© All Rights Reserved

0 tayangan

© All Rights Reserved

- eP11
- Optimum Values and Extreme Values
- Cuestionario Previo 2 - Acústica y Óptica
- Addition - Unbounded Rationality
- Frontline Solvers User Guide
- 10 IGCSE Physics Test 1 2014
- [2010] A Hybrid Method for Voltage Stability Constrained Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch
- SDA 3E Chapter 13
- ga
- Capturing Dynamics in Integrated Supply Chain Management
- SW Press Frame Opt Example Okk - OPTIMIZACION
- (2) 6.1 waves
- Swimming of Microscopic Organisms
- How to Measure Roll Quality
- HW_F94
- nctp2009detailedsolutions.pdf
- FP_J.Akbari[A]
- Computer Assembly
- 01546775
- Binder1 62.pdf

Anda di halaman 1dari 17

https://doi.org/10.1007/s12351-018-0420-3

ORIGINAL PAPER

optimization algorithm

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Abstract

This paper presents water wave optimization (WWO) algorithm to solve the optimal

reactive power dispatch (ORPD) problem with the continuous and discrete control

variables in power system. The ORPD problem is defined as a complex, discrete,

constrained nonlinear combinatorial optimization problem. The WWO algorithm is

utilized to find the optimized values of control variables such as generator voltages,

tap positions of tap changing transformers and the amount of reactive compensation

devices to achieve minimized value of active power losses. The WWO algorithm

not only effectively avoids the shortcomings of local search and poor calculation

accuracy, but also accelerates the convergence rate to find the global optimal solu-

tion. The WWO algorithm is implemented on standard IEEE 30-bus power system

that is to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the WWO algorithm to tackle

with the ORPD problem. Compared with other algorithms, the WWO algorithm can

find the set of the optimal solutions of control variables. The simulation experiment

indicates that the WWO algorithm has better overall performance to reduce the real

power losses.

Control variables · Active power losses · Simulation experiment

1 Introduction

With the development of the economy, the power load increases rapidly and the

ORPD problem is an important part for power system to operate safely, which has

aroused wide public attention. The power system achieves the optimal dispatch and

* Yongquan Zhou

yongquanzhou@126.com

1

College of Information Science and Engineering, Guangxi University for Nationalities,

Nanning 530006, China

2

Key Laboratory of Guangxi High Schools Complex System and Computational Intelligence,

Nanning 530006, China

13

Vol.:(0123456789)

Y. Zhou et al.

control of reactive power, which can improve the quality of voltage and reduce the

power transmission losses so as to reduce operating costs and enhance the level of

stable operation. The ORPD problem (Alsac and Stott 1974; Lee et al. 1985; Kena-

rangui and Seifi 1994; Lai 2005; Varadarajan and Swarupa 2008; Duman et al. 2012)

is a nonlinear combination optimization problem with discrete, complex, multi-con-

strained features. The traditional methods to solve the ORPD problem are interior

point method (Momoh et al. 1994), linear programming (Deeb and Shahidehpur

1990), nonlinear programming method (Wu et al. 1994), Gradient method (Lee et al.

1985), quadratic programming method (Grudinin 1998), Newton method (Bjelogrlic

et al. 1990), which generally causes problems, such as large error, curse of dimen-

sionality, difficult to deal with discrete variable, so that it is difficult to obtain the

ideal result.

In recent years, the traditional methods have some shortcomings to solve ORPD

problem, the heuristic optimization algorithms have been come forward by some

scholars to solve the complicated problem. Such as bat algorithm (BA) (Yang and

He 2013), flower pollination algorithm (FPA) (Yang 2012), particle swarm optimi-

zation (PSO) (Kennedy and Eberhart 1995), sine cosine algorithm (SCA) (Mirjalili

2016), crow search algorithm (CSA) (Askarzadeh 2016), water wave optimization

(WWO) (Zheng 2015). The adapted genetic algorithm with adjusting population

size is proposed to solve the ORPD problem (Attia et al. 2012). The quasi-oppo-

sitional teaching learning based optimization is applied to tackle with the ORPD

problem, which accelerates the convergence speed and improves calculation accu-

racy (Mandal and Roy 2013). The opposition-based gravitational search algorithm

has been put forward to solve the ORPD problem, which indicates that its robust-

ness and effectiveness for solving ORPD problem of power systems (Shaw et al.

2014). The harmony search algorithm is used to solve the ORPD problem to find the

optimal control variables and the minimal active power loss (Khazali and Kalantar

2011). The gray wolf optimizer is posed to solve the ORPD problem and that is

able to achieve less power loss (Sulaiman et al. 2015). Artificial bee colony algo-

rithm is presented to solve the ORPD problem with discrete and continuous control

variables (Mouassa and Bouktir 2016). Ant lion optimizer is proposed to solve the

ORPD problem in power system, which not only finds the set of optimal control var-

iables, but also gets real power loss (Mouassa et al. 2017). The colonial competitive

differential evolution has strong effectiveness and robustness to solve the optimal

economic load dispatch problem (Ghasemi et al. 2016). A novel teaching–learning-

based optimization algorithm is applied to solve optimal reactive power dispatch

problem, the result demonstrates that the optimization efficiency of the modified

algorithm is better than that of other algorithms (Ghasemi et al. 2015). The hybrid

algorithm combining modified teaching learning algorithm and double differential

evolution algorithm has faster convergence speed and better solutions in comparison

with other optimization algorithms (Ghasemi et al. 2014).

