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ABSTRACT

Concrete is the third largest material consumed by human beings after food and water as per
WHO. Concrete plays a vital role in the design and construction of the nation’s
infrastructure. Almost three quarters of the volume of concrete is composed of aggregates.
These are obtained from natural rocks and river beds, thus degrading them slowly. This issue
of environmental degradation, and need for aggregates demands for the usage of any other
alternative source. Thus the concept of replacement of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate
with steel slag seems to be promising. In this study an attempt is made to use steel slag, a by-
product from steel industry as replacement for coarse aggregate and fine aggregate in
concrete. Natural fine aggregates are replaced by Processed GBFS by 100% for every mix
after comparison of properties and natural coarse aggregates are replaced by EAF Slag form
0 – 100% in increment of 10%. Optimization of materials is done with 7 days and 28 days
strength of M25 grade of concrete. Tests on compressive strength, split tensile strength at 7
days and 28 days were conducted on specimens along with the preliminary tests on all the
materials. It is concluded that replacing coarse aggregate with steel slag from 0% - 100%
enhances the strength show that there is an increase in compressive strength upto 60%
replacement and then upto 100% a slight decrease in strength is observed but it is more than
control mix. Possible optimum replacement of EAF slag material for coarse aggregate is
found to be at 60% with 100% replacement of natural sand by GBFS with maximum value of
40 MPa. The results obtained from the split tensile test indicate that there is a gradual
increase in strength upto 100% with maximum value of 3.85 MPa at 100%. Density keeps on
increasing as the percentage of EAF Slag is increased. M0 mix has the minimum density and
M10 has maximum. Increase in density of concrete is due to high percentage of iron oxides
or heavy metals present in the slag. The slump of concrete decreases with the increase in the
quantity of steel slag as replacement to natural aggregates. Average value of slump observed
is 100mm which confirms medium degree of workability.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to express our gratitude towards PES Institute of Technology for providing us
the required support throughout the study, equipping us with the technical knowledge
required as a student to mould our career. We would like to thank Dr. S V Venkatesh,
Professor and Head of the Department, Civil Engineering, PESIT and all our professors for
their constant support and encouragement.

We also express our sincere gratitude to our guide P. Ramchandra, Asst. Professor,
Department of Civil Engineering and Dr. Niranjan P S, Professor and Head, New Horizon
College of Engineering for their timely suggestions and technical discussions. We thank our
review panel members Asst. Prof. B V Ramesh, Asst. Prof. G M Sandhya Rani, Asst. Prof. H
S Nanditha and Asst. Prof. Bhoje Gowda V T of the Department of Civil Engineering for
their support and guidance. We sincerely thank Mr. Praveen Kumar, Dy. Manager - R&D
and Mr. Rajeev of JSW Steel Limited, Vidyanagar, Bellary for helping us visit JSW Steel
Plant, Bellary and providing steel slag. We would like to thank Asst. Prof. S L Ravindra, Lab
Incharge of Concrete and Material Civil Department, PESIT for permitting us to use all the
required equipments.

We deeply thank each and every individual who has directly or indirectly been a part of the
project. Finally we thank our parents, friends for their constant encouragement and
motivation.
TABLE OF CONTENT

LIST OF TABLES

LIST OF FIGURES

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................... 1

1.1 CONCRETE ........................................................................................................... 1

1.1.1 Composition of Concrete .................................................................................... 2

1.1.2 Cement ................................................................................................................ 4

1.1.3 Water ................................................................................................................... 5

1.1.4 Aggregates .......................................................................................................... 5

1.1.5 Reinforcement ..................................................................................................... 6

1.1.6 Mixing of Concrete ............................................................................................. 6

1.1.7 Workability ......................................................................................................... 6

1.1.8 Curing ................................................................................................................. 7

1.1.9 Properties of Concrete......................................................................................... 7

1.1.10 Fire Safety ....................................................................................................... 8

1.1.11 Earthquake Safety ........................................................................................... 9

1.1.12 Concrete Degradation ...................................................................................... 9

1.1.13 Life of Concrete .............................................................................................. 9

1.1.14 Effect of Modern Concrete Use .................................................................... 10

1.2 STEEL SLAG ....................................................................................................... 10

1.2.1 Blast Furnace Granulated Slag (GBFS) or Slag sand ....................................... 11

1.2.2 Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) .............................................................................. 14

1.2.3 Steel Making at JSW ......................................................................................... 15

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW ....................................................................................................... 16

2.1 PREVIOUS RESEARCH ..................................................................................... 16

2.2 OBJECTIVES OF PRESENT STUDY ................................................................ 23

CHAPTER 3

MATERIALS USED .............................................................................................................. 24

3.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 24

3.2 CEMENT .............................................................................................................. 24

3.2.1 Normal Consistency of Cement ........................................................................ 24

3.2.2 Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement ......................................................... 25

3.2.3 Specific Gravity of Cement .............................................................................. 25

3.3 COARSE AGGREAGTE (NATURAL AGGREGATE) ..................................... 26

3.3.1 Impact test on Coarse Aggregate ...................................................................... 26

3.3.2 Crushing test on Coarse Aggregate................................................................... 26

3.3.3 Los Angeles Abrasion Test on Coarse Aggregates........................................... 27

3.3.4 Water Absorption of Coarse Aggregates .......................................................... 28

3.4 EAF (ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE) SLAG – (30mm Down) ............................ 28

3.4.1 Chemical Composition...................................................................................... 28

3.4.2 Impact Test on EAF Slag .................................................................................. 29

3.4.3 Crushing Test on EAF Slag .............................................................................. 29

3.4.4 Los Angeles Abrasion Test on EAF Slag ......................................................... 29

3.4.5 Water Absorption of EAF Steel slag (30 mm down) ........................................ 30

3.5 GBFS (GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG) ........................................ 30

3.5.1 Chemical Composition...................................................................................... 30

3.5.2 Specific gravity of Fine aggregates and GBFS slag: ........................................ 31

3.5.3 Sieve Analysis:.................................................................................................. 31

3.5.4 Other Chemical Tests on GBFS ........................................................................ 33


3.5.5 Comparison between River Sand and GBFS slag............................................. 33

Chapter 4

METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................. 34

4.1 MIX DESIGN ....................................................................................................... 34

4.2 TESTING PROCEDURE ..................................................................................... 37

4.2.1 Concrete Specimen Preparation for Compressive Strength testing: ................. 37

4.2.2 Concrete Specimen Preparation for Tensile Strength testing: .......................... 40

4.2.3 Slump test.......................................................................................................... 42

4.3 CURING OF SAMPLE ........................................................................................ 42

CHAPTER 5

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ........................................................................................... 43

5.1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................ 43

5.2 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS FOR CONCRETE


SPECIMENS.................................................................................................................... 44

5.2.1 Compressive strength for Concrete Specimens ................................................ 44

5.2.2 Split-Tensile Strength for Concrete Specimens ................................................ 46

5.2.3 Kinetic Studies .................................................................................................. 47

5.2.4 Density Analysis ............................................................................................... 49

5.3 WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE ...................................................................... 50

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSIONS..................................................................................................................... 51

6.1 GENERAL CONCLUSIONS............................................................................... 51

6.2 FURTHER SCOPE OF WORK ........................................................................... 53

REFERENCES ....................................................................................................................... 54
LIST OF TABLES

Table 3. 1 – Normal consistency of Cement ........................................................................... 24


Table 3. 2 – Initial Setting Time of Cement ........................................................................... 25
Table 3. 3 – Chemical composition by XRF Analysis of EAF Slags ..................................... 28
Table 3. 4 - Chemical composition by XRF Analysis of Granulated BF Slag ....................... 30
Table 3. 5 - Particle size distribution ...................................................................................... 32
Table 3. 6 – Chemical Test on GBFS ..................................................................................... 33
Table 3. 7 – Properties Comparison between River Sand and GBFS ..................................... 33
Table 4. 1 - Composition of cement mix, curing period and varying percentages of steel slag
(Coarse and fine) used in preparation M25 grade mix concrete specimens ........................... 41
Table 5. 1 - Compressive strength results for concrete specimens ......................................... 45
Table 5. 2 –Split Tensile strength results for concrete specimens .......................................... 47
Table 5. 3 - Compressive strength as a function of different curing periods for varying mix
proportions .............................................................................................................................. 48
Table 5. 4 - Split tensile strength values for various mix proportions of concrete mix 7 and
for 28 days............................................................................................................................... 48
Table 5. 5 – Density of Concrete for different mix proportions ............................................. 49
Table 5. 6 – Slump test results for different mix proportions ................................................. 50
LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1. 1 - Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS) or slag sand ......................................... 12


Figure 1. 2 - EAF Slag ............................................................................................................ 14
Figure 1. 3 - Steel slag production .......................................................................................... 15
Figure 3. 1 – Particle size distribution curve comparison ....................................................... 33
Figure 4. 1 – Casting of Cubes and Cylinders ........................................................................ 39
Figure 4. 2 –Testing for Compressive Strength ...................................................................... 40
Figure 4. 3 – Testing for Split Tensile Strength...................................................................... 41
Figure 4. 4 – Curing of Specimens ......................................................................................... 43
Figure 5. 1 - Compressive strength results for 7 and 28 days at different mix proportions ... 46
Figure 5. 2 - Split tensile strength results for 7 and 28 days at different mix proportions ..... 47
Figure 5. 3 – Variation of Density with increase in EAF Slag Percentage ............................. 50
STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION

Concrete is an important part of society’s infrastructure. Everyday life is greatly affected by


concrete in numerous ways. Concrete is a useful construction material and innovations are
constantly being made in new types and applications for it. Aggregate, which makes up 70%
of the concrete volume, is one of the main constituent materials in concrete production. Due
to the high cost of natural sand used as a fine aggregate and the rising emphasis on
sustainable construction, there is a need for the construction industry to search for alternative
materials Slag, one of the most common industrial wastes, is a byproduct of iron and steel
production. One ton of iron production will generate approximately 350 kg of slag and 1 ton
of steel will generate approximately 200 kg of slag.

