are available:
ECI is used to produce zero-sequence system is usually
differential measurement done via a suitable power • cubicle for indoor or
values by means of the current auxiliary winding of the arc outdoor design
injection into the zero- suppression coil. • mounting plate for
sequence system. This approach The Current Injection Device installation in an
is used by both the Earthfault ECI essentially consists of a existing cubicle
Compensation Controller transformer, capacitors for • 19‘‘-rack mounted (3U)
EFC20i and the Earthfault current limiting, relays, control-
Detection Device EFD20. and signal contacts.

Fig. 6 ECI in conventional design (indoor design, Fig. 7 ECI 19‘‘-rack mounted
outdoor design and design on mounting
plate available )

Examples for System Configurations

Single-busbar configuration

Fig. 8 EFC20 at single-busbar configuration

Fig. 9 EFC20i at single-busbar configuration

Fig. 10 EFD20 at single-busbar configuration

Fig. 11 Control and detection EFD20c at single-busbar configuration

Double-busbar configuration

Fig. 12 EFC20i at double-busbar configuration

Fig. 13 EFD20 at double-busbar configuration

Fig. 14 Control and detection EFD20c at double-busbar configuration

Trench Austria GmbH
Paschinger Straße 49, Postfach 36
A-4060 Linz-Leonding/Austria
Phone +43.732.6793-0
Fax +43.732.67 13 41
Trench Limited
Instrument Transformer Division
390 Midwest Road, Scarborough
Ontario, Canada M1P 3B5
Phone +1.416.751-8570
Fax +1.416.751-6952
Trench Limited
Coil Product Division
71 Maybrook Drive, Scarborough
Ontario, Canada M1V 4B6
Phone +1.416.298-8108
Fax +1.416.298-2209
Trench France S.A.
16, rue du Général Cassagnou
B.P. 70
F- 68302 St-Louis/France
Phone +33.3.89 70 23 23
Fax +33.3.89 67 26 63
Trench Germany GmbH
Nürnberger Straße 199
D-96050 Bamberg/Germany
Phone +49.951.1803-0
Fax +49.951.1803-224
Trench Switzerland AG
Lehenmattstraße 353
CH - 4028 Basel/Switzerland
Phone +41.61.315 51 11
Fax +41.61.315 59 00
Trench (UK) Limited
South Drive
Tyne & Wear
NE 31 1 UW
Phone +44-191-483-4711
Fax +44-191-430-0633 email
Trench Brasil LTDA
Via Expressa de Contagem, 2685
CEP 32370-485
Contagem, Minas Gerais/Brasil
Phone +55.31.391-5959
Fax +55.31.391-1828
Trench China Limited
3658 Jiang Cheng Road
Minhang, Shanghai 200245
P.R. China
Subject to change without notice Phone +86.21.64630088
Fax +86.21.64637828
E 667 email