The WWO algorithm based on shallow wave theory mainly simulates propagation,

refraction and breaking operations to solve the optimization problem. The WWO algo-

rithm is applied to solve the ORPD problem to obtain the optimal control variables and

minimum power losses. The WWO algorithm not only speeds up the convergence rate

and calculation accuracy, but also strikes a balance between the global search and local

13

Optimal reactive power dispatch using water wave optimization…

search. The robustness and consistency of the WWO algorithm is beneficial to solve

the ORPD problem to find the global solution in power system. The WWO algorithm

has been tested in IEEE 30-bus in power system, the optimization result of the WWO

algorithm is better than that of other algorithms, which shows the WWO algorithm has

a strong global search ability.

The article has the following sections: Sect. 2 introduces the mathematical formula-

tion of the ORPD problem; Sect. 3 reviews WWO algorithm; the solution procedure of

the ORPD problem designed detailed in Sect. 4; the experimental results and analysis

presented in Sect. 5. Finally, Sect. 6 discusses the conclusion work.

2 Mathematical formulation

power system. While satisfying all the specified constraints, we obtain the minimiza-

tion of the total transmission active power losses by setting the optimal values of con-

trol variables like reactive power output of generators, tap ratios of transformers and

reactive power output of shunt compensators. The total active power losses of the sys-

tem are minimized as the objective function, and the voltage quality has been improved

while reducing the active power losses of the system. The problem’s control decision

variables and their notations are given in Table 1.

The objective function of ORPD can be described as follows:

∑ ∑ ( )

min Pkloss = gk × v2i + v2j − 2 × vi × vj × cos 𝜃ij (1)

k∈NE k∈NE

variables and notations

WWO Water wave optimization

BA Bat algorithm

FPA Flower pollination algorithm

PSO Particle swarm optimization

SCA Sine cosine algorithm

CSA Crow search algorithm

Pkloss Active power loss of branch k

gk Conductance of branch k

NE A collection of all branches

𝜃ij Load angle difference between bus i and j

vi,vj Voltage amplitudes of the bus i and j

Pgi,Qgi Active and reactive power of generator bus i

Pdi,Qdi Active and reactive power of load bus i

gij,Bij Conductance and susceptance between bus i and j

Ng Number of generators

NB Number of bus in test system

NT Number of regulating transformer

NL Number of transmission lines

13

Y. Zhou et al.

∑

where Pkloss is active power loss of branch k , k∈NE Pkloss represents total active

power losses in the transmission system, gk is the conductance of branch k , NE is a

collection of all branches, 𝜃ij is load angle difference between bus i and j , vi and vj

express the voltage amplitudes of the bus i and j , respectively.

The equality constraints can be generated as follow:

∑ ( )

Pgi − Pdi − vi vj gij cos 𝜃ij + Bij sin 𝜃ij = 0

(2)

j=Ni

∑ ( )

Qgi − Qdi − vi vj gij sin 𝜃ij − Bij cos 𝜃ij = 0

(3)

j=Ni

where Pgi and Qgi represent the active and reactive power of generator bus i , Pdi and

Qdi represent the active and reactive power of load bus i , respectively. The gij and Bij

represent conductance and susceptance between bus i and j.

The inequality constraints can be generated as follow:

Reactive power generation constraint for each generator bus:

min ≤ Q ≤ Qmax , i ∈ N

Qgi (4)

gi gi g

vimin ≤ vi ≤ vmax

i

, i ∈ NB (5)

S ≤ Smax , l ∈ N

l l L (7)

In order to make the result satisfy the constraints, the minimum value of the active

power losses is taken as the objective function, the penalty function is used to tackle

with inequality constraints. So that we can get the augmented objective function as

follow:

∑ ∑

NG

∑

NB

∑

NL

FP = Pkloss + k1 × f (Qgi ) + k2 × f (Vi ) + k3 × f (Slm ) (8)

k∈NE i=1 i=1 m=1

⎧0 if xmin ≤ x ≤ xmax

⎪

f (x) = ⎨ (x − xmax )2 if x > xmax (9)

⎪ (xmin − x)2 if x < xmin

⎩

13

Optimal reactive power dispatch using water wave optimization…

Problem space Population space

Solve each solution of the problem A water wave with height h and wavelength 𝜆

The evaluation function value of each solution The closer sea level to the seabed, the higher the

fitness value. On the contrary, the lower the

fitness value

where k1 , k2 and k3 are penalty function coefficient, and the value is 10,000, xmin

and xmax are the value rang of dependent variables for each generator bus.