1.1 CONCRETE

Concrete is a composite material composed of aggregates bonded together with a


fluid cement which hardens over time. Most use of the term "concrete" refers to Portland
cement concrete or to concretes made with other hydraulic cements. However, road surfaces
also use a type of concrete, "asphaltic concrete", where the cement material is bitumen. In
Portland cement concrete (and other hydraulic cement concretes), when the aggregate is
mixed together with the dry cement and water, they form a fluid mass that is easily molded
into shape. The cement reacts chemically with the water and other ingredients to form a hard
matrix which binds all the materials together into a durable stone-like material that has many
uses. Often, additives (such as pozzolona or superplasticizers) are included in the mixture to
improve the physical properties of the wet mix or the finished material. Most concrete is
poured with reinforcing materials embedded to provide tensile strength, yielding reinforced
concrete.

The earliest large-scale users of concrete technology were the ancient Romans, and concrete
was widely used in the Roman Empire. Today, large concrete structures (for
example, dams and multi-story buildings) are usually made with reinforced concrete. After
the Roman Empire collapsed, use of concrete became rare until the technology was

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, PESIT 1


STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

redeveloped in the mid-18th century. Today, concrete is the most widely used man-made
material. During the Roman Empire, Roman concrete was made from quicklime,
pozzolona and an aggregate of pumice. Concrete, was a new and revolutionary material. Laid
in the shape of arches, vaults and domes, it quickly hardened into a rigid mass, free from
many of the internal thrusts and strains that troubled the builders of similar structures in stone
or brick.

Modern structural concrete differs from Roman concrete in two important details. First, its
mix consistency is fluid and homogeneous, allowing it to be poured into forms rather than
requiring hand-layering together with the placement of aggregate, which, in Roman practice,
often consisted of rubble. Second, integral reinforcing steel gives modern concrete
assemblies great strength in tension, whereas Roman concrete could depend only upon the
strength of the concrete bonding to resist tension.

After the Roman Empire, the use of burned lime and pozzolona was greatly reduced until the
technique was all but forgotten around the 14th century. From the 14th century to the mid-
18th century, the use of cement gradually returned. There are concrete structures in Finland
that date from the 16th century. A method for producing Portland cement was patented
by Joseph Aspdin on 1824. Reinforced concrete was invented in 1849. In 1889 the first
concrete reinforced bridge was built, and the first large concrete dams were built in 1936.

1.1.1 Composition of Concrete


There are many types of concrete available, created by varying the proportions of the main
ingredients below. In this way or by substitution for the cementitious and aggregate phases,
the finished product can be tailored to its application with varying strength, density, or
chemical and thermal resistance properties.

Aggregate consists of large chunks of material in a concrete mix, generally a coarse gravel or
crushed rocks such as limestone, or granite, along with finer materials such as sand.

Cement, most commonly Portland cement, is associated with the general term "concrete." A
range of materials can be used as the cement in concrete. One of the most familiar of these
alternative cements is asphalt concrete. Other cementitious materials such as fly ash and slag

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

cement, are sometimes added as mineral admixtures either pre-blended with the cement or
directly as a concrete component - or become a part of the binder for the aggregate.

To produce concrete from most cements water is mixed with the dry powder and aggregate,
which produces a semi-liquid that workers can shape, typically by pouring it into a form. The
concrete solidifies and hardens through a chemical process called hydration. The water reacts
with the cement, which bonds the other components together, creating a robust stone-like
material.

Chemical admixtures such as accelerators, retarders, superplasticizers etc. are added to


achieve varied properties. These ingredients may accelerate or slow down the rate at which
the concrete hardens, and impart many other useful properties including increased tensile
strength, entrainment of air, and/or water resistance.

Reinforcement is often included in concrete. Concrete can be formulated with


high compressive strength, but always has lower tensile strength. For this reason it is usually
reinforced with materials that are strong in tension, often steel.

Mineral admixtures are becoming more popular in recent decades. The use of recycled
materials as concrete ingredients has been gaining popularity because of increasingly
stringent environmental legislation, and the discovery that such materials often have
complementary and valuable properties. The most conspicuous of these are fly ash, a by-
product of coal-fired power plants, ground granulated blast furnace slag, and silica fume, a
by-product of industrial electric arc furnaces. The use of these materials in concrete reduces
the amount of resources required, as the mineral admixtures act as a partial cement
replacement. This displaces some cement production, an energetically expensive and
environmentally problematic process, while reducing the amount of industrial waste that
must be disposed-off. Mineral admixtures can be pre-blended with the cement during its
production for sale and use as a blended cement, or mixed directly with other components
when the concrete is produced.

The mix design depends on the type of structure being built, how the concrete is mixed and
delivered, and how it is placed to form the structure.

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

1.1.2 Cement
A cement is a binder, a substance that sets and hardens and can bind other materials together.
The word "cement" can be traced back to the Roman term opus caementicium, used to
describe masonry resembling modern concrete that was made from crushed rock with burnt
lime as binder. The volcanic ash and pulverized brick supplements that were added to the
burnt lime, to obtain a hydraulic binder, were later referred to as cementum and cement.

Cements used in construction can be characterized as being either hydraulic or non-


hydraulic, depending upon the ability of the cement to set in the presence of water. Non-
hydraulic cement will not set in wet conditions or underwater, rather, it sets as it dries and
reacts with carbon dioxide in the air. It can be attacked by some aggressive chemicals after
setting.

Hydraulic cements (e.g., Portland cement) set and become adhesive due to a chemical
reaction between the dry ingredients and water. The chemical reaction results in mineral
hydrates that are not very water-soluble and so are quite durable in water and safe from
chemical attack. This allows setting in wet condition or underwater and further protects the
hardened material from chemical attack.

Portland cement is the most common type of cement in general usage. It is a basic ingredient
of concrete, mortar and many plasters. English masonry worker Joseph Aspdin patented
Portland cement in 1824. It was named because of the similarity of its color to Portland
limestone, quarried from the English Isle of Portland and used extensively in London
architecture. It consists of a mixture of calcium silicates (alite, belite), aluminates and
ferrites- compounds which combine calcium, silicon, aluminium and iron in forms which will
react with water. Portland cement and similar materials are made by heating limestone with
clay and/or shale (a source of silicon, aluminium and iron) and grinding this product with a
source of sulfate (most commonly gypsum).

In modern cement kilns many advanced features are used to lower the fuel consumption per
ton of clinker produced. Cement kilns are extremely large, complex, and inherently dusty
industrial installations, and have emissions which must be controlled. Of the various
ingredients used to produce a given quantity of concrete, the cement is the most energetically
expensive.

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

1.1.3 Water
Combining water with a cementitious material forms a cement paste by the process of
hydration. The cement paste glues the aggregate together, fills voids within it, and makes it
flow more freely.

A lower water-to-cement ratio yields a stronger, more durable concrete, whereas more water
gives a freer-flowing concrete with a higher slump. Impure water used to make concrete can
cause problems when setting or in causing premature failure of the structure.

Hydration involves many different reactions, often occurring at the same time. As the
reactions proceed, the products of the cement hydration process gradually bond together the
individual sand and gravel particles and other components of the concrete to form a solid
mass.

1.1.4 Aggregates
Fine and coarse aggregates make up the bulk of a concrete mixture. Sand, natural gravel,
and crushed stone are used mainly for this purpose. Recycled aggregates (from construction,
demolition, and excavation waste) are increasingly used as partial replacements for natural
aggregates, while a number of manufactured aggregates, including air-cooled blast
furnace slag and bottom ash are also permitted.

The presence of aggregate greatly increases the durability of concrete above that of cement,
which is a brittle material in its pure state, and also reduces cost and controls cracking caused
by temperature changes. Thus concrete is a true composite material.

Redistribution of aggregates after compaction often creates inhomogeneity due to the


influence of vibration. This can lead to strength gradients.

Decorative stones such as quartzite, small river stones or crushed glass are sometimes added
to the surface of concrete for a decorative "exposed aggregate" finish, popular among
landscape designers.

In addition to being decorative, exposed aggregate may add robustness to concrete.

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

1.1.5 Reinforcement
Concrete is strong in compression, as the aggregate efficiently carries the compression load.
However, it is weak in tension as the cement holding the aggregate in place can crack,
allowing the structure to fail. Reinforced concrete adds either steel reinforcing bars, steel
fibers, glass fibers, or plastic fibers to carry tensile loads.

1.1.6 Mixing of Concrete


Thorough mixing is essential for the production of uniform, high-quality concrete. For this
reason equipment and methods should be capable of effectively mixing concrete materials
containing the largest specified aggregate to produce uniform mixtures of the lowest slump
practical for the work.

Separate paste mixing has shown that the mixing of cement and water into a paste before
combining these materials with aggregates can increase the compressive strength of the
resulting concrete. The paste is generally mixed in a high-speed, shear-type mixer at
a w/cm (water to cement ratio) of 0.30 to 0.45 by mass. The cement paste premix may
include admixtures such as accelerators or retarders, superplasticizers, pigments, or silica
fume. The premixed paste is then blended with aggregates and any remaining batch water
and final mixing is completed in conventional concrete mixing equipment.

1.1.7 Workability
Workability is the ability of a fresh (plastic) concrete mix to fill the form/mold properly with
the desired work (vibration) and without reducing the concrete's quality. Workability
depends on water content, aggregate (shape and size distribution), cementitious content and
age (level of hydration) and can be modified by adding chemical admixtures, like
superplasticizer. Raising the water content or adding chemical admixtures increases concrete
workability. Excessive water leads to increased bleeding and/or segregation of aggregates,
with the resulting concrete having reduced quality. The use of an aggregate with an
undesirable gradation can result in a very harsh mix design with a very low slump, which
cannot readily be made more workable by addition of reasonable amounts of water.

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

Slump can be increased by addition of chemical admixtures such as plasticizers


or superplasticizers without changing the water-cement ratio. Some other admixtures,
especially air-entraining admixture, can increase the slump of a mix.

1.1.8 Curing
A common misconception is that concrete dries as it sets, but the opposite is true - damp
concrete sets better than dry concrete. In other words, cement is "hydraulic": water allows it
to gain strength. Too much water is counterproductive, but too little water is deleterious.
Curing allows concrete to achieve optimal strength and hardness. Curing is the hydration
process that occurs after the concrete has been placed. In chemical terms, curing allows
calcium-silicate hydrate (C-S-H) to form. To gain strength and harden fully, concrete curing
requires time. In around 4 weeks, typically over 90% of the final strength is reached,
although strengthening may continue for decades.

