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Question 1
Chart for U.S. Energy for 2017 and total energy is 97.7 btu
Chart for U.S. Energy for 2018 and total energy is 101.3 btu

Question 2.
A) The world
Using graph per capital energy consumption is around 65 x 109 J.
Using graph per capital energy consumption is around 325 x 109 J.
C) China
Using graph per capital energy consumption is around 25 x 109 J.
D) Europe
Using graph per capital energy consumption is around 155 x 109 J.
Question 3.
Renewable Energy
The uptake of renewable natural resources (renewables) for energy generation in the last years has been
impressive but there is still the unsolved problem of dealing with the transient nature of the renewables.
Both solar and wind power are intermittent by their nature and, therefore, it is not possible to provide a
dependable baseload to the energy networks . Since the demand of energy consumers can be irregular, a
power supply based on renewables does not match the demand of the consumers. Also, the excess energy
,i.e. the amount of energy which would be momentarily available from renewables but which is not
demanded. by the consumers at that time, strains the energy and would get lost in case it is not consumed .
Using renewable energy to power your home will scale back or fully eliminate your utility bills, and
therefore the tax incentives for putting in renewables will create them even additional value effective. Here
are seven different ways to power your home with renewable energy.
Rooftop Solar Panels:
This is in all probability the foremost common and obvious methodology, if you are looking into renewable
power. Solar panels usually proceed your roof, though you'll conjointly install them in your yard.
Depending on your latitude and the orientation of the panels, you could generate 10 or more watts per
square foot. A typical house consumes a minimum of a power unit of power, therefore a number of sq. feet
of star panels ought to be enough to power most or all of your desires.If your current roof is nearing the top
of its lifetime, you may conjointly take into account finance in star shingles. Where customary top star
panels area unit mounted on prime of your current roof, star shingles really take the place of your roof tiles.
In present times, the world has been adopting renewable power at a rapid rate. India is additionally rising
within the international arena as a number one generator of renewable energy. In its efforts to maneuver
additional towards property development, the govt has set a target to realize one hundred seventy five GW
of put in capability of renewable energy by the top of 2022. Out of this, 100 GW is the target set for solar
installations.Though large scale installations account for 87% of solar power generation, today the adoption
rate of solar rooftop panels is accelerating.
Solar’s increasing success is additionally because of innovative possession structures. Many home owners
and businesses are taking advantage of third-party ownership options. Under star leases or power purchase
agreements, electricity customers generally pay very little or nothing up front for upper side systems, then
get electricity from the systems over a long period at attractive fixed rates. The systems (and maintenance
responsibilities) stay the property of the project developers, which can be non-public corporations or
electrical utilities themselves.
Unlike the fossil fuels that also give the majority of the U.S. power supply, solar panels generate electricity
with no air or carbon pollution, no ash or other waste products, and no inputs other than sunlight. While the
producing of star panels, like all other energy devices, involves emissions, PV electricity generation itself:

 generates no CO2 or alternative heat-trapping gases that contribute to temperature change

 produces none of the opposite harmful emissions or wastes related to coal power, such as mercury,
sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, lead, and arsenic
 creates none of the long-lived waste or environmental risks related to atomic power
 avoids the environmental risks related to fossil fuel, as well as potential pollution throughout
Federal, state, and native policies ar key to the success of upper side star and therefore the clean electricity
that these systems give. Examples of effective policies being used today include:
Net metering. Net metering policies give system owners credit on their utility bills for generating more
electricity than they use, generally at the full retail electricity rates.
Feed-in tariffs. Under feed-in tariffs, home owners and businesses are paid under standardized contracts
offering fixed prices for solar generation over an established, often long-term period. Available in some
parts of the United States, similar feed-in tariffs have helped drive substantial renewable energy
development in Europe.
Value-of-solar tariffs. System owners can also be paid based on the calculated value of the broad suite of
benefits that solar systems provide. Such value-of-solar tariffs quantify not solely the advantages of
providing electricity however additionally the worth of providing instant power to the grid, a solar
installation’s contribution toward delaying or avoiding system upgrades, and specific environmental
benefits from avoiding the use of fossil fuels [18].
Solar carve-outs. Some states target small-scale star at intervals their broader efforts to extend investments
in renewable energy, requiring utilities to invest in solar energy and/or distributed generation as part of their
broader renewable electricity standards. Such “carve-outs” provide system homeowners potential further
Tax incentives and subsidies. In addition to the 30 percent federal tax credit, almost all states have tax
incentives for home owners and businesses for renewable energy purchases, and some local governments
offer incentives such as property tax exemptions. Municipalities with property-assessed clean energy
(PACE) programs give finance for purchases of star systems (or alternative renewable energy or energy
potency projects) on homes or industrial properties, then recover the costs through property taxes over time.

Question 4.
Conversion efficiency
a. Human body: converting food energy-to-muscle work
Input food as a chemical potential energy and output as a chemical, elecrtical for cellular metabolism
storage, spring gravitational or kinetic energy.
b. Internal combustion engines (ICE): fuel-to-wheel
Input fuel as a chemical energy. chemical energy is converted into thermal and mechanical energy and
give torque to wheel as an output.
c. Solar Photovoltaics (PV): solar-to-electricity
Solar radiation input which converted into electric currrent through charge controller and the battery and
output as a electricity.
d. Wind Turbines (WT): wind-shaft-gearbox-electricity
Wind flow as an input which rotate the turbine blade. turbine blade connected to the denerator throught
gear box. in short it will rotate the generator which will generate electricity.
e. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC): temperature difference-to-electricity
It is due to the temperature difference between the warm surface water and cold deep water. warm water
goes into the evaporator used to rotate turbine generator and condenser is used to remove the water
vapour. and the generator gives the electricity as output.
f. Combined Gas Turbine-Steam Turbine Cycle (CCGT): fuel-to-electricity
Jet fuel as an Input which converted into the thermal energy which create the pressure differnce allow the
turbine blade to rotate which is connected to the generator and produce electricity as an output.
g. Pelton (water) Turbines: water potential energy-to-electricity
Water stored in dam having some potential energy is used an Input and water energy is converted into
electricity using pelton wheel connected to the generator which produce electricity as an output.
h. Pumped water storage: electricity-to-reservoir & reservoir-to-electricity
pumped water storage hydroelectic plant is used for load balancing the load demand. here two efficiency
is there for converting electricity and to store water. efficieny is same of hydroelectric power plant.

Question 5.
(a) p/ρ
P= pressure
SI unit is J/m3
ρ= density
SI unit is kg/m3
SI unit for p/ρ is J/kg
(b) ρgh
ρ= density
SI unit is kg/m3
g= gravity
SI unit is J/kg.m
SI unit is m
SI unit for ρgh is J/m3
(c) ½ ρV3
ρ= density
SI unit is kg/m3
V= velocity
SI unit is m/s
SI unit of ½ ρV3 is W/m2.