3 WWO algorithm

The WWO algorithm mainly simulates the motion of waves to solve the optimiza-

tion problem, and propagation, refraction and breaking can effectively balance the

global search and local search. For each wave, the fitness value of the water wave

is related to wave height and wavelength. As can be seen from Fig. 1, the water

wave has a higher fitness value, its wave height is higher and wavelength is longer

in the shallow water areas; the water wave has a lower fitness value, its wave height

is lower and wavelength is shorter in the deep water areas. The correspondence

between problem space and population space is given in Table 2.

13

Y. Zhou et al.

3.1 Propagation

When each wave is performing propagation, wave height and wavelength will

change accordingly because the seabed is uneven. The new water x′ is obtained by

propagation the original wave x . Assuming that the position of the original water

wave is x(d) and that of the new water wave is x� (d) , the location update formula

as follows:

x� (d) = x(d) + rand(−1, 1) ⋅ 𝜆L(d) (10)

where rand(−1, 1) is a uniformly distributed random number between − 1 and 1,

L(d) is the length of d th for search space, 𝜆 is wavelength of water wave x . If the

position of wave x′ is not within the search range, then we randomly give a new posi-

tion in the search space. Compared with the fitness value of original water wave x ,

if that of the new wave x′ is higher, wave x is replaced by x′ , wave height is defined

as hmax . On the contrary, wave x is retained and wave height is decreased by one,

which indicates that the wave energy is depleted.

The wavelength 𝜆 is updated as follows:

/

𝜆=𝜆⋅𝛼

−(f (x)−f

min +𝜀) (fmax −f

min +𝜀) (11)

where 𝛼 is wavelength attenuation coefficient, fmin and fmax are minimum and

maximum fitness values, 𝜀 is a positive integer and very small to avoid the denomi-

nator is zero.

3.2 Breaking

Increasing the wave energy, it makes the crests steeper and steeper. When the

speed of crest exceeds that of wave propagation, the water wave will break into

a series of solitary waves. In WWO algorithm, the optimal water wave x∗ is per-

formed by breaking operation to improve the diversity of the population. The

location update formula is shown below:

x� (d) = x(d) + N(0, 1) ⋅ 𝛽L(d) (12)

where 𝛽 is a broken wave coefficient, L(d) is the length of the search space for dth . If

the fitness value of all solitary waves obtained by breaking operation not better than

that of the water wave x∗ , x∗ is retained; on the contrary, the water wave x∗ will be

replaced by an optimal solitary wave in the population.

3.3 Refraction

In wave propagation, the water wave energy continues to decrease and eventually

becomes zero. When the water wave height is zero, refraction operation is used to

avoid the search stagnation, which speeds up the convergence of WWO algorithm

13

Optimal reactive power dispatch using water wave optimization…

and improves the accuracy of the solution. For water wave x , its refraction opera-

tion formula is shown below:

( )

(x ∗ (d) + x(d)) |x ∗ (d) − x(d)|

x� (d) = N , (13)

2 2

where x∗ is the optimal solution that found in the current position, N(𝜇, 𝜎) is used

to generate mean 𝜇 and standard deviation 𝜎 Gaussian random number. In fact, this

allows wave x to learn from the current optimal wave x∗ . At this time, the wave

height of wave x′ is hmax , the update formula of wavelength is as follow:

f (x)

𝜆� = 𝜆 (14)

f (x� )

The effectiveness and feasibility of the WWO algorithm is stable, which accelerates

convergence rate to find the global optimal solution. The WWO algorithm is pro-

posed to solve the ORPD problem that can obtain minimized value of power losses

in power system. The correspondence between the ORPD problem space and WWO

algorithm space is shown in Table 4.

of the WWO algorithm

1 Randomly initialize a water wave population P with n

waves (solutions), initialize wavelength

reduction coefficient 𝛼 , breaking coefficient 𝛽 , and

wavelength reduction coefficient 𝜆.

2 while stop the termination criterion is not satisfied do

3 for each water wave x ∈ P do

4 Propagate x to a new x′ by using formula (10);

5 if f (x� ) < f (x) then

6 if f (x� ) < f (x∗ ) then

7 Break x′ by using Eq. (12);

8 Update x∗ with x′;

9 Replace x with x′;

10 else

11 Decrease x.h by one;

12 if x.h = 0 then

13 Refract x to a new x′ by using Eq. (13) and

(14);

14 Update the wavelengths by using Eq. (11);

15 return x∗.

13

Y. Zhou et al.

The ORPD problem space The WWO algorithm space

A collection contains all the optimization schemes A water wave population P with (n1 , n2 , … , nk )

(x1 , x2 , … , xk ) to solve ORPD problem waves

An optimal optimization scheme for solving ORPD An optimal water wave

problem

The objective evaluation function of the ORPD prob- The fitness function of the WWO algorithm

lem

In the coding of water waves, the code length is the total number of the con-

trol variables and the variables are arranged in a certain order. In this paper, the

sequence is the generator bus voltages, tap ratios of transformers and reactive

power output of shunt compensators, which constitutes a complete individual

structure of the water wave. The values of the control variables are within the

valid range. The number of generators is n1 , the number of reactive compensa-

tion point is n2 , and the number of transformer branches is n3 , so the code length

of a water wave is n = n1 + n2 + n3.

The encoding formats are different for different control variables. The genera-

tor bus voltages are continuous variables, which is a real number encoding, such

as formula (15). Tap ratios of transformers and reactive power output of shunt

compensators are discrete variables, and the randomly generated numbers are

rounded, such as formula (16).

x1 = xmin + rand(1, 1) ∗ (xmax − xmin ) (15)

where xmax and xmin are maximum and minimum values of the control variable

range, K is total number of gears, r is unit change of discrete variables, rand(1, 1) is

random function, round() is a rounding function.

The flowchart of WWO algorithm to solve ORPD problem is depicted in

Fig. 2 and the solution procedure of the ORPD problem is given in Table 5,

VG1 , VG2 , VG5 , VG8 , VG11 , VG13 represent reactive power output of generators (gen-

erator bus voltages), T6−9 , T6−10 , T4−12 , T28−27 represent tap ratios of transformers,

and QC3 , QC10 , QC24 represent reactive power output of shunt compensators.

The section mainly contains two important contents: Content 5.1 simply intro-

duces the experimental setup; Content 5.2 minutely expounds the WWO algo-

rithm to solve the ORPD problem.

13

Optimal reactive power dispatch using water wave optimization…

Start

data, and unit data

Initialization of population

set parameters

water waves into laod flow data

Evaluation

Obtain power losses from power flow calculation

(MATPPOWER), then find the fittest water wave

Yes

No

by Eq.(10) to produce a new water wave x

f(x )<f(x) ?

by one, which represents energy loss.

Yes

Yes

f(x )<f(x*) ?

operation by Eq.(13) and (14)

Yes

Updata the wavelength of each wave by Eq.(11).

operation by Eq.(12), x replaces x*

Eq.(8) to obtain value of power losses

No

Whether the condition are meet or not ?

Yes

minimize the total active power losses

End

13

Y. Zhou et al.

1 Read system data, bus data, line data, and unit data. Define control variables

(VG1 , VG2 , VG5 , VG8 , VG11 , VG13 , T6−9 , T6−10 , T4−12 , T28−27 , QC3 , QC10 , QC24 ) within their permissible

range;

2 Randomly initialize a population P of n waves (solutions), and initialize wavelength reduction

coefficient 𝛼 , breaking coefficient 𝛽 , and wavelength reduction coefficient 𝜆.

3 Map control variables from water waves into power flow data and calculate the power losses of

each water wave using Eq. (8);

4 while stop the termination criterion is not satisfied do

5 for each water wave x ∈ P do

6 Propagate x to a new x′ by using formula (10);

7 if f (x� ) < f (x) then

8 if f (x� ) < f (x∗ ) then

9 Break x′ by using Eq. (12);

10 Update x∗ with x′;

11 Replace x with x′;

12 else

13 Decrease x.h by one;

14 if x.h = 0 then

15 Refract x to a new x′ by using Eq. (13) and (14);

16 Update the wavelengths by using Eq. (11);

17 Calculate the fitness function of each water wave using Eq. (8);

18 return x∗;

19 Output minimized value of active power losses and optimized values of control variables.

5.1 Experimental setup

ment was set up on AMD Athlont (tm) II*4640 processor and 4 GB memory.

The IEEE30-bus, 41 branch test system is applied to verify the feasibility and effec-

tiveness of the WWO algorithm. The test system mainly contains thirteen control

variables: six generators placed at the buses 1, 2, 5, 8, 11 and 13, where bus 1 is

taken as slack bus, 2, 5, 8, 11 and 13 are taken as PV generator buses and the rest

Limits

Generator bus 0.90 1.1 Continuous

Load bus 0.90 1.1 Continuous

Transformer-tap 0.95 1.05 Discrete

Shunt reactive compensator 1 20 Discrete

13

Optimal reactive power dispatch using water wave optimization…

are taken as PQ load buses; four tap ratios of transformers between buses 6–9, 6–10,

4–12 and 27–28; three shunt compensators install at bus 3, 10 and 24. The control

variables limits are shown in Table 6.

Compared with other optimization algorithms, such as BA (Yang and He 2013),

FPA (Yang 2012), PSO (Kennedy and Eberhart 1995), SCA (Mirjalili 2016) and

CSA (Askarzadeh 2016), the calculation accuracy of the WWO algorithm is better.

The important optimization parameters are given in Table 7.

For all algorithms, the size of population is 50, the maximum number of itera-

tions is 200, and the number of independent runs is 30. In order to more effectively

demonstrate the superiority of the WWO algorithm, Best, Worst, Mean and Std are

taken as the most important judgment criteria, where Best represents the optimal fit-

ness value, Worst represents worst fitness value, Mean represents mean fitness value

and Std represents standard deviation. The optimal value can reflect the convergence

accuracy, and the standard deviation can reflect the stability performance. The con-

trol variables and active power losses obtained by different algorithms are given in

Table 8. Ranking is based on standard deviation, which can effectively obtain the

effective degree of the algorithms to solve the ORPD problem.

For WWO algorithm, it mainly simulates the propagation, refraction and break-

ing operations to find the global optimal solution in the entire search space. The

process of propagation optimization can be seen as the process of moving from the

deep water area to the shallow water area, so that the wave with high fitness value

is exploited in a small scale, and the wave with low fitness value is explored in a

large scale. The refraction operation effectively avoids the search stagnation of the

Algorithm Parameters Values

Echo loudness A 0.25

Decreasing coefficient 𝛾 0.5

FPA Switch probability 𝜌 0.8

PSO Constant inertia 𝜔 0.7298

First acceleration coefficient c1 1.4962

Second acceleration coefficient c2 1.4962

SCA Constant a 2

Random number r2 [0, 2𝜋]

Random number r4 [0,1]

CSA Random number r [0, 1]

Flight length f 2

Awareness probability A 0.1

WWO Wavelength 𝜆 0.5

Wave height hmax 6

Wavelength reduction coefficient 𝛼 1.0026

Breaking coefficient 𝛽 [0.01, 0.25]

Maximum number kmax of breaking directions min(12, D∕2)

13

Y. Zhou et al.

Variables BA FPA PSO SCA CSA WWO

VG2 1.0572 1.0805 1.0564 1.0723 0.9167 1.0861

VG5 1.0218 0.9534 1.0002 0.9894 1.0263 1.0550

VG8 0.9433 1.0491 1.0114 1.0328 0.9872 1.0627

VG11 1.0609 1.0083 1.0637 0.9899 0.9575 1.0829

VG13 0.9333 1.0985 1.0523 1.0903 0.9996 1.0992

T6−9 0.9806 0.9519 0.9960 1.0130 1.0196 1.0176

T6−10 1.0108 0.9770 0.9864 1.0252 1.0222 0.9643

T4−12 1.0377 1.0294 1.0204 1.0483 1.0240 0.9798

T28−27 1.0449 1.0170 0.9678 0.9801 1.0403 0.9683

QC3 19.8074 13.7981 14.7614 7.7134 6.0417 18.2857

QC10 14.6633 12.6445 11.7118 14.4309 13.2038 19.8140

QC24 11.3836 14.3583 11.8721 15.2393 12.7867 11.0903

Best 17.5576 17.0225 15.6142 16.5413 16.4704 15.9441

Worst 44.2782 20.8336 18.4493 18.7694 18.6908 15.9856

Mean 28.6135 18.6158 16.5854 17.5600 17.6214 15.9565

Std 6.4988 0.8939 0.6538 0.5533 0.5488 0.0091

Rank 6 5 4 3 2 1

the algorithm. The breaking operation produces an optimal solitary wave, which

improves the calculation accuracy of the algorithm to some extent. These three oper-

ations can effectively balance the WWO algorithm’s global search and local search

to find the optimal solution, so that the WWO algorithm has good robustness and

feasibility when it is applied to solve the complex optimization problem.

The WWO algorithm is applied to solve the ORPD problem, which has a strong

global search ability to find the global optimal solution. Compared with other opti-

mization algorithms, such as, BA, FPA, PSO, SCA and CSA, the WWO algorithm

finds the optimal control variables and the optimal active power losses, which indi-

cates that the WWO algorithm can effectively solve this problem. The WWO algo-

rithm’s optimal fitness value, worst fitness value, mean fitness value and standard

deviation are the best in all algorithms. The optimal fitness value of the WWO algo-

rithm is superior to other algorithms, which indicates that the WWO algorithm has

higher calculation accuracy. The worst fitness value and mean fitness value of the

WWO algorithm are smaller than that of other algorithms, which indicates that the

WWO algorithm has a good overall optimization performance. The standard devia-

tion of the WWO algorithm is the smallest in all algorithms, which indicates that the

WWO algorithm has strong stability.

The WWO algorithm is an efficient search method in which the propaga-

tion, refraction, and breaking operations provide a good search mechanism for

the algorithm. The WWO algorithm can effectively avoid search stagnation to

find the global optimal solution in search space. As can be seen from Fig. 3, all

13

Optimal reactive power dispatch using water wave optimization…

18.5

BA

FPA

18 PSO

SCA

CSA

17.5 WWO

17

16.5

16

15.5

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

Iterations

optimization algorithms are used to solve the ORPD problem, the WWO algo-

rithm has faster convergence speed and higher calculation accuracy, which indi-

cates that the WWO algorithm can effectively balance exploration and exploi-

tation. The results indicate that the WWO algorithm finds the optimal control

variables and the optimal active power losses. The standard deviation is one

of the important tools for detecting the stability of an algorithm. The standard

45

40

35

30

25

20

15

BA FPA PSO SCA CSA WWO

13

Y. Zhou et al.

Wilcoxon rank-sum test results

p_value h

WWO versus FAP 3.02E−11 1

WWO versus PSO 1.87E−05 1

WWO versus SCA 3.02E−11 1

WWO versus CSA 3.02E−11 1

-12

10

-10

10

-8

10

p-value result

-6

10

-4

10

-2

10

0

10

WWO vs BA WWO vs FPA WWO vs PSO WWO vs SCA WWO vs CSA

algorithm comparison

deviation is small, and the stability of the algorithm is better. As can be seen from

Fig. 4, compared with other algorithms, such as, BA, FPA, PSO, SCA and CSA,

the standard deviation of the WWO algorithm is smaller, which indicates that the

WWO algorithm has a strong stability to find the global optimal solution, and

the WWO algorithm has certain effectiveness and feasibility in solving ORPD

problem.

The Wilcoxon rank test (Wilcoxon 1944; Garcia et al. 2008) is an important

judgment indicator, which can effectively reflect the relationship between the

WWO algorithm and other algorithms. The p_value of Wilcoxon rank-sum test

results are given in Table 9, where 1 indicates significant difference, 0 indicates

no statistical difference. The histogram of the test is given in Fig. 5.

13

Optimal reactive power dispatch using water wave optimization…

different algorithms

Time execution (s) 87 141 103 140 145 90

All the algorithms are used to solve the ORPD problem, the number of the inde-

pendent runs is 30, and the average run time is given in Table 10, the average run

time of the WWO algorithm is bigger than that of the BA algorithm. Compared with

FPA, PSO, SCA and CSA, the average run time of the WWO algorithm is much

smaller. The histogram of execution time is given in Fig. 6.

6 Conclusions

The ORPD problem is a hybrid optimization problem with continuous variables and

discrete variables, the solution process is quite complex and the research hotspot is

to find an efficient solution. The WWO algorithm can effectively utilize propaga-

tion, refraction and breaking to find the global optimal solution in search space. The

propagation operation strikes a balance between exploration and exploitation; the

refraction operation can make the algorithm jump out of the local optimal solution to

accelerate the convergence speed; the breaking operation enhances the local search

to improve the calculation accuracy. In order to better verify the overall optimization

150

Time Execution (Seconds)

100

50

0

BA FPA PSO SCA CSA WWO

algorithm

13

Y. Zhou et al.

performance of the WWO algorithm, WWO is applied to solve the optimal reac-

tive power dispatch problem. The objective of optimization is to find global optimal

control variables and minimum active power losses. Compared with BA, FPA, PSO,

SCA and CSA, the WWO algorithm has faster convergence speed and higher calcu-

lation accuracy. The standard deviation of the WWO algorithm is the smallest in all

algorithms and the independent run time is relatively small. The WWO algorithm

has strong stability and robustness to find the optimal solution of the problem. The

results indicate that the WWO algorithm is an effective and feasible method to solve

the optimal reactive power dispatch problem.

In the future research, the WWO algorithm is studied from two aspects. In the

first aspect, adding an effective strategy or combining with other optimization algo-

rithms to improve the overall performance of the WWO algorithm, and the modified

algorithm is applied to solve the optimal reactive power dispatch problem. In the

second aspect, the WWO algorithm will be applied to solve the multi-objective opti-

mal reactive power dispatch problem and large-scale electrical networks.

Acknowledgements This work was supported by the National Science Foundation of China under

Grant Nos. 61463007 and Project of the Guangxi Natural Science Foundation under Grant No.

2016GXNSFAA380264.

References

Alsac O, Stott B (1974) Optimal load flow with steady-state security. IEEE Trans Power Appar Syst PAS-

93 3:745–751

Askarzadeh A (2016) A novel metaheuristic method for solving constrained engineering optimization

problems: crow search algorithm. Comput Struct 169:1–12

Attia A-F, Al-Turki YA, Abusorrah AM (2012) Optimal power flow using adapted genetic algorithm with

adjusting population size. Electr Power Comp Syst 40(11):1285–1299

Bjelogrlic M et al (1990) Application of Newton’s optimal power flow in voltage/reactive power control.

IEEE Trans Power Syst 5(4):1447–1454

Deeb N, Shahidehpur SM (1990) Linear reactive power optimization in a large power network using the

decomposition approach. IEEE Trans Power Syst 5(2):428–438

Duman S et al (2012) Optimal reactive power dispatch using a gravitational search algorithm. Gener

Transm Distrib IET6 6:563–576

Garcia S, Molina D et al (2008) A study on the use of nonparametric tests for analyzing the evolutionary

algorithms’ behaviour: a case study on the CEC’2005 special session on real parameter optimiza-

tion. J Heuristics 15:617

Ghasemi M, Ghanbarian MM, Ghavidel S et al (2014) Modified teaching learning algorithm and double

differential evolution algorithm for optimal reactive power dispatch problem: a comparative study.

Inf Sci 278(278):231–249

Ghasemi M, Taghizadeh M, Ghavidel S et al (2015) Solving optimal reactive power dispatch problem

using a novel teaching–learning-based optimization algorithm. Eng Appl Artif Intell 39:100–108

Ghasemi M, Taghizadeh M, Ghavidel S et al (2016) Colonial competitive differential evolution: an exper-

imental study for optimal economic load dispatch. Appl Soft Comput 40:342–363

Grudinin N (1998) Reactive power optimization using successive quadratic programming method. IEEE

Trans Power Syst 13(4):1219–1225

Kenarangui R, Seifi A (1994) Fuzzy optimal reactive power control. Electr Power Syst Res 30(1):47–55

Kennedy J, Eberhart R (1995) Particle swarm optimization. In: Proceedings of the IEEE international

conference on neural networks, Perth, Australia, vol IV, pp 1942–1948

Khazali AH, Kalantar M (2011) Optimal reactive power dispatch based on harmony search algorithm. Int

J Electr Power Energy Syst 33(3):684–692

13

Optimal reactive power dispatch using water wave optimization…

Lai LL et al. (2005) Swarm intelligence for optimal reactive power dispatch. In: Transmission and distri-

bution conference and exhibition: Asia and Pacific, 2005 IEEE/PES IEEE pp 1–5

Lee KY, Park YM, Ortiz JL (1985a) A united approach to optimal real and reactive power dispatch. IEEE

Trans Power Appar Syst PAS-104 5:1147–1153

Lee KY, Park YM, Oritz JL (1985b) A united approach to optimal real and reactive power dispatch. IEEE

Trans Power Syst 104(5):1147–1153

Mandal B, Roy PK (2013) Optimal reactive power dispatch using quasi-oppositional teaching learning

based optimization. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 53(1):123–134

Mirjalili S (2016) SCA: a sine cosine algorithm for solving optimization problems. Knowl-Based Syst

96:120–133

Momoh JA, Guo SX, Ogbuobiri EC, Adapa R (1994) The quadratic interior point method solving power

system optimization problems. IEEE Trans Power Syst 9(3):1327–1336

Mouassa S, Bouktir T (2016) Artificial bee colony algorithm for discrete optimal reactive power dispatch.

In: International conference on industrial engineering and systems management IEEE

Mouassa S, Bouktir T, Salhi A (2017) Ant lion optimizer for solving optimal reactive power dispatch

problem in power systems. Eng Sci Technol Int J 20:885–895

Shaw B, Mukherjee V, Ghoshal SP (2014) Solution of reactive power dispatch of power systems by an

opposition-based gravitational search algorithm. Int J Electr Power Energy Syst 55(1):29–40

Sulaiman MH et al (2015) Using the gray wolf optimizer for solving optimal reactive power dispatch

problem. Appl Soft Comput 32(C):286–292

Varadarajan M, Swarupa KS (2008) Differential evolution approach for optimal reactive power dispatch.

Appl Soft Comput 8(4):1549–1561

Wilcoxon F (1944) Individual comparisons by ranking methods. Biom Bull Biom 1(6):112–114

Wu YC, Debs AS, Marsten RE (1994) A direct nonlinear predictor–corrector primal–dual interior point

algorithm for optimal power flows. IEEE Trans Power Syst 9(2):876–883

Yang XS (2012) Flower pollination algorithm for global optimization. In: Proceedings of the unconven-

tional computation and natural computation, lecture notes computer science, vol 7445, pp 240–249

Yang XS, He X (2013) Bat algorithm: literature review and applications. Int J Bio-Inspired Comput

5(3):141–149

Zheng YJ (2015) Water wave optimization: a new nature-inspired metaheuristic. Comput Oper Res

55:1–11

13

- eP11Diunggah olehSam Maurer
- Optimum Values and Extreme ValuesDiunggah olehখালেকুজ্জামান সৈকত
- Cuestionario Previo 2 - Acústica y ÓpticaDiunggah olehNamhcraes Iktan
- Addition - Unbounded RationalityDiunggah olehclickclack
- Frontline Solvers User GuideDiunggah olehfusion2000
- 10 IGCSE Physics Test 1 2014Diunggah olehpixelhobo
- [2010] A Hybrid Method for Voltage Stability Constrained Optimal Reactive Power DispatchDiunggah olehMitchelfl
- SDA 3E Chapter 13Diunggah olehxinearpinger
- gaDiunggah olehSimanchal Kar
- Capturing Dynamics in Integrated Supply Chain ManagementDiunggah olehMihai Hasmatuchi
- SW Press Frame Opt Example Okk - OPTIMIZACIONDiunggah olehEduardo
- (2) 6.1 wavesDiunggah olehRed Kite
- Swimming of Microscopic OrganismsDiunggah olehNguyenho Ho
- How to Measure Roll QualityDiunggah olehDeming
- HW_F94Diunggah olehDiego Gonzáles
- nctp2009detailedsolutions.pdfDiunggah olehNgoVietCuong
- FP_J.Akbari[A]Diunggah olehAmmar A. Ali
- Computer AssemblyDiunggah olehNishant Udavant
- 01546775Diunggah olehBalasubramani
- Binder1 62.pdfDiunggah olehAbdul Rahman
- Lecture_Notes_02.pdfDiunggah olehVinayak Rao
- Abbaspour- Nonisothermal Compressor Station OptimizationDiunggah olehVictor Hugo CarreÓn
- PII_ S0377-0427(98)00052-1Diunggah olehCândida Melo
- Survive the StormDiunggah olehdnfdnfdnf
- exhaust.docxDiunggah olehSubhodip Mukherjee
- nsep2.pdfDiunggah olehB.K.Sivaraj raj
- CHAPTER 11 ANALYSIS OF TSUNAMI INUNDATION.docxDiunggah olehShintya Agustien Puteriana
- CQZ2 Solutions ExplanationsDiunggah olehJeremy Kyle Malupa
- MATHEMATICAL MODELLING FOR SUSDEV.pdfDiunggah olehJurnal Ijea
- Waves uuuuDiunggah olehRasheed Campbell

- 1-s2.0-S2215098617308868-mainDiunggah olehSakthivel Padaiyatchi
- A Novel Hybrid Particle Swarm Optimizer With Multi Verse OptimizerDiunggah olehchandrasekar
- addeDiunggah olehSakthivel Padaiyatchi
- firefly algorithmDiunggah olehSiyu Tao
- Base PaperDiunggah olehSakthivel Padaiyatchi
- Bh Attach Aryy a 2016Diunggah olehSakthivel Padaiyatchi
- Base Paper 4Diunggah olehSakthivel Padaiyatchi
- A novel symbiotic organisms search algorithm for congestion management in deregulated environment_2015.pdfDiunggah olehgavinilaa
- Base Paper 2Diunggah olehSakthivel Padaiyatchi
- Base Paper 1Diunggah olehSakthivel Padaiyatchi
- prin appDiunggah olehSakthivel Padaiyatchi
- mcueDiunggah olehSakthivel Padaiyatchi
- 00 Template IJEECS May 2019 v14n2.docxDiunggah olehSakthivel Padaiyatchi
- zhou2018.pdfDiunggah olehSakthivel Padaiyatchi
- Basu2016 - CopyDiunggah olehSakthivel Padaiyatchi
- 1Diunggah olehSakthivel Padaiyatchi
- Base PaperDiunggah olehSakthivel Padaiyatchi

- ExcelMax Base StationDiunggah olehdot16e
- W1 ManualDiunggah olehakestecz
- Bachelor of Marketing course structureDiunggah olehBao Tran
- BackgroundDiunggah olehNeeraj
- Cationic and Anionic Road EmulsionsDiunggah olehCharith Koggala Liyanage
- Chapter 9 - Cellular RespirationDiunggah olehjlin77
- Synthesis on Cash Flow EstimationDiunggah olehRu Martin
- 214799106-P-ID-Tutorial.docDiunggah olehShahrizatSmailKassim
- Question_Bank_BCMDiunggah olehamsk24_24
- 20140703Diunggah olehកំពូលបុរសឯកា
- MRP1Diunggah olehMohit Kumar
- Ex8_14Diunggah olehnagesha_basappa865
- EET107 Tutorial 3Diunggah olehzul
- Asssignment 1Diunggah olehRohit Panjwani
- Evolv Health Compensation Plan- 10 Ways to get paid!Diunggah olehEvolv Health
- wcms_185863Diunggah olehviethuong96
- Pig Production QuestionsDiunggah olehMrGilmartin
- GLIDER AssignmentDiunggah olehArief Sambest
- Automatizacion SpaDiunggah olehVictor J. Ore
- 100 Innovations for DevelopmentDiunggah olehRituparno Chakrabarti
- pop-sc-2010-11Diunggah olehsubramanian_sankar
- 1433481891893-Question Bank TechIII-TL LDCEDiunggah olehkrishgkkd3339
- BFIN300 Full Hands OutDiunggah olehGauray Lion
- B1+(07) Grammar in context state and action verbs.docDiunggah olehMalik Hamza
- Airstage ViiDiunggah olehupoyo
- prolia_piDiunggah olehNoha Rosi
- ST11Diunggah olehtankitytank
- Mounting Images for AnalysisDiunggah olehAndrea Fortuna
- Voyager 2 Neptune Encounter Press KitxDiunggah olehBob Andrepont
- Lesson Plan IupacDiunggah olehPentyCahyaArhinna

## Lebih dari sekadar dokumen.

Temukan segala yang ditawarkan Scribd, termasuk buku dan buku audio dari penerbit-penerbit terkemuka.

Batalkan kapan saja.