Hydration and hardening of concrete during the first three days is critical. Abnormally fast
drying and shrinkage due to factors such as evaporation from wind during placement may
lead to increased tensile stresses at a time when it has not yet gained sufficient strength,
resulting in greater shrinkage cracking. The early strength of the concrete can be increased if
it is kept damp during the curing process. Minimizing stress prior to curing minimizes
cracking. High-early-strength concrete is designed to hydrate faster, often by increased use of
cement that increases shrinkage and cracking. The strength of concrete changes (increases)
for up to three years. It depends on cross-section dimension of elements and conditions of
structure exploitation.

Properly curing concrete leads to increased strength and lower permeability and avoids
cracking where the surface dries out prematurely. Care must also be taken to avoid freezing
or overheating due to the exothermic setting of cement. Improper curing can cause scaling,
reduced strength, poor abrasion resistance and cracking.

1.1.9 Properties of Concrete


Concrete has relatively high compressive strength, but much lower tensile strength. For this
reason it is usually reinforced with materials that are strong in tension (often steel). The

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

elasticity of concrete is relatively constant at low stress levels but starts decreasing at higher
stress levels as matrix cracking develops. Concrete has a very low coefficient of thermal
expansion and shrinks as it matures. All concrete structures crack to some extent, due to
shrinkage and tension. Concrete that is subjected to long-duration forces is prone to creep.

Tests can be performed to ensure that the properties of concrete correspond to specifications
for the application.

Different mixes of concrete ingredients produce different strengths. Concrete strength values
are usually specified as the compressive strength of either a cylindrical or cubic specimen,
where these values usually differ by around 20% for the same concrete mix.

Different strengths of concrete are used for different purposes. Very low-strength - 14 MPa
or less - concrete may be used when the concrete must be lightweight. Lightweight concrete
is often achieved by adding air, foams, or lightweight aggregates, with the side effect that the
strength is reduced. For most routine uses, 20 MPa to 32 MPa concrete is often used. 40 MPa
concrete is readily commercially available as a more durable, although more expensive,
option. Higher-strength concrete is often used for larger civil projects. Strengths above
40 MPa are often used for specific building elements. For example, the lower floor columns
of high-rise concrete buildings may use concrete of 80 MPa or more, to keep the size of the
columns small. Bridges may use long beams of high-strength concrete to lower the number
of spans required. Occasionally, other structural needs may require high-strength concrete. If
a structure must be very rigid, concrete of very high strength may be specified, even much
stronger than is required to bear the service loads. Strengths as high as 130 MPa have been
used commercially for these reasons.

1.1.10 Fire Safety


Concrete buildings are more resistant to fire than those constructed using steel frames, since
concrete has lower heat conductivity than steel and can thus last longer under the same fire
conditions. Concrete is sometimes used as a fire protection for steel frames, for the same
effect as above. Concrete as a fire shield, for example it can also be used in extreme
environments like a missile launch pad.

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

Options for non-combustible construction include floors, ceilings and roofs made of cast-in-
place and hollow-core precast concrete. Concrete also provides good resistance against
externally applied forces such as high winds, hurricanes, and tornadoes owing to its lateral
stiffness, which results in minimal horizontal movement. However this stiffness can work
against certain types of concrete structures, particularly where a relatively higher flexing
structure is require to resist more extreme forces.

1.1.11 Earthquake Safety


As discussed above, concrete is very strong in compression, but weak in tension. Larger
earthquakes can generate very large shear loads on structures. These shear loads subject the
structure to both tensile and compressional loads. Concrete structures without reinforcement,
like other unreinforced masonry structures, can fail during severe earthquake shaking.
Unreinforced masonry structures constitute one of the largest earthquake risks
globally. These risks can be reduced through seismic retrofitting of at-risk buildings.

1.1.12 Concrete Degradation


Concrete can be damaged by many processes, such as the expansion of corrosion products of
the steel reinforcement bars, freezing of trapped water, fire or radiant heat, aggregate
expansion, sea water effects, bacterial corrosion, leaching, erosion by fast-flowing water,
physical damage and chemical damage. The micro fungi were able to grown on samples of
concrete used as a radioactive waste barrier in the Chernobyl reactor; leaching aluminium,
iron, calcium and silicon.

1.1.13 Life of Concrete


Concrete can be viewed as a form of artificial sedimentary rock. As a type of mineral, the
compounds of which it is composed are extremely stable. Many concrete structures are built
with an expected lifetime of approximately 100 years, but researchers have suggested that
adding silica fume could extend the useful life of bridges and other concrete uses to as long
as 16,000 years. Coatings are also available to protect concrete from damage, and extend the

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

useful life. Epoxy coatings may be applied only to interior surfaces, though, as they would
otherwise trap moisture in the concrete.

A self-healing concrete has been developed that can also last longer than conventional
concrete.

1.1.14 Effect of Modern Concrete Use


Concrete is widely used for making architectural structures, foundations, brick/block walls,
pavements, bridges/overpasses, highways, runways, parking structures, dams, reservoirs,
pipes, fences and poles and even boats. Concrete is used in large quantities almost
everywhere mankind has a need for infrastructure. Concrete is one of the most frequently
used building materials in animal houses and for manure and silage storage structures in
agriculture.

The amount of concrete used worldwide, ton for ton, is twice that of steel, wood, plastics,
and aluminum combined. Concrete's use in the modern world is exceeded only by that of
naturally occurring water.

Concrete is also the basis of a large commercial industry. Globally, the ready-mix concrete
industry, the largest segment of the concrete market, is projected to exceed $100 billion in
revenue by 2015. Given the size of the concrete industry, and the fundamental way concrete
is used to shape the infrastructure of the modern world, it is difficult to overstate the role this
material plays today.

1.2 STEEL SLAG

Due to demand for reducing overexploitation of the natural quarries, the use of the by-
products from different industries has become an increasing practice in the sustainable
construction industry.

Sand mining is a practice that is used to extract sand, mainly through an open pit. However,
sand is also mined from beaches, inland dunes and dredged from ocean beds and river beds.
It is often used in manufacturing as an abrasive, for example, and it is used to make concrete.

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It is also used in cold regions to put on the roads by municipal plow trucks to
help icy and snowy driving conditions, usually mixed with salt or another mixture to lower
the freezing temperature of the road surface (have the precipitations freeze at a lower
temperature). Sand dredged from the mouths of rivers can also be used to replace eroded
coastline.

Sand mining is a direct cause of erosion, and also impacts the local wildlife. For example, sea
turtles depend on sandy beaches for their nesting, and sand mining has led to the near
extinction of certain species of crocodiles in India. Disturbance of underwater and coastal
sand causes turbidity in the water, which is harmful for such organisms as corals that need
sunlight. It also destroys fisheries, causing problems for people who rely on fishing for their
livelihoods.

Removal of physical coastal barriers such as dunes leads to flooding of beachside


communities, and the destruction of picturesque beaches causes tourism to dissipate. Sand
mining is regulated by law in many places, but is still often done illegally. Therefore the use
of manufactured sand like the slag sand is at present the only alternative to this growing
environmental concern.

Another major problem with acquiring coarse aggregates for construction activities include
blasting of huge boulders or rocks or hills. Rock breakage during blasting process is
accompanied by the generation of ground vibrations, noise, dust and fumes. The
environmental impacts of ground vibrations, noise and fly rock pose a great challenge to the
safety of the nearby structures and the people. This also has a direct impact on the wildlife.
Ground vibrations can cause severe cracks in the buildings located nearby thereby leading to
extensive property damage. Blasting includes the usage of explosives and the drilling
operations cause noise nuisance and disturbance.

1.2.1 Blast Furnace Granulated Slag (GBFS) or Slag sand


This is a by-product of the steel manufacturing process. Through extensive research and
testing it has been proven that this by-product when processed under controlled conditions
can be a replacement for natural sand as the properties of slag sand are better than natural

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FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

sand. Slag sand can be used as a complete replacement for natural sand or it can also be used
in combination with river sand, sand dust, and M – sand. It is also very economical

compared to natural sand as the cost per ton is cheaper compared to natural sand. Hence the

utilization of this available alternative not only proves to be economical but also reduces the

stress on the environment.

Figure 1. 1 - Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS) or slag sand

ADVANTAGES OF USING STEEL SLAG:

 Environmental friendly alternative

 Controlled Physical and Chemical Properties

 No deleterious material

 Available throughout the year

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 Graded products to meet specific needs

 Suitable for Roads, Concrete, Plaster, Mortars, RMC Plants etc.

CAN BE USED IN:

 Plain Concrete

 Reinforced Concrete

 Standard Ready-Mix Concrete

 Dry Lean Concrete

 Pavement Quality Concrete

 Rapid-setting Concrete

 Asphalt Concrete

Slag is a non-metallic product, consisting of glass containing silicates and alumina silicates
of lime .Slag is a byproduct of metal smelting processes, manufactured under quality-
controlled conditions. Granulated slag is obtained by rapidly chilling (Quenching) the molten
slag from the furnace by means of water or steam and air. It does not contain organic matter,
clay, silt and shells. Slag is extensively used in the manufacture of slag based cement (up to
50%).

Practically all steel slags are air-cooled, but the current technology of slag production cannot
always provide its immediate cooling which can influence its quality. As a consequence, it is
not always suitable for further usage and that is the reason why quality control of steel slag
production must be provided.

Steel Furnace Slag is produced in a Blast Furnace (BF) or an (EAF) Electric Arc Furnace.
Hot iron (BF) and/or scrap metal (EAF) are the primary metals to make steel in each process.
Lime is injected to act as a fluxing agent. The lime combines with the silicates, aluminum
oxides, magnesium oxides, manganese oxides and ferrites to form steel furnace slag,

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commonly called steel slag. Slag is poured from the furnace in a molten state. After cooling
from its molten state, steel slag is processed to remove all free metallic and sized into
products.

1.2.2 Electric Arc Furnace (EAF)

Charged material is heated to a liquid state by means of an electric current. The electricity
has no electrochemical effect on the metal making it perfectly suited for melting scrap.

Steel slag is processed as an air-cooled material. The free metallics are magnetically
separated and sized into construction aggregates, used as an agricultural soil amendment, as a

raw ingredient in Portland cement production, as an environmental remediation material and


other uses.

Figure 1. 2 - EAF Slag

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1.2.3 Steel Making at JSW


The 7 million tons steel unit at Vijayanagar works generates 5500 tpd of iron making slag
and 3200 tpd of steel making slag. A portion of iron making slag is utilized in cement
making; the rest of the iron making slag is sold. The combined steel making slag is
completely dumped or used for ground filling after crushing. Earlier trials at JSW have
shown that steel making slag can be used up to 40 kg/t in COREX and 50 kg/t in blast
furnace and this is in practice. Steel making slag was also experimented with as a
replacement for limestone in pellet and sinter plants up to around 10 kg/t and 30 kg/t
respectively. However, with the increasing capacities, the disposal of such huge quantities of
steel slag is a real challenge.

Figure 1. 3 - Steel slag production

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CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 PREVIOUS RESEARCH

Mohammed Nadeem et. al. [1] presented the results of experimental investigations carried out
to evaluate effects of replacing aggregate (coarse and fine) with that of slag on various
concrete properties. The basic objective of this study was to identify alternative source of
good quality aggregates which is depleting very fast due to the fast pace of construction
activities in India. Use of slag-a waste industrial byproduct of iron and steel production
provides great opportunity to utilize it as an alternative to normally available aggregates
(coarse and fine). In this study, concrete of M20, M30 and M40 grades were considered for a
w/c ratio of 0.55, 0.45 and 0.40 respectively for the replacements of 0, 30, 50, 70 and 100%
of aggregates (coarse and fine) by slag. Whole study was done in two phases, i.e.
replacement of normal crushed coarse aggregate with crystallized slag and replacement of
natural fine aggregate with granular slag. The investigation revealed improvement in
compressive strength, split tensile and flexure strength over control mixes by 4 to 8%. The
replacement of 100% slag aggregate (coarse) increased concrete density by about 5 to 7%
compared to control mix. Based on the overall observations, it could be recommended that
slag could be effectively utilized as coarse and fine aggregates in all the concrete
applications.
Brindha et. al. [2] studied the presence of silica in slag is about 26% which is desirable since
it is one of the constituents of the natural fine aggregate used in normal concreting
operations. The mix proportion chosen for this study is 1: 1.66: 3.76 with 0.45 water/cement
ratio. Concrete mixtures with different proportions of copper slag ranging from 0% (for the
control mix) to 60% for sand replacement and 0 to 20 % for cement replacement were
considered. One set of cubes was prepared as a combination specimen which contains 40%
of copper slag as fine aggregate and 15% of copper slag as cement. These eight concrete
mixtures were prepared with different proportions of copper slag.
From the experiments, the results of compressive and split tensile strength test indicated that
the strength of concrete increases with respect to the percentage of slag added by weight of

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FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

fine aggregate up to 40% of additions and 15% of cement. Water absorption of S40 copper
slag concrete specimens is about 22% lower than the controlled specimens. Water
permeability in concrete reduced up to 40% replacement of fine aggregate using copper slag.
When copper slag replaced with cement, use of hydrated lime by 1.5% to the weight of
cement gives improvement in rate of strength gain. Replacement of copper slag increases the
self-weight of concrete specimens to the maximum of 15 to 20%. For higher replacement of
copper slag in cement (greater than 20%) and sand (greater than 50%) the compressive and
split tensile strength decreases due to an increase of free water content in the mix. The results
of compressive, split tensile strength test have indicated that the strength of concrete
increases with respect to the percentage of slag added by weight of fine aggregate up to 40%
of additions and 15% of cement. The chloride penetrating value obtained for copper slag
admixed concrete is graded under the category “very low”. As such, it is indicating lesser
permeability of slag admixture concrete .The important observation is that addition of slag
definitely reduces the pores of concrete and makes the concrete impermeable. From acid
resistance test, it was observed that the concrete containing copper slag was found to be
slightly low resistant to the H2So4 solution than the control concrete. Accelerated corrosion
test reveals that the corrosion rate of copper slag admixed uncoated rebar is somewhat higher
when compared to controlled specimens. But when the rebar is coated with zinc phosphate
paint the corrosion rate had become zero. Since copper slag concrete exhibits good durability
characteristics, it can be used as an alternate to fine aggregate and also be utilized in cement
as a raw material for making blended cements.

Gokul et. al. [3] this paper deals with the implementation of mild steel slag an effective
replacement for stone or aggregate. Mild steel slag which is considered as the solid waste
pollutant can be used for road construction, clinker raw materials, filling materials, etc. In
this work, mild steel slag is used as replacement for aggregate or stone, which has highest
content in concrete mixture. This method can be implemented for producing hollow blocks,
solid blocks, paver blocks, concrete structures, etc. Accordingly, advantages can be achieved
by using mild steel slag instead of natural aggregates. This will also encourage other
researchers to find another field of using mild steel slag. In this study properties of 20, 40,
60, 80 and 100% replacement of mild steel slag by volume are compared with control mix.
Concrete of each composition were made respectively and casted in the prepared molds. The

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FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

compressive strength of the cubic samples increased froM25 tons without slag to 83 tons
with 100% slag in the first set of samples after 28 days, similarly the compressive strength
increased from 28 tons without slag to 79 tons with 100% slag in the second set of samples
after 28 days. The density of the samples increased from 1.83 gm/ cm3 for samples without
slag to 1.98 gm/ cm3 for samples with 100% slag for the first set and 1.81 gm/ cm3 for the
samples without slag to 2.15 gm/ cm3 for 100 % slag.

Subathra et. al. [4] this paper aims to study experimentally, the effect of partial replacement
of coarse and fine aggregates by steel slag (SS), on the various strength and durability
properties of concrete, by using the mix design of M20 grade. The optimum percentage of
replacement of fine and coarse aggregate by steel slag is found. Workability of concrete
gradually decreases, as the percentage of replacement increases, which is found using slump
test. Compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and durability tests such as acid
resistance, using HCl, H2SO4, and Rapid chloride penetration, are experimentally
investigated. The results indicate that for conventional concrete, the partial replacement of
fine and coarse aggregates by steel slag improves the compressive, tensile and flexural
strength. The mass loss in cubes after immersion in acids is found to be very low. Deflection
in the RCC beams gradually increases, as the load on the beam increases, for both the
replacements. The degree of chloride ion penetrability is assessed based on the limits, given
in ASTM C 1202. The viability of usage of SS in concrete is found. The compressive
strength of concrete increases gradually, as the percentage of replacement increases, up to
40% for fine aggregate and 30 % for coarse aggregate, and then it gradually decreases.
Therefore the optimum percentage of replacement for fine aggregate is 40% and for coarse
aggregate is30%.the slump test showed that at 0% replacement level, the concrete mix gave a
true slump value of 35 mm. The slump decreases, as the percentage replacement level
increases, from 0% to 50% at 10% interval for both the percentage of replacements. It shows
that river sand is generally finer than that of steel slag. Water absorbing property of steel slag
in both fine and coarse aggregate is higher than that of river sand and crushed granite.

Farzad et. al. [5] the purpose of this study was to process blast furnace slag and turn it into an
effective material in the cement industry. For this study five samples from dust and slags
produced as byproduct have been taken, in order to decrease iron oxides, the steel sags were

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divided into six categories and the resulting were 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 percent magnetically
purified. All slag samples were added to ordinary Portland cement in the same amount of 50
percent and preparing mortars were done by using Standard Normen sand. The results were
obtained from samples that had 50 percent steel slag and were prepared with a water to
cement ratio of 0.5. Samples were then tested at an age of 3 days, 7 days and 11 days in order
to understand the development of the compressive strength with time and whether or not
physical processing had a positive effect on any property of the slag cement. The results
showed that the physical processing of slag by grinding it into 75 microns and increasing
alkalinity state by adding lime can lead to an increase of 117 percent in 11-day compressive
strength of slag cement against unprocessed one. Significant increase of compressive strength
after 7 days and noticeable increase regarding one type of slag that is 117.2 percent more
than the original slag cement were observed.

Ameri et. al. [6] in this study, the effect of utilizing air-cooled steel slag from Zob-Ahan steel
production factory in concrete is evaluated. General observations are carried out according to
ASTM D 5106 in order to consider suitability of steel slag replaced with natural aggregates
of concrete. Compressive strength tests were performed on samples containing slag ratios of
0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % and cement contents of concrete 200, 300 and 350 kg/m3. According
to the results, compressive strength improves with the increase in steel slag ratio up to 25%
but increasing the steel slag ratio above 25% decreases compressive strength. Concrete mixes
with higher slag ratios meeting the ACI 325.10R-99 standard with different cement contents
were tested for flexural strength. In all replacement ratios the flexural strength increases by
the increase in slag ratio. This can be illustrated to a higher angularity of the utilized slag
which increases a bond between the paste and the aggregate and thus led to increase of
flexural strength.

K.Thangaselvi [7] in this study, basic tests are conducted on various materials like OPC53
grade cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate and steel slag to check their suitability for
making concrete. The mix proportions of concrete are modified for using steel slag as a
partial replacement of coarse aggregate. The replacement of coarse aggregate was done by
steel slag for different proportions of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and for a M40 grade of

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concrete for a water cement ratio of 0.40. Tests on compressive strength, split tensile
strength, flexural strength at 7 days and 28 days are conducted on specimens. Mix design of
1:1.296:2.430 was used as per IS 10262:2009. It was observed that in concrete, as percentage
of steel slag increases, it decreases the workability. The compressive strength of concrete
increases with the increase in the quantity of steel slag as replacement to natural aggregate
upto 60% replacement of coarse aggregates but beyond 60% decrease in the strength is
observed. The compressive strength of concrete increases 9.70 % if 60% of coarse aggregate
is replaced by steel slag. The results showed that the split tensile strength is increased upto
60% replacement of coarse aggregate using steel slag, increase in the tensile strength of
about 23.70 % was observed as compare to that of control mixture, beyond 60% the split
tensile strength value reduced but it was more than the split tensile strength of control mix.
Flexural strength of concrete increases with the increase in the quantity of steel slag as
replacement of coarse aggregate. Upto 60% of replacement by steel slag, the flexural strength
of concrete increases but beyond 60% decrease in the strength was observed. The maximum
increase in the flexural strength obtained at 60% replacement and the flexural strength of
concrete increases 18.20% compared with control concrete.

M.S. Rao et. al. [8] did a case study of Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS/GBS) sand
application as a partial substitute of Crushed Stone Sand (CSS) in cement concrete.
Laboratory investigations were conducted for concrete from M30 to M70 grades to evaluate
effect of replacing CSS fine aggregate produced cement concrete mix with Slag sand by 50%
(by weight of total fine aggregate). A comparison of these mixes property was studied with
reference to 100% CSS (as fine aggregate) mix. The substitution of natural aggregate with
slag sand has positive impact on workability, compressive strength and durability. The GBS
and CSS blended concrete laboratory trials experiment carried out and case study of actual
concrete supplied at construction site shows that GBS could be used as alternative to fine
aggregate for various civil engineering works with blend of CSS. As GBS has high glass
content with sharp particles precautions while handling concrete have to be implemented.

Ramadevi et. al. [9] there research aims to investigate the possibility of replacing Granulated
Blast Furnace Slag (GBFS) as a sand substitute in concrete. In this investigation, natural sand
was replaced by GBFS in various percentages (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%), with a constant

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
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water/cement ratio of 0.5. Tests such as sieve analysis, specific gravity, fineness modulus,
and bulk density were done for fine aggregate and GBFS sample. Different mix proportions
for different percentage replacement of fine aggregate was obtained for M25 grade concrete
as per IS 10262:2009. The compressive strength test, split tensile strength test, flexural
strength test, ultrasonic pulse velocity test and rebound hammer test were done for cube,
cylinder and prism specimens of control mix and GBFS mix (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%). It
was observed that there is an increase in compressive strength at 28 days for 50% GBFS
concrete when compared to the conventional mix. The highest compressive strength of
35.975 MPa was obtained at 28days for 50% replacement GBFS concrete. It was observed
that there is an increase in flexural strength at 7 and 28 days in 50% GBFS compared to
control mix. A maximum flexural strength of 7.08 MPa was obtained at 28 days for 50%
mix.

Harish M. Sinha [10] in this study pozzonlonic material are used i.e. steel slag to obtain the
desired property. Coarse aggregates are replaced with steel slag at different proportion of 0%,
25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. The destructive tests on hardened concrete are conducted which
includes compressive test on concrete cube, flexural strength on concrete beam and split
tensile strength on concrete cylinder as per IS: 516 – 1959, IS: 5816 – 1999 respectively. The
work presented in this study is an investigation in utilization of basic oxygen furnace steel
slag in Concrete. It is observed that compressive strength of concrete for 7 days, 14 days, 28
days with replacement of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% will increases with increase in
percentage of replacement increases up to 75% but after that compressive strength will be
reduces. The maximum compressive strength is obtained at 28 days with 75% replacement
with steel slag. Flexural strength of concrete for 7 days, 14 days, 28 days with replacement
of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% will increases with increase in percentage of replacement
increases up to 50% but after that flexural strength reduces gradually. The maximum flexural
strength is obtained at 28 days with 50% replacement with steel slag. Split tensile strength of
concrete for 7 days, 14 days, 28 days with replacement of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%
will increases with increase in percentage of replacement increases up to75% but after that
split tensile strength will be reduces. The maximum split tensile strength is obtained at 28
days with 75% replacement with steel slag. The cost of slag is nearly 50% of that of natural
aggregates hence it is economical to use the waste product of steel industry.

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
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Chinnaraju et. al. [11] in this study an attempt is made to use steel slag, a by-product from
steel industry as replacement for coarse aggregate in concrete and eco sand which is a
commercial by-product of cement manufacturing process introduced by ACC Cements as
fine aggregate replacement. Initial optimization of materials was done with 7 days strength.
M30 grade of concrete was used. Possible optimum replacement of slag material was found
to be 60% and possible optimum replacement for eco sand was found to be 40%.Tests on
compressive strength, flexural strength, split tensile strength at 7 days and 28 days, and water
absorption at 28 days were conducted on specimens. It was concluded that replacing some
percentage of coarse aggregate with steel slag enhances the strength. The results showed that
replacing about 60 percent of steel slag aggregates for coarse aggregate and 40 percent of eco
sand for fine aggregate will not have any adverse effect on the strength of the concrete. This
experimental study has proved to be better method or way in providing strong and durable
concrete. It also giving solution to disposal problem of steel slag and eco sand. It was also
found that increase in replacement level of steel slag above 60% decreases the workability of
concrete; however this property varies depending upon the source of steel slag .Its optimum
replacement was found as 60%.Ecosand was also found to have characteristics of normal
sand and its maximum replacement was found as 40%.When replacement was at minimum
level there was good compaction due to smaller size of eco sand and when replacement was
increased, it was found that water absorption is ,Thereby reducing the availability of water
for hydration. Thus the optimum percentage was found to be 40%.When these two optimized
values were used together, it was found that it gave good strength comparable to
conventional concrete and saves material cost up to 40%.This experimental study has proved
to be better method or way in providing strong and durable concrete, It also giving solution
to disposal problem of steel slag and eco sand. It was also found that increase in replacement
level of steel slag above 60% decreases the workability of concrete however this property
varies depending upon the source of steel slag .Its optimum replacement was found as 60%.

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2.2 OBJECTIVES OF PRESENT STUDY

1. Characterization of steel slag (Coarse and fine) for physical and chemical properties.
2. Examine the compressive strength and split tensile strength as function of curing
period with varying percentages of steel slag (Coarse and fine).
3. Study the influence of variation in composition of steel slag (Coarse and fine) on the
compressive strength and split tensile strength developed by concrete specimens
(M25 grade) at room temperatures.
4. Study the variation in density of concrete after replacing the natural coarse aggregates
by EAF slag.
5. Examine the effect on slump value and degree of workability of concrete after
replacing natural aggregates by different proportion of EAF slag.
6. Comparison of river sand with GBSF slag.

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CHAPTER 3
MATERIALS USED

3.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter consists of all the materials used for the completion of the project and the results
of the initial or the preliminary tests conducted.

3.2 CEMENT

In the present study 53 grade ordinary Portland cement (OPC) confirming to IS 12269.b.
1987[21] because of its greater fineness which would have effective hydration and also
secondary hydration.

3.2.1 Normal Consistency of Cement


(As per IS 4031.5: 1988)[16]
The principle is to determine the quantity of water required to produce a cement paste of
standard consistency. Standard consistency of cement is that consistency at which the Vicat
plunger penetrates to a point 5-7mm from the bottom of Vicat mould.

Table 3. 1 – Normal consistency of Cement


SI. No. Particulars I II III
1. % of water 25 26 27
2. Initial reading 50 50 50
3. Final reading 25 15 7
4. Depth of penetration (mm) 25 35 43

Standard consistency of cement = 26%

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3.2.2 Initial and Final Setting Time of Cement


(As per IS 4031.5: 1988) [16]

This test is carried out to find whether a cement sets at a rate suitable for a particular work.
After initial setting time the cement mould can be detached and after final setting time the
Vicat apparatus plunger gives no impression.

The initial setting time can be defined as “time taken by paste to stiffen to such an extent that
the Vicat needle is not permitted to move down through the paste through 25 mm”.

The final setting time can be defined as “it is the time after which the paste becomes so hard
that Vicat 5mm needle doesn’t sinks visibly and leave no impression”.

Table 3. 2 – Initial Setting Time of Cement


SI. No. Particulars I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX
1. Time in min. 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
2. Initial reading 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50 50
3. Final reading 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 11 12
4. Depth of penetration (mm) 42 41 41 41 41 41 41 39 38

 Result: Initial Setting Time = 40 – 45 minutes.


Final Setting Time = 400 – 450 minutes ≈ 7 hours
 The IS code (IS 12269:1987)[22] specifies that the initial setting time should not
be less than 30 minutes and Final setting time should not be more than 10 hours.

3.2.3 Specific Gravity of Cement


(As per IS 4031.11: 1998) [22]
Specific Gravity of cement is calculated in order to find out the weight and density of the
cement.

Weigh the dry specific gravity bottle = W1 = 0.032 kg


Weight of bottle with the water to the top = W2 = 0.086 kg
Weight of bottle with kerosene = W3 = 0.079 kg

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Weight of bottle + cement (50 grams) + kerosene = W4 = 0.112 kg


Weight of cement taken = W5 = 0.05 kg
𝑊3 −𝑊1
Specific gravity of kerosene = = 0.882
𝑊2 −𝑊1
𝑊5 (𝑊3 −𝑊1 )
Specific gravity of cement = (𝑊5 +𝑊3 −𝑊4 )(𝑊2 −𝑊1 )

= 3.15

3.3 COARSE AGGREAGTE (NATURAL AGGREGATE)

3.3.1 Impact test on Coarse Aggregate


(As per IS 2386-4:1963) [15]

Aggregate Impact Value gives a relative measure of the resistance of an aggregate to sudden
shock or impact which differs from its crushing strength.

Empty weight of cylinder = W1 = 1.434 kg


Weight of cylinder + aggregates = W2 = 2.068 kg
Weight of crushed aggregates passing
through 2.36mm sieve = W3 = 0.104 kg

𝑊3
Aggregate Impact Value = x 100
𝑊2 −𝑊1
0.104
= 2.068−1.434 x 100

= 16.4%
 As per IS 383:1970[12] the Impact value should not increase more than 45% by
weight of aggregate.

3.3.2 Crushing test on Coarse Aggregate


(As per IS 2386-4:1963) [15]

The aggregate crushing value gives a relative measure of the resistance of an aggregate
crushing under gradually applied compressive load.

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Empty weight of cylinder = W1 = 7.376 kg


Weight of cylinder + aggregates = W2 = 12.062 kg
Weight of crushed aggregates passing
through 2.36mm sieve = W3 = 1.30 kg

𝑊3
Aggregate Crushing Value = x 100
𝑊2−𝑊1
1.34
= 12.062−7.376 x 100

= 28.6%

 As per IS 383:1970[12] the Crushing value should not increase more than 45%
by weight of aggregate.

3.3.3 Los Angeles Abrasion Test on Coarse Aggregates


(As per IS 2386-4:1963) [15]

The Los Angeles test is a measure of degradation of mineral aggregates of standard


grading resulting from a combination of actions including abrasion or attrition, impact,
and grinding in a rotating steel drum containing a specified number of steel spheres. The
Los Angeles (L.A.) abrasion test is a common test method used to indicate aggregate
toughness and abrasion characteristics.

Weight of aggregate taken =W1 = 5 kg


No. of charges used = 11
Weight of aggregate passing
through 1.18 mm sieve =W2 = 1.454 kg

𝑊2 ∗100 1.454
Abrasion Value of Coarse aggregate = = x 100
𝑊1 5

= 29.08%
 As per IS 383:1970[12] the Abrasion value should not increase more than 50%
by weight of aggregates.

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

3.3.4 Water Absorption of Coarse Aggregates


(As per IS 2386-3:1963) [14]

Weight of sample taken = W1 =2 kg


Weight of empty basket = W2= 0.934 kg
Weight of Basket + Dry Sample = W3 =2.934 kg
Weight of basket +saturated sample = W4=2.944 kg
𝑊4 −𝑊3
Water Absorption of coarse aggregate = × 100 = 0.34 %
𝑊3

3.4 EAF (ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE) SLAG – (30mm Down)

3.4.1 Chemical Composition


The masses indicated in Table are the average of chemical analysis during several
intervals.

Table 3. 3 – Chemical composition by XRF Analysis of EAF Slags


Sample Id EAF SLAG
CaO 38.21
SiO2 12.34
Al2O3 4.93
Cr2O3 0.29
FeO 27.71
K2O 0.01
MgO 8.64
MnO 1.57
Na2O 0.02
Nb2O5 -
P2O5 1.10
V2O5 0.11
F 1.33
S 0.08
Basicity 3.10

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3.4.2 Impact Test on EAF Slag


(As per IS 2386-4:1963) [15]

Empty weight of cylinder = W1 = 1.434 kg


Weight of cylinder + EAF slag = W2 = 2.144 kg
Weight of crushed slag passing through 2.36mm sieve = W3 = 0.112 kg
𝑊3
Slag Impact Value = x 100
𝑊2 −𝑊1
0.112
= 2.144−1.434 x 100

= 16.5%
 As per IS 383:1970[12] the Impact value should not increase more than 45% by
weight of aggregate.

3.4.3 Crushing Test on EAF Slag


(As per IS 2386-4:1963) [15]

Empty weight of cylinder = W1 = 7.376 kg


Weight of cylinder + EAF slag = W2 = 12.250 kg
Weight of crushed slag passing through 2.36mm sieve = W3 = 0.844 kg
𝑊3
EAF Slag Crushing Value = x 100
𝑊2−𝑊1
0.844
= x100
12.250−7.376

= 17.31%
 As per IS 383:1970[12] the Crushing value should not increase more than 45%
by weight of aggregate.

3.4.4 Los Angeles Abrasion Test on EAF Slag


(As per IS 2386-4:1963) [15]

Weight of slag taken =W1 = 5 kg


No. of charges used = 11
Weight of slag passing through 1.18 mm sieve =W2 = 1.150 kg

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, PESIT 29


STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

𝑊2∗100 1.15
Abrasion Value of EAF slag = = x 100
𝑊1 5

= 23.0%
 As per IS 383:1970[12] the Abrasion value should not increase more than 50%
by weight of aggregate.

3.4.5 Water Absorption of EAF Steel slag (30 mm down)


(As per IS 2386-3:1963) [14]

Weight of sample taken = W1 =2 kg


Weight of empty basket = W2= 0.934 kg
Weight of Basket + Dry Sample = W3 =2.934 kg
Weight of basket +saturated sample = W4=2.964 kg
𝑊4 −𝑊3
Water Absorption of coarse aggregate = × 100 = 1.02 %
𝑊3

3.5 GBFS (GRANULATED BLAST FURNACE SLAG)

3.5.1 Chemical Composition


The masses indicated in Table are the average of chemical analysis during several
intervals.

Table 3. 4 - Chemical composition by XRF Analysis of Granulated BF Slag


Sample Id Granulated BF slag
CaO 35.84
SiO2 32.78
Al2O3 17.82
MgO 6.59
FeO 0.66
MnO 1.0
TiO2 0.89
Na2O 0.17
K2O 0.45
S 0.605

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
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3.5.2 Specific gravity of Fine aggregates and GBFS slag:


(As per IS 2386-3:1963) [14]
Specific Gravity of GBFS slag is calculated in order to find out the weight and density of the
slag.

Empty weight of pycnometer = W1 = 0.604 kg


Weight of pycnometer + 1/3 sand = W2 = 1.036 kg
Weight of pycnometer + water = W3 = 1.464 kg
Weight of pycnometer + 1/3 sand + ¾ water = W4 = 1.668 kg
Weight of pycnometer + 1/3 slag, = W5 = 0.996 kg
Weight of pycnometer + 1/3 slag + ¾ water = W6 =1.7 kg

𝑊2−𝑊1
Specific gravity of Sand = ((𝑊2−𝑊1)−(𝑊3−𝑊4))
= 2.511

𝑊5−𝑊1
Specific gravity of GBFS = ((𝑊5−𝑊1)−(𝑊3−𝑊6))
= 2.512

3.5.3 Sieve Analysis:


Sieve analysis helps to determine the particle size distribution of the coarse and fine
aggregates. This is done by sieving the aggregates as per IS: 2386 (Part I) – 1963[23].
Different sieves as standardized by the IS code are used and then aggregates are passed
through them and thus collected different sized particles left over different sieves.

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Table 3. 5 - Particle size distribution

Cumulative % of GBFS Cumulative % of Natural


Sieve Size
Passing Sand (NS) Passing

10 mm 100.0 100.0
4.75 mm 99.8 98.4
2.36 mm 99.6 98.0
1.18 mm 85.45 85.7
600 μm 34.5 28.9
300 μm 17 5.6
150 μm 4.6 0

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

Figure 3. 1 – Particle size distribution curve comparison

3.5.4 Other Chemical Tests on GBFS

Test Conducted Results


Sodium Sulphate 1.70
Soundness (%)
Magnesium Sulphate 2.08
Chloride % as Cl 0.002
Sulphate % as SO3 0.02
pH 9.18
Alkali Aggregate Reactivity (a). Reduction in Alkalinity of 1.0 N NaOH 30.0
(mill moles/Litre) (b). Silica Dissolved 6.66
Table 3. 6 – Chemical Test on GBFS

3.5.5 Comparison between River Sand and GBFS slag

Table 3. 7 – Properties Comparison between River Sand and GBFS


Properties River Sand Slag Sand
Chemical Composition SiO2 SiO2 , MgO, Al2O3, CaO
Specific Gravity 2.5 – 2.7 2.4 - 2.6
Water absorption, % 0.8 - 1.5 1–4
Silt %, wet sieving Present Nil
Clay lumps Present Nil
Organic impurities Present Nil
Total deleterious material Present Nil
LBD, loose bulk density, g/l 1.3 – 1.6 1.2 – 1.5
CBD, compact bulk density, g/l 1.4 – 1.8 1.3 – 1.6
Sodium Sulphate Soundness Loss, % < 3 <1

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

The above table gives the comparison between river sand and slag sand. This shows that the
properties of slag sand are better compared to river sand and hence can be used as a complete
replacement for river sand.

Chapter 4
METHODOLOGY

In order to consider the effect of partial replacement of steel slag, the proportion of water
cement ratio, cement content, method of curing and compaction are kept constant. Concrete
is cast using steel slag as a replacement for both fine and coarse aggregate. The coarse
aggregate is Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Slag that is 20mm and down size which has been
procured from Jindal Steel Works (JSW) and the Fine aggregate is Ground Granulated Blast
Furnace Slag that also has been procured from JSW. Natural fine aggregate is replaced 100%
by Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag and natural coarse aggregate is replaced from 0%
to 100% with increments of 10% by 20mm down size EAF slag. The cement used is 53
Grade OPC and 0.47 water cement ratio. The concrete mix is prepared for M25 grade and
expected characteristic strength after 28days is 25MPa.
Three cubes and three cylinders were casted for each proportion. The cubes were tested for
compressive test on the 7th day and 28th day test respectively. The cylinders were tested for
tensile test on the 7th day and 28th day test respectively. The results of all the tests for all the
proportions varying from 0% to 100% were tabulated.

4.1 MIX DESIGN


Mix design for M25 grade of concrete (as per IS 10262:2009) [19]

Design stipulations
1. Characteristic compressive strength (28 days) : 25 N/mm2
2. Maximum size of aggregate : 20mm
3. Degree of workability : High (100 – 150mm Slump)
4. Type of exposure : Severe

Test data for materials

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a. Cement
 Grade : 53 (OPC)
 Specific gravity : 3.15

b. Fine aggregate
 Gradation : Confirming to zone-II
 Specific gravity : 2.68
 Fineness modulus : 3.14
c. Coarse aggregate
 Maximum size : 20mm
 Gradation : Uniformly graded
 Specific gravity : 2.71

Target mean strength


The target mean strength for specified characteristic cube strength is
Fck = fck + 1.65s _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (eq. 4.1)
Referring to table, for M25 concrete and good quality control,
s = 4.0 N/mm2 and
fck = 25 N/mm2
Fck = fck + 1.65s
= 25 + 1.65 x 4.0 = 31.40 N/mm2

Selection of W/C ratio


From the graph of IS 456:2000[13] table 5, maximum W/C ratio for moderate is 0.5.
Adopt w/c ratio as 0.47
0.47 < 0.5, hence OK.

Selection of water content


From the table 2, maximum water content for 20 mm aggregate = 186 liters (for 25 to 50 mm
slump range).
Estimated water content for 100mm slump = 186 + (186 x (6/100)) = 197 liters
Determination of cement content

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
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Now, w/c ratio = 0.47


Cement = water/0.47
= 197/0.47
= 419 kg/m3
From table 5 of IS 456: 2000[13], minimum cement content for ‘severe’
Exposure condition = 250 kg/m3
419 kg/m3> 250 kg/m3, hence OK.

Proportion of volume of coarse aggregate and fine aggregate content


From Table 3, volume of coarse aggregate corresponding to 20 mm size aggregate and
fine aggregate (zone 2) for water-cement ratio of 0.50 = 0.62

In the present case water-cement ratio is 0.47. Therefore, volume of coarse aggregate is
required to be increased to decrease the fine aggregate content. As the water-cement ratio
is lower by 0.10, the proportion of volume of coarse aggregate is increased by 0.02 (at the
rate of +0.01 for every -0.05 change in water-cement ratio). Therefore, corrected
proportion of volume of coarse aggregate for the water-cement ratio of 0.47 = 0.626.

Therefore,
Volume of coarse aggregate =0.626
Volume of fine aggregate =1-0.626 =0.374

Mix calculations
The mix calculations per unit volume of concrete shall be has follows.
a. Volume of concrete = 1 m3
b. Volume of cement = (Mass of cement/ specific gravity of cement)x(1/1000)
419 1
= 3.15 × 1000

= 0.133 m3
c. Volume of water = (Mass of water/ specific gravity of water)x(1/1000)
197 1
= × 1000
1

= 0.197 m3
d. Volume of all in aggregate = a- (b + c)

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= 1-(0.133+0.197)
= 0.67 m3
e. Mass of coarse aggregates = d x Volume of coarse aggregate x sp. gravity of coarse
aggregates x 1000
= 0.67 x 0.626 x 2.71 x 1000
= 1136.63 kg/m3
f. Mass of fine aggregates = d x Volume of fine aggregate x sp. gravity of fine
aggregates x 1000
= 0.67x 0.374 x 2.68 x 1000
= 671.55 kg/m3

Mix Proportions
Cement = 419 kg/m3
Water = 197 liters
Fine aggregates = 671.55 kg/m3
Coarse aggregates = 1136.63 kg/m3
W/C ratio = 0.47

Proportions of ingredients are as follows:


1:1.6:2.71 with water/cement ratio of 0.47
With the above proportion number of slumps are tried and getting average slump of 100mm.

4.2 TESTING PROCEDURE

4.2.1 Concrete Specimen Preparation for Compressive Strength testing:

1. The weighed materials of cement, fine and coarse aggregates, Steel slag (Coarse and
Fine) were placed on a large mixing tray which is clean and free from impurities.
2. The ingredients were then mixed to obtain a uniform mix after which the required
water was poured and mixed well for 5 minutes.

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

3. The concrete mix was then placed into the concrete cube mould (150 mm x 150 mm x
150mm) in three successive layer with 25 blows each layer, with the help of a
tamping rod , the top surface is then smoothened.
4. The concrete mould was then placed in a safe location for 24 hours, after which the
mould was opened and the concrete cube is placed in a curing tank for a specified
period of time.
5. The procedure of casting concrete specimen is shown in Table 4.1.

The Composition of steel slag (Coarse and fine) and used in preparation of concrete
specimens is shown in Table 4.1
Concrete specimens of dimensions 150x150x150mm were prepared. They were tested on
2000 kN capacity compression testing machine as per IS 5816-1959[24]. The compressive
strength is calculated by using the equation,
F=P/A
Where,
F= Compressive strength of the specimen (in MPa)
P= Maximum load applied to the specimen (in N)
A= Cross sectional area of the specimen (in mm2)

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
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Figure 4. 1 – Casting of Cubes and Cylinders

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

Figure 4. 2 –Testing for Compressive Strength

4.2.2 Concrete Specimen Preparation for Tensile Strength testing:

1. The weighed materials of cement, fine and coarse aggregates, Steel slag (Coarse and
Fine) were placed on a large mixing tray which is clean and free from impurities.
2. The ingredients were then mixed to obtain a uniform mix after which the required
water was poured and mixed well for 5 minutes.
3. The concrete mix was then placed into the concrete cylindrical mould (150 mm
diameter 300mm height) in four successive layer with 25 blows each layer, with the
help of a tamping rod , the top surface is then smoothened.
4. The concrete mould was then placed in a safe location for 24 hours, after which the
mould was opened and the concrete cylinder is placed in a curing tank for a specified
period of time.
5. The procedure of casting concrete specimen is shown in Figure
The Composition of steel slag (Coarse and fine) and used in preparation of concrete
specimens is shown in Table 4.1
Cylindrical specimens of diameter 150mm and length 300mm were prepared. Split tension
test was carried out on 2000 kN capacity compression testing machine as per IS 5816-
1999[24]. The tensile strength is calculated using the equation,

F= 2P/ (πDL)
Where,
F = Tensile strength of concrete (in MPa).
P = Load at failure (in N).
L = Length of the cylindrical specimen (in mm).
D = Diameter of the cylindrical specimen (in mm)

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, PESIT 40


STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
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Figure 4. 3 – Testing for Split Tensile Strength

Table 4. 1 - Composition of cement mix, curing period and varying percentages of steel
slag (Coarse and fine) used in preparation M25 grade mix concrete specimens

Coarse Aggregates
GBFS (Slag
Curing
Sl. Mix Cement Sand) Fine EAF Slag period
Natural Coarse
No. Proportion Content Coarse (days)
Aggregate
Aggregate
Content Aggregate
Content
Content
1 M0 100 100 100 0 7, 28
2 M1 100 100 90 10 7, 28
3 M2 100 100 80 20 7, 28
4 M3 100 100 70 30 7, 28

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5 M4 100 100 60 40 7, 28
6 M5 100 100 50 50 7, 28
7 M6 100 100 40 60 7, 28
8 M7 100 100 30 70 7, 28
9 M8 100 100 20 80 7, 28
10 M9 100 100 10 90 7, 28
11 M10 100 100 0 100 7, 28

4.2.3 Slump test


Slump test is used to determine the workability of fresh concrete. Slump test as per IS: 1199
– 1959[20] is followed. The apparatus used for doing slump test are Slump cone and tamping
rod.
Procedure to determine workability of fresh concrete by slump test.
1. The internal surface of the mould is thoroughly cleaned and applied with a light coat
of oil.
2. The mould is placed on a smooth, horizontal, rigid and nonabsorbent surface.
3. The mould is then filled in four layers with freshly mixed concrete, each
approximately to one-fourth of the height of the mould.
4. Each layer is tamped 25 times by the rounded end of the tamping rod (strokes are
distributed evenly over the cross section).
5. After the top layer is rodded, the concrete is struck off the level with a trowel.
6. The mould is removed from the concrete immediately by raising it slowly in the
vertical direction.
7. The difference in level between the height of the mould and that of the highest point
of the subsided concrete is measured.
8. This difference in height in mm is the slump of the concrete.

4.3 CURING OF SAMPLE

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Curing of the concrete specimens is done as per Indian standards procedures. Curing plays an
important role on strength development and durability of concrete. Curing takes place
immediately after specimen placing and finishing and involves maintenance of desired
moisture and temperature conditions, both at depth and near the surface, for extended periods
of time. Properly cured specimen has an adequate amount of moisture for continued
hydration and development of strength, volume stability, resistance to freezing and thawing,
and abrasion and scaling resistance specimens is done as per Indian standards procedures. In
this process after the specimen has been cast in cubes and after 24 hours of time the cubes are
taken out of mold and placed it into the water for curing for specified period.

Figure 4. 4 – Curing of Specimens

CHAPTER 5
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

5.1 INTRODUCTION

This chapter makes a comprehensive assessment of influence of addition of steel slag


to concrete by varying percentages and cured for 7 and 28 days, then the compressive
strength of concrete specimens it tested and tabulated. The kinetics of cement reactions with
steel slag aggregates for concrete are examined by monitoring compressive strength as

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

function of curing period. The influence of the variation in steel slag percentage on the
compressive strength developed by concrete is evaluated. The cement - slag sand - EAF slag
(Fine and Coarse) aggregates mixes are moulded with given water to cement ratio (W/C) and
compacted at a constant compactive stress. The compacted specimens are cured at room-
temperature for periods of 7 and 28 days. After curing the compressive strength of concrete
specimens are measured. Further split tensile strength is also analyzed.

5.2 EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS AND ANALYSIS FOR


CONCRETE SPECIMENS

5.2.1 Compressive strength for Concrete Specimens

The following table 5.1 gives compressive strength results for concrete replaced with
different percentage of steel slag for M25 Grade mix. It is observed that the strength of
concrete increases with the increase in the quantity of steel slag as replacement to natural
aggregates. Upto 60% replacement of coarse aggregate by steel slag, the compressive
strength of concrete of all concrete mix increases but beyond 60% decrease in the strength is
observed but it is greater than the strength of control mix. The compressive strength of
concrete increases 24.6% if 60% of coarse aggregate is replaced by EAF slag with 100%
replacement of fine aggregates by GBFS and observed as maximum of all the proportions.
The improvement in strength may be due to shape, size and surface texture of steel slag
aggregates, which provide better bonding between the particles and cement paste.

7 days 28 days
Percentage of
Mix Percentage of Percentage of compressive compressive
natural coarse
Proportion Sand Slag EAF Slag strength strength
aggregate
(MPa) (MPa)
M0 100% 0% 100% 24.58 33.51
M1 100% 10% 90% 25.06 34.63
M2 100% 20% 80% 26.88 36.00
M3 100% 30% 70% 27.38 37.11
M4 100% 40% 60% 27.76 37.67
M5 100% 50% 50% 28.88 38.32

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M6 100% 60% 40% 30.40 40.00


M7 100% 70% 30% 27.11 38.57
M8 100% 80% 20% 26.49 37.75
M9 100% 90% 10% 25.67 39.67
M10 100% 100% 0% 24.78 35.25

Table 5. 1 - Compressive strength results for concrete specimens

Conventional mix of M25 grade of cement and sand shows compressive strength of 2.1 MPa.
Mix proportions replaced natural coarse aggregate in increments of 10% starting from 0% till
100%. In M0 mix, natural fine aggregates were replaced with 100 % steel slag (GBFS) and
natural coarse aggregates was used and cured at 28 days showed compressive strength of
33.51 MPa. Similarly mix M2 with 100 % Fine steel slag (GBFS) and 10 % Coarse steel slag
(EAF slag) showed compressive strength of 34.66 MPa and so on for all proportions up till
M6. M6 mix with 100 % Fine steel slag (GBFS) and 60% coarse steel slag (EAF Slag) and
40% natural coarse aggregate showed maximum compressive strength with 40MPa. Whereas
M7 mix with 100 % Fine steel slag (GBFS) and 70% coarse steel slag (EAF Slag) and 30%
natural coarse aggregate showed decrease in compressive strength with 38.57 MPa. The
compressive goes on decreasing from 40MPa till 35.25MPa after M7 up till M10. The results
implies that steel slag has high potential in replacement with natural aggregates when
compared to M25 grade normal concrete which showed strength of 32.1 MPa. Further partial
replacement of steel slag in coarse aggregates and complete replacement of natural fine
aggregate by GBFS as fine aggregate showed promising results in compressive strength
development as shown in Graph 5.1.

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

7 days 28 days

45

39.67
38.57
38.32

37.75
37.66

40
37.11
40

35.25
34.66

36
33.51
COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH (MPA)

35

30.4
28.88
27.76
27.38

27.11
26.88

26.49

25.67
30
25.06

24.78
24.58

25

20

15

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
% REPLACEMENT OF EAF SLAG

Figure 5. 1 - Compressive strength results for 7 and 28 days at different mix


proportions

5.2.2 Split-Tensile Strength for Concrete Specimens

The following table 5.2 gives compressive strength results for concrete replaced with
different percentage of steel slag for M25 Grade mix. The split tensile strength of concrete
didn’t showed similar behavior to the compressive strength. The results showed that the split
tensile strength is increased upto 60% replacement of coarse aggregate using steel slag,
beyond that the split tensile strength value increased further and found out to be maximum at
100% replacement of EAF slag with 100% replacement of GBFS. The results showed that
the replacement of coarse aggregate using steel slag in concrete increases the tensile strength
of about 32.9% with that of control mixture.

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

Table 5. 2 –Split Tensile strength results for concrete specimens

Percentage of 7 day Split 28 day Split


Mix Percentage Percentage of
natural coarse Tensile Strength Tensile Strength
Proportion of Slag Sand EAF Slag
aggregate (MPa) (MPa)
M0 100% 0% 100% 2.12 2.40
M1 100% 10% 90% 2.19 2.45
M2 100% 20% 80% 2.25 2.53
M3 100% 30% 70% 2.32 2.66
M4 100% 40% 60% 2.39 2.69
M5 100% 50% 50% 2.46 2.82
M6 100% 60% 40% 2.63 2.97
M7 100% 70% 30% 2.37 3.10
M8 100% 80% 20% 2.40 3.19
M9 100% 90% 10% 2.57 3.31
M10 100% 100% 0% 2.67 3.85

7 days 28 days

4.5

3.85
4

3.31
SPLIT TENSILE STRENGTH (MPA)

3.19
3.5
3.1
2.97
2.82
2.69

2.67
2.66

3
2.63

2.57
2.53

2.46
2.45

2.39

2.37
2.32
2.4

2.4
2.25
2.19

2.5
2.12

1.5

0.5

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
% REPLACEMENT OF EAF SLAG

Figure 5. 2 - Split tensile strength results for 7 and 28 days at different mix proportions

5.2.3 Kinetic Studies

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

In this section the mechanism of compressive strength development was analyzed for
different mix proportions as function of curing period as summarized in Table 5.3. It is
evident that the compressive strength increases by 30% - 40% with time from 7 days upto 28
days and there is more scope for increase in strength with time. Mix Proportion M6 shows
highest strength that had 60% of EAF Steel slag as coarse aggregate and 40% natural
Compressive strength results for 7 and 28 days at different mix proportions Compressive
strength results for 7 and 28 days at different mix proportions coarse aggregate, 100% fine
GBFS steel slag.

Table 5. 3 - Compressive strength as a function of different curing periods for varying


mix proportions
Mix Compressive strength (MPa)
proportions Curing Period
7 28
M0 24.58 33.51
M1 25.06 34.63
M2 26.88 36.00
M3 27.38 37.11
M4 27.76 37.67
M5 28.88 38.32
M6 30.4 40.00
M7 27.11 38.57
M8 26.49 37.75
M9 25.67 39.67
M10 24.78 35.25

The results of split tensile strength of various mix proportions of steel slag blended concrete
measured at 7 days and 28 days of curing is given in Table 5.4. M25 mix conventional
concrete shows split tensile strength of 1.98 MPa and 3.34 MPa respectively. M6 mix with
100% Fine steel slag (GBFS) and 100% coarse steel slag (EAF Slag showed maximum Split
tensile strength of 2.67 MPa for 7 days and 3.85MPa for 28 days.
Table 5. 4 - Split tensile strength values for various mix proportions of concrete mix 7
and for 28 days.
Mix Proportions Split Tensile strength (MPa)

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

7 days 28 days
M0 2.12 2.40
M1 2.19 2.45
M2 2.25 2.53
M3 2.32 2.66
M4 2.39 2.69
M5 2.46 2.82
M6 2.63 2.97
M7 2.37 3.10
M8 2.40 3.19
M9 2.57 3.31
M10 2.67 3.85

5.2.4 Density Analysis


The density of concrete depends on type of aggregate, amount of voids, compaction. Slight
increase in density in samples is observed and density keeps on increasing as the percentage
of EAF Slag is increased. M0 mix has the minimum density and M10 has maximum.
Increase in density of concrete is due to high percentage of iron oxides or heavy metals
present in the slag. There is almost 1% of increase in density seen for every 10% increase in
percentage of EAF slag. Replacement of steel slag increases the self-weight of concrete
specimens to the maximum of 10%.
Table 5. 5 – Density of Concrete for different mix proportions

Mix Proportion % of EAF slag Density (kg/mm3)


M0 0% 2410
M1 10% 2425
M2 20% 2454
M3 30% 2473
M4 40% 2492
M5 50% 2530
M6 60% 2546
M7 70% 2560
M8 80% 2578
M9 90% 2591
M10 100% 2628

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

2650

2600

Density (kg/mm2)
2550

2500

2450

2400

2350
0 20 40 60 80 100 120
% Replacement of EAF Slag

Figure 5. 3 – Variation of Density with increase in EAF Slag Percentage

5.3 WORKABILITY OF CONCRETE

The following table 5.6 gives slump test results for concrete replaced with different
percentage of steel slag for M25 Grade mix. It is observed that the slump of concrete
decreases with the increase in the quantity of steel slag as replacement to natural aggregates.
Slump value of M0 mix is 127mm which is maximum of all and showing a high degree of
workability, at 100% replacement of natural coarse aggregates by EAF slag i.e. M10 mix
slump value is 55mm which is minimum and degree of workability is medium.

Table 5. 6 – Slump test results for different mix proportions


Mix Proportion % Replacement of EAF slag Slump Value (mm)
M0 0% 127
M1 10% 120
M2 20% 115
M3 30% 108
M4 40% 103
M5 50% 100
M6 60% 95
M7 70% 89
M8 80% 78
M9 90% 63
M10 100% 55

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSIONS

6.1 GENERAL CONCLUSIONS

Disposal of steel slag (coarse and fine) is of utmost concern owing to scarcity of
landfill. Also recycling of steel slag (coarse and fine) tends to consume lot of energy and is
not a viable option anymore. One of the alternative ways of reuse of steel slag (coarse and
fine) is addition to concrete due to high amount of quartz contained in the paper pulp which
binds the cement and aggregates to give considerably good mechanical and durability
strengths. In this context various experiments have been undertaken in the present study to
understand the properties of steel slag (Coarse and fine) incorporated concrete for various
civil engineering applications.
Based on the experimental results obtained for steel slag (coarse and fine) concrete the
following conclusions may be drawn.
1. Cement used in the present study is characterized with specific gravity of 3.15 with
initial and final setting time of 45 and 425 minutes respectively.
2. Varying amount of steel slag (Coarse and fine) characterized with mix proportions to
obtain concrete M25 grade to study the compressive strength behavior of steel slag
addition. Results showed that for M0 mix showed compressive strength of 33.52MPa
whereas 100 % coarse and fine steel slag showed high compressive strength of 35.85
MPa. The result implies that steel slag (coarse and fine) binds with cement forming
CSH gel. The maximum strength was obtained at 60% replacement of coarse
aggregates and 100% replacement of fine aggregates, M6 showed highest
compressive strength of 40 MPa.
3. Further kinetic studies were performed on all mix with varying curing period is
performed to understand the mechanism of compressive strength development. The
results showed that maximum compressive strength develops on 28 days of curing
after that the compressive strength development is increasing showing that there is
more scope for improvement with time.

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

4. Based on the above experimental results it can be concluded that mix proportions M6
shows high compressive strength of 40 MPa which has 60 % coarse aggregate
replaced and 100 % steel slag fine replaced with natural aggregates.
5. Concrete mix design of M25 grade is considered for better understanding of behavior
of steel slag (Coarse and fine) incorporated concrete specimens. The steel slag coarse
is varied from 0 % to 100% and is cured for 28 days at constant W/C ratio for all the
mix proportions. Conventional concrete mix of M25 showed compressive strength of
32.56 MPa. M1 mix proportion showed good compressive strength of 33.51 MPa.
The results provide significant information that steel slag has high amount quartz
when mixed with cement and aggregates and higher the percentage of cement
addition leads to good development of compressive strength which is attributed to the
high amount of CSH coating on the cement and aggregates and drastic reduction in
porosity which does not allow for hydration of cement and formation of CSH gel.
6. Split tensile strength for M10 mix proportion show values of 3.85 MPa which is
comparable with the conventional M25 mix which shows values of 3.34 MPa.
7. From all the above conclusions drawn, it can be finally concluded that 60%
replacement of natural coarse aggregates with EAF steel slag with 100% replacement
of natural fine aggregates with slag sand shows promising results in terms of
development of compressive strength and tensile strength and can be used for
different construction projects.
8. Increase in density of concrete is observed for M10 and above mix which implies that
Steel Slag is heavier than the natural coarse aggregates as the content of FeO present
in EAF slag is more but increase in density is not too high for M6 mix, it can be used
for all construction projects and can majorly used for construction of pavement and
mass concreting.
9. From result of the slump cone test it can be concluded that the water absorption is
greater for steel slag as compare to natural fine as well as coarse aggregates as it is
observed that with increase in percentage replacement of steel slag the slump value
got decreased. Slag should be used after soaking it in water so that it won’t absorb
water from concrete and result in good workability.
10. The large areas of land is being used for the purpose of dumping slag is unnecessary
and also a waste of space. By using this waste material of steel plants as a

DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, PESIT 52


STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

replacement of the natural coarse and fine aggregates will definitely reduce the
Environmental Impact of slag.

6.2 FURTHER SCOPE OF WORK

Future studies which can be carried out further are as follows:


1. Investigations on resistance of steel slag (Coarse and fine) incorporated concrete for
alkali silica reactions, carbonation and high temperatures has to be undertaken.
2. Studies on reinforced concrete with incorporation steel slag to check its performance
in mechanical, corrosion and durability aspects can be undertaken.
3. Chemical testing on Concrete like Acid resistance test, Sulphate attack test, Rapid
Chloride Penetration test.
4. Use of Steel Slag which is a waste from steel industry other than in concrete.
5. Relation between the strength and workability and also between strength and density.

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STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

REFERENCES

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DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, PESIT 54


STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

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DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, PESIT 55


STUDY OF MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF CONCRETE USING STEEL SLAG AS REPLACEMENT OF
FINE AGGREGATES AND COARSE AGGREGATES

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DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING, PESIT 56