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Electrolysis of Silver/Argentum Sulphate solution, Ag2SO4

+ -
Carbon electrode
Anode Cathode

Silver sulphate
solution
OH-, SO42-
Ag+, H+

Ions present in the electrolyte: Cation: Ag+, H+. Anion: OH-,


SO42-

Ions move to anode: OH-, SO42-


Ion choose to be discharged at anode: OH- (position of ions)
Half equation: 4OH-  O2 + 2H2O + 4e
Observation: Bubbles of colourless gas released.

Ions move to cathode: Ag+, H+.


Ions choose to be discharged at cathode: Ag+ (position of ions)
Half equation: Ag+ + e  Ag
Observation: Silver metal deposited at the electrode.
Electrolysis of 3.0 M (concentrated) Potassium Bromide solution,
KBr
+ -
Carbon electrode
Anode Cathode

3.0 M potassium
bromide
OH-, Br-
K+, H+

Ions present in the electrolyte: Cation: K+, H+. Anion: OH-, Br-

Ions move to anode: OH-, Br-


Ion choose to be discharged at anode: Br- (concentrated ion)
Half equation: 2Br-  Br2 + 2e
Observation: Bubbles of brownish gas released.

Ions move to cathode: K+, H+.


Ions choose to be discharged at cathode: H+ (position of ions)
Half equation: 2H+ + 2e  H2
Observation: Bubbles of colourless gas released
Electrolysis of Silver nitrate solution, AgNO3 with silver plate.

+ -
Silver electrode
Anode Cathode

Silver Nitrate
solution

OH-, NO3- Ag+, H+

Ions present in the electrolyte: Cation: Ag+, H+ Anion: OH-, NO3-


Ions move to anode: OH-, NO3-
Ion choose to be discharged at anode: No ion discharged. Anode
is silver metal, which is an active anode. It will dissolve in the
electrolyte.
Half equation: Ag  Ag+ + e
Observation: The silver electrode becomes thinner
Ions move to cathode: Ag+, H+.
Ions choose to be discharged at cathode: Ag+ (position of ions)
Half equation: Ag+ + e  Ag
Observation: Silver metal deposited at the electrode. Carbon
electrode becomes thicker.
The colour of the solution remains unchanged.
Application Of electrolysis in Industries

Extraction of metals

Carbon electrodes
+ Anode

- Cathode
Carbon
lining
Molten aluminium oxide, Al2O3
Al3+ , O2-
Molten aluminium

Aluminium ions in the electrolyte will be Oxide ions, O2- in the electrolyte will be
discharged at the carbon electrodes and discharged at the carbon lining and become
become aluminium atom. Molten oxygen gas.
aluminium will be collected at the bottom.
2O2-  O2 + 2e
Al3+ + 3e  Al

2. Purification of metals + -
Pure/Tulen/Asli
Anode Cathode
copper
Impure
copper

Copper (II) sulphate


solution
Impurities
Cu2+ , H+, SO42- , OH-

The impure copper plate dissolves to form Cu2+ ions.


Cu  Cu2+ 2e
The impurities fall to the bottom of the beaker.
The Cu2+ ions are discharged to form copper at the pure copper plate.
Cu2+ + 2e  Cu
3. Electroplating of metals
Penyaduran logam
+ -

Anode Cathode Iron spoon (sudu besi)


Copper
electrode
Copper (II) sulphate
solution
Cu2+ , H+, SO42- , OH-

The copper anode dissolves to form Cu2+ ions.


Half equation: Cu  Cu2+ 2e
At the cathode, Cu2+ ions are discharged and deposited on the surface of
the iron spoon.
Half equation: Cu2+ + 2e  Cu
Condition for good quality of plating:
Concentration of Cu2+ ions must be low
The electric current must be small
The iron spoon must be turned steadily
The surface of iron spoon must be clean.

CATION Half reaction ANION Half Reaction

K+ (Potassium) K+ + e  K F- (Fluoride) 2 F-  F2 + 2e
Na+ (Sodium) Na+ + e  Na SO42- (Sulphate) SO42-  SO2 + O2 + 2e
Ca2+ (Calcium) Ca2+ + 2e  Ca NO3- (Nitrate) 2NO3-  2NO2 + O2 + 2e
Mg2+ (Magnesium) Mg2+ +2e  Mg Cl- (Chloride) 2Cl-  Cl2 + 2e
Al3+ (Aluminium) Al3+ + 3e  Al Br- (Bromide) 2Br-  Br2 + 2e
Zn2+ (Zinc) Zn2+ + 2e  Zn I- (Iodide) 2I-  I2 + 2e
Fe2+ (Iron) Fe2+ + 2e  Fe OH- (hydroxide) 4OH-  O2 + H2O + 4e
Sn2+ (Stanum) Sn2+ + 2e  Sn
Pb2+ (Lead) Pb2+ + 2e  Pb
H+ (Hydrogen) 2H+ + 2e  H2
Cu2+ (Copper) Cu2+ + 2e  Cu
Ag+ (Silver) Ag+ + e  